Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Mice, Inbred C57BLSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Mice, Inbred BALB CAdministration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Fetal Organ Maturity: Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.SmokeAsbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.QuinazolinesEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Heart-Lung Transplantation: The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.MiningVentilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital: An abnormality in lung development that is characterized by a multicystic mass resulting from an adenomatous overgrowth of the terminal BRONCHIOLES with a consequent reduction of PULMONARY ALVEOLI. This anomaly is classified into three types by the cyst size.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pleural DiseasesMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Inbred AAsbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Hernia, Diaphragmatic: Protrusion of abdominal structures into the THORAX as a result of congenital or traumatic defects in the respiratory DIAPHRAGM.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (1/31967)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda). (2/31967)

Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness.  (+info)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (3/31967)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (4/31967)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (5/31967)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (6/31967)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (7/31967)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (8/31967)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

In order to make this discovery, they conducted the experiment in three steps. First, they injected the lung protein alone inside frog eggs to measure its function. Second, they injected both the M2 protein from H1N1 virus and the lung protein inside frog eggs and found that the H1N1 virus M2 protein caused the lung protein function to decrease significantly. By means of molecular biology techniques, scientists isolated the segment of the H1N1 virus M2 protein responsible for the damage to the lung protein and were able to demonstrate that without this segment, the H1N1 virus was unable to damage the lung protein. Third, an intact, full H1N1 virus M2 protein and the lung protein were then re-injected into frog eggs along with antioxidant drugs. This also prevented H1N1 virus M2 protein from damaging the lung protein. When these experiments were repeated using human lung cells, the results were exactly the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IL-33 mediates inflammatory responses in human lung tissue cells. AU - Yagami, Akiko. AU - Orihara, Kanami. AU - Morita, Hideaki. AU - Futamura, Kyoko. AU - Hashimoto, Noriko. AU - Matsumoto, Kenji. AU - Saito, Hirohisa. AU - Matsuda, Akio. PY - 2010/11/15. Y1 - 2010/11/15. N2 - IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family and mediates its biological effects via the ST2 receptor, which is selectively expressed on Th2 cells and mast cells. Although polymorphic variation in ST2 is strongly associated with asthma, it is currently unclear whether IL-33 acts directly on lung tissue cells at sites of airway remodeling. Therefore, we aimed to identify the IL-33-responsive cells among primary human lung tissue cells. ST2 mRNA was expressed in both endothelial and epithelial cells but not in fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. Correspondingly, IL-33 promoted IL-8 production by both endothelial and epithelial cells but not by fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. Transfection of ST2 small ...
In recent years, significant progress has been made in dissecting the genetic control of mammalian lung development. Many transcription factors, peptide growth factors and their receptors, as well as extracellular matrix components have been identified as important regulators of lung morphogenesis in reverse genetics approaches (Warburton et al. 2000; Groenman et al. 2004; Kumar and Ryan 2004). Chemical mutagenesis using the potent germline mutagen ENU represents a powerful means to complement these gene-driven approaches by phenotype-based screens in mice (De Angelis et al. 2000; Nolan et al. 2000; Kile et al. 2003). This report describes the positional cloning of the perinatal lethal, ENU-induced l7Rn64234SB allele and identifies a pivotal role for the previously hypothetical gene NM_026304 in Clara cell function during mouse lung development. The ENU-induced nonsense mutation truncated the carboxy-terminal 17 aa, rendering the l7Rn64234SB protein unstable. However, detection of residual ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-dose of ionizing radiation enhances cell proliferation via transient ERK1/2 and p38 activation in normal human lung fibroblasts. AU - Kim, Cha Soon. AU - Kim, Jin Mo. AU - Nam, Seon Young. AU - Yang, Kwang Hee. AU - Jeong, Meeseon. AU - Kim, Hee Sun. AU - Lim, Young Khi. AU - Kim, Chong Soon. AU - Jin, Young Woo. AU - Kim, Joon. PY - 2007/9/27. Y1 - 2007/9/27. N2 - This study shows the human cellular responses and the mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation in CCD 18 Lu cells, which are derived from normal human lung fibroblasts. Cell proliferation and viability assay were measured for the cells following γ-irradiation using trypan blue, BrdU incorporation, and Wst-1 assay. We also examined genotoxicity using a micronuclei formation assay. The activation of the MAPKs pathway was determined by Western blot analysis, and the siRNA system was used to inhibit the expression of ERK1/2 and p38. We found that 0.05 Gy of ionizing radiation stimulated cell proliferation and did not ...
Human, Mouse, Rat - Lung Tissue Array (5 slides/pk) Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate TAS-1003 Human, Mouse, Rat - Lung Tissue Array (5 slides/pk) Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate TAS-1003
Image: by Phil Schatz License: CC BY 4.0. Basically, a distinction is made between right and left lung. The left lung consists of two cloth (Lobi superior and inferior pulmonis sinistri), which are separated from each other by the fissura obliqua. The right lung, in turn, consists of three lobes (lobi superior, medius and inferior pulmonis dextri). The subdivision is done by the Fissura obliqua and the Fisura horizontalis pulmonis dextri. These fissures extend deep into the lung tissue and are, like the surface of the lung, lined with the visceral pleura.. The further structure is identical in both lungs. One distinguishes between the lung tip (Apex pulmonis), the lung base (Base pulmonis), the lung surfaces and the lung margins. The lung surface is covered by a serous skin, the visceral pleura, and appears pale pink in the healthy to gray. Depending on the position and the relationship to the thorax one differentiates with the lung surfaces (Facies pulmonis) between the facies costalis, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Foxf1 haploinsufficiency reduces Notch-2 signaling during mouse lung development. AU - Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.. AU - Gusarova, Galina A.. AU - Kim, Il-man. AU - Shin, Brian. AU - Yoder, Helena M.. AU - Clark, Jean. AU - Sapozhnikov, Alexander M.. AU - Whitsett, Jeffrey A.. AU - Costa, Robert H.. PY - 2004/3/1. Y1 - 2004/3/1. N2 - The forkhead box (Fox) f1 transcription factor is expressed in the mouse splanchnic (visceral) mesoderm, which contributes to development of the liver, gallbladder, lung, and intestinal tract. Pulmonary hemorrhage and peripheral microvascular defects were found in approximately half of the newborn Foxf1(+/-) mice, which expressed low levels of lung Foxf1 mRNA [low-Foxf1(+/-) mice]. Microvascular development was normal in the surviving newborn high-Foxf1(+/-) mice, which compensated for pulmonary Foxf1 haploinsufficiency and expressed wild-type Foxf1 levels. To identify expression of genes regulated by Foxf1, we used Affymetrix microarrays to determine ...
Matched Pair (Normal and Carcinoma) Human Lung Tissue Array (5 slides/pk) Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate TAS-1002 Matched Pair (Normal and Carcinoma) Human Lung Tissue Array (5 slides/pk) Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate TAS-1002
The development of lungs and the process that enables respiration is still not well understood at the molecular level. To fill the knowledge gaps, PNNL scientists are systematically characterizing normal lung development in mice and humans.
While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and fix compartmentally, very much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. fix utilizing murine versions have got provided essential ideas into both lung regeneration and homeostasis. These research have got proven that the adult mouse lung epithelium can be fairly quiescent and will not really adhere to the traditional control cell model [1]. Rather, the lung shows up to conform to a maintenance structure identical to that of various other tissue with gradual turnover prices, such as the pancreas [2], [3]. During regular tissues homeostasis, abundant facultative progenitor cells located throughout the lung epithelium mediate any 1420477-60-6 manufacture required maintenance. These facultative progenitor cells, Clara cells and Type II pneumocytes, are quiescent and function as differentiated cells of the mature lung epithelium, but keep the capability to differentiate and self-renew ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major respiratory illness in extremely premature infants. The biological mechanisms leading to BPD are not fully understood, although an arrest in lung development has been implicated. The current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of autophagy in the developing mouse lung and its regulatory role in airway branching and terminal sacculi formation. We found 2 windows of epithelial autophagy activation in the developing mouse lung, both resulting from AMPK activation. Inhibition of AMPK-mediated autophagy led to reduced lung branching in vitro. Conditional deletion of beclin 1 (Becn1) in mouse lung epithelial cells (Becn1Epi-KO), either at early (E10.5) or late (E16.5) gestation, resulted in lethal respiratory distress at birth or shortly after. E10.5 Becn1Epi-KO lungs displayed reduced airway branching and sacculi formation accompanied by impaired vascularization, excessive epithelial cell death, reduced mesenchymal thinning of the interstitial ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major respiratory illness in extremely premature infants. The biological mechanisms leading to BPD are not fully understood, although an arrest in lung development has been implicated. The current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of autophagy in the developing mouse lung and its regulatory role in airway branching and terminal sacculi formation. We found 2 windows of epithelial autophagy activation in the developing mouse lung, both resulting from AMPK activation. Inhibition of AMPK-mediated autophagy led to reduced lung branching in vitro. Conditional deletion of beclin 1 (Becn1) in mouse lung epithelial cells (Becn1Epi-KO), either at early (E10.5) or late (E16.5) gestation, resulted in lethal respiratory distress at birth or shortly after. E10.5 Becn1Epi-KO lungs displayed reduced airway branching and sacculi formation accompanied by impaired vascularization, excessive epithelial cell death, reduced mesenchymal thinning of the interstitial ...
Carlon, Marianne ; Toelen, Jaan ; Himmelreich, Uwe ; Debyser, Zeger ; Deprest, Jan. Combined non-invasive bioluminiscence and magnetic resonance imaging improves detection after pulmonary gene transfer in a fetal mouse model.30th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine (Chicago(Il), Feb 01-06, 2010). In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 201, no. 6, p. S261 (2009 ...
Biology Assignment Help, Mammalian lungs - respiration, Mammalian Lungs - Respiration In this we will study mainly mammalian lungs as it is the best representative of a respiratory surface adapted for terrestrial respiration. For this purpose, human lung can be taken as a model as shown in Figure. Wh
Optimal lung health from embryo through adulthood requires the complex interaction of pulmonary airspaces, interstitial and vasculature, beginning with organ development and culminating in programmed senescence. Technological advances have fostered a growing appreciation for the impact of cellular plasticity and the importance of cellular niche both during development and in response to both injury and repair. In addition to expanding the role of reactivation of developmental pathways lung repair, recent discoveries have demonstrated unique aging programs that will provide novel treatment strategies for chronic lung disease. The 5th Gordon Research Conference on Lung Development, Injury and Repair in August of 2019 seeks to attract cutting edge science to drive forward the field of lung development, injury, and repair toward the goal of facilitating novel therapeutic approaches to maximize lung health across the lifespan. This conference will strive to highlight new concepts behind the interactions
The lung is the main organ in the respiratory system and doesnt develop till about week 4 in the embryo. This stage of development is known as the Embryonic stage that covers the period of week 4-5 of the developing embryo. In this stage the 2 lung buds would have formed and lung lobes and the bronchopulmonary segments. The stem diverticulum will have differentiated into trachea and larynx. The Pseudoglandular stage is the period from 6 weeks to 16 weeks in the growing fetus. The events that occur in this stage include the formation of extensive airway branching of about 14 or more generations of branching resulting in terminal bronchioles. The conducting epithelium tubes are formed and are surrounded by thick mesenchyme. At 2 months all of the segmental bronchi would have formed. The distal structures at this stage are lined with cuboidal epithelium. The next stage is the Canalicular stage, from the period of week 16 to 25. The terminal bronchioles divide into two or more respiratory ...
If you are not aware of the lung problems then see here. There is a healthy lung month that will aware you about the various lungs problems.
Research in the Cardoso lab focuses on the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell fate during lung development and on the contribution of developmental mechanisms to disease pathogenesis and regeneration-repair of the adult lung. We are investigating how progenitor cells generate the wide diversity of cell types of the mature respiratory system. In this context, we have been identifying early markers of cell fate and characterizing the genetic programs associated with acquisition of the various airway epithelial cell phenotypes as the lung forms. These studies have provided insights into the role of specific pathways, including retinoids, Fgf, Tgf beta and Notch in controlling the specification and expansion of lung progenitors, airway branching and differentiation of the various lung epithelial cell lineages. Over these years Our studies continue to explore the basic mechanisms of lung development, using this knowledge to understand the role of stem/progenitor cells in lung ...
