VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Spinal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, and originate from cells within the spinal structure or spread to the spine from other parts of the body (metastatic).
Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The first cervical vertebra.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
In anatomical terms, "tail" is not used as a medical definition to describe any part of the human body; it is however used in veterinary medicine to refer to the distal portion of the spine in animals possessing tails.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The last bone in the VERTEBRAL COLUMN in tailless primates considered to be a vestigial tail-bone consisting of three to five fused VERTEBRAE.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.
Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/4151)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. (2/4151)

OBJECTIVE: Degenerative intervertebral disc disease is common; however, the importance of genetic factors is unknown. This study sought to determine the extent of genetic influences on disc degeneration by classic twin study methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We compared MRI features of degenerative disc disease in the cervical and lumbar spine of 172 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic twins (mean age 51.7 and 54.4, respectively) who were unselected for back pain or disc disease. An overall score for disc degeneration was calculated as the sum of the grades for disc height, bulge, osteophytosis, and signal intensity at each level. A "severe disease" score (excluding minor grades) and an "extent of disease" score (number of levels affected) were also calculated. RESULTS: For the overall score, heritability was 74% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 64-81%) at the lumbar spine and 73% (95% CI 64-80%) at the cervical spine. For "severe disease," heritability was 64% and 79% at the lumbar and cervical spine, respectively, and for "extent of disease," heritability was 63% and 63%, respectively. These results were adjusted for age, weight, height, smoking, occupational manual work, and exercise. Examination of individual features revealed that disc height and bulge were highly heritable at both sites, and osteophytes were heritable in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an important genetic influence on variation in intervertebral disc degeneration. However, variation in disc signal is largely influenced by environmental factors shared by twins. The use of MRI scans to determine the phenotype in family and population studies should allow a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of the genes involved.  (+info)

Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. (3/4151)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated.  (+info)

Intraoperative ultrasonography evaluation of posterior vertebral wall displacement in thoracolumbar fractures. (4/4151)

Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) was used to evaluate the location and compressive effects of intraspinal fragments in thoracolumbar fractures and the efficacy of reduction maneuvers in patients operated on for isolated or attached intraspinal fragments or for global posterior wall disruption. Dynamic IOUS was used to evaluate the effects of traction and lordosis. Fifty-eight patients were evaluated using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound probe, including 27 treated by impaction, 19 by removal of apparently isolated fragments, and 12 by traction followed by lordosis for global posterior wall disruption. IOUS had limitations and problems caused by split fragments and residual pedicular attachments that can compromise intraoperative maneuvers. The risk of secondary displacement of isolated fragments treated by impaction was very high. In particular, the pinching effect produced by T-shaped fractures was commonly responsible for secondary displacement. IOUS evaluation of canal clearance after fragment removal was satisfactory, but did not provide quantitative data. IOUS was easier to perform and apparently more reliable than intraoperative myelography. The dynamic IOUS data suggest that, except for severely tilted fragments that are completely free or remain attached to a pedicle, residual discal attachments significantly influence the likelihood of successful reduction.  (+info)

Pathological fracture of a lumbar vertebra caused by rheumatoid arthritis--a case report. (5/4151)

We describe a case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with collapse of the L3 lumbar vertebra for which surgery was performed. The pathogenesis of lumbar lesions affected by RA is discussed and the literature reviewed.  (+info)

Multiple disc herniations in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. A case report. (6/4151)

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) tarda is a group of inherited dysplasias in which the spine and the epiphyses of long bones are affected from late childhood. A 19-year-old male was diagnosed as SED tarda. He had a thoracic and then lumbar disc herniations which were separated by a 4-year interval. Surgical excision was performed for each disc herniation. This is the first case report of multiple disc herniations in SED.  (+info)

Spondylolytic fractures. (7/4151)

A method is described whereby fractures of the neural arch similar to those in spondylolysis are produced experimentally. The forces, bending moments and displacements required to initiate the fractures are given; The mechanical aspects in the aetiology of spondylolysis are explained by a simplified two-dimensional force analysis.  (+info)

Extradural inflammation associated with annular tears: demonstration with gadolinium-enhanced lumbar spine MRI. (8/4151)

Annular tears are manifest on MRI as the high-intensity zone (HIZ) or as annular enhancement. Patients with annular tears may experience low back pain with radiation into the lower limb in the absence of nerve root compression. Inflammation of nerve roots from leak of degenerative nuclear material through full-thickness annular tears is a proposed mechanism for such leg pain. The aim of this study is to illustrate the appearance of extradural enhancement adjacent to annular tears in patients being investigated for low back pain with radiation into the lower limb(s). Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and axial T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained in eight patients being investigated for low back and leg pain. In all patients, the T1-weighted sequences were repeated following intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Annular tears were identified at 12 sites in eight patients. Extradural inflammation appeared as a region of intermediate signal intensity replacing the fat between the posterior disc margin and the theca, which enhanced following Gd-DTPA. The inflammatory change was always associated with an annular tear, and in four cases directly involved the nerve root. Enhancement of the nerve root was seen in two cases. The findings may be relevant in the diagnosis of chemical radiculopathy secondary to inflammation at the site of an annular leak from a degenerating disc.  (+info)

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Spondylolysis is a defect or stress fracture in the pars interarticularis, which is a part of the vertebra in the lower back (lumbar spine). This condition most commonly affects young athletes who participate in sports that involve repetitive hyperextension of the lower back, such as gymnastics, football, and dance. Spondylolysis can cause lower back pain and stiffness, and if left untreated, it may lead to spondylolisthesis, a condition where one vertebra slips forward over the one below it. In some cases, spondylolysis may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during an imaging test performed for another reason.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone in the lower portion of the human vertebral column, located between the lumbar spine and the coccyx (tailbone). It forms through the fusion of several vertebrae during fetal development. The sacrum's base articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra, while its apex connects with the coccyx.

