Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Phascolarctidae: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.HistoryFamous PersonsRespiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Mid-Atlantic Region: A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Brucea: A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.
Firstly the surface tension inside the alveoli resists expansion of the alveoli during inhalation (i.e. it makes the lung stiff ... there is no unidirectional through-flow as there is in the bird lung). This typical mammalian anatomy combined with the fact ... The lung vessels contain a fibrinolytic system that dissolves clots that may have arrived in the pulmonary circulation by ... Diffusion of gases is effective over small distances but not over larger ones, this is one of the reasons insects are all ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... The atria are the site of gas exchange by simple diffusion.[45] The blood flow around the parabronchi (and their atria), forms ... The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it ... So, during inhalation, both the posterior and anterior air sacs expand,[41] the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled ...
Firstly the surface tension inside the alveoli resists expansion of the alveoli during inhalation (i.e. it makes the lung stiff ... there is no unidirectional through-flow as there is in the bird lung). This typical mammalian anatomy combined with the fact ... In a normal human lung all the alveoli together contain about 3 liters of alveolar air. All the pulmonary capillaries contain ... a b Diffusion *^ Newstead James D (1967). "Fine structure of the respiratory lamellae of teleostean gills". Cell and Tissue ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... The atria are the site of gas exchange by simple diffusion. The blood flow around the parabronchi (and their atria), forms a ... So, during inhalation, both the posterior and anterior air sacs expand, the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, ... When the contents of all capillaries mix, the final partial pressure of oxygen of the mixed pulmonary venous blood is higher ...
... , or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion ... and is the first air to breathed back into the alveoli, before any fresh air reaches the alveoli during inhalation. The dead ... Since the pulmonary capillary blood equilibrates with this virtually unchanging mixture of air in the lungs (which has a ... The lower viscosity of air at altitude allows air to flow more easily and this also helps compensate for any loss of pressure ...
Air flows into the lungs from the bronchus during inhalation, but during exhalation, air flows out of the lungs into the ... This is the case with the alveoli, which form the inner surface of the mammalian lung, the spongy mesophyll, which is found ... Therefore, oxygen has a diffusion rate in air 10,000 times greater than in water. The use of sac-like lungs to remove oxygen ... pulmonary alveoli and spongy mesophyll provide the large area needed for effective gas exchange. These convoluted surfaces may ...
This pulmonary barotrauma (PBt) of ascent is also known as pulmonary over-inflation syndrome (POIS), lung over-pressure injury ... Once dissolved, distribution of the dissolved gas may be by diffusion, where there is no bulk flow of the solvent, or by ... collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to ... The immediate shock of the cold causes involuntary inhalation, which if underwater can result in drowning. The cold water can ...
pulmonary over-inflation syndrome Pulmonary barotrauma of ascent. Lung over-pressure injury. purge To press the purge button on ... or side of a demand valve which allows the user to manually open the second stage valve to provide gas flow without inhalation ... lung packing A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z mammalian diving reflex A reflex response to breathhold and ... Diffusion of gas out of the tissue into the blood, and transport to the lungs where it diffuses into the lung gas and is ...
... reversing between inhalation and exhalation. By utilizing a unidirectional flow of air, avian lungs are able to extract a ... This is in contrast to the mammalian system, in which the direction of airflow in the lung is tidal, ... Miraras kareng baga ing dayang milako oxygen ibat king pusu; dadalan iti king pulmonary cavity (lukib da reng baga), at kaybat ... Arung • Nasal cavity • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Baga • Bronchi • Alveoli • Conducting zone • Respiratory zone. ...
This process occurs in the pulmonary capillaries adjacent to the alveoli of the lungs. The oxygen then travels through the ... At this point, the nucleus is lost in mammalian red blood cells, but not in birds and many other species. Even after the loss ... oxygen carriers and regulators of local blood flow". Journal of Experimental Biology. 212 (Pt 21): 3387-93. doi:10.1242/jeb. ... Haemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues). There it releases ...