Epithelia from lung rudiments in which secondary bronchial buds are already established (14th and 13th gestational day for rat and mouse respectively) are able to undergo branching morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation in submandibular mesenchyme in vitro, whereas lung epithelium from one day younger foetuses rarely gives a morphogenetic response to submandibular mesenchyme and usually differentiates into primary (non-budding) bronchial epithelium.. The failure of 13-day rat lung epithelium to respond to submandibular mesenchyme can be prevented by peeling off the submandibular mesenchyme from the lung epithelium after 2½ days culture and replacing the same mesenchyme, or renewing it with fresh salivary mesenchyme ex vivo. Changes in the epithelial contour are visible by 10 h and buds form within 24 h; this is followed by branching morphogenesis in more than 66% of the samples.. The number of cells in S-phase in the epithelium is doubled within 3 to 5 h after the operation and the number of ...
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Aim: Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) in mice.. Materials and Methods: In this study, healthy male Swiss albino mice (n=30) aging 8-10 weeks were used to evaluate TLR-9 expression in lungs of mice following indoxacarb exposure with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indoxacarb was administered orally dissolved in groundnut oil at 4 and 2 mg/kg/day for 90 days. On day 91, five animals from each group were challenged with LPS/normal saline solution at 80 μg/animal. The lung tissues were processed for real time and immunohistochemical studies.. Results: LPS resulted increase in fold change m-RNA expression level of TLR-9 as compare to control, while indoxacarb (4 mg/kg) alone and in combination with LPS resulted 16.21-fold change and 29.4-fold change increase in expression of TLR-9 m-RNA, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, indoxacarb (2 mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS also altered TLR-9 expression. Further at protein ...
When lung cells are injured, there seems to be a cross talk between the damaged cells, the lung endothelial cells and the stem cells," explains Lee.. Lee and Kim are still trying to eavesdrop on this cross-talk, but one key factor produced by endothelial cells is a protein called thrombospondin (TSP-1). By adding it to 3-D cultures exposed to the air, mimicking the lung environment, Kim and Lee were able to prod even a single lung stem cell to start churning out alveolar cells. And by simply taking the TSP-1-rich liquid surrounding cultured endothelial cells and injecting it into the mice, they were able to reverse the lung damage caused by pulmonary fibrosis.. Conversely, when the researchers engineered lung endothelial cells to lack TSP-1 and added them to the 3-D cultures, the stem cells went down a different pathway, producing more airway cells. And in live mice unable to make TSP-1, airway repair was enhanced after injury.. TSP-1 is clearly a potential target for manipulation in patients ...
With the increasing prevalence of more infective and/or virulent strains of influenza, understanding the impact of virus on the host epithelium and the processes involved in lung repair are of great importance," says John F. Alcorn, PhD, an immunologist affiliated with the department of pediatrics at the Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. He notes that the findings open up new possibilities for developing therapeutic agents that promote recovery of normal lung function and architecture after influenza infection and lessen the likelihood of secondary infections. "A key finding is that even after the resolution of infection, influenza results in lung parenchymal remodeling that may be critical to susceptibility to further injury," says Dr. Alcorn. This series of experiments used 6- to 8-week-old wild-type (WT) mice (C57BL/6 strain) as well as IL-22-deficient mice, infected with influenza A PR/8/34 H1N1 or control vehicle. To determine the distribution of IL-22 in the lung, they used ...
You know that smoking is bad for your lungs, but what does that mean? Heres what you need to know about the smokers lung vs. healthy lung discussion.
Stress is defined as the force applied to a material, while strain is the consequent deformation. In the whole lung, stress can be roughly approximated by the transpulmonary pressure, whereas the approximation of the average strain is the change in volume relative to the lung resting volume. The same tidal volume per kilogram may result in completely different strain according to the size of the baby lung (the V0 of the previous equation). For example, a 70-kg man with ARDS may have, according to the severity of the lung injury, a residual baby lung equal to 60%, 40%, or 20% of his normal lung size. If the ventilator is set to deliver 10 mL/kg, the actual delivered tidal volume would generate an alveolar strain, which would result from the application, in normal lung, of a tidal volume equal to 17 mL/kg, 25 mL/kg, and 50 mL/kg, values associated with a significant lung injury in laboratory studies. Recently we attempted to quantify the relationship between stress-strain and VILI in healthy ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Lymphatics in Health and Disease in the Digestive, Urinary, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems (R01) PAR-12-259. NIDDK
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Lymphatics in Health and Disease in the Digestive, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems (R21) PAR-12-260. NIDDK
Work in the Robert H. Brown Lab explores several topics within pulmonary physiology, with a long-term goal of understanding the structural changes in the lungs that lead to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Our core studies examine the structure-function relationship of pulmonary airways and vessels as well as their role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reactive airway disease. Recent research has involved studying the mechanisms and treatment of COPD progression, new methods for treating asthma, and lung inflation and airway hyperresponsiveness. We are also exploring the impact of HIV infection on the etiology of lung disease and the pathophysiologic consequences of lung distention.. Research Areas: asthma, HIV, pulmonary physiology, lung disease, COPD, reactive airway disease ...
The NF-kappaB pathway has been shown to play a critical role in both adaptive and innate immunity and has been implicated as a focal point for induction of lung inflammation by a variety of inflammatory stimuli; however, the role of NF-kappaB in specific lung cell types remains unclear. We hypothesized that individual cell types in the lungs make important and unique contributions to the NF-kappaB dependent innate immune response. To determine the temporal and cell specific activation of NF-kappaB in vivo, an NF-kappaB reporter mouse in which expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)/luciferase fusion protein cDNA driven by an NF-kappaB inducible promoter (NGL mouse) was generated. NF-kappaB activity was detected in intact, anesthetized animals by bioluminescence imaging and at the cellular level by detection of GFP on lung tissue sections. Using Eschericia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa models of lung inflammation, the timing and duration of NF-kappaB ...
To understand lung cancer, we must first understand the lungs. The lungs are two sponge-like organs in the chest. The right lung has three sections, called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. It is smaller because the heart takes up more room on that side of the body. The lungs bring air in and out, taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide gas, which is a waste product of the body.. The lining which surrounds the lungs is called the pleura. The pleura protects the lungs. The windpipe, or trachea, brings air down into the lungs, and divides into tubes called bronchi, which divide into smaller branches called bronchioles. At the end of these small branches are tiny air sacs known as alveoli.. Most lung cancers start in the lining of the bronchi. But lung cancer can also begin in other areas such as the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli. Lung cancer usually takes many years to develop.. ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) residing in the lung are known to acquire inhaled Ag and, after migration to the draining bronchial lymph node (brLN), to present it to naive T cells in an either tolerogenic or immunogenic context. To visualize endogenous lung-derived DCs, we applied fluorescent latex beads (LXs) intratracheally, thereby in vivo labeling the majority of phagocytic cells within the lung. Of note, LX-bearing cells subsequently arriving in the draining brLN were found to represent lung-derived migratory DCs. Imaging explanted brLN by two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we quantitatively analyzed the migration and interaction behavior of naive CD4+ T cells and endogenous, lung-derived DC presenting airway-delivered Ag under inflammatory or noninflammatory conditions. Ag-specific naive CD4+ T cells engaged in stable as well as transient contacts with LX-bearing DCs in both situations and displayed similar overall motility kinetics, including a pronounced decrease in motility at 16-20 h after ...
The use of the porcine lung to demonstrate recruitment maneuvers stimulated us to consider the possibility of using the ASL 5000 to investigate ways to improve protocols for the handling of ex-vivo perfused lungs. We believe this would provide interesting research projects for students and faculty. Many of the current ex-vivo perfusion protocols involve using positive pressure and high concentrations of oxygen to maintain isolated perfused lungs. The longest time that perfused lungs have been kept viable ex-vivo is about 10 hours. Using the ASL 5000 to model breathing, we would like to explore the possibility of extending survival time of ex-vivo perfused lungs. We believe that lowering the FiO2 and avoiding positive pressure ventilation could improve viability. Further development of this model could lead to advances in therapeutics related to airway clearance, mechanical ventilation, and airway pharmacology.. In the video below, the porcine lungs are attached to an Avea ventilator in the CPAP ...
Goal of the present study is to investigate the specific cellular responses to nCeO2 and nFe2O3 in various lung cell types and develop an in vitro chronic exposure model to predict the potential fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects. Primary human lung fibroblasts were treated with nCeO2 (size dXRD = 17 nm, SSA = 61 m2/g) and direct stimulation of collagen production (a hallmark of fibrosis) was evaluated. In separate experiments, primary human small airway epithelial cells were exposed to a sub-lethal concentration (0.625 µg/cm2) of nCeO2 and nFe2O3 (size dXRD = 20 nm, SSA = 50 m2/g) for 6 weeks and their effects on cell transformation and invasion were evaluated. Our results showed new data that nCeO2 can induce a dose-dependent increase in collagen production by lung fibroblasts; nCeO2 can induce proliferation of lung epithelial cells as compared to vehicle-treated control and nFe2O3 induced neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells as determined by soft-agar colony formation assay and transwell
Intestinal bacteria transferred at birth affect lung development, bacterial resistance and susceptibility to inflammatory conditions in newborns, according to a new mouse study.
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YALE (US)-Scientists have achieved an important first step in regenerating fully functional lung tissue that can exchange gas-the key role of the lungs.. Details appear in the June 24 issue of Science Express.. Lung disease accounts for around 400,000 deaths each year in the United States. Lung tissue is difficult to regenerate because it does not generally repair or regenerate beyond the microscopic level.. The only current way to replace damaged adult lung tissue is to perform lung transplantation, which is highly susceptible to organ rejection and infection and achieves only 10 percent to 20 percent survival at 10 years.. The researchers goal was to see if it was possible to successfully implant tissue-engineered lungs, cultured in vitro, that could serve the lungs primary function of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.. They took adult rat lungs and first removed their existing cellular components, preserving the extracellular matrix and hierarchical branching structures of the airways ...
The Lung Scan provides a detailed visualization of the lungs. The Advanced Lung Analysis software allows highly accurate volume measurement of lung nodules. With its 3D volume measurement, we are better able to determine changes in nodule volume and to quantify growth rate and doubling time for lesions, allowing earlier and more accurate identification of small lung cancers. This enables our radiologists to detect lung cancer at its earliest stage, usually undetectable by an ordinary chest x-ray.. The Lung Scan can also detect other lung damage such as emphysema from smoking or lung scarring from prior infection. ...
Small airways are abnormal in asthma [1]. One measurement of small airway function is Sacin, derived from the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) test. Sacin reflects ventilation heterogeneity in diffusion-dependent airways, and is correlated with airway hyperresponsiveness [2] and asthma control [3]. Theoretically, heterogeneity of diffusion-dependent ventilation can arise due to the heterogeneity of cross-sectional areas of airway openings in terminal airways and the acini [4]. Therefore, Sacin may be affected by structural changes in those airways. The elastic properties of the lung may also affect Sacin, as the phase III slope, a marker of ventilation heterogeneity derived from the single-breath nitrogen washout, correlates with lung compliance in explanted lungs of smokers and in healthy lungs [5]. ...
Among adults in the United States, the prevalence of reduced lung function including obstructive and restrictive lung disease is about 20%, representing an over 40 million adults. Persons with reduced lung function often demonstrate chronic systemic inflammation, such as from elevated levels of C-reactive protein. Substantial data suggests that inflammation may have a significant role in the association between reduced lung function and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, how reduced lung function predicts CVD as risk modification remains largely unknown. Poor lung function has been shown to be a better predictor of all-cause and cardiac-specific mortality than established risk factors such as serum cholesterol, and CVD is the leading cause of mortality among those with impaired lung function. The exact mechanism of atherosclerosis is not clear, but persistent low grade inflammation is considered as one of the culprits in clot formation. The initial presentation of coronary heart disease is either
The lung is an organ constantly exposed to microbiota either through inhalation or subclinical microaspiration from birth. Historically, medical texts allude to a sterile lung environment, and this dogma has persisted in contemporary medicine. In the last decade, a revolution of sorts has taken place in our understanding of how the lung and microbiota interact and exist. This revolution stems from new knowledge that the lung is not sterile (10) and, in fact, harbors an abundance of diverse interacting microbiota. As mentioned above, the gut microbiome modulates host mucosal defense (11, 12); however, there is a paucity of information regarding the potential role of lung microbiota to regulate immunity and homeostasis.. The lung is not sterile, contrary to centuries of dogma asserting the same. Throughout the 1900s this inference was reinforced by respiratory culture-based protocols that sought only to identify clinically significant pathogens and by a spurious conclusion that upper respiratory ...