The sacrum plays an essential role in supporting the spine and transmitting weight from the upper body to the pelvis and lower limbs. It also serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments. The sacral region is often a focus in medical and chiropractic treatments due to its importance in spinal stability, posture, and overall health.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Spinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors found within the spinal column, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can originate in the spine itself, called primary spinal neoplasms, or they can spread to the spine from other parts of the body, known as secondary or metastatic spinal neoplasms. Spinal neoplasms can cause various symptoms, such as back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis, depending on their location and size. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or minimize long-term complications and improve the patient's prognosis.

Spondylolisthesis is a medical condition that affects the spine, specifically the vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar region). It occurs when one vertebra slips forward and onto the vertebra below it. This slippage can lead to narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the nerves exiting the spine, causing pain and discomfort. The condition can be congenital, degenerative, or result from trauma or injury. Symptoms may include lower back pain, stiffness, and radiating pain down the legs. Treatment options range from physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

The lumbosacral region is the lower part of the back where the lumbar spine (five vertebrae in the lower back) connects with the sacrum (a triangular bone at the base of the spine). This region is subject to various conditions such as sprains, strains, herniated discs, and degenerative disorders that can cause pain and discomfort. It's also a common site for surgical intervention when non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The spinal canal is the bony, protective channel within the vertebral column that contains and houses the spinal cord. It extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the sacrum, where the spinal cord ends and forms the cauda equina. The spinal canal is formed by a series of vertebral bodies stacked on top of each other, intervertebral discs in between them, and the laminae and spinous processes that form the posterior elements of the vertebrae. The spinal canal provides protection to the spinal cord from external trauma and contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates around the cord, providing nutrients and cushioning. Any narrowing or compression of the spinal canal, known as spinal stenosis, can cause various neurological symptoms due to pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous structure found between the vertebrae of the spinal column in humans and other animals. It functions as a shock absorber, distributes mechanical stress during weight-bearing activities, and allows for varying degrees of mobility between adjacent vertebrae.

The disc is composed of two parts: the annulus fibrosus, which forms the tough, outer layer; and the nucleus pulposus, which is a gel-like substance in the center that contains proteoglycans and water. The combination of these components provides the disc with its unique ability to distribute forces and allow for movement.

The intervertebral discs are essential for the normal functioning of the spine, providing stability, flexibility, and protection to the spinal cord and nerves. However, they can also be subject to degeneration and injury, which may result in conditions such as herniated discs or degenerative disc disease.

Internal fixators are medical devices that are implanted into the body through surgery to stabilize and hold broken or fractured bones in the correct position while they heal. These devices can be made from various materials, such as metal (stainless steel or titanium) or bioabsorbable materials. Internal fixators can take many forms, including plates, screws, rods, nails, wires, or cages, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

The main goal of using internal fixators is to promote bone healing by maintaining accurate reduction and alignment of the fractured bones, allowing for early mobilization and rehabilitation. This can help reduce the risk of complications such as malunion, nonunion, or deformity. Internal fixators are typically removed once the bone has healed, although some bioabsorbable devices may not require a second surgery for removal.

It is important to note that while internal fixators provide stability and support for fractured bones, they do not replace the need for proper immobilization, protection, or rehabilitation during the healing process. Close follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is essential to ensure appropriate healing and address any potential complications.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Alendronate is a medication that falls under the class of bisphosphonates. It is commonly used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, as well as in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone.

Alendronate works by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue. By reducing the activity of osteoclasts, alendronate helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density, thereby reducing the risk of fractures.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and oral solutions, and is typically taken once a week for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully, as improper administration can reduce the drug's effectiveness or increase the risk of side effects. Common side effects of alendronate include gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, stomach pain, and nausea.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, which most often occurs in the thoracic or lumbar regions. The curvature can be "C" or "S" shaped and may also include rotation of the vertebrae. Mild scoliosis doesn't typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing and other bodily functions.

The exact cause of most scoliosis is unknown, but it may be related to genetic factors. It often develops in the pre-teen or teenage years, particularly in girls, and is more commonly found in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the curve, its location, and the age and expected growth of the individual. Mild cases may only require regular monitoring to ensure the curve doesn't worsen. More severe cases may require bracing or surgery to correct the curvature and prevent it from getting worse.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a specific type of osteoporosis that occurs in women after they have gone through menopause. It is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures. In this condition, the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during menopause accelerates bone loss, resulting in a decrease in bone density and quality, which can lead to fragility fractures, particularly in the hips, wrists, and spine.