... (ACD) is a rare, congenital diffuse lung disease characterized by abnormal blood vessels in the lungs that cause highly elevated pulmonary blood pressure and an inability to effectively oxygenate and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. ACD typically presents in newborn babies within hours of birth as rapid and labored breathing, blue-colored lips or skin, quickly leading to respiratory failure and death. Atypical forms of ACD have been reported with initially milder symptoms and survival of many months before the onset of respiratory failure or lung transplantation. Most cases of ACD are caused by mutations affecting the gene FOXF1 or its nearby enhancer region.[3] Exactly how these mutations lead to abnormal lung development is unknown. Abnormal lung development is characterized by thickened alveolar interstitium, misplacement of pulmonary capillaries away from the alveolar surface, and fewer capillaries overall. This results in poor ...
... or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus. MAC is used to compare the strengths, or potency, of anaesthetic vapours. MAC was introduced in 1965. MAC actually is a median value, not a minimum as term implies. The original paper proposed MAC as the minimal alveolar concentration, which was shortly thereafter revised to minimum alveolar concentration. A lower MAC value represents a more potent volatile anesthetic. Other uses of MAC include MAC-BAR (1.7-2.0 MAC), which is the concentration required to block autonomic reflexes to nociceptive stimuli, and MAC-awake (0.3-0.5 MAC), the concentration required to block voluntary reflexes and control perceptive awareness. The MAC is the concentration of the vapour (measured as a percentage at 1 atmosphere, i.e. the partial pressure) that prevents patient movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus ...
... is the biological process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface. Typically, this surface is - or contains - a biological membrane that forms the boundary between an organism and its extracellular environment. Gases are constantly consumed and produced by cellular and metabolic reactions in most living things, so an efficient system for gas exchange between, ultimately, the interior of the cell(s) and the external environment is required. Small, particularly unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, have a high surface-area to volume ratio. In these creatures the gas exchange membrane is typically the cell membrane. Some small multicellular organisms, such as flatworms, are also able to perform sufficient gas exchange across the skin or cuticle that surrounds their bodies. However, in most larger organisms, which have a small surface-area to volume ratios, specialised structures with convoluted surfaces such as gills, pulmonary ...
The lung is an organ in many vertebrates (animals having a spine, or backbone). It takes blood oxygen from the air, and expels carbon dioxide. Most vertebrates with lungs have two of them. In animals, the lungs are the area where gas exchange takes place. Without gas exchange, oxygen would not pass into the blood from the lungs so the body cells would not be able to receive the oxygen needed for respiration. The alveoli are moist to allow oxygen to move from the lung through the alveoli into blood vessels and red blood cells. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli. The oxygen-filled blood goes back to the heart and the carbon dioxide in the alveoli is pushed out of the lungs and into the air we breathe out. ...
This concept is generally attributed to an article by West et al. in 1964,[1] but was actually proposed two years earlier by Permutt et al.[2] In this article, Permutt suggests "The pressure in the pulmonary arteries and veins is less at the top than at the bottom of the lung. It is quite likely that there is a portion of the lung toward the top in an upright subject in which the pressure in the pulmonary arteries is less than alveolar pressure.". The concept is as follows: Alveolar pressure (PA) at end expiration is equal to atmospheric pressure (0 cm H20 differential pressure, at zero flow), plus or minus 2 cm H2O (1.5 mmHg) throughout the lung. On the other hand, gravity causes a gradient in blood pressure between the top and bottom of the lung of 20 mmHg in the erect position (roughly half of that in the supine position). Overall, mean pulmonary venous pressure is ~5 mmHg. Local venous pressure falls to -5 at the apexes and rises to +15 mmHg at the ...
The alveolar process (/ælˈviːələr/) (alveolar bone) is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets (dental alveoli) on bones that hold teeth. In humans, the tooth-bearing bones are the maxillae and the mandible. On the maxillae, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface, and on the mandible it is a ridge on the superior surface. It makes up the thickest part of the maxillae. The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament (PDL), which is called the lamina dura when viewed on radiographs. It is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament. It is uniformly radiopaque (or lighter). Integrity of the lamina dura is important when studying radiographs for pathological lesions. The alveolar bone or process is divided into the alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone. Microscopically, both the alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone have the same components: ...
Cangkok ati mangrupa salah sahiji pilihan pikeun nu ngarandapan gagal ati permanén, di antarana kasakit ati kronis nu ngabalukarkeun sirosis, kayaning hépatitis C kronis, kacanduan alkohol, hépatitis otoimun, jsb. Lian ti éta, cangkok ati ogé kungsi dilarapkeun ka nu ngalaman fulminant hepatic failure. Allograft ati pikeun nyangkok ilaharna mah asalna ti donor nu tos maot alatan tatu otak parna. Cangkok ati donor hirup mangrupa téhnik nyangkokkeun sabagian ati jalma nu hirup kénéh pikeun ngaganti sakabéh ati pasén. Téhnik ieu munggaran dijalankeun taun 1989 pikeun cangkok ati murangkalih. Ukur 20% ati sawawa (ségmén Couinaud 2 jeung 3) nu diperlukeun salaku allograft pikeun orok atawa budak leutik. Nu leuwih anyar, cangkok ati ti nu sawawa ka sawawa deui ngagunakeun daun katuhu ati donor (60%-na). ku sabab ati mah bisa regenerasi, fungsi ati boh donor atawa nu nampana bakal tetep normal. Prosedur ieu téh beurat, nepi ka kungsi aya donor nu pupus ti sababaraha ratus kasus awal. ...
The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract, and accommodate the bronchial airways when they branch from the trachea. The bronchial airways terminate in alveoli, the lung parenchyma (the tissue in between), and veins, arteries, nerves, and lymphatic vessels.[3][11] The trachea and bronchi have plexuses of lymph capillaries in their mucosa and submucosa. The smaller bronchi have a single layer of lymph capillaries, and they are absent in the alveoli.[12] All of the lower respiratory tract including the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles is lined with respiratory epithelium. This is a ciliated epithelium interspersed with goblet cells which produce mucus, and club cells with actions similar to macrophages. Incomplete tracheal rings of cartilage and smaller plates of cartilage in the bronchi, keep these airways open.[13] Bronchioles are too narrow to support cartilage and their walls are of smooth muscle, and this is largely absent in the ...
Recent works on the morphological changes of the mandible during development[8][9][10] have shown that the human chin, or at least the inverted-T shaped mental region, develops during the prenatal period, but the chin does not become prominent until the early postnatal period. This later modification happens by bone remodeling processes (bone resorption and bone deposition).[11] Coquerelle et al.[9][10] show that the anteriorly positioned cervical column of the spine and forward displacement of the hyoid bone limit the anterior-posterior breadth in the oral cavity for the tongue, laryngeal, and suprahyoid musculatures. Accordingly, this leads the upper parts of the mandible (alveolar process) to retract posteriorly, following the posterior movement of the upper tooth row, while the lower part of the symphysis remained protruded to create more space, thereby creating the inverted-T shaped mental relief during early ages and the prominent chin later. The alveolar region (upper or superior part of ...
... of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels. It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the overall ability of the lung to transport gas into and out of the blood. DL, especially DLCO, is reduced in certain diseases of the lung and heart. DLCO measurement has been standardized according to a position paper by a task force of the European Respiratory and American Thoracic Societies. In respiratory physiology, the diffusing capacity has a long history of great utility, representing conductance of gas across the alveolar-capillary membrane and also takes into account factors affecting the behaviour of a given gas with hemoglobin[citation needed]. The term may be considered a misnomer as it represents neither diffusion nor a capacity (as it is typically measured under submaximal conditions) nor capacitance. In addition, gas transport is only diffusion ...
Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation (ARP)[1] is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to preserve the dental alveolus (tooth socket) in the alveolar bone. A platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)[2] membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over the wound or a graft material or scaffold is placed in the socket of an extracted tooth.[3][4] The socket is then directly closed with stitches or covered with a non-resorbable or resorbable membrane and sutured.[5]. ...
Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation (ARP)[1] is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to preserve the dental alveolus (tooth socket) in the alveolar bone. A platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)[2] membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over the wound or a graft material or scaffold is placed in the socket of an extracted tooth.[3][4] The socket is then directly closed with stitches or covered with a non-resorbable or resorbable membrane and sutured.[5] ...
The parenchyma is the functional parts of an organ in the body. This is in contrast to the stroma, which refers to the structural tissue of organs, namely, the connective tissues.. In the brain, the parenchyma refers to the functional tissue in the brain that is made up of the two types of brain cell, neurons and glial cells.[6] Damage or trauma to the brain parenchyma often results in a loss of cognitive ability or even death.. Lung parenchyma is the substance of the lung outside of the circulation system that is involved with gas exchange and includes the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles.[7]. In cancer, the parenchyma refers to "The portion of a tissue that lies outside the circulatory system and is often responsible for carrying out the specialized functions of the tissue".[8]. ...
Avian lungs. Anatomy. In contrast to mammalian lungs, avian lungs do not contain alveoli; instead, they possess millions of ... During the next inhalation, the breath flows from the lungs to the anterior sacs. ... Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where oxygen diffuses into blood and is ... where oxygen and carbon dioxide are traded with cross-flowing blood capillaries by diffusion, a process of crosscurrent ...
Firstly the surface tension inside the alveoli resists expansion of the alveoli during inhalation (i.e. it makes the lung stiff ... there is no unidirectional through-flow as there is in the bird lung). This typical mammalian anatomy combined with the fact ... The lung vessels contain a fibrinolytic system that dissolves clots that may have arrived in the pulmonary circulation by ... Diffusion of gases is effective over small distances but not over larger ones, this is one of the reasons insects are all ...
The local delivery of therapeutic agents directly into the lungs provides a methodology for safely and effectively treating ... In pulmonary emphysema, the alveoli of the lungs lose their elasticity, and eventually the walls between adjacent alveoli are ... Air typically enters the mammalian body through the nostrils and flows into the nasal cavities. As the air passes through the ... The ability to deliver drugs into the lungs has been historically via inhalation. This method of pulmonary drug delivery is one ...
Avian lungs. Avian lungs do not have alveoli, as mammalian lungs do, but instead contain millions of tiny passages known as ... reversing between inhalation and exhalation. By utilizing a unidirectional flow of air, avian lungs are able to extract a ... 1:Trachea 2:Pulmonary artery 3:Pulmonary vein 4:Alveolar duct 5:Alveoli 6:Cardiac notch 7:Bronchioles 8:Tertiary bronchi 9: ... where oxygen and carbon dioxide are traded with cross-flowing blood capillaries by diffusion, a process of crosscurrent ...
The CO2 that has accumulated in the alveoli during inhalation competes for the same air space as freshly inspired gases. Due to ... This design allows birds to minimize resistance to diffusion and blood flow is not impeded during ventilation. This is another ... CLB faculty research interests include Acute Lung Injury, Airways Biology, Nano-scale Respiratory Cell Biology, Pulmonary ... ventilation of gas exchange surfaces in birds is a flow-through system rather than the mammalian reciprocating system (Figure 1 ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... The atria are the site of gas exchange by simple diffusion.[45] The blood flow around the parabronchi (and their atria), forms ... The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it ... So, during inhalation, both the posterior and anterior air sacs expand,[41] the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled ...
Oxygenated blood from the lungs flows from the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. ... In order for the lungs to be efficient for gas exchange, they must have a steep diffusion gradient. This means having a high ... The Structure of the Mammalian Heart. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The ... The walls of the alveoli are the surface where the exchange of gases takes place. The lungs are protected by the ribs. Movement ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... The atria are the site of gas exchange by simple diffusion. The blood flow around the parabronchi (and their atria), forms a ... So, during inhalation, both the posterior and anterior air sacs expand, the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, ... When the contents of all capillaries mix, the final partial pressure of oxygen of the mixed pulmonary venous blood is higher ...