Primary human lung cells or cell lines were cultured on a stretchable silastic membrane forming the bottom of a 12-well plexiglas® box. The box was connected to an adult ventilator and "ventilated" for up to 36 hours at 20 cycles/min with a pressure-volume regimen resembling that of MV. Several lung cell types were tested in this model. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the main cellular source of key inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor, the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, produced during mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation also induced low levels of IL-8 secretion by human alveolar epithelial type II-like cells. Other lung cell types such as endothelial cells, bronchial cells, and fibroblasts failed to produce IL-8 in response to mechanical ventilation (1,2). Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
By Claire Mulvihill, Lung Cancer Support Nurse, Lung Foundation Australia. There are a number of symptoms and side effects which you may experience when living with lung cancer and other lung diseases in addition to various treatments. Lung cancer and its treatment can affect people in different ways depending on the type, location and size of your lung cancer. You may have general symptoms and not feel well, or have very specific symptoms relating to your lungs or other parts of the body that have been affected by the cancer. Whilst there are a number of side effects which you may experience, in this edition we feature breathlessness and some tips to managing this. We will highlight other common symptoms in such as weight loss and fatigue in future editions.. Shortness of breath is the most common challenge people living with lung cancer and other lung diseases have. It can be uncomfortable and scary and you may feel like you cant get enough air into your lungs. The common causes of ...
This unique didactic/hands-on workshop provides a comprehensive overview of respiratory biology and the use of mice as model systems of human lung diseases.
1 Segmental bronchial branches. Rami bronchiales segmentorum. Branches of individual segmental bronchi.. 2 Tunica muscularis. Muscle layer in the wall of the bronchus.. 3 Tela submucosa. Connective tissue layer beneath the bronchial mucosa.. 4 Tunica mucosa. Mucous membrane of the bronchi lined by ciliated columnar epithelium.. 5 Bronchial glands. Gll. bronchiales. Mixed glands located below the mucosa.. 6 LUNGS. Pulmones. They occupy the greater portion of the thoracic space. A B C D. 7 RIGHT/LEFT LUNGS. Pulmo dexter/sinister. Right lobes are larger; left lobes smaller (10%). A B C D. 8 Base of lung. Basis pulmonis (pulmonalis). Lower lung segment bordering on the diaphragm. A BCD. 9 Apex of lung. Apex pulmonis (pulmonalis). Apical portion of the lung partially occupying the superior thoracic aperture. A B C D. Costal surface. [[Facies costalis]]. Lung surface bordering the ribs. AC. Medial surface. [[Facies medialis]]. Medial lung surface facing the mediastinum. B D Vertebral part. Pars ...
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Time sequenced regional lung parenchymal analysis is dependent upon the successful registration of lung data sets that corrects for local distortions. An elastic model based image registration scheme is proposed and developed in 2D. It models the registration as a deformation process of an elastic material. An example of real lung image registration is given to show the process. The performance of the registration method is assessed by generating a pair of synthetic images with known matching points and comparing the actual matching points with the ones from our method. Three types of geometric transformation are applied to simulate different effects of distortions and the results show good promise to register images with both global and local distortions ...
Mutational activation of the K-ras oncogene often occurs in human and mouse lung adenocarcinomas. Since K-ras p21 functions in trans-membrane signaling, we have investigated whether the amount of this protein in lung cell membranes is a variable that could influence lung tumorigenesis, either due to genetic differences or in response to tumor promoters. The six mouse strains assessed showed little difference in the total lung K-ras p21 after immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. However, amount of ras p21 in the membrane fraction showed significant differences, with C57BL/6 and BALB/c having 3-5-fold more than NIH Swiss, AKR and DBA mice. Interestingly, a congenic AKR strain having the Ahr(b-1) Ah receptor allele from C57BL/6 mice (designated AKR.B6Ah) had high lung membrane K-ras p21 similar to that of C57BL/6. To test for possible changes related to lung tumor promotion, mice were treated with a promotional dose of TCDD (5 nmol/kg). After 48 h C57BL/6 lungs showed an increase in p21 in both ...
Free Online Library: Smoking inhibits lungs immune cells. (Biomedicine) by Science News; Science and technology, general Immune response Analysis Respiratory tract diseases Development and progression Tobacco Physiological aspects
The study of formation of defensive mechanisms in the human fetal lung at different stages of embryogenesis is of great interest, in particular, because of the high frequency of pathology of the respiratory organs in neonates. Several structural components of the lungs are involved in the development of local reactions of cellular and humoral immunity: broncho-associated lymphoid tissue (the BALT system), lymphoid ceils of the lung parenchyma, and also the alveolar macrophages. The formation of the material substrate of local cellular immunity has been studied experimentally [5-7]. The results of an investigation of the subpopulation composition of lymphoid cells in the parenchyma of the adult human lung have been obtained [4]. No information on phenotypic characteristics of the lymphoid cells of the embryonic human lung could be found in the literature. This paper describes a study of the subpopulation composition of lymphoid cells in the parenchyma of the human fetal Iung at different stages of
BAC can be quite variable. It can be just a very tiny little nodule, it can be multiple spots throughout the lungs, or it can be very large areas of confluent involvement in one or more lungs. And of course, the more of the lung thats involved, the more severe a patients symptoms tend to be.. It has a unique appearance because it tends not to grow invading into tissues and then jumping into the blood and spreading elsewhere - its really limited to the lungs only. We will often see a pattern of diffused haziness within the lungs on a chest x-ray or a CAT scan and sometimes youll see a spattering of lots of nodules within the lungs as its own pattern.. One of the newer terms for it is adenocarcinoma in situ, and this implies a pre-malignant condition. By that, it means that it is not actually a life-threatening cancer, and this speaks to the often very favorable prognosis of these lesions, at least when theyre smaller and a solitary spot in the lungs. In those cases, when theyre taken out, ...
Louisiana is one of the states in the U. S. which has high prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). These diseases have high mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Therefore, improved treatment and/or prevention strategies are warranted. Identification of mechanisms underlying these diseases is a prerequisite for the development of new treatment and/or prevention strategies. The Lung Biology laboratories seek to identify the novel mechanisms of lung inflammation and host defense, and explore how these mechanisms may be exploited to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies. The scientific focus of the members working in Lung Biology range from innate immunity, adaptive immunity and immunotherapy. The Lung Biology group in the Schol of Veterinary Medicine (SVM) uses vertically integrated experimental cutting edge methodologies aimed at dissecting lung inflammation and host defense with expertise ranging from cell ...
Louisiana is one of the states in the U. S. which has high prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). These diseases have high mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Therefore, improved treatment and/or prevention strategies are warranted. Identification of mechanisms underlying these diseases is a prerequisite for the development of new treatment and/or prevention strategies. The Lung Biology laboratories seek to identify the novel mechanisms of lung inflammation and host defense, and explore how these mechanisms may be exploited to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies. The scientific focus of the members working in Lung Biology range from innate immunity, adaptive immunity and immunotherapy. The Lung Biology group in the Schol of Veterinary Medicine (SVM) uses vertically integrated experimental cutting edge methodologies aimed at dissecting lung inflammation and host defense with expertise ranging from cell ...
Preface xi About the Authors xiii. 1 THE CELLULAR ORIGIN OF VERTEBRATES 1. The Origins of Unicellular Life on Earth 1. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes 4. Coevolution of traits 5. Cholesterol Facilitates Lipid Rafts for Cell-Cell Communication 7. The Endomembrane System 9. The Cellular Mechanism of Evolution 10. Why Evolve? 11. Cell-Cell Communication and Aging 12. 2 REDUCING LUNG PHYSIOLOGY TO ITS MOLECULAR PHENOTYPES 17. Hormonal Acceleration of Lung Development 17. Neutral Lipid Traffi cking and Lung Evolution 19. Other Examples of Cellular Cooperativity 23. Summary 24. 3 A CELL-MOLECULAR STRATEGY FOR SOLVING THE EVOLUTIONARY PUZZLE 25. Rationale for Cell-Molecular Evolution 25. Mechanism of Mammalian Lung Development 28. Avian Lung Structure-Function Relationship: The Exception that Proves the Rule 32. Does Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny? The Role of PTHrP in Lung Development 32. Interrelationship between PTHrP, Development, Physiology, and Repair: Is Repair a Recapitulation of Ontogeny and ...
Lung disease comprises many disorders that involve the lungs and prevent them from working properly. Different disorders are caused depending on the different parts of the lungs that are affected, like the airways (the tubes that carry oxygen and other gases through the lungs), the lung tissue, or the blood vessels in the lung. Asthma for instance affects the airways, pulmonary fibrosis affects the lung tissue, and pulmonary hypertension affects the blood vessels in the lung.. ...
One of our huge organ is our lungs. But we often dont consider the important issue role our lungs play in keeping us strong and well. Its not until we experience problems breathing that we take notice. Like the rest of our body, our lungs need daily care and attention.. The lungs feed oxygen to every cell in the body. Without sufficient oxygen, people are more prone to health problems, including respiratory illnesses and even heart disease.. Even though we breathe everyday, it is still not enough to keep the oxygen flowing through the body at peak levels.. "Lungs at rest and during most daily activities are only at 50 percent of their capacity," says a certified specialist in cardiovascular and pulmonary physical therapy. "Like the rest of your body, lungs thrive on movement and activity.". You need to challenge the lungs with more intense activity like playing sports or do cardiovascular workout. It help to cleanse your lungs and counteract the build-up of toxins and tar in the lungs caused ...
Lung cancer. Immunofluorescent Light Micrograph of carcinoma cancer cells of the lung. Carcinoma is the cancer that arises in epithelium, cells which line internal organs. Normal lung fibroblast cells are green. Smaller carcinoma cells (red) are seen growing upon this fibroblast lung tissue. Both cell types have blue nuclei. Lung cancer typically arises in the epithelium layer and is a common form of cancer, associated with cigarette smoking. Immunofluorescence is a staining technique which uses antibodies to attach fluorescent dyes to specific tissues and to molecules within the cell. Magnification: x125 at 35mm, x240 at 6x4.5cm size. - Stock Image M132/0359
The relationship between a history of respiratory infections (and associated variables) in children and lung function in later life was examined in a study among 228 children aged 7 to 11 years. In a multiple regression analysis only a few variables showed marked and consistent effects on lung function. Respiratory tract infections showed increasing impairment of lung function with repeated infections, but the impairment was smaller than that caused by current asthma.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - P2Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of ion transport in distal lung epithelial cells. AU - Ramminger, S. J.. AU - Collett, A.. AU - Baines, D. L.. AU - Murphie, H.. AU - McAlroy, H. L.. AU - Olver, R. E.. AU - Inglis, S. K.. AU - Wilson, S. M.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - 1. Rat foetal distal lung epithelial cells were plated onto permeable supports where they became integrated into epithelial sheets that spontaneously generated short circuit current (I(SC)) 2. Apical ATP (100 μM) evoked a transient fall in I(SC) that was followed by a rise to a clear peak which, in turn, was succeeded by a slowly developing decline to a value below control. Apical UTP evoked an essentially identical response. 3. UDP and ADP were ineffective whilst ATP had no effect when added to the basolateral solution. These effects thus appear to be mediated by apical P2Y2 receptors. 4. The rising phase of the responses to ATP/UTP was selectively inhibited by anion transport inhibitors but persisted in the ...
SpiroCall, a new health sensing tool that can accurately measure lung function over a simple phone call, has been developed by researchers.
Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) begins early in the natural history of the condition and, in early life, it is difficult to detect early abnormalities with spirometry. The impact of the disease at this stage is unknown. In this months Thorax Brennan and colleagues describe a study in children with CF under age 6 who took part in a clinical programme to detect infections. The low frequency forced oscillation technique (LFFOT) was used to measure lung function. LFFOT has been shown to be useful in young children and partitions lung function into airway and pulmonary components. Inflammatory and infective changes were present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in all children. Analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between LFFOT measures and markers of inflammation such as LTB4, IL-8, and neutrophil numbers. This study shows that abnormal lung function is present early in the course of CF and that LFFOT is effective and sensitive in detecting early CF disease, as shown by ...
New York, Dec 22 (IANS): Feeling worried over the lung damage caused by smoking? Take heart, eating more than two tomatoes or more than three portions of fresh fruits, especially apples, daily may help restore the damage.. The findings showed that people who quit smoking and ate a diet high in tomatoes and fruits had slower lung decline over a 10-year period.. This suggests that certain components in these foods might help repair as well as restore the damage caused to lungs as a result of smoking.. Poor lung function has been linked with mortality risks from all diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, and lung cancer.. "This study shows that diet might help repair lung damage in people who have stopped smoking. It also suggests that a diet rich in fruits can slow down the lungs natural aging process even if you have never smoked," said lead author Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Assistant Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Airspaces of the lung are lined by an epithelium whose cellular structure adjustments along the proximal-to-distal axis to match neighborhood functional requirements for mucociliary measurement, hydration, web host protection, and gas exchange. uncovered in the correct time period of scientific display. Administration is normally often focused at relieving symptoms and delaying the training course of disease development. This approach is taken with variable success and without understanding the principal cause of the pathology necessarily. Nevertheless, as curiosity in the root basis for disease provides grown up, it provides become obvious that the epithelial coating of the lung area is normally a essential 26807-65-8 manufacture disease mediator and focus on for healing surgery focused at either stopping disease in prone people or treating it in chronically sick sufferers. Right here, we review the advancement of the pulmonary epithelium, its assignments in regular lung function, and the ...
Although K-ras is frequently mutated in lung adenocarcinomas, the normal function of K-ras p21 in lung is not known. In two mouse (E10 and C10) and one human (HPL1D) immortalized lung cell lines from peripheral epithelium, we have measured total K-ras p21 and active K-ras p21-GTP during cell proliferation and at growth arrest caused by confluence. In all three cell types, total K-ras p21 increased 2- to 4-fold at confluence, and active K-ras p21-GTP increased 10- to 200-fold. It was estimated that 0.03% of total K-ras p21 was in the active GTP-bound state at 50% confluence, compared with 1.4% at postconfluence. By contrast, stimulation of proliferation by serum-containing medium did not involve K-ras p21 activation, even though a rapid, marked activation of both Erk1/2 and Akt occurred. At confluence, large increases, up to 14-fold, were seen in Grb2/Sos1 complexes, which may activate K-ras p21. In sum, increased protein expression and activity of K-ras p21 are associated with growth arrest, not ...
RUTGERS (US) - Delivering chemotherapy through inhalation significantly improves the rate of successfully treating cancer tumors in the lungs, new animal studies show.. Lung cancer kills about 1.5 million men and women around the world-more than the number of people who die from breast, colon, pancreatic, and prostate cancers combined.. Researchers say this happens, in part, because many patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until they are in the advanced or metastatic stage of the disease and treatment options are limited mainly to surgery and conventional intravenous chemotherapy.. [sources]. The new research indicates that inhalation therapy reduces systemic damage done to healthy lung cells and other organs while improving the treatment of lung tumors.. "The development of additional more effective and safe approaches to treatment of this disease is vitally important," says Tamara Minko, professor and chair of the department of pharmaceutics at Rutgers.. "Up until now, limited clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early life represents a vulnerable time window for IL-33-induced peripheral lung pathology. AU - Drake, Li Y.. AU - Squillace, Diane. AU - Iijima, Koji. AU - Kobayashi, Takao. AU - Uchida, Masaru. AU - Kephart, Gail M.. AU - Britt, Rodney. AU - OBrien, Daniel R.. AU - Kita, Hirohito. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - IL-33, an IL-1 family cytokine, is constitutively expressed in mucosal tissues and other organs in healthy humans and animals, and expression levels increase in inflammatory conditions. Although IL-33-mediated promotion of type 2 immune responses has been well established, a gap in our knowledge regarding the functional diversity of this pleiotropic cytokine remains. To address this gap, we developed a new IL-33 transgenic mouse model in which overexpression of full-length IL-33 is induced in lung epithelial cells under conditional control. In adult mice, an ∼3-fold increase in the steady-state IL-33 levels produced no pathologic effects in the lungs. When ...
The innate immune system plays critical roles in maintaining a healthy lung and in shaping the adaptive immune response to challenge. As for most biological pro...
High attenuation in the lungs is not infrequently encountered on computed tomography (CT). Not all significantly radiopaque lung findings are calcified. Iodi...
Normal right lung. Coloured X-ray showing the branching bronchial tree in a healthy right lung. The tube running from top right to centre is one of two bronchi, one for each lung, which attach to the trachea (windpipe). Inside the lung the bronchus divides into many bronchioles. Each bronchiole becomes smaller, finally ending in alveoli (tiny air sacs, not seen). The lungs are the site of gaseous exchange; oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide is removed. - Stock Image P590/0043
What are the differences between the left lung and right lung? Here, we detail quick and easy to learn summary points of the right lung vs left lung. Left vs Right Lung
What are the differences between the left lung and right lung? Here, we detail quick and easy to learn summary points of the right lung vs left lung. Left vs Right Lung
Lung health and function are not easily ignored. Each day, the average human takes somewhere between 16,000 and 30,000 breaths. So many of us breathe...
Hello, , , Im looking for murine anti-TNF and anti IL-1 mAbs to use on cryostat cut , mouse lung tissue sections. I know that such Abs are available for FACS , analysis and ELISA work, however I have failed to find any specifically , for immunohistochemistry. First of all, does it really matter? Can I use , Abs generally used in ELISAs or FACS analysis in immuno-histo? and , secondly does anyone know where to get such Abs, that have been proven to , work on tissue sections. , , , I look forward to your comments and help, , , , Dr. A. Kadioglu , , ak13 at le.ac.uk ...
Are you taking steps to protect your lungs? If not, you could be putting yourself at risk for a host of respiratory problems. Here are ways you can have healthy, happy lungs.
Reciprocal interaction between lung mesenchymal and epithelial cells is essential for normal lung development and homeostasis. Therefore, alterations in lung me...
Berber Piet richtte zich op een bepaald soort afweercellen in de menselijke long, de T-cellen. Ze onderzocht de rol die deze cellen kunnen spelen bij het ontstaan en het voorkomen van longinfecties, longkanker en COPD. Deze ziektes vormen een groot gezondheidsprobleem: ze staan alle drie in de top tien van wereldwijd meest voorkomende doodsoorzaken. Tot nu toe werd gedacht dat afweercellen vanuit het bloed de rest van het lichaam beschermen tegen infecties. Uit Piets onderzoek blijkt dat de T-cellen in de long een plaatselijk geheugen vormen tegen griep. Deze plaatselijke afweercellen kunnen virussen zo snel bestrijden dat veel infecties worden voorkomen. Daarnaast ontdekte ze dat T-cellen in de longen van mensen met COPD mogelijk een verstoorde afweerfunctie hebben. Dit zou verklaren waarom mensen met COPD bevattelijk zijn voor infecties en waarom ze een grotere kans hebben op het krijgen van longkanker. Een verstoorde afweerfunctie zou zelfs aan de wieg kunnen staan van het ontstaan van de ...
Covers two large topics in a book of modest length through terse writing and generous use of tables and figures. Close attention to physiologic disorders in many disease states but emphasis on major syndromes (valvular disorders, hypertension, shock, pulmonary dysfunction and failure) in separate chapters. Detailed subject index. ...
Variations of specific genetic markers identified in previous research, or SNPs, may indicate a greater lung cancer risk in African Americans than in whites
Inversions ensure healthier and more effective lung tissue. When standing or sitting upright, gravity pulls our fluids earthward, and blood saturates the lower lungs more thoroughly. The lower lung tissue is therefore more compressed than the upper lungs. As a result, the air we inhale moves naturally into the open alveoli of the upper lungs. Unless we take a good, deep breath, we do not raise the ration of air to blood in the lower lungs. When we invert, blood saturates the well-ventilated upper lobes of the lungs, thus ensuring more efficient oxygen-to-blood exchange and healthier lung tissue. This helps to uniformly develop the structure of the lungs. Each inhalation can then bring in more oxygen, which then slows down the respiratory rate and conserves more energy ...
Cancer Essay, Research Paper What Is Lung Cancer? Most cancers are named after the part of the body where the cancer first starts. Lung cancer begins in the lungs. The lungs are two sponge-like organs in the chest. The right lung has three sections, called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. It is smaller because the heart takes up more room on that side of the body.
Breathlessness, shortness of breath, difficulty with breathing. The medical term for shortness of breath is "dyspnea-Greek difficult+breathing." Shortness of breath, or dyspnea, is an uncomfortable feeling or condition making it difficult to get enough air into your lungs. ...
Breathlessness, shortness of breath, difficulty with breathing. The medical term for shortness of breath is "dyspnea-Greek difficult+breathing." Shortness of breath, or dyspnea, is an uncomfortable feeling or condition making it difficult to get enough air into your lungs. ...
We are studying diseases of the lung including scarring diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema (called COPD). These diseases are caused by smoking and/or by exposure to damaging environmental/occupational toxicants. We identify and characterize human and mouse subsets of lung fibroblasts that are responsible for the wound repair in the lung. Fibroblasts also produce large amounts of immunoregulatory cytokines and mediators that control inflammation. We are focusing on strategies to prevent fibroblast overgrowth in lung scarring conditions and to prevent inflammation in smoking-induced COPD. A new project studies how fibroblastic stem cells can be controlled to differentiate to either scar cells or to fat cells. We are also investigating how environmental chemicals called obesogens induce cells to become fat cells. Techniques and areas of investigation: Cell sorting, cytokine assays, surface markers, cell and molecular biology, preclinical animal models and human Immunology. Research funded ...
The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: SET CAP lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics SET CAP S: s...
Another reason I worry about is that McCains advisors are in favor of H1 visa. At no point they mention that they will also support GCs for EB immigrants. This means if he comes to power, there will be high influx of H1Bs without anyone gettting GCs. This seems to be worse than what Obama is planning to do. Maybe a few of us will have to leave in Obamas policy but those who remain here will be better placed. Under McCains policy, there will be a huge pressure on wages by H1B competing against other H1B while there is no reform in GC process. These ladies Carly Fiorina, Meg Whitman are big time in favor of H1 visa so as to bring down salaries and so that they can make more money. This is their only rationale in supporting H1s. I am not against H1s but the GC process also needs to be fixed. If GC process is not fixed more H1s is not only detrimental to us but also to the newcomers ...
... Posted by cln January 26, 2014 in Healing, Health-Wellness, Spices, Seeds, Herbs John Summerly | Naturalblaze | Jan 27th 2014 http://consciouslifenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/lungs-herbs-242x135.jpg
The Lungs The lungs are the primary organ of the respiratory system, each lung houses structures of both conducting and respiratory functions. The principal function of the lungs is to perform the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the atmosphere. The lung area exchange respiratory gases across a tremendously large epithelial surface area-about 70 square meters-that is highly permeable to gases to this end. Gross Anatomy… ...
Fluid in the lungs may not make you think about your heart, but congestive heart failure is the most common cause of the buildup of fluids in your lungs,...