It's important to note that while postmenopausal osteoporosis is more common in women, men can also develop osteoporosis due to other factors such as aging, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Vertebroplasty is a medical procedure used to treat spinal fractures, particularly those resulting from osteoporosis or cancer. The procedure involves injecting a type of bone cement called polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the damaged vertebra. This helps to stabilize the bone, reduce pain, and improve function.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the skin, and a hollow needle is guided using fluoroscopy (a type of X-ray guidance) into the fractured vertebra. Once in place, the PMMA cement is injected into the bone, where it hardens quickly, providing stability to the fractured vertebra.

It's important to note that while vertebroplasty can be an effective treatment for some patients with spinal fractures, it's not always necessary or appropriate. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider and based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's individual needs and circumstances.

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

A compression fracture is a type of bone fracture that occurs when there is a collapse of a vertebra in the spine. This type of fracture is most commonly seen in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine. Compression fractures are often caused by weakened bones due to osteoporosis, but they can also result from trauma or tumors that weaken the bone.

In a compression fracture, the front part (anterior) of the vertebra collapses, while the back part (posterior) remains intact, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease. This can lead to pain, deformity, and decreased mobility. In severe cases, multiple compression fractures can result in a condition called kyphosis, which is an abnormal curvature of the spine that leads to a hunchback appearance.

Compression fractures are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment may include pain medication, bracing, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgery. Preventive measures such as maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

The Cervical Atlas, also known as C1 or the atlas vertebra, is the uppermost and most superior of the seven cervical vertebrae in the human spine. It plays a crucial role in supporting and facilitating the movement of the head, as it articulates with both the occipital bone (forming the joint called the atlanto-occipital joint) and the axis (or C2) vertebra (forming the atlantoaxial joint). The unique structure of the cervical atlas lacks a body, instead having an anterior and posterior arch with two lateral masses that form the facet joints for articulation with the axis. This arrangement allows for a wide range of motion in the neck, including flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Spinal curvatures refer to the normal or abnormal curvature patterns of the spine as viewed from the side. The human spine has four distinct curves that form an "S" shape when viewed from the side: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. These natural curves provide strength, flexibility, and balance to the spine, allowing us to stand upright, maintain proper posture, and absorb shock during movement.

Abnormal spinal curvatures are often referred to as spinal deformities and can be classified into two main categories: hyperkyphosis (increased kyphosis) and hyperlordosis (increased lordosis). Examples of such conditions include:

1. Kyphosis: An excessive curvature in the thoracic or sacral regions, leading to a hunchback or rounded appearance. Mild kyphosis is common and usually not problematic, but severe cases can cause pain, breathing difficulties, and neurological issues.
2. Lordosis: An abnormal increase in the curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine, resulting in an exaggerated swayback posture. This can lead to lower back pain, muscle strain, and difficulty maintaining proper balance.
3. Scoliosis: A lateral (side-to-side) spinal curvature that causes the spine to twist and rotate, forming a C or S shape when viewed from behind. Most scoliosis cases are idiopathic (of unknown cause), but they can also be congenital (present at birth) or secondary to other medical conditions.

These abnormal spinal curvatures may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and progression of the condition.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

In the context of human anatomy, the term "tail" is not used to describe any part of the body. Humans are considered tailless primates, and there is no structure or feature that corresponds directly to the tails found in many other animals.

However, there are some medical terms related to the lower end of the spine that might be confused with a tail:

1. Coccyx (Tailbone): The coccyx is a small triangular bone at the very bottom of the spinal column, formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae. It's also known as the tailbone because it resembles the end of an animal's tail in its location and appearance.
2. Cauda Equina (Horse's Tail): The cauda equina is a bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord, just above the coccyx. It got its name because it looks like a horse's tail due to the numerous rootlets radiating from the conus medullaris (the tapering end of the spinal cord).

These two structures are not tails in the traditional sense but rather medical terms related to the lower end of the human spine.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Orthopedic fixation devices are medical implants used in orthopedic surgery to provide stability and promote the healing of fractured or broken bones, as well as joints or spinal segments. These devices can be internal or external and include a variety of products such as:

1. Intramedullary nails: Long rods that are inserted into the center of a bone to stabilize fractures in long bones like the femur or tibia.
2. Plates and screws: Metal plates are attached to the surface of a bone with screws to hold the fragments together while they heal.
3. Screws: Used alone or in combination with other devices, they can be used to stabilize small fractures or to fix implants like total joint replacements.
4. Wires: Used to hold bone fragments together, often in conjunction with other devices.
5. External fixators: A external frame attached to the bones using pins or wires that is placed outside the skin to provide stability and alignment of fractured bones.
6. Spinal fixation devices: These include pedicle screws, rods, hooks, and plates used to stabilize spinal fractures or deformities.
7. Orthopedic staples: Small metal staples used to stabilize small bone fragments or for joint fusion.

The choice of orthopedic fixation device depends on the location and severity of the injury or condition being treated. The primary goal of these devices is to provide stability, promote healing, and restore function.

Kyphoplasty is a surgical procedure used to treat vertebral compression fractures, which are commonly caused by osteoporosis or cancer. The goal of kyphoplasty is to stabilize the fracture, reduce pain, and restore some or all of the lost vertebral body height.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the back, and a narrow tube is inserted into the damaged vertebra under the guidance of fluoroscopy (a type of continuous X-ray imaging). A special balloon is then inflated inside the vertebral body to create a cavity or space. This process helps to restore the height of the vertebra and correct any abnormal kyphosis (hunchback) deformity that may have developed due to the fracture.

Once the desired cavity has been created, bone cement is injected into the space to stabilize the vertebra. The cement hardens quickly, providing immediate support and pain relief. After the procedure, patients are usually advised to limit their physical activity for a short period of time to allow the cement to fully set.

It's important to note that kyphoplasty is not suitable for all types of spinal fractures or conditions, and its effectiveness may vary depending on the individual case. Therefore, a thorough evaluation by a spine specialist is necessary before deciding whether this procedure is appropriate.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine, also known as Pott's disease, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves the vertebral column. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which primarily affects the lungs but can spread through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, including the spine.

In Pott's disease, the infection leads to the destruction of the spongy bone (vertebral body) and the intervertebral disc space, resulting in vertebral collapse, kyphosis (hunchback deformity), and potential neurological complications due to spinal cord compression. Common symptoms include back pain, stiffness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Early diagnosis and treatment with a multidrug antibiotic regimen are crucial to prevent long-term disability and further spread of the infection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Lordosis is a term used in the medical field to describe an excessive inward curvature of the spine. It most commonly occurs in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When it happens in the lower back, it's often referred to as swayback. While some degree of lordosis is normal and necessary for proper spinal alignment and movement, excessive curvature can lead to pain, discomfort, and difficulty with mobility. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, obesity, pregnancy, and certain medical conditions such as kyphosis or spondylolisthesis.

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the lamina, which is the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal. This procedure is often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or tumors. By removing the lamina, the surgeon can access the affected area and alleviate the compression on the spinal cord or nerves, thereby reducing pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Laminectomy may be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other surgical techniques such as discectomy, foraminotomy, or spinal fusion. The specific approach and extent of the surgery will depend on the patient's individual condition and symptoms.

Age determination by skeleton, also known as skeletal aging or skeletal maturation, is the process of estimating a person's age based on the analysis of their skeletal remains. This technique is commonly used in forensic anthropology to help identify unknown individuals or determine the time since death.

The method involves examining various features of the skeleton, such as the degree of fusion of epiphyseal growth plates, the shape and size of certain bones, and the presence or absence of degenerative changes. These features change in a predictable way as a person grows and develops, allowing for an estimation of their age at death.

It is important to note that while skeletal aging can provide useful information, it is not always possible to determine an exact age. Instead, forensic anthropologists typically provide a range of ages that the individual may have fallen into based on the skeletal evidence. Additionally, factors such as genetics, nutrition, and health can affect the rate at which skeletal features develop, making it difficult to provide a precise estimate in some cases.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Spinal cord compression is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which puts pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from it. This can occur due to various reasons such as degenerative changes in the spine, herniated discs, bone spurs, tumors, or fractures. The compression can lead to a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of bladder and bowel control. In severe cases, it can cause paralysis. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Spinal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur to the vertebral column, which houses and protects the spinal cord. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as trauma from accidents (motor vehicle, sports-related, falls, etc.), violence, or degenerative conditions like arthritis, disc herniation, or spinal stenosis.

Spinal injuries can result in bruising, fractures, dislocations, or compression of the vertebrae, which may then cause damage to the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues, nerves, and blood vessels. The severity of a spinal injury can range from mild, with temporary symptoms, to severe, resulting in permanent impairment or paralysis below the level of injury.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
- Pain or stiffness in the neck or back
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
- Paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury
- In severe cases, respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal injuries to prevent further damage and ensure proper treatment. Treatment options may include immobilization, surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.

Klippel-Feil Syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterized by the abnormal fusion or joining of two or more spinal bones (vertebrae) in the neck (cervical region). This fusion typically occurs during fetal development and can affect one or more levels of the cervical spine. The syndrome is usually diagnosed in early childhood, although milder cases may not be detected until later in life.

The medical definition of Klippel-Feil Syndrome includes the following major features:

1. Congenital fusion (synostosis) of two or more cervical vertebrae: This fusion can result in restricted mobility and increased stiffness in the neck, which may lead to a decreased range of motion and potential complications such as spinal cord injuries.
2. Short neck: A shortened neck is often observed in individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome due to the fusion of vertebrae. This feature can be associated with a low hairline at the back of the head (occipital low hairline) and limited mobility in the upper spine.
3. Webbed neck: Some individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome may have a webbed or wide neck, which is characterized by excess skin and soft tissue in the neck region. This feature can be mild or severe and may impact the overall appearance of the individual.

In addition to these primary features, Klippel-Feil Syndrome can also be associated with several secondary symptoms and conditions, including:

1. Spinal deformities: Scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) or kyphosis (excessive forward curvature of the spine) may occur due to the abnormal spinal development.
2. Neurological complications: Compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves can lead to various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms and legs.
3. Genitourinary anomalies: Approximately 30% of individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome have genitourinary abnormalities, including kidney malformations, horseshoe kidney, or abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
4. Hearing impairment: Up to 50% of individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome may experience hearing loss or other auditory issues due to inner ear anomalies.
5. Craniofacial abnormalities: Some individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome may have craniofacial abnormalities, such as cleft palate, low-set ears, or a small jaw (micrognathia).
6. Cardiovascular anomalies: Approximately 10% of individuals with Klippel-Feil Syndrome have cardiovascular abnormalities, including heart defects or blood vessel malformations.

The exact cause of Klippel-Feil Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from abnormal development of the cervical vertebrae during embryonic growth. In some cases, it may be associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities; however, in many instances, no specific cause can be identified.

Diagnosis of Klippel-Feil Syndrome typically involves a combination of physical examination and imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI exams. These tests help to assess the structure and alignment of the cervical spine and identify any associated abnormalities.

Treatment for Klippel-Feil Syndrome depends on the severity of symptoms and the presence of any complications. In some cases, no specific treatment may be necessary beyond regular monitoring by a healthcare provider. However, if neck pain, limited mobility, or other issues are present, various therapies and interventions may be recommended, including:

1. Physical therapy: Exercises and stretches can help improve strength, flexibility, and range of motion in the neck and surrounding muscles.
2. Pain management: Medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids, may be prescribed to help alleviate pain and discomfort. In some cases, injections of corticosteroids or other medications may be used to target specific areas of inflammation or pain.
3. Surgery: If severe deformities, instability, or neurological complications are present, surgery may be necessary to stabilize the spine and prevent further damage. Various surgical techniques, such as spinal fusion or decompression procedures, may be used depending on the specific needs of the patient.
4. Lifestyle modifications: Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, maintaining good posture, and using supportive devices, such as neck braces or pillows, can help manage symptoms and prevent further injury.
5. Regular follow-up care: Regular checkups with a healthcare provider are essential to monitor the progression of Klippel-Feil Syndrome and address any new or worsening symptoms as they arise.

I'm not able to provide a specific medical definition for the term "Decalcification Technique" as it is not a standard term in medical or scientific literature. However, decalcification is a process that is commonly used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) to prepare calcium-containing tissue samples for sectioning and staining.

Decalcification involves removing the calcium salts from the tissue using a weak acid solution, such as formic acid or acetic acid. This process makes it possible to cut thin sections of the tissue with a microtome (a tool used to cut thin slices of tissue for examination under a microscope).

The decalcification technique may refer to the specific method or protocol used to decalcify tissue samples, including the type and concentration of acid used, the duration of decalcification, and the temperature at which the process is carried out. The choice of decalcification technique will depend on the type and size of the tissue sample being prepared, as well as the specific research or diagnostic questions being addressed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Spina Bifida Occulta is a type of spinal dysraphism, which is a birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine. In Spina Bifida Occulta, the spinal bones (vertebrae) do not fully form and close around the spinal cord during fetal development, leaving a small gap or split in the lower back region. However, the spinal cord and nerves usually develop normally and are not exposed or damaged, unlike in more severe forms of spina bifida.

In many cases, individuals with Spina Bifida Occulta do not experience any symptoms and may not even know they have the condition unless it is discovered during an imaging test for another reason. In some instances, people with this condition might develop late-onset neurological symptoms or complications such as back pain, muscle weakness, or changes in bladder or bowel function.

It's essential to note that while Spina Bifida Occulta is generally less severe than other forms of spina bifida, it can still pose risks and may require medical evaluation and monitoring to ensure proper development and address any potential issues.

Somites are transient, segmentally repeated embryonic structures that form along the anterior-posterior body axis during vertebrate development. They are derived from the paraxial mesoderm and give rise to various tissues, including the sclerotome (which forms the vertebrae and ribs), myotome (which forms the skeletal muscles of the back and limbs), and dermatome (which forms the dermis of the skin).

Each somite is a block-like structure that is arranged in a repeating pattern along the notochord, which is a flexible rod-like structure that provides mechanical support to the developing embryo. The formation of somites is a critical step in the development of the vertebrate body plan, as they help to establish the segmental organization of the musculoskeletal system and contribute to the formation of other important structures such as the dermis and the circulatory system.

The process of somitogenesis, or the formation of somites, is a highly regulated and coordinated event that involves the interaction of various signaling molecules and genetic pathways. Defects in somite formation can lead to a range of developmental abnormalities, including spinal deformities, muscle weakness, and skin defects.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

The coccyx, also known as the tailbone, is the small triangular bone at the bottom of the spine in humans and other primates. It is formed by the fusion of several small vertebrae and serves to attach muscles and ligaments in the pelvic region. The coccyx can be a source of pain and discomfort if it is injured or becomes inflamed.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Greek World" is not a medical term. If you are referring to the ancient Greek civilization, it was a significant period in human history that greatly contributed to the development of various fields including medicine. The ancient Greeks, particularly Hippocrates and his followers, are often referred to as the "Fathers of Medicine." They made substantial contributions to the field through their observations, theories, and practices which formed the foundation of much of Western medical thought. However, "Greek World" itself does not have a medical definition.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

Musculoskeletal abnormalities refer to structural and functional disorders that affect the musculoskeletal system, which includes the bones, muscles, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other related tissues. These abnormalities can result from genetic factors, trauma, overuse, degenerative processes, infections, or tumors. They may cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, deformity, weakness, and susceptibility to injuries. Examples of musculoskeletal abnormalities include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, fractures, dislocations, tendinitis, bursitis, myopathies, and various congenital conditions.

Spondylitis is a term used to describe inflammation in the spinal vertebrae, often leading to stiffness and pain. The most common form is Ankylosing Spondylitis, which is a chronic autoimmune disease where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joints in the spine. This can cause the bones in the spine to grow together, resulting in a rigid and inflexible spine. Other forms of spondylitis include reactive spondylitis, infectious spondylitis, and seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Symptoms may also include pain and stiffness in the neck, lower back, hips, and small joints of the body.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is present in the embryos of chordates, including humans. It is composed of cells called chordocytes and is surrounded by a sheath. The notochord runs along the length of the body, providing support and flexibility. In human embryos, the notochord eventually becomes part of the discs between the vertebrae in the spine. An abnormal or absent notochord can lead to developmental problems with the spine and nervous system.

"Byzantium" is a historical term that refers to the city of Constantinople, which is now known as Istanbul in modern-day Turkey. The term is most commonly used in reference to the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, which was a continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

The Byzantine Empire had its capital at Constantinople, which was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 324 AD and was renamed after him as "Constantinopolis" or "Constantinople." The term "Byzantium" is derived from the name of the earlier Greek colony that existed on the site of Constantinople, known as "Byzantion."

There is no medical definition associated with the term "Byzantium," as it is a historical and geographical term.

The sternum, also known as the breastbone, is a long, flat bone located in the central part of the chest. It serves as the attachment point for several muscles and tendons, including those involved in breathing. The sternum has three main parts: the manubrium at the top, the body in the middle, and the xiphoid process at the bottom. The upper seven pairs of ribs connect to the sternum via costal cartilages.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

A chordoma is a rare, slow-growing tumor that typically develops in the bones of the spine or skull. These tumors originate from remnants of the notochord, a structure that forms during embryonic development and eventually becomes part of the spinal cord. Chordomas are usually low-grade malignancies but can be aggressive and locally invasive, potentially causing pain, neurological symptoms, or structural damage to the spine or skull. Treatment typically involves surgical resection, often combined with radiation therapy.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

A lumbar vertebra seen from the side Ossification of lumbar vertebrae Bertolotti's syndrome Spinal disc herniation Lumbar ... Contrast MRI lumbar spine post-hemilaminectomy (sagittal T1 FSE FS) 3D image of a lumbar vertebra Position of lumbar vertebrae ... Bones around the lumbar vertebrae are shown as semi-transparent. Shape of lumbar vertebrae (shown in blue and yellow). ... Congenital block vertebra of the lumbar spine. CT volume rendering. African apes have three and four lumbar vertebrae, (bonobos ...
In most cases this occurs in the lowest of the lumbar vertebrae (L5), but may also occur in the other lumbar vertebrae, as well ... There are thirty-three vertebrae in the human vertebral column-seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar ... thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae seen from the side Cervical vertebrae seen from the back Vertebrae Anatomy Limbus vertebra ... As the vertebrae progress down the spine they increase in size to match up with the adjoining lumbar section. The five lumbar ...
... cervical vertebrae; rib; vertebrae; lumbar vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae Excavation (2005): Level 3 M Mousterian. This level is ...
Five vertebrae in the loins (could refer to lumbar vertebrae, of which monkey and apes have six). Lumbar vertebrae are straight ... Short, flat-front cervical vertebra without bifide spines. No spine in the fifth cervical vertebra. Number of thoracic vertebra ... Transverse apophysis of C6 and C7 vertebra are more like a human's. Cervical vertebra lack foramen for containing the nerves ( ... Same number of vertebra or elements in the sacrum as an ape. Thirteen ribs on each side; humans have twelve. Smaller thumb ...
... and the last few back vertebrae lacked ribs in the vein of lumbar vertebrae. Zygosphene-zygantrum articulations are present on ... including 7 neck vertebrae and approximately 24 back vertebrae. E. gouldi had 6-7 neck vertebrae, and an unknown number of back ... and the lumbar-like vertebrae. In 2018, Mateusz Tałanda added Ardeosaurus brevipes to Gauthier and colleagues' analysis (but ... In E. gouldi, the second (axis) and third neck vertebrae were connected to the next by elements known as intercentra. In E. ...
13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae (as do most mammals, ... 11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ... Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 11 lb). Cats have seven cervical vertebrae (as do most mammals); ... which have small vertebrae. The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which ...
... had 7 neck vertebrae; 17 thoracic vertebrae, compared to the 18 in other megatheriid sloths; 3 lumbar vertebrae, ... In later species, the spinous processes which jut upwards from the vertebrae are markedly taller in the thoracic vertebrae than ... The spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra is nearly vertical, but, unlike other sloths, the other vertebrae incline ... The small neck vertebrae show they had weak neck muscles, as an aquatic creature does not need to hold its head up, and the ...
The lumbar vertebrae were robust and dorsoventrally compressed. The caudal vertebrae were also robust, rod-like; the tail must ...
Wombats have four lumbar vertebrae and koalas have five. A bull red kangaroo, the largest living marsupial, can weigh 22-85 kg ... The length of each vertebra increases along the series so the lumbar series may have bent downward. Like other marsupials, ... Like many other mammals, the dorsals initially decrease in breadth and then expand before connecting to the lumbar vertebrae. ... Like most marsupials, Diprotodon likely had six lumbar vertebrae. They retain a proportionally tall neural arch but not the ...
The holotype had preserved zero neck vertebrae, ten thoracic vertebrae, ten lumbar vertebrae, and fifteen tail vertebrae. In ... The vertebra segments increase in height until the seventh lumbar vertebra, then they begin to decrease. In the thoracic ... The lumbar and tail vertebrae are circular in shape. The head of the humerus arm bone of Brygmophyseter was positioned ... comparison, the modern sperm whale has eleven thoracic, eight lumbar, and twenty-two tail vertebrae, and the smaller tail in ...
CAMSM G.324 resembles the lumbar vertebrae of Macrocnemus. WARMS Gz21 has a wide posterior expansion and a thin anterior ... Although the vertebrae vary significantly in structure, they resemble those of other archosauromorphs such as Macrocnemus and ... The larger individual in WARMS Gz10 is represented by an incomplete caudal (tail) vertebra, a rib, the proximal tip of a right ... WARMS Gz10, a sandstone block containing vertebrae and limb bones from two different individuals, as well as fish scales and ...
... six lumbar vertebrae. Some breeds, such as the Arabian, will sometimes, but not always, have five lumbar vertebrae and 17 ... as many horses with short backs do have the typical number of vertebrae. The length of each vertebra in the lumbar region seems ... A horse has an average total of 18 thoracic vertebrae, with five located in the withers. Each thoracic vertebra is also ... and the lumbar vertebrae of the loin provide the coupling that joins the back to the hindquarters. Integral to the back ...
Unlike eutheriodonts, gorgonopsians do not have distinguished lumbar vertebrae. Nonetheless, the dorsals equating to that ... 293-295 There are three sacral vertebrae, and the series attached to the pelvis by the first vertebra. The pelvis is reptilian ... The seven cervical vertebrae (in the neck) are all the same size as each other except for the last one, which is shorter and ... The last cervical is shaped more like the dorsal vertebrae.: 291-293 The dorsals are spool-shaped and all appear about the same ...
Additionally, analysis of its semicircular canals, lumbar vertebrae and its spinous processes indicate slow movement and ... "Morphometric Analysis of Lumbar Vertebrae in Extinct Malagasy Strepsirrhines". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 128 ( ...
The lumbar spine subsequently appears to have six vertebrae or segments, not five. This sixth lumbar vertebra is known as a ... Congenital block vertebra of the lumbar spine. CT volume rendering. Congenital block vertebra of the lumbar spine. CT volume ... a sixth lumbar vertebra is one of the more common abnormalities. Sacralization of the fifth lumbar vertebra (or sacralization) ... Congenital block vertebra in the lumbar spine (partial vertebrae 3 and 4). The rear portion of the disc still exists. ...
He fractured three lumbar vertebrae, which required reconstructive surgery. He also fractured his left wrist and injured his ...
This was further supported by a study of a single lumbar vertebra. This vertebra was similar to that of Babakotia in having a ... Analysis of a lumbar vertebra of M. dolichobrachion further supported this conclusion. Our understanding of the morphology of ... "Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae in extinct Malagasy strepsirrhines" (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology ... plates of bone that protrude from the vertebrae) that points to the side (laterally). The vertebra was intermediate in length ...
... sign is usually first seen in lumbar vertebrae. Ntagiopoulos, P G; Moutzouris, D‐A; Manetas, S (September 2007 ... Codfish vertebra refers to the biconcave appearance of the vertebra in sagittal radiographs due to pathological changes, such ... Codfish appearance of the vertebra is seen in several conditions such as osteoporosis, steroid or heparin therapy, Cushing ... Rexroad, Jason T.; Moser, Richard P.; Georgia, Jeffrey D. (1 September 2003). ""Fish" or "Fish Mouth" Vertebrae?". American ...
... and lumbar vertebrae all have intervertebral foramina.[citation needed] In the thoracic region and lumbar region, each ... particularly in the lumbar region).: 425 In the cervical region, a small part of the body of vertebra inferior to the ... of adjacent vertebra in the articulated spine.: 424, 425 Each intervertebral foramen gives passage to a spinal nerve and spinal ... due to the fact that the junction of the pedicle with the body of vertebra is situated somewhat more inferiorly on the body).: ...
... and 2 lumbar vertebrae; and MH2 preserves 2 neck, 7 thoracic, 2 lumbar, and 1 sacral vertebrae. The lordosis (humanlike ... Like humans, A. sediba appears to have had a flexible lumbar series comprising 5 vertebrae-as opposed to 6 static vertebrae in ... However, the overall anatomy of the neck vertebrae is apelike, and point to a much stiffer neck. A. sediba lacks a humanlike ... However, A. sediba seems to have had a highly mobile lower back and exaggerated lumbar lordosis, which may have been involved ...
... remains exhibit relatively more shoulder and lumbar vertebrae injuries. A 2023 study documented a high degree of ... In derived smilodontins and homotherins, the lumbar region of the spine and the tail became shortened, as did the hind limbs. ... It had a reduced lumbar region, high scapula, short tail, and broad limbs with relatively short feet. Smilodon is most famous ...
It is commonly found in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae. Those affected may be presented with bone pain due to bone ... ATTR deposits have been found in ligamentum flavum of patients that underwent surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. In beta 2- ... In wild-type ATTR amyloidosis, non-cardiac symptoms include: bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, lumbar spinal stenosis, biceps ... "Transthyretin amyloid deposits in lumbar spinal stenosis and assessment of signs of systemic amyloidosis". Journal of Internal ...
This is around the first lumbar vertebra. There are three main divisions of the celiac artery, and each in turn has its own ... Branching from the aorta at thoracic vertebra 12 (T12) in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the ...
When fatigued, their necks become tense, T5 (5th thoracic vertebrae) rises and appears strong, and L1 (1st lumbar vertebrae) ... Their anterior rib drops and their T5 (5th thoracic vertebra) drops. Their L5 (5th lumbar vertebra) becomes rigid. The ... According to him, all these aspects are correlated with the state of 5 lumbar vertebrae. In Japanese, tai (体) means "body", ... Taiheki types 1 to 10 are closely related to the kinematic characteristics of a particular lumbar vertebra; types 11 and 12 are ...
Anterolisthesis commonly involves the fifth lumbar vertebra. Backward displacement is called retrolisthesis. Lateral ... Lumbar hyperextension - Extension often elicits pain. This can be assessed by having the patient hyperextend the lumbar spine, ... Images are most often taken of the lumbar spine due to spondylolisthesis most commonly involving the lumbar region. Images of ... In particular, lumbar spondylolisthesis may benefit from core stabilization exercises focusing on lower abdominal, lumbar ...
The lumbar vertebrae are short and more rigid than in Prothylacynus. The bones of the limbs, like the humerus and femur, are ... Although the lumbar vertebrae are not completely known, the two last ones are known and suggest for its vertical neural process ... Its cervical vertebrae were very strong and to some extent resembled the vertebrae of Machairodontinae; also the cervical ... two lumbar, and two sacral vertebrae, a femur, a tibia, a fibula, and various foot bones. It was one fourth smaller than the ...
The lumbar vertebrae were also elongate, suggesting the back was flexible. Compared to living cheetahs, the femur is more ...
Psoas major: originates on lumbar vertebrae and last 2 ribs, inserts into the trochanter minor of femur with a tendon that ... and the cervical vertebrae. Longus colli: originates from the cervical vertebrae and the first 5-6 thoracic vertebrae. Masseter ... Psoas minor: originates from first 4-5 lumbar and last 3 thoracic vertebrae, inserts into ilium. Flexes the pelvis. ... Intertransversales lumborum: between the transverse processes of 1-4th lumbar vertebrae. Intertransversalis colli: occurs ...
It corresponds to the first lumbar vertebra behind. The second line is the subcostal line, drawn from the lowest point of the ... This line corresponds to the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and passes through or just above the ileo-caecal valve, where ... It corresponds to the upper part of the third lumbar vertebra, and it is an inch or so above the umbilicus. It indicates ...
1(3131), 6. Holland, C. T. (1922). Note on sacralization of the fifth lumbar vertebra. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 4(2), 215-219. ...
A lumbar vertebra seen from the side Ossification of lumbar vertebrae Bertolottis syndrome Spinal disc herniation Lumbar ... Contrast MRI lumbar spine post-hemilaminectomy (sagittal T1 FSE FS) 3D image of a lumbar vertebra Position of lumbar vertebrae ... Bones around the lumbar vertebrae are shown as semi-transparent. Shape of lumbar vertebrae (shown in blue and yellow). ... Congenital block vertebra of the lumbar spine. CT volume rendering. African apes have three and four lumbar vertebrae, (bonobos ...
These vertebrae receive the most stress and are the weight-bearing portion of the back. The lumbar vertebrae allow movements ... There are five lumbar vertebrae located in the lower back. ... There are five lumbar vertebrae located in the lower back. ... These vertebrae receive the most stress and are the weight-bearing portion of the back. The lumbar vertebrae allow movements ...
Seventeen specimens of lumbar discs, attached to the caudal and cranial halves of the adjacent verte ... End-Plate Displacement During Compression of Lumbar Vertebra-Disc-Vertebra Segments and the Mechanism of Failure : Spine. ... End-Plate Displacement During Compression of Lumbar Vertebra-Disc-Vertebra Segments and the Mechanism of Failure. Holmes, A D ... End-Plate Displacement During Compression of Lumbar Vertebra-Disc-Vertebra Segments and the Mechanism of Failure ...
Bone Clones Aye-aye Lumbar Vertebrae, Set of 7 ... Aye-aye Lumbar Vertebrae, Set of 7. SC-353-05-SET $215.00 Set ... Human Child Lumbar Vertebra, Single (2 pcs), 14 to 16-month-old ... Comparative Lumbar Vertebra Display Set of 10 (Arthritic and ... of 7 lumbar vertebrae from Aye-aye Skeleton SC-353. The life history of this 10-year-old male aye-aye can be found in the Duke ...
HomeTag vertebraLumbar vertebrae. * Photo sizes XXS - tiny (240 x 180) XS - extra small (432 x 324) S - small (576 x 432) M - ...
... thoracic and lumbar from our Indri Lemur Skeleton SC-282. ... Indri Lemur Vertebrae, set of 3 - Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar ... Indri Lemur Vertebrae, set of 3 - Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar. SC-282-11-SET $76.00 Set of 3 vertebrae - cervical, thoracic and ...
A complete set of the lumbar vertebrae from a single individual. Includes L1 - L5.. Articulated on nylon string.. Stock Photo: ...
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vertebra does - hence the 6th lumbar vertebra phrase - but Im pretty sure. that 6th lumbar vertebra is a sacral vertebra ... vertebra does - hence the 6th lumbar vertebra phrase - but Im pretty sure. that 6th lumbar vