Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).SmokeCarcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Adrenal Cortex HormonesHypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Mice, Inbred C57BLPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Respiratory Tract DiseasesCystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Mice, Inbred BALB CCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Noninvasive Ventilation: Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
It is a typical feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by ... A focal lung pneumatosis, is a solitary volume of air in the lung that is larger than alveoli. A focal lung pneumatosis can be ... CLE affects the upper lung lobes more than the lower lobes, and the left lung more often than the right lung.[21] CLE is ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). pp. 6-17.. *^ Roversi, Sara; Corbetta, Lorenzo; Clini, Enrico (5 ...
Norbert F. Voelkel; William MacNee (2002). Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases. PMPH-USA. p. 380. ISBN 978-1-55009-133-5. ...
Obstructive lung disease in adults; liver cirrhosis during childhood; when a newborn or infant has jaundice that lasts for an ... has not been exposed to known lung irritants, and when the lung damage appears to be located low in the lungs); when you have a ... Large amount of abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines; leads to congestioni, pneumonia, diarrhea and poor growth ...
Lower RT/lung disease. (including LRTIs). Bronchial/. obstructive. acute. Acute bronchitis. chronic. COPD Chronic bronchitis. ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 9-17.. *^ a b Reilly, John J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Shapiro, Steven ... lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. Caplan's syndrome. Chalicosis. ... "American Lung Association. Retrieved 24 February 2019.. *^ "National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) ...
"Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Dead Sea Research Center. Retrieved May 22, 2007.. ...
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 19-30.. *^ Molassiotis, A; Bailey, C; Caress, A; Brunton, L; Smith ... Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. ... Mucokinetics, or mucolytics, are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways, lungs, bronchi, and ... Paul, IM (February 2012). "Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children". Lung. 190 (1 ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), most commonly emphysema ... Asthma is the most common reason for presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath.[2] It is the most common lung ... In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic ... Interstitial lung disease presents with gradual onset of shortness of breath typically with a history of a predisposing ...
Obstructive lung diseaseEdit. Acetylcysteine is used in the treatment of obstructive lung disease as an adjuvant treatment.[28] ... Stockley RA (2008). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease a Practical Guide to Management. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. ... Large doses in a mouse model showed that acetylcysteine could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs.[45] They found ... overdose and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[1] It can be ...
... and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 9-17. ... lung volume reduction surgery, and lung transplantation. Inflammation and edema of the respiratory epithelium may be reduced ... the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation effort). Evidence suggests that the decline in lung ... Individuals with an obstructive pulmonary disorder such as bronchitis may present with a decreased FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio on ...
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2007 Aug. NIH Publication No. 07-4051. ... is a combination medication used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[2][3] It contains ipratropium (an ...
Diseases that cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. Lower airway obstruction can be measured ... Airway obstruction may cause obstructive pneumonitis or post-obstructive pneumonitis. Stridor Recurrent airway obstruction ... which prevents air from diffusing into the pulmonary arteries because of some kind of blockage in the lungs). ...
... and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 19-30. ... Paul, IM (Feb 2012). "Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children". Lung. 190 (1): 41-4 ...
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. hlm. 1-7.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Reilly, John J.; Silverman, ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. hlm. 9-17.. *^ a b c d e f g National Institute for Health and Clinical ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. xiii-xv.. *^ a b c Policy Recommendations for Smoking Cessation and ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. hlm. 39-45.. *^ a b c Dhar, Raja (2011). Textbook of pulmonary and ...
Obesity is associated with a number of chronic lung diseases, including asthma and COPD. It is believed that a systemic pro- ... Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity ... Obesity significantly reduces and stiffens the functional lung volume, requiring specific strategies for respiratory management ...
The overall reaction may cause an obstructive lung disease. Meanwhile, proliferative bronchiolitis is a secondary effect of ... It is easily absorbed through the lungs and its inhalation result in heart failure and sometimes death in severe and fatal ... Nitrogen dioxide is sparingly soluble in water and on inhalation, it diffuses into the lung and slowly hydrolyzes to nitrous ... If chronic exposure causes lungs damage, it could take several days or months for the pulmonary function to improve. Meanwhile ...
As a result, when interferon (IFN)-γ was used to knock down TGF-β, fibrosis of the lungs, caused by damage and scarring to lung ... These experiments have suggested that siRNA may be used to combat other respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive ... Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 287 (2): L420-7. PMID 15121636. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00019.2004. Rennard SI (November ... In addition, siRNA was used to prevent the bacteria, Psueomonas aeruginosa, from invading murine lung epithelial cells by ...
Later in life he developed Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. On April 25, 2001, he died from complications with lung ... During World War II Babbitt was exposed to cordite poisoning which impaired his lung capacity. ...
"Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease beyond the lungs". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 4 (11): 911-924. doi: ...
The shape of the curve is affected by some forms of lung disease; in general there are obstructive conditions such as ... lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... In particular, this model explains the rounded "shark-fin" shape of the capnogram observed in patients with obstructive lung ... With Application to Diagnosing Obstructive Lung Disease". IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 64 (12): 2957-2967. doi: ...
10: Bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery, and transplantation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". ... Bullectomy is a surgical procedure in which dilated air-spaces in lung parenchyma are removed. Common causes of dilated air- ... Meyers BF, Patterson GA (July 2003). "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... "Bullectomy is comparable to lung volume reduction in patients with end-stage emphysema". European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic ...
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. 9-17쪽.. *↑ 가 나 Reilly, John J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Shapiro, Steven D ... National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (2009). "Who Is at Risk for Bronchitis?". National Institutes of Health. 2013년 1월 4일에 ... "American Lung Association. 2012. 18 December 2012에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 30 December 2012에 확인함.. ... "International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease》 6: 413-421. doi:10.2147/COPD.S10770. PMC 3157944. PMID 21857781 ...
It is a broad program and may benefit patients with lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ... CG101 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (update): full guideline Dowman, L; Hill, CJ; Holland, AE (Oct 6, 2014). "Pulmonary ... To reduce symptoms To improve knowledge of lung condition and promote self-management To increase muscle strength and endurance ... The NICE clinical guideline on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease states that "pulmonary rehabilitation should be offered to ...
"Diagnostic Values of Electrocardiogram in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)". Lung India : Official Organ of Indian ... Pathologically, conditions such as a left-sided pneumothorax and lung hyperinflation (e.g. COPD) can cause rightwards ...
"The Health Consequences of Smoking: Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General (1984)". Profiles.nlm.nih ... "The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cancer and Chronic Lung Disease in the Workplace: A Report of the Surgeon General (1985)". ...
... in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 22 (5): 395-402. doi:10.1007/ ...
It is possible for candidiasis to spread to/from the mouth, from sites such as the pharynx, esophagus, lungs, liver, anogenital ... Inhaled corticosteroids (e.g., for treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), are not intended to be ...
Find interstitial lung disease information, treatments for interstitial lung disease and interstitial lung disease symptoms. ... MedHelps interstitial lung disease Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for interstitial lung ... Posts on interstitial lung disease (227499). Is mild Interstitial lung scaring cause for concern?? - Chronic Obstructive ... I am 46, non smoker, living in Salt Lake Utah, just got diagnosed with interstitial lung di... ...
Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction. Many obstructive diseases of ... Types of obstructive lung disease include; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... Following is an overview of the main obstructive lung diseases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a combination ... "GOLD - the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Retrieved 2008-05-06. "What is chronic obstructive ...
10 Obstructive lung diseases Dr. Al Mobaireek is hosted at free file sharing service 4shared. Online file sharing and storage ... 10 Obstructive lung diseases Dr. Al Mobaireek - download at 4shared. ... 10 Obstructive lung diseases Dr. Al Mobaireek - download at 4shared. 10 Obstructive lung diseases Dr. Al Mobaireek is hosted at ...
... obstructive+lung+disease? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to ... treat or reduce the symptoms of chronic+obstructive+lung+disease ... Considering taking medication to treat chronic+obstructive+lung ... disease? Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of chronic+obstructive+lung+disease. Follow ...
Use of ipratropium bromide in obstructive lung disease.. Mann KV1, Leon AL, Tietze KJ. ... Additional experience in a variety of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders will help to clarify the role of ipratropium ... The bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium bromide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be comparable, and ...
Progressive obstructive lung disease associated with microscopic polyangiitis.. Brugiere O1, Raffy O, Sleiman C, Groussard O, ... which was out of proportion with the severity of the obstructive lung disease. ...
... or having obstructive lung disease (men = 27; women = 21). Three voluntary coughs were recorded for each subject using the ... Results indicate that an accurate and rapid classification of patients with obstructive lung disease can be achieved using ... or having obstructive lung disease (men = 27; women = 21). Three voluntary coughs were recorded for each subject using the ...
Fixed Obstructive Lung Disease in Workers at a Microwave Popcorn Factory --- Missouri, 2000--2002. In May 2000, an occupational ... CDC is investigating whether other cases of fixed obstructive lung disease have occurred in workers at other microwave popcorn ... Public health authorities, employers, and health-care providers are collaborating to prevent obstructive lung disease in ... to report eight cases of fixed obstructive lung disease in former workers of a microwave popcorn factory. Four of the patients ...
The video can be used as a demonstration of these types of lung diseases in a lecture. ... This video illustrates the difference between restrictive versus obstructive lung function impairment. ... Video : Obstructive or restrictive lung disease. Created Sept. 13, 2018 by userUniversity of Bergen Lung diseases is a large ... The video can be used as a demonstration of these types of lung diseases in a lecture. title"Video : Obstructive or restrictive ...
Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receive only half the care that they should, according to ... Source Reference: Mularski, RA, et al "The Quality of Obstructive Lung Disease Care for Adults in the United States as Measured ... Although there are a variety of guidelines for the care of patients with obstructive lung disease, the extent to which they ... The low prevalence of obstructive lung disease in the sample (3.9% for asthma and 2.5% for COPD) may reflect a younger ...
1397 Studies found for: Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Clinical trials. Also searched for Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, ... Rehabilitation of Patients With Lung Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. *Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ... A Six Month Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Lung Flute in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. *COPD ... Costs and Effects of Three Modes for Disease Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in General Practice. *Lung ...
... the additional measurement of static lung volumes added little to the clinical interpretation. ... Lung volumes in 4,774 patients with obstructive lung disease Chest. 1999 Jan;115(1):68-74. doi: 10.1378/chest.115.1.68. ... Study objectives: To determine the correlates of static lung volumes in patients with airways obstruction, and to determine if ... The degree of hyperinflation, as determined by the residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, or the RV % predicted ...
Lung,Disease,Guidelines,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder is widespread but can be preven...FRIDAY Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Experts have ... Experts Publish New Lung Disease Guidelines. ...Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder is widespread but can be preven...FRIDAY ... 14 by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease is setting the standard for caring for COPD patients. ...
... and lung cancer are major lung diseases affecting millions worldwide. Both diseases have links to cigarette smoking and exert a ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are major lung diseases affecting millions worldwide. Both ... Rooney C, Sethi T. The epithelial cell and lung cancer: the link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer ... Primary lung tumors in mice as an aid for understanding, preventing, and treating human adenocarcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer ...
Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Vitamins. ... Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D (D3, cholecalciferol) Dietary Supplement: Placebo (cellulose) ... Vitamin D and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment. ... MedlinePlus related topics: COPD Lung Diseases Rehabilitation Vitamin D Drug Information available for: Cholecalciferol Vitamin ...
... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related conditions. ... In the Refractory Obstructive Lung Disorders (ROLD) Clinic, we offer complex care for adults who have asthma, ... Refractory Obstructive Lung Disorders Clinic. The Refractory Obstructive Lung Disorders (ROLD) Clinic is a specialized care ... Our lung experts specialize in early detection and advanced diagnostic and treatment methods for obstructive lung disorders ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third-leading cause of death in the United States, according to a new report by ... Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may need more education and better dialogue with their physicians to ... The Food and Drug Administration has approved a drug made by Novartis for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the ... The Food and Drug Administration has approved a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease made by Forest Labs, the ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
WebMDs slideshow covers the symptoms and treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ... Chronic coughing and wheezing may be warning signs of lung disease. ... COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a lung disorder that makes it hard to breathe. The first symptoms can be so ... A lung transplant may help some people with the most severe COPD who have lung failure, but it can have serious complications. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T ...
When you have COPD your lungs have been weakened. They are unable to protect themselves from air pollution, or fi ght off colds ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Get Help. Triggers and Flare-ups. When you have COPD your lungs have been ... quickly can reduce your chances of getting seriously ill and prevent further damage to your lungs. If you do not have an action ... anti-inflammatory medication to decrease swelling in your airways or an antibiotic if your flare-up is due to a bacterial lung ...
I was a nurse for 25 years, so I knew about a serious lung condition called Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Many ... Ironically, it was only when I saw my doctor about a heart problem that I discovered I also suffered from chronic lung disease ...
Forums>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)>Lung nodule - could it be years old fungal infection? ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Forum This expert forum is not accepting new questions. Please post your question ... It is very common for such scar/nodules to not disappear after an acute infection; to remain in the lung, unchanged in size, ... But can cryptococcus fungus lay dormant in a persons lungs for 7 years and reactivate? I also understood that infectious ...
The Effects of Broccoli Sprout Extract on Obstructive Lung Disease. This study has been completed. ... The subjects will consumer broccoli sprout extract (BSE) for two weeks (14d). Lung function and Chest CT will be performed ... The purpose of this study is to examine whether broccoli sprout extract can effect lung function measurements in individuals ...
... Hyojung Lee,1 ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by airway obstruction, leads to, as the two major forms of ... These data suggest that PM014 exerts beneficial effects against forms of COPD such as lung inflammation. ... Furthermore, histological analysis demonstrated that PM014 attenuated the hazardous effects of lung inflammation. ...
  • In this minimally invasive technique, a physician uses a thin tube to view your lung tissue. (uchospitals.edu)
  • There are other types of lung disease that affect lung tissue and make it harder for lungs to expand or that block oxygen exchange. (sharecare.com)
  • Barnett DB, Rugg EL, Nahorski SR (1978) Direct evidence of two types of β-adrenoceptor binding site in lung tissue. (springer.com)
  • A controversy (3, 4), however, has arisen over the possibility of damage to normal lung tissue by saline introduced in this fashion. (annals.org)
  • Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. (uib.no)
  • Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. (uib.no)
  • Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG + GG genotypes than in AA subjects. (uib.no)
  • Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) entails reducing the lung volume by wedge excision of emphysematous tissue. (sun.ac.za)
  • 1 Environmental exposures to fumes, gases, air pollutants, and occupational dusts contribute to impaired lung function. (ajmc.com)
  • In this large prospective community-based cohort both lung disease and impaired lung function were associated with greater risk of dementia and MCI over 23 years of follow-up, with evidence that this occurred for dementia due to both Alzheimer's disease and vascular etiologies," the authors write. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The degree of hyperinflation, as determined by the residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, or the RV % predicted (but not the TLC % predicted), was strongly associated with the degree of airways obstruction (the FEV1 % predicted). (nih.gov)
  • The ABCD tool performed no better than spirometric-graded symptom severity (GOLD 1 to 4) for predicting mortality and outcomes, especially among patients meeting group D criteria (lung function was not separated from exacerbation history). (ajmc.com)
  • The mortality, transplant, and still alive percent in lung transplant candidates according to the type of disorders. (zanran.com)
  • Ironically, it was only when I saw my doctor about a heart problem that I discovered I also suffered from chronic lung disease. (lung.ca)
  • Cigarette smoke not only contains high levels of oxidants, but it also leads to the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the lung and to their activation [1- (oalib.com)
  • Our lung experts collaborate with highly skilled physicians in radiology, pathology, otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat care), thoracic surgery and lung transplantation. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Assuming exposure to factory work contributed to reported occupational lung disease, former workers had 1,148--2,819 person-years at risk, depending on assumptions about whether risk for disease continues after employment ceases. (cdc.gov)
  • A work-related lung disease can be defined as a lung disease that has been induced or aggravated by a particular exposure in the workplace. (oercommons.org)
  • Furthermore, lycopene feeding significantly inhibited NNK/CS-induced accumulation of total cholesterol, and increased mRNA expression of critical genes related to the RCT ( PPARα , LXRα , and ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 ) in the lungs, which were downregulated by the NNK/CS exposure. (aacrjournals.org)