As already suggested in previous research, Juice Plus+ provides nutrition for a healthy heart! A study just published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition confirms that Juice Plus+ positively impacts several key indicators of cardiovascular wellness. In addition, it supports healthy lung function and improves folate status.. This scientific paper culled data from the 75 most compliant participants from a previous study conducted by the researchers at the University of Milan. All of the study subjects were cigarette smokers who had smoked an average of 20 or more cigarettes per day for at least ten years but did not have any existing respiratory complications. Because it creates a lot of free radicals, cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress in the body, putting a strain on the heart and lungs. The researchers wanted to see if Juice Plus+ would have a protective effect.. The study subjects were split randomly into three groups. The first group took Juice Plus+ Garden and ...
The tests determine how much air your lungs can hold, how quickly you can move air in and out of your lungs. Asthma Test The tests can diagnose lung diseases, measure the severity of lung problems, and check to see how well treatment for a lung disease is working.
Limited data exists which specifies whether certain respiratory physiological characteristics in lung disease groups are associated with exercise response and functional ability.. AIMS 1) To determine whether relationships exist between the outcomes of exercise (six-minute walk test (6mwt)) and results of lung function in patients with specific lung disease. 2) Will relationships allow generation of equations to accurately predict walk distance?. METHOD Retrospective analysis of lung function and concomitant 6mwt data from individuals who attended the lung function department between 2009-2011. Validation of generated predicted equations in separate classified cohort of subjects and comparison to Enright equations (1998).. SUBJECTS 352 patients data collected. 5 classified with mixed lung disease excluded from analysis due to small sample size. Of the remaining 347 patients; 38 (10.9%) identified as restrictive, 158 (43.5%) obstructive and 151 (43.5%) normal as per ATS/ERS interpretation ...
Inflammatory lung diseases induce strong leukocyte recruitment into the organ, culminating in pneumonia area formation. Here, we describe the protocol for isolation of lung infiltrating cells. Using this assay, we analyzed the lung cell phenotyping by flow cytometry and spontaneous cytokine production by cultivating lung cells ex vivo (Amaral et al., 2014).
78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was ... recent imaging showed an increase in size and number of multiple lung nodules, and an increase in mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. The .... ...
Light microscope histology image of a 0.5um section cut through the bronchiolar area of the lung (mouse). The histology image shows the bronchiolar epithelium which consists of ciliated cells and non-ciliated cells (called Clara cells). Behind the epithelial lining is an area of smooth muscle. ZEISS Standard RA LM ...
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Skylizard on lung limp nose cancer: Without complete details, difficult to tell. Having lung cancer is bad. Having lung cancer that is amenable to surgical removal is a far better situation. If following evaluation and bronchoscopy your team feels you are a surgical candidate for removal, it is good. Best survival in lung cancer is lung cancer that can be surgically removed (resectable cancer).
Low prices on Lung! Nourish, cleanse and strengthen the respiratory system*. The primary function of the lungs is to supply the blood with oxygen for delivery to all parts of the body. The lungs work hard in todays modern environment that includes toxic carbon monoxide, smoke and other airborne poisons and chemicals. Overexertion, allergies, colds and flu can cause lung congestion.V
Low prices on Lung! Nourish, cleanse and strengthen the respiratory system*. The primary function of the lungs is to supply the blood with oxygen for delivery to all parts of the body. The lungs work hard in todays modern environment that includes toxic carbon monoxide, smoke and other airborne poisons and chemicals. Overexertion, allergies, colds and flu can cause lung congestion.V
... is a disease that causes uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not function like normal cells so they dont develop into healthy tissue. Through growth, tumors can emerge that will prevent the proper function of the lung. There several different types of lung cancer and each will have a different treatment.. Click here to learn more about Lung Cancer or visit LungCancer.org. ...
Looking for online definition of pulmonary agenesis in the Medical Dictionary? pulmonary agenesis explanation free. What is pulmonary agenesis? Meaning of pulmonary agenesis medical term. What does pulmonary agenesis mean?
The widely used animal models for tuberculosis ( TB) display fundamental differences from human TB. Therefore, a validated model that recapitulates human lung TB is attractive for TB research. Here, we describe a unique method for establishment of TB infection in an experimental human lung tissue model. The model is based on cell lines derived from human lungs and primary macrophages from peripheral blood, and displays characteristics of human lung tissue, including evenly integrated macrophages throughout the epithelium, production of extracellular matrix, stratified epithelia and mucus secretion. Establishment of experimental infection in the model tissue with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB, resulted in clustering of macrophages at the site of infection, reminiscent of early TB granuloma formation. We quantitated the extent of granuloma formation induced by different strains of mycobacteria and validated our model against findings in other TB models. We found that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pirfenidone alleviates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model. AU - Saito, Masao. AU - Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F.. AU - Suetsugu, Kimitaka. AU - Okabe, Ryo. AU - Takahagi, Akihiro. AU - Masuda, Satohiro. AU - Date, Hiroshi. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. N2 - Objective: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is among the complications seen after lung transplantation, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Pirfenidone, an antifibrotic agent for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is reported to have cytoprotective properties in various disease models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pirfenidone on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Lewis rats (260-290 g) were divided into 3 groups: sham group (n = 5), warm ischemia (WI) group (n = 10), and WI plus pirfenidone (WI+PFD) group (n = 10). The sham group underwent 210 minutes of perfusion without ischemia. The WI and WI+PFD groups underwent 90 minutes of warm ischemia and 120 minutes of ...
Looking for online definition of Perfusion lung scan in the Medical Dictionary? Perfusion lung scan explanation free. What is Perfusion lung scan? Meaning of Perfusion lung scan medical term. What does Perfusion lung scan mean?
... definition. Explain adult respiratory distress syndrome. What is adult respiratory distress syndrome? adult respiratory distress syndrome meaning. adult respiratory distress syndrome sense. adult respiratory distress syndrome FAQ. adult respiratory distress syndrome synonyms.
BackgroundMechanical ventilation causes ventilator-induced lung injury in animals and humans. Mitogen-activated protein kinases have been implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury though their functional significance remains incomplete. We characterize the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase-3 and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase-1 in ventilator-induced lung injury and investigate novel independent mechanisms contributing to lung injury during mechanical ventilation.Methodology and Principle FindingsC57/BL6 wild-type mice and mice genetically deleted for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-3 (mkk-3−/−) or c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase-1 (jnk1−/−) were ventilated, and lung injury parameters were assessed. We demonstrate that mkk3−/− or jnk1−/− mice displayed significantly reduced inflammatory lung injury and apoptosis relative to wild-type mice. Since jnk1−/− mice were highly resistant to ventilator-induced lung injury, we performed
Objective: To investigate the timing and complications of lung transplantation for the treatment of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). Method: The clinical data of connective tissue-associated disease lung transplantation recipients from September, 2015 to February, 2017 were collected. Results: 11 patients with CTD-ILD were evaluated by lung transplantation and were treated with lung transplantation. Including 2 cases dermatomyositis/polymyositis and interstitial lung disease (PM/DM-ILD), 4 cases rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD), 4 cases of primary Sjgrens syndrome and interstitial lung disease (pSS-ILD), 1 case of systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome. AU - Rossi, Giulio. AU - Spagnolo, Paolo. AU - Sverzellati, Nicola. AU - Longo, Lucia. AU - Jukna, Agita. AU - Montanari, Gloria. AU - Vincenzi, Giada. AU - Bogina, Giuseppe. AU - Franco, Renato. AU - Tiseo, Marcello. AU - Cottin, Vincent. AU - Colby, Thomas V.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - The term diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) may be used to describe a clinico-pathological syndrome, as well as an incidental finding on histological examination, although there are obvious differences between these two scenarios. According to the World Health Organization, the definition of DIPNECH is purely histological. However, DIPNECH encompasses symptomatic patients with airway disease, as well as asymptomatic patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with multiple tumourlets/carcinoid tumours. DIPNECH is also considered a pre-neoplastic lesion in the spectrum ...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal disease with limited treatment options. Protease-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism of lung fibrosis. Protease activity in the lung is tightly regulated by protease inhibitors, particularly secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). The bleomycin model of lung fibrosis was used to determine the effect of increased protease activity in the lungs of Slpi− / − mice following injury. Slpi− / −, and wild-type, mice received oropharyngeal administration of bleomycin (30 IU) and the development of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed. Pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Lung fibrosis was determined by collagen subtype-specific gene expression, hydroxyproline concentration, and histological assessment. Alveolar TGF-β activation was measured using bronchoalveolar lavage cell pSmad2 levels and global TGF-β activity was assessed by ...
lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... Total lung capacity (TLC)[edit]. Total lung capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air present in the lungs ... Static lung compliance (Cst)[edit]. When estimating static lung compliance, volume measurements by the spirometer needs to be ... Tidal volume: that volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during quiet breathing (TV indicates a subdivision of the lung ...
However this places the lungs at increased risk from separate lung injury patterns caused by accidental forced over-inflation ( ... the lungs open, causing air to enter the lungs to inflate under a gentle vacuum. However, when using a manual resuscitator, as ... so any regurgitation is less likely to enter the lungs, and so that forced inflation pressure can only go into the lungs and ... lung injury from over-stretching (called volutrauma); and/or (3) lung injury from over-pressurization (called barotrauma). ...
... tumors are also found in the lungs.. Other sites / metastases[edit]. Metastasis of carcinoid can lead to carcinoid ... Lung[edit]. Main article: Typical lung carcinoid tumor. ... Non-small-cell lung carcinoma. *Squamous-cell carcinoma. * ...
Lung cancer[edit]. Main article: Lung cancer. Some of these cancers have environmental causes such as smoking. When a tobacco ... The lungs are the largest organs in the lower respiratory tract. The lungs are suspended within the pleural cavity of the ... The lungs are divided into different lobes. The right lung is larger in size than the left, because of the heart's being ... The right lung has three lobes - upper, middle, and lower (or superior, middle and inferior), and the left lung has two - upper ...
... involving a reduced lung volume.[26] Other associated lung conditions include pneumonitis, chronic diffuse interstitial lung ... Lungs. Inflammation of the pleurae known as pleurisy can rarely give rise to shrinking lung syndrome.[25] SLE can cause ... Males tend to have more seizures, kidney disease, serositis (inflammation of tissues lining the lungs and heart), skin problems ... Serositis: Pleurisy (inflammation of the membrane around the lungs) or pericarditis (inflammation of the membrane around the ...
Lungs[edit]. Ranitidine and other histamine H2 receptor antagonists may increase the risk of pneumonia in hospitalized patients ...
"Guideline for Lung Scintigraphy" (PDF) (3.0 ed.). Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure. 7 February 2004.. ... The most common indication for lung scintigraphy is to diagnose pulmonary embolism, e.g. with a ventilation/perfusion scan and ... may be appropriate for excluding PE in pregnancy.[3] Less common indications include evaluation of lung transplantation, ...
... can be used for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma, that is, the internals of the lungs. ... Lungs[edit]. High-resolution computed tomographs of a normal thorax, taken in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes, ... This ranges from arteries serving the brain to those bringing blood to the lungs, kidneys, arms and legs. An example of this ... Bronchial wall thickening can be seen on lung CTs, and generally (but not always) implies inflammation of the bronchi.[25] ...
The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or ... Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on ... In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.[1] Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in ... If the volume of the lungs were to be instantaneously doubled at the beginning of inhalation, the air pressure inside the lungs ...
After undergoing tests a small malignant lesion was found in his right lung.[40] He was diagnosed with lung cancer in October ... "Tony Greig diagnosed with lung cancer". Wisden India. 20 October 2012.. *^ a b Hills, Brendan (29 December 2012). "Tony Greig ... Lung cancer and death[edit]. Greig began to have severe bouts of coughing in May 2012; initially bronchitis was diagnosed.[40] ... A long-term sufferer from epilepsy, he was diagnosed with lung cancer in October 2012.[7] Greig died in Sydney, on 29 December ...
Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung ... The left lung (left) and right lung (right). The lobes of the lungs can be seen, and the central root of the lung is also ... These fixed size lungs are called "circulatory lungs", as distinct from the "bellows-type lungs" found in most other animals.[ ... Some types of chronic lung diseases are classified as restrictive lung disease, because of a restriction in the amount of lung ...
Kee Lung-class destroyers[edit]. The first two ships, ex-Scott and ex-Callaghan, arrived at Su-ao, a military port in eastern ... Present name: Kee Lung (基隆, DDG-1801); was to be Chi Teh (紀德); commissioned on 17 December 2005 ... Following the tradition of ship class naming, ROCN has referred these vessels as Kee Lung-class destroyers. The remaining two ... Sold to Taiwan, 30 May 2003; commissioned as ROCS Kee Lung (DDG-1801) ...
Lungs[edit]. Lung involvement is typically in the form of hemoptysis, pleuritis, cough, or fever, and in severe cases can be ... pulmonary artery develops an aneurysm which ruptures causing severe vascular collapse and death from bleeding in the lungs.[4] ...
β-Carotene and lung cancer in smokers[edit]. Chronic high doses of β-carotene supplementation increases the probability of lung ... Increases in lung cancer may be due to the tendency of β-carotene to oxidize,[29] and may hasten oxidation more than other food ... Russel, R.M. (2002). "Beta-carotene and lung cancer". Pure Appl. Chem. 74 (8): 1461-1467. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.502.6550. doi: ... Tanvetyanon T, Bepler G (July 2008). "Beta-carotene in multivitamins and the possible risk of lung cancer among smokers versus ...
Lungs[edit]. Unlike diethyl ether, methoxyflurane is a significant respiratory depressant. In dogs, methoxyflurane causes a ...
The most common indication for lung scintigraphy is to diagnose pulmonary embolism, e.g. with a ventilation/perfusion scan. ... Less common indications include evaluation of lung transplantation, preoperative evaluation, evaluation of right-to-left shunts ... Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure - Guideline for Lung Scintigraphy. Version 3.0, approved February 7, 2004 [1] ...
Lung cancer[edit]. Whether a patient is positive or negative for a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) will ... Somatic KRAS mutations are found at high rates in leukemias, colorectal cancer,[15] pancreatic cancer[16] and lung cancer.[17] ... However, the mutation of KRAS and EGFR are generally mutually exclusive.[29][30][31] Lung cancer patients who are positive for ... Riely GJ, Marks J, Pao W (April 2009). "KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer". Proceedings of the American Thoracic ...
Lung[edit]. In some kinds of lung cancer (with squamous-cell histology) sorafenib administered in addition to paclitaxel and ... "Addition of Sorafenib May Be Detrimental in Some Lung Cancer Patients". login.medscape.com.. ...
A focal lung pneumatosis, is a solitary volume of air in the lung that is larger than alveoli. A focal lung pneumatosis can be ... CLE affects the upper lung lobes more than the lower lobes, and the left lung more often than the right lung.[21] CLE is ... Compensatory emphysema, is overinflation of part of a lung in response to either removal by surgery of another part of the lung ... Left lung completely affected by bullae shown in contrast to a normal lung on the right. ...
Advanced non-smallcellular lung carcinoma[edit]. Mutations in the kinase domain of the EGFR are observed with approximately 2 ... Clinical trial number NCT00111839 for "Effects of Matuzumab in Combination With Pemetrexed for the Treatment of Advanced Lung ... lung,[3] esophageal and stomach cancer[4] early in the 2000s. In August 2007, Merck Serono announced that the preliminary ... to 25% of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Some studies have shown a negative correlation between the ...
"Lung Cancer Risk Rises in the Presence of HPV Antibodies". Lung Cancer Risk Rises in the Presence of HPV Antibodies. Archived ... Klein F, Amin Kotb WF, Petersen I (July 2009). "Incidence of human papillomavirus in lung cancer". Lung Cancer. 65 (1): 13-8. ... looking for HPV among 1,633 lung cancer patients and 2,729 people without the lung disease found that people with lung cancer ... "Lung Cancer Patients More Likely to Have High-Risk Human Papillomavirus". NPIN. Archived from the original on 27 July 2012.. ...
Principal cancer types under study: breast, prostate, blood (leukemia, lymphoma); melanoma; liver; ovarian and cervical; lung; ...
a b c d Heinrich D. Becker, M. F. (2005). Bronchoscopic Biopsy of Peripheral Lung Lesions Under Electromagnetic Guidance. ... "Homepage - American Lung Association". lungusa.org.. *^ US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of ... "Electromagnetic navigation diagnostic bronchoscopy for small peripheral lung lesions". ersjournals.com.. *^ "IEEE Xplore - Sign ... Lung cancer diagnosed in the early stages yields an 88% survival rate at ten years versus 16% at five years when found in the ...
The term zàng (臟) refers to the five entities considered to be yin in nature-Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lung, Kidney-, while fǔ (腑) ... Metal (金) = Lung (肺, pinyin: feì) and Large Intestine (大腸, pinyin: dàcháng) ... In China he Introduced hygiene practised in India.[50] Formulae for lung diseases were imported from India during the Tang ... "Liver fire rushes upwards and scorches the Lung, injuring the blood vessels and giving rise to reckless pouring of blood from ...
Lower RT/lung disease. (including LRTIs). Bronchial/. obstructive. acute. Acute bronchitis. chronic. COPD Chronic bronchitis. ... lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. Caplan's syndrome. Chalicosis. ... If there is lung collapse, it is imperative the affected individual lies on the side of the collapse, although painful, this ... Hatzitolios A, Ntaios G (2007). "Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum May Be Associated with Both Anorexia Nervosa and Obesity". Lung ...
... and the higher lung expansion of rib cage breathing is referred to as 'shallow'. The actual volume of air taken into the lungs ... Due to the lung expansion being lower (inferior) on the body as opposed to higher up (superior), it is referred to as 'deep' ... Air enters the lungs and the chest rises and the belly expands during this type of breathing. Diaphragmatic breathing is also ... Lung. 189: 104-106. doi:10.1007/s00408-011-9281-8. PMID 21318637. "Confused About Diaphragmatic Breathing?". "Better Breathing ...
Chest is opened to expose the diseased heart and lung to be removed (A). Heart and lung function is taken over by a heart-lung ... Heart-lung transplantation is the replacement of the native diseased heart and lungs by transplant of donor heart and lungs. ... Turlock, Elbert P. Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation: Overview of Results. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care ... lung is removed (C). Donor heart and lung are placed in the patients the chest cavity (D). They are sutured to their ...
Lung poly(A)-containing mRNA, isolated by oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography, was translated in cell-free systems and the ... Glucocorticoid and developmental regulation of uteroglobin synthesis in rabbit lung. M Lombardero, A Nieto ... Glucocorticoid and developmental regulation of uteroglobin synthesis in rabbit lung Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... During the late stages of rabbit development, both the synthesis of lung uteroglobin and the translatable levels of its mRNA ...
VALUE OF CULTURE OF BIOPSY MATERIAL IN DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL-INFECTIONS IN HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS. TRANSPLANTATION ... VALUE OF CULTURE OF BIOPSY MATERIAL IN DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL-INFECTIONS IN HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS ... VALUE OF CULTURE OF BIOPSY MATERIAL IN DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL-INFECTIONS IN HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS. ...
N2 - We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal ... AB - We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal ... Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess following heart-lung transplantation. Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Norihisa Yamamoto, ... We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal ...
Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. Breathing in particles (asbestosis, ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Also in Spanish * Lung Function Tests (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish ... Interstitial lung disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge (Medical ... Interstitial Lung Disease (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * Interstitial Lung Disease (National Jewish ...
... product use associated lung injury (EVALI). Learn CDCs recommendations, and the latest outbreak information. ... Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with E-cigarette Use, or Vapingplus icon*For Healthcare Providers ... Vitamin E acetate has been found in product samples tested by FDA and state laboratories and in patient lung fluid samples ... As of February 18, 2020, a total of 2,807 hospitalized e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) cases ...
If you arent sure which type of lung cancer you have, ask your doctor so you can get the right information. ... There are three main types of lung cancer. Knowing which type you have is important because it affects your treatment options ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. About 85% of lung cancers are non ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor. Fewer than 5% of lung cancers are lung carcinoid tumors. They are also sometimes called lung ...
... is a lung disease that makes breathing difficult for millions of Americans. There is no cure for asthma, but the good ... What is LUNG FORCE?. LUNG FORCE unites women and their loved ones across the country to stand together in the fight against ... American Lung Association , 1-800-LUNGUSA (1-800-586-4872)1-800-LUNGUSA , Submit A Question Live Chat ... Asthma is a lung disease that makes breathing difficult for millions of Americans. There is no cure for asthma, but the good ...
Lung Foundation Australia is working to improve lung health and reduce the impact of lung disease for all Australians. * ... New report sparks call to make lung cancer a fair fight. View Making Lung Cancer A Fair Fight: A Blueprint for Reform, here. ... Anyone can get lung disease. It affects 1 in 4 Australians. Take 2 minutes to check your lungs. ... Lung Foundation Australia is aware of concerns about industry partner funding potentially enabling undue influence. Lung ...
Ingredient in your toothpaste may combat severe lung disease. Contact(s): Chris Waters Microbiology and Molecular Genetics ... Tobramycin is currently the most widely used treatment for CF, but it typically doesnt clear the lungs of infection, Waters ... Just brushing your teeth with toothpaste that has triclosan wont help to treat lung infections though, Maiden said. ... Patients typically inhale the drug, yet find themselves chronically infected their whole lives, eventually needing a lung ...
Discover what to expect before, after, and during a lung transplant. ... A lung transplant removes a diseased lung and replaces it with a healthy one. ... A lung transplant removes a persons diseased lung and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy lung comes from a donor who ... Heart-lung transplant - slideshow (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Lung transplant - slideshow (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
The Taskforce for lung health publishes 5 year plan. See the Taskforce for Lung Healths 5 year plan that was published at the ... The number of attendances at A&E departments in England for lung illnesses - including pneumonia, flu, COPD &... ... Proactively targeting people at higher risk of developing lung cancer is identifying the disease much earlier, with... ... Nearly a million people a year now attend A and E for lung disease ...
The initial results of an ongoing study show that a liquid biopsy has advantages over a tissue biopsy for people with lung ... Treatment for Lung Cancer Every person who comes to Memorial Sloan Kettering for lung cancer treatment receives compassionate, ... They all had advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer that either had no known mutation that could be targeted with a drug or ... For people with lung cancer, a blood test known as a liquid biopsy can be a useful tool for guiding treatment decisions, ...
... with release of a new report showing casual pot smokers might even have stronger lungs... ... Restrictive lung disease: Types, causes, and treatment Restrictive lung disease is a class of lung disease that prevents the ... Lung cancer signs even in "healthy" smokers Researchers have found that even healthy smokers who have no signs of lung cancer ... Researchers say that there is good evidence that occasional marijuana use can cause an increase in lung airflow rates and lung ...
Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung ... The left lung (left) and right lung (right). The lobes of the lungs can be seen, and the central root of the lung is also ... These fixed size lungs are called "circulatory lungs", as distinct from the "bellows-type lungs" found in most other animals.[ ... Some types of chronic lung diseases are classified as restrictive lung disease, because of a restriction in the amount of lung ...
The most important thing you can do to lower your lung cancer risk is to quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke. ... Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and the second most common cancer among both men and women in the United ... Learn what lung cancer is, what the symptoms are, how to lower your risk, and who should be screened for lung cancer. ... Lung cancer is the second most common cancer among both men and women in the United States. The Data Visualizations Tool ...
... : Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) adjusted for age, sex, and race by usual industry, U.S. residents age 15 and ... Lung cancer: Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) adjusted for age, sex, and race by NORA industrial sector, U.S. residents age ... Lung cancer: Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) adjusted for age, sex, and race by usual occupation, U.S. residents age 15 and ...
Find out about lung transplants, including when one is needed, the different types of transplant, what the procedure involves ... When a lung transplant is needed. A lung transplant will often be recommended if:. *a person has advanced lung disease that ... a heart-lung transplant - where the heart and both lungs are removed and replaced with a donated heart and lungs; this is often ... a single lung transplant - where a single damaged lung is removed from the recipient and replaced with a lung from the donor; ...
TYPES OF LUNG CANCER A cancer arising in the 20% epithelial tissue of the 80% skin or of the lining of Non-small cell lung ... Lung cancer (Animated) * 1. INTRODUCTIONWhy What How * 2. CancerWHAT IS LUNG CANCER (Bronchogenic) Or Carcinoma Genetic damage ... Central area of the lung. * 19. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Large Cell Carcinoma (LCC) largest The cells are generally highly ... LUNG CANCER SPREADSpread of the tumour can occur by the lymphatic vessels to lymphnodes located within the lung, mediastinum ...
Whos paying the cost of lung transplants for work-related lung diseases?. ... Thirty four of the lung transplants (72%) were performed since 2008. The medical costs for a bilateral lung transplant are ... Branhams lungs were hardened by coal mine dust. It was painful to listen yet the perfect punctuation for a powerful story. ... For more than 50 years, he diagnosed and treated coal miners with work-related lung disease, first at the then Miners Memorial ...
Acute Lung Injury Treatment Market is expected to grow healthy rate in near future; Acute lung injury is observed as a part of ... Acute Lung Injury Treatment Market report presents a detailed overview of the present scope of growth for companies operating; ... systemic inflammatory process wherein the lung manifests symptoms similar to other tissues such as destruction in capillary ... Global Acute Lung Injury Treatment Market: Insight into Key Aspects. Acute lung injury is a part of the systemic inflammatory ...
Farmers Lung. Br Med J 1965; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5453.59 (Published 10 July 1965) Cite this as: Br Med J 1965 ...
... is a disease in which the cells of the lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors. It is the leading cause of death from ... Types of lung cancer. There are two kinds of lung cancers, primary and secondary. Primary lung cancer starts in the lung itself ... Primary lung cancer (also called adenocarcinoma) starts in the lung itself. Primary lung cancer is divided into small cell lung ... There are two kinds of lung cancer, primary and secondary. Primary lung cancer starts in the lungs. Secondary lung cancer ...
Learn the surprising signs that you could be dealing with lung cancer. Coughing and chest pain are the better-known ones, but ... Is It Lung Cancer?. In its early stages, lung cancer doesnt typically have symptoms you can see or feel. Later, it often ... Someone with lung cancer is more likely to get a blood clot in their legs or arms (called deep vein thrombosis) and lungs ( ... Its rare for lung cancer to be the cause of gynecomastia, but its possible. Large-cell lung cancer can disrupt your hormone ...
The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung ... The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung ...
  • Major blood vessels are severed, and the heart is removed (B). Bronchus and blood vessels leading to the lung are severed, and the lung is removed (C). Donor heart and lung are placed in the patient's the chest cavity (D). They are sutured to their appropriate connections, and the heart is restarted before the patient is taken off the heart-lung machine (E). (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Once completed, the cardiac chambers are deaired as the organs fill with the patient's blood that is diverted away from the heart and lung machine. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Lung cancer is a disease in which the cells of the lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some lung tumors make hormone-like chemicals. (webmd.com)
  • Chong is testing more than 1,000 drugs to find ones that could be used in lung cancer patients whose tumors have become resistant to current treatments. (cancer.org)
  • 5. Lung Cancer Treatment OptionsSurgery: Some patients have small tumors that can beremoved surgically, but they may suffer from othermedical problems that prevent them from being surgicalcandidates or they may be opposed to surgery. (slideshare.net)
  • Lung tumors are a frequently treated disease at our center. (slideshare.net)
  • If the cells lose their ability to control division, excess growth takes place, tumors form, and lung cancer emerges. (healthcentral.com)
  • present in their paper " Modeling airflow using subject-specific 4DCT-based deformable volumetric lung models " a subject-specific modeling of lung tumors and adjacent tissues motions based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (hindawi.com)
  • Massachusetts General Hospital investigators say a microchip-based device they developed -- called the CTC chip -- can detect and analyze tumor cells in the bloodstream to determine the genetic signature of lung tumors. (redorbit.com)
  • Acute lung injury, a common condition characterized by acute severe hypoxia without evidence of hydrostatic pulmonary edema, remains a key source of mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. (tmrresearch.com)
  • In humans each lung is encased in a thin membranous sac called the pleura , and each is connected with the trachea (windpipe) by its main bronchus (large air passageway) and with the heart by the pulmonary arteries. (britannica.com)
  • In the inner side of each lung, about two-thirds of the distance from its base to its apex, is the hilum , the point at which the bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter the lung. (britannica.com)
  • Pulmonary function was assessed according to the American Thoracic Society's (ATS) guidelines for baseline lung function parameters: peak expiratory flow (PEF) and tidal volume (TV) were measured in addition to FVC, FEV1, and forced expiratory flow (FEF25%-75%) - a measure taken between the start and finish of FVC. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • They can sometimes cause serious lung infections if you have mold allergies, a lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a weak immune system -- your body's defense against germs. (webmd.com)
  • This test can help diagnose or rule out a pulmonary embolism, or a blood clot in your lung. (nih.gov)
  • A person with pulmonary edema experiences difficulty in breathing, with deep gurgling rattles in the throat, his skin turns blue, and, because he is too weak to clear the fluids, he may actually drown in the lung secretions. (britannica.com)
  • Comparing to conventional chest radiography, advanced lung imaging modalities, for example, low-dose helical CT, cone-beam CT, and PET (positron emission tomography), together with the progress of image analysis techniques provide the means for detecting smaller pulmonary nodules and at earlier stages. (hindawi.com)
  • These developments help in diagnosing other diseases and conditions, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary embolism, too. (hindawi.com)
  • The new lung is then attached to the recipient by way of three anastomosis or connections, one for the bronchus, one for the pulmonary artery and one for the pulmonary veins. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term used to describe progressive lung diseases, including emphysema, chronic bronchitis and non-reversible asthma. (memorialhermann.org)
  • Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) , formerly known as primary pulmonary artery hypertension, is a rare lung disorder characterized by high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries (arteries that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs). (memorialhermann.org)
  • In less than four years, Crum has seen 200 miners diagnosed with a severe form of black lung disease, called pulmonary massive fibrosis. (yahoo.com)
  • A federal advisory panel backed the approval of a proposed lung drug that would be marketed by Forest Laboratories Inc. to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (wsj.com)
  • Review screening of pulmonary nodules to maximize early detection and minimize over-diagnosis of lung cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Full-time faculty of the Division of Pulmonary Medicine , led by Drs. Tammy Clark Ojo and Kevin Chan, work in partnership with Scleroderma Program faculty in evaluating and treating scleroderma lung disease. (umich.edu)
  • Lung cancer refers to the malignancies that originate in the airways or pulmonary parenchyma. (bartleby.com)
  • National Jewish investigators use several animal models to study aspects of the development and resolution of pulmonary fibrosis based on well-characterized experimental endpoints that include lung mechanics, histology, fluorescence imaging and biochemical assays. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Part II then establishes a frame of scientific reference by reviewing the morphology and cytology of lung development and the physiology of pulmonary surfactant. (elsevier.com)
  • The lungs are surrounded by the pulmonary pleurae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scanning electron micrograph of the adult human lung showing alveolar duct with alveoli. (britannica.com)
  • Lung congestion , distention of blood vessels in the lungs and filling of the alveoli with blood as a result of an infection, high blood pressure , or cardiac insufficiencies ( i.e. , inability of the heart to function adequately). (britannica.com)
  • After passing through the trachea (windpipe), the air travels into the lungs and through the tracheobronchial system, which consists of the bronchi (a system of branching airway tubes that become smaller as they reach deeper into the lung), the bronchioles (the smallest of the bronchi) and the alveoli (balloon-like sacs located at the end of the bronchi). (healthcentral.com)
  • There are about 600 million alveoli in your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • The small bubble shapes of the alveoli give your lungs a surprising amount of surface area - equivalent to the size of a tennis court. (healthline.com)
  • The bronchial tree running through your lungs is made up of the windpipe, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. (healthline.com)
  • The carbon dioxide is breathed out of the lungs and alveoli through your mouth and nose. (healthline.com)
  • The paper " Quantification of lung damage in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema " by A. Muñoz-Barrutia et al. (hindawi.com)
  • The rising level of pollutants in the air emitted from factories, vehicles and other sources damage the lung tissues, thereby increasing the risk of lung cancer. (amazonaws.com)
  • Chemical damage to the lung tissues can cause popcorn lung, as can a few other factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The vessel-related constraint is integrated into the registration to correct mismatches of small lung vessels and their surrounding tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancer cells within the lungs may grow into surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. (scdhec.gov)
  • The lungs stretch from close to the backbone in the rib cage to the front of the chest and downwards from the lower part of the trachea to the diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea and major bronchi of the human lungs. (britannica.com)
  • It then travels down the throat through the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) and goes into the lungs through tubes called mainstem bronchi. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The lungs begin at the bottom of your trachea (windpipe). (healthline.com)
  • The trachea is a tube that carries the air in and out of your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Each lung has a tube called a bronchus that connects to the trachea. (healthline.com)
  • When the animal exhales, nearly all of the air flows towards the front of the lung and out of the trachea in a net unidirectional flow. (newswise.com)
  • At the beginning of inhalation, air enters through the trachea and flows towards the back of the lung. (newswise.com)
  • The medial surfaces of the lungs face towards the centre of the chest, and lie against the heart, great vessels, and the carina where the trachea divides into the two main bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy and radiation are the main treatment options for people with small cell lung cancer. (cancercare.org)
  • Treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapies and immunotherapy. (cancercare.org)
  • The main treatment s for lung cancer are surgery , chemotherapy , and radiation . (everything2.com)
  • Small -cell carcinoma responds better to chemotherapy than do other types of lung cancer. (everything2.com)
  • Small-cell lung cancer is usually treated using chemotherapy, while non small-cell lung cancer is often treated using surgery. (medic8.com)
  • The news is based on a trial that compared a combination therapy with two chemotherapy drugs against single-drug therapy for patients aged over 70 with advanced lung cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Treatments for cancer, including some types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can cause lung problems. (cancer.ca)
  • Some chemotherapy drugs that can damage the heart can also contribute to lung problems, especially if they are given in combination with a drug that is known to cause lung damage or with radiation therapy. (cancer.ca)
  • al.com , "America's military accomplished an amazing feat 100 years ago -- driving across country," 7 July 2019 Medical researchers have reported that sildenafil can boost performance in racehorses, which are prone to lung bleeding and edema after races. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Minyvonne Burke, NBC News , "1 patient died, 5 others infected from mold in operating room of Seattle Children's hospital," 4 July 2019 More: Doctors removed 7 pieces of popcorn from her son's lungs . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Amy Haneline, USA TODAY , "Hot dogs cut wrong are the 'perfect size to get lodged into a child's throat'," 3 July 2019 Robertson's lung -busting sprints, regular as clockwork assists and aggy battles with world superstars on his wing seemed almost like a personal affront to Moreno. (merriam-webster.com)
  • SI.com , "Farewell Alberto Moreno: The Last Remnant of Liverpool's Banter Era," 2 July 2019 Staph infections are caused by germs commonly found on the skin or in the nose and can turn deadly if spread to the bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs or heart, according to the Mayo Clinic. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Eric Todisco, PEOPLE.com , "12 Drug-Resistant Staph Infection Cases Confirmed in Pittsburgh Hospital - Including 6 Babies," 2 July 2019 In Denver, people in the lower-income neighborhoods of Globeville, Elyria and Swansea have suffered from asthma, cancer and heart- lung ailments - possibly related to air pollution. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Bruce Finley, The Denver Post , "Suncor oil refinery operators hit by Colorado health department for emitting toxic gas," 1 July 2019 According to the lawsuit, Barbee suffered spine and rib fractures, a traumatic brain injury, lung contusions and several other physical and cognitive injuries from the crash. (merriam-webster.com)
  • However, The American Lung Association's "State of Lung Cancer" 2019 report finds that the burden of lung cancer varies by state. (wamc.org)
  • See some of the current topics American Lung Association funded researchers are investigating. (lung.org)
  • Researchers say that there is good evidence that occasional marijuana use can cause an increase in lung airflow rates and lung volume. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The American Cancer Society employs a staff of full-time researchers who relentlessly pursue the answers that help us better understand cancer, including lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Researchers in the Society's Epidemiology Research Program continue to make new discoveries related to lung cancer by analyzing data on an ongoing basis from Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which the Society began in 1982. (cancer.org)
  • Between April 2006 and December 2009 researchers recruited lung cancer patients from 61 medical centres (university hospitals, cancer centres and community hospitals) in France. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers' theory was that toenail clippings would strongly predict the risk of lung cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
  • According to the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) the researchers identified a large region on human chromosome 6 that conferred greater lung cancer risk in families with many affected individuals. (bartleby.com)
  • Researchers conducted fine-mapping of the suspect region of chromosome 6 in members of families in which five or more individuals over multiple generations were diagnosed with lung cancer. (bartleby.com)
  • The researchers took CT scans of the entire lung labyrinth and used two different supercomputers to simulate airflow patterns at the highest resolution. (newswise.com)
  • The healthy lung comes from a donor who has died. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A donor is usually a person who's died, but in rare cases a section of lung can be taken from a living donor. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Surgery outcomes were compared with 116 patients who received conventional donor lungs. (latimes.com)
  • In some situations, the lungs may be transplanted along with a donor heart. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Even with the best possible match between you and the donor, your immune system will try to attack and reject your new lung or lungs. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most patients wait an average of 3 to 6 months for a donor lung, although there are some factors that may prolong the time until a donor lung becomes available. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The native diseased lung or lungs are removed from the recipient while the donor lung is being recovered. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The donor lung (or allograft) is placed in the chest in the normal anatomic position. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • How long should ground glass nodules of the lung be monitored and what are predictors of their growth? (medscape.com)
  • Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment with immunosuppressive medication is begun to prevent rejection of the transplanted lung by the patient's immune system. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Lung cancer is often found on an X-ray or CT scan being done for another reason. (familydoctor.org)
  • A lung VQ scan is an imaging test that uses a ventilation (V) scan to measure air flow in your lungs and a perfusion (Q) scan to see where blood flows in your lungs. (nih.gov)
  • A VQ scan also can detect regional differences in lung blood flow and air distribution. (nih.gov)
  • For each scan, you will need to lie very still on a table as the table moves under the scanner and pictures are taken of your lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Now the Dr. has ordered a PET scan for tomorrow (the first ct was 3 wks ago)--I am a non smoker and have never lived with a smoker, should lung cancer be a concern for me? (medhelp.org)
  • While the PET scan may be helpful, in the absence of any risk factors for lung cancer, it would also be reasonable to simply do surveillance images after 6 months or so. (medhelp.org)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest is a common test used to check for lung metastases. (cancer.ca)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lungs or the whole body may be done. (cancer.ca)
  • A lung scan is an imaging test to look at your lungs and help diagnose certain lung problems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A lung scan may also be used to see how well treatment is working. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A lung scan is a type of nuclear imaging test. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A lung scan can be a ventilation scan or a perfusion scan. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A ventilation scan looks at how air moves in and out of your lungs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A perfusion scan looks at how blood is flowing within your lungs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In a ventilation scan, the tracer will fill the lungs unless you have an area where the air cannot move. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • But your healthcare provider may also use the scan to help diagnose other lung conditions. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Why might I need a lung scan? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • You may also have a lung scan before lung surgery. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to recommend a lung scan. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are the risks of a lung scan? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Certain things can make a lung scan less accurate. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • How do I prepare for a lung scan? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Your doctor has suggested you/your child have a VQ lung scan as part of the evaluation at National Jewish Health. (nationaljewish.org)
  • A VQ scan is a test that shows how the air goes into the lungs. (nationaljewish.org)
  • In severe cases of hypothermia, patient body temperature can be corrected by extracorporeal circulation with the heart-lung machine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Children's Hospital doctors didn't know it at the time, but they would be among the first to make the connection between vaping and an outbreak of severe lung injuries in teens that within weeks would spread to more than 30 states and turn up about 400 similar cases. (usatoday.com)
  • Farmworkers and others who use them are more likely to get lung problems like asthma and COPD. (webmd.com)
  • How Does COPD Affect the Lungs? (rxlist.com)
  • The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical study into high-frequency chest wall oscillation vests - assessing their short-term impact on standard measures of lung function before and during use - challenges the view that these devices work through airflow bias in the lungs, the process responsible for mucus movement when breathing. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • None of the vest groups showed statistically significant increased airflow in the lungs. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • It has been claimed that one of the operating principles of HFCWO vests is creating 'airflow bias' in the lungs, but valid clinical evidence supporting that claim is lacking," he added. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Based on the concept of increased cephalad airflow bias in the lungs during use of HFCWO devices, one might expect that the expiratory peak flow [PEF] should be increased," the study noted. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Different types of airflow patterns in animal lungs. (newswise.com)
  • Monitor lizards (below) have a net-unidirectional airflow pattern where air moves to-and-fro, but more air moves forward or backward over the whole ventilatory cycle in each parts of the lung. (newswise.com)
  • In 2014 , Cieri and colleagues analyzed one section of the lung that had primarily one-way airflow. (newswise.com)
  • HOW do you investigate airflow inside a living lung? (newscientist.com)
  • When the lungs are formed the fetus is held in the fluid -filled amniotic sac and so they do not function to breathe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radioactive particles in radon damage your lungs when you breathe them in or swallow them. (webmd.com)
  • This can trigger or worsen asthma and other lung and heart issues if you breathe it. (webmd.com)
  • He needed 17 tubes to help remove fluid buildup and inflate his lungs as well as a tracheotomy to help him breathe and tubes for feeding. (nypost.com)
  • To breathe new life into your lung cancer research, ATCC provides numerous lung cancer cell lines, human primary cells, and h-TERT-immortalized cell lines. (atcc.org)
  • Luckily, there are things you can do at home to improve your lung function, and therefore your ability to breathe. (wikihow.com)
  • Other than reducing exposure to coal dust, treatment options for black lung are limited and generally focused on helping the patient breathe. (nolo.com)
  • Many, including Robinson, struggle to breathe as their lungs are slowly stifled by tiny dust and particles trapped there. (yahoo.com)
  • Your lungs are specially designed to exchange these gases every time you breathe in and out. (healthline.com)
  • While you breathe in the gas, images will be taken to show the air going into the lungs. (nationaljewish.org)
  • What is popcorn lung? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Popcorn lung is a rare medical condition that damages the bronchioles, the lung's smallest airways. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Popcorn lung gets its name from a chemical called diacetyl, which was once commonly used to give food products, such as popcorn, a rich, buttery flavor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Popcorn lung is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, or constrictive bronchiolitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Besides diacetyl, there are a variety of other chemicals that can cause popcorn lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although some hereditary conditions can cause popcorn lung, it is not considered an inheritable disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Breathing in harmful chemicals, particles, or toxins can lead to popcorn lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This reaction can also lead to popcorn lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Does E-cigarette use cause popcorn lung? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The chemicals found in e-cigarette liquid, known as "e-juice," may be a potential cause of popcorn lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the American Lung Association , using electronic cigarettes or vaping, particularly the flavored varieties, can cause popcorn lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A Centennial man believed to be the only consumer to develop "popcorn lung" from regular servings of microwave popcorn filed a lawsuit today claiming injury from the artificial butter flavoring that previosly sickened only popcorn factory workers. (denverpost.com)
  • Watson's case of "popcorn lung" and his two-bags-a-day diet made national news last year when doctors at National Jewish Hospital diagnosed him with the rare lung condition that has been linked to the flavor chemical diacetyl. (denverpost.com)
  • How much do you know about lung cancer screening? (cdc.gov)
  • Percac-Lima hopes her study will reveal a way to prevent the development of lung cancer screening disparities. (cancer.org)
  • Several trials are evaluating whether risk can be used to to determine eligibility for lung cancer screening. (medscape.com)
  • Lung cancer screening. (nih.gov)
  • The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. (nih.gov)
  • Lung Cancer Screening: The Balance between Harm and Benefit. (nih.gov)
  • The National Lung Cancer Screening Trials showed that low-dose CT scans save lives, reducing lung cancer mortality by 20 percent," said Lana Schumacher, MD, a thoracic surgical oncologist and Co-Director at the Esophageal and Thoracic Institute at Allegheny Health Network. (prweb.com)
  • Talk to your doctor about lung cancer screening and the possible benefits and harms. (scdhec.gov)
  • Lung cancer screening is not a substitute for quitting smoking. (scdhec.gov)
  • Farmer's lung is another type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (webmd.com)
  • The conclusions of this analysis are that RGS17 plays a major role in lung cancer susceptibility, and individuals who carry the higher-risk version of this gene have an increased susceptibility to lung cancer when exposed to environmental risk factors, such as smoking. (bartleby.com)
  • Shortness of breath affects the breathing passages and the lungs, the heart, or blood vessels. (medicinenet.com)
  • A person with this condition may feel chest pain on the side of the collapsed lung and shortness of breath. (theacpa.org)
  • If your GP reasons that you may have lung cancer they will refer you for an urgent chest X-ray. (medic8.com)
  • Doctors use chest x-ray to look for any lung tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • It provides more detailed images of lung tumours than a chest x-ray, including the size and location of the tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Lung damage can cause the tiny air sacs in the lungs to break. (cancer.ca)
  • Air is drawn into the lungs when the diaphragm (the muscular portion between the abdomen and the chest) and the intercostal muscles contract, expanding the chest cavity and lowering the pressure between the lungs and chest wall as well as within the lungs. (britannica.com)
  • These include the ribs around the lungs and the dome-shaped diaphragm muscle below them. (healthline.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer is grouped by itself and the other three types - adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are collectively referred to as Non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. (healthcentral.com)
  • It results in a thick mucus in the lungs, which becomes a magnet for bacteria. (msu.edu)
  • Faron Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. is at present engaged in the development of pharmacological treatments for acute lung injury with the help of a consortium consisting European Commission, Traumakine program (University College London Hospital (UCLH) and University of Torino and University of Turku). (tmrresearch.com)
  • This initiative has the potential to result in new life-saving lung cancer treatments. (cancer.org)
  • Read Cancer Care 's booklet titled, " Treatment Update: Lung Cancer " for more information on lung cancer treatments options. (cancercare.org)
  • There is currently no cure for IPF, or treatments that can remove the scarring from the lungs. (memorialhermann.org)
  • Which treatments are available for lung cancer? (medic8.com)
  • COEBURN, Va. (AP) - Former coal miner John Robinson's bills for black lung treatments run $4,000 a month, but the federal fund he depends on to help cover them is being drained of money because of inaction by Congress and the Trump administration. (yahoo.com)
  • Sometimes lung problems happen as a late effect of treatments for cancer during childhood. (cancer.ca)
  • Gives a crude estimate of lung function, reflecting larger airway function. (everything2.com)
  • 14. LUNG CANCER SPREADSpread of the tumour can occur by the lymphatic vessels to lymphnodes located within the lung, mediastinum and thorax.Most cancer cells that enter the bloodstream die.If spread by the blood stream, it can lead to deposits of tumour in theliver, opposite lung, bone and brain.The process of determining whether lung cancerhas spread beyond the original tumour is calledstaging. (slideshare.net)
  • Cancer can also spread to areas outside of the lung, such as the pleura and mediastinum . (cancer.ca)
  • Oxidative damage to the lung appears important in the pathophysiology of lung injury, and antioxidants may ameliorate the process [ 4,8 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Uncontrolled transmigration of PMNs into the interstitium of the lung and alveolar space is a pathologic hallmark of ALI/ARDS [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vitamin E acetate has been found in product samples tested by FDA and state laboratories and in patient lung fluid samples tested by CDC from geographically diverse states. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin E acetate has not been found in the lung fluid of people that do not have EVALI. (cdc.gov)
  • If they hear fluid around your lungs, they may suspect lung cancer. (familydoctor.org)
  • thoracentesis (samples fluid that has built up around the lungs). (familydoctor.org)
  • High levels might cause your lungs to fill with fluid. (webmd.com)
  • Stage 4 cancer also describes cancer that has caused an accumulation of fluid-filled cancer cells around the lungs or heart. (news-medical.net)
  • correlates fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function by image matching. (hindawi.com)
  • Your lungs make a fluid called surfactant to help them stay open. (healthline.com)