Respiratory anatomy Respiration Respiratory musculature Ventilation, lung volumes and capacities Gas exchange and transport O 2 ... Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli *Venous blood bypasses the systemic circuit and just flows into pulmonary veins ... Inhalation: always active *Diaphragm: contraction flattens it, expanding the thorax and drawing air into lungs, accounts for 75 ... Diffusion and the Respiratory Membrane *Direction and rate of diffusion of gases across the respiratory membrane are determined ...
Alveoli, Blood Flow, Coagulation, Suture, Acclimatization, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Gastric Inhibitory Peptide, Obesity, Antibody, ... Lung Volume, Sagittal Plane, Gyrus, Carbon Dioxide, Skin Sensor, Papilla, Body Cavity, Bile, Follicle-stimulating Hormone, ... Direct Diffusion, Nodes of Ranvier, Amino Acid Derived Hormone, Homeostasis, Thyroid, Excretory System, Neural Response, Spongy ... Inhalation, Ossification, Scrotum, Nitrogenous Waste, Bone Cell, Labia Majora, Anvil, Interstitial Fluid, Synovial Joint, ...
A localized pleurodesis for lung devices created utilizing a combination of a mechanical component and a chemical component. ... Accordingly, during inhalation oxygen flows to the diseased site in the lung or lungs and to other parts of the lung through ... In pulmonary emphysema, the alveoli of the lungs lose their elasticity, and eventually the walls between adjacent alveoli are ... 0003]Air enters the mammalian body through the nostrils and flows into the nasal cavities. As the air passes through the ...
In the alveoli region, air velocity is negligible and as such particles are deposited by sedimentation and diffusion. Those ... As such, holding ones breath after inhalation may enable better penetration of composition into periphery of lungs. [0079]The ... a viral pulmonary disease or a bacterial pulmonary disease. The one or more subjects includes, but is not limited to, mammalian ... 0078]Deposition of a pharmaceutical composition in the lungs may also be controlled by the inspiratory flow rate, the tidal ...
the lungs. Qiu Y et al. (1997) hi: Inhalation Delivery of Therapeutic Peptides and Proteins.. Adjei AL and Gupta PK, eds., Lung ... lining the deepest reaches of the lungs, the alveoli, is a monolayer of extremely thin cells. In. contrast, the epithelium of ... deposition, in the deep lung. Put another way, low flow, low pressure respiration favors. deposition in the central airways, ... when cloning in mammalian cell systems, promoters derived from the genome of mammalian. cells (e.g., metallothionein promoter) ...
Fish greatly reduce the energy cost of moving dense, viscous water by maintaining a continuous, unidirectional flow of water ... Fish greatly reduce the energy cost of moving dense, viscous water by maintaining a continuous, unidirectional flow of water ... Bulk flow of water or air past lungs or gills Diffusion of O2 across lungs into circulatory system Bulk flow thru circulatory ... Larynx (Esophagus) Trachea Right lung Branch of pulmonary artery (oxygen-poor blood) Alveoli 50 mm Bronchus Capillaries ...
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because A. Pressure in alveoli increases B. Gas flows from region of ... Contraction of right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via pulmonary arteries 3. Net diffusion of O2 from blood to tissues and ... Which of the following is incorrect regarding mammalian respiration? A. Mammalian lungs fill by negative pressure. B. There is ... True or False: Oxygen-poor blood is delivered to the alveoli and pulmonary veins transport oxygen-rich blood from the alveoli ...
Alveoli are small and there are approximately 300 million of them in each lung. Although alveoli are tiny structures, they have ... and is also most likely to occur in the smaller airways of the pulmonary (alveolar) region, where air flow is low. ... Diffusion Diffusion is the primary mechanism of deposition for particles less than 0.5 microns in diameter and is governed by ... Inhalation. Volatile liquids and gases are given by inhalation for systemic action, e.g. general anaesthetics. Absorption takes ...
Alveoli are small and there are approximately 300 million of them in each lung. Although alveoli are tiny structures, they have ... and is also most likely to occur in the smaller airways of the pulmonary (alveolar) region, where air flow is low. ... Diffusion Diffusion is the primary mechanism of deposition for particles less than 0.5 microns in diameter and is governed by ... Exubera® (insulin human [rDNA origin] inhalation powder is the first diabetes treatment which can be inhaled. Exubera® helps ...
Mammalian Systems. In mammals, pulmonary ventilation occurs via inhalation (breathing). During inhalation, air enters the body ... Lungs: Bronchi and Alveoli. The end of the trachea bifurcates (divides) to the right and left lungs. The lungs are not ... Air flows into the atrium of the alveolar sac, then circulates into alveoli where gas exchange occurs with the capillaries. ... In unicellular organisms, diffusion across the cell membrane is sufficient for supplying oxygen to the cell ([link]). Diffusion ...
Particles or fibers depositing in the deep lung respiratory bronchioles or pulmonary alveoli will first contact the aqueous " ... In inhalation studies in rats they are usually found at a lower incidence than lung cancer. Again, there does not appear to be ... Deposition Efficiency of Fibers in Different Generations of the Weibel Lung Model at a Flow Rate of 375 cm3 /sec for dem = 1 µm ... 2002) Mechanisms of the genotoxicity of crocidolite in mammalian cells: implication from mutation patterns induced by reactive ...
Similarly, pulmonary diseases that thicken the alveoli or obstruct the airways may also affect overall absorption. ... Thus, in contrast to cutaneous or oral exposure, compounds absorbed in the lung will enter the oxygenated pulmonary veins that ... and diffusion coefficient. This can be summarized by Ficks law of diffusion in Equation 2.1: ... The blood flow to this region is also much greater than to the stomach. The small intestine is lined by simple columnar ...
The simulated trachea cavity directs the flow to the simulated lung airway system. The simulated lung airway system comprises a ... The simulated oral cavity is configured to receive a flow of particles and direct the flow to the simulated oropharynx cavity. ... The simulated oropharynx cavity is configured to receive a flow from the simulated oral cavity and direct the flow to a ... plurality of bronchial airway generations simulating bronchial airway generations of a lung or lungs. The respiratory system ...
The fluid carrying conduits link the oxygen source to diseased sites within the patients lungs. ... A long term oxygen therapy system having an oxygen supply directly linked with a patients lung or lungs may be utilized to ... more efficiently treat hypoxia caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The ... Accordingly, during inhalation oxygen flows to the diseased site in the lung or lungs and to other parts of the lung through ...
Genetics, Issue 95, Pulmonary function tests, Airway resistance, Lung compliance, DLCO, Gas diffusion, Emphysema, Fibrosis ... curve done over the whole range of lung volumes. This measurement has been made on adult lungs from nearly all mammalian ... into the distal lung. Tracheal instillations may be the preferred methodology, over inhalation protocols that may primarily ... Mice were exposed to a continuous flow of LPS aerosol in a Plexiglas box for 10 min, followed by 2 min conditioning after the ...
... preventing or reducing the risk of developing occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis. In several embodiments, the ... The rate at which air travels into the lungs during inspiration. Inspiratory flow is measured by a simple pulmonary test; in ... It is believed that inhalation of asbestos can induce pulmonary disease utilizing similar mechanisms as the inhalation of ... When such fibers reach the alveoli (air sacs) in the lung, where oxygen is transferred into the blood, the foreign bodies ( ...
The design of the respiratory system The human gas exchanging organ, the lung, is located in the thorax, where its delicate ... convection and diffusion. Convection, or mass flow, is responsible for movement of air from the environment into the lungs and ... These form minute air chambers and represent the first gas-exchanging alveoli (pulmonary alveolus) on the airway path. In the ... Humans and some mammalian species like cattle adjust to the fall in oxygen pressure through the reversible and non-inheritable ...
  • The main structures of the human respiratory system are the nasal cavity, the trachea, and lungs. (hawaii.edu)
  • When a bird inhales, air flows in through the trachea to the posterior air sacs, while air currently within the lungs flows into the anterior air sacs. (academickids.com)
  • When the bird exhales, the fresh air now contained within the posterior air sacs is driven into the lungs, and the stale air now contained within the anterior air sacs is expelled through the trachea and into the atmosphere. (academickids.com)
  • Invertebrate trachea - tubes evolved by many arthropods, possibly from book lungs, which simply lead directly into their bodies through holes called spiracles , where their internal organs generally absorb their own air. (blogspot.com)
  • Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because A. Pressure in alveoli increases B. Gas flows from region of lower pressure to region of higher pressure C. Rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing lung volume D. Positive respiratory pressure created when the diaphragm relaxes 20. (studylib.net)
  • In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from A. Forcing air from the throat down into the lungs B. Contracting the diaphragm C. Relaxing the muscles of the rib cage D. Contracting the abdominal muscles 27. (studylib.net)
  • The diaphragm, as the main respiratory muscle, and the intercostal muscles of the chest wall play an essential role by generating, under the control of the central nervous system, the pumping action on the lung. (academic.ru)
  • In addition to a more forceful and extensive contraction of the diaphragm, the intercostal muscles are aided by the accessory muscles of inhalation to exaggerate the movement of the ribs upwards, causing a greater expansion of the rib cage. (orange.com)
  • Breathing is largely driven by the diaphragm below, a muscle that by contracting expands the cavity in which the lung is enclosed. (academickids.com)
  • The lungs of birds also do not have the capacity to inflate as birds lack a diaphragm and a pleural cavity . (blogspot.com)
  • c) delivering the therapeutic compound through the chest wall into the lung alveolar tissue utilizing the therapeutic compound delivery system. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the therapeutic compound delivery system comprises a conduit and wherein step (b) comprises introducing the conduit through the chest wall through one of the one or more localized pleurodesis and into the lung alveolar tissue at the treatment site. (google.com)
  • The inner layer of the sac adheres tightly to the outside of the lungs and the outer layer is attached to the wall of the chest cavity. (academickids.com)
  • Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy that most often happens to the lining of the lungs and chest wall (pleura), less commonly to the lining of abdomen (peritoneum) and rarely at the sac of the heart (pericardium) and testicles. (informasikedokteran.com)
  • Most common symptoms of malignant pleural mesothelioma are shortness of breath (dyspnea), due to fluid gathering around the lungs ( pleural effusion ) and non pleuritic chest wall pain. (informasikedokteran.com)
  • Contracting skeletal muscles of veins Have one-way valves Keeps blood moving to the heart If we sit or stand too long, the lack of muscular activity make our feet swell, with stranded fluid Must avoid DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) Figure 34.11 Direction of blood flow in vein (toward heart) Valve (open) Skeletal muscle Valve (closed) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. (shakyradunn.com)
  • Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the A. Left atrium B. Vena cava C. Right atrium D. Left ventricle 26. (studylib.net)
  • The volume in the lung can be divided into four units: tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. (openstax.org)
  • Typically, the term "retained dose" in particulate inhalation studies refers to the amount of particles present at specific respiratory tract sites that is the net difference between deposition and clearance processes. (cdc.gov)
  • 10. The method of claim 8 , wherein step (b) comprises creating a pleurodesis between the visceral membrane of the lung and the thoracic wall at the adhesion site. (google.com)
  • The lungs are not capable of inflating themselves, and will expand only when there is an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. (orange.com)
  • The lungs are located inside the thoracic cavity , protected by the bony structure of the rib cage and enclosed by a double-walled sac called pleura . (academickids.com)
  • His laboratory conducted research on how the lung's airspaces become fluid filled (mechanisms of pulmonary edema) and how airspace fluid is cleared under both physiologic (fetal lung liquid at birth) and pathophysiologic (pulmonary edema) conditions. (stanford.edu)
  • 114. The device of claim 110, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is administered as two or more distinct and non-overlapping particle size ranges configured to contact two or more levels of pulmonary tissue of the subject, wherein the at least one agent is configured to achieve a selected pH range in the two or more levels of pulmonary tissue of the subject. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Report from the ILSI Workshop on the Relevance of the Rat Lung Response to Particle Overload for Human Risk Assessment, 23-24 March 1998. (cdc.gov)
  • Curve C* of Figure 1 illustrates the type of retained lung burden seen with excessively high expo- sures that lead to impairment of AM-mediated particle clearance resulting in "lung overload. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we exploit the phoretic and hydrodynamic interactions of synthetic micromotors with local topographical features to break the time-reversal symmetry of particle trajectories and to direct a macroscopic flow of micromotors. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • We show that the orientational alignment induced on the micromotors by the topographical features, together with their geometrical asymmetry, are crucial in generating directional particle flow. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • A. What is the expected physiological depositional pattern for less-than-5-micron fibers in the lung? (cdc.gov)
  • The fact that lung retention also increases more markedly with fibers greater than 10 microns is supported by theoretical calculations (Yu et al. (cdc.gov)
  • B. What is known about clearance/biopersistence of less-than-5-micron fibers once deposited in the lungs? (cdc.gov)
  • For these short fibers, which can be fully engulfed by lung cells and do not dissolve in airway fluids in less than a few weeks, their clearance will be similar to other mineral and vitreous particles. (cdc.gov)
  • The alveoli contain some collagen fibers and elastic fibers . (jakearchibald.com)
  • These inhalation primarily large airway injury in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory which inhalation dosimetric relationships contribute to this tract uptake of halothane, acetone, ethanol and diacetyl was species difference in regional airway injury is not known, but measured in male F344 rat to obtain data for model validation. (cdc.gov)
  • My research interests have centered on the inflammatory responses that lead to airway disease in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and the metabolic factors that contribute to CF lung disease progression. (stanford.edu)
  • Panel B: longitudinal striations in a small airway (7th generation) showing the folded patterns originating from deep in the lung. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Panel A shows evidence of recirculation within alveoli, and Panel B shows significant folding patterns in a small intra‐acinar airway. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • The progressive coalescence of alveoli and alveolar ducts into larger airspaces leads to the disruption of normal airway wall motion and airflow rates within the pulmonary acinus. (asme.org)
  • The effects of progressive emphysema on the airway wall motion and flow rates were simulated by sequentially removing all alveolar septa within each alveolar duct. (asme.org)
  • Parametric studies were presented to independently assess the relative influence of progressive septal destruction of airway motion and flow rates. (asme.org)
  • To assist the lungs to distribute oxygenated blood throughout the body, infants at risk of hypoxia are often placed inside an incubator capable of providing continuous positive airway pressure (also known as a humidicrib). (ipfs.io)
  • The respiratory system is susceptible to a number of diseases, and the lungs are prone to a wide range of disorders caused by genetic factors, infection and pollutants in the air. (pharmawiki.in)
  • In recent decades the mouse has become the primary animal model of a variety of lung diseases. (jove.com)
  • Methods are disclosed for treating, preventing or reducing the risk of developing occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis. (google.com)
  • To contribute to the understanding of the individual effects of emphysema during its earliest stages, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow in mathematically derived models of the pulmonary acinus were performed. (asme.org)
  • The here generated computational domain consists of two generations of alveolar ducts within the pulmonary acinus, with alveolar geometries approximated as closely packed, 14-sided polygons. (asme.org)
  • These and other macromolecules would otherwise be lost at epithelial barriers through their diffusion down an infinite concentration gradient from inside to outside the body. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Type I cells are thin and flat epithelial lining cells, that form the structure of the alveoli. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The three-dimensional agent-based model integrates temporal events in fungal cells, epithelial cells, monocytes, and neutrophils after inhalation of spores with cellular dynamics at the tissue level, comprising part of the innate immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this complex system of air sacs is to ensure that the airflow through the avian lung is always traveling in the same direction - posterior to anterior. (academickids.com)
  • Gas exchange by direct diffusion across surface membranes is efficient for organisms less than 1 mm in diameter. (hawaii.edu)
  • Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes , collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment , and seizures . (infogalactic.com)
  • However, at the same time, the intercostal muscles pull the ribs upwards (their effect is indicated by arrows) also causing the rib cage to expand during inhalation (see diagram on another side of the page). (orange.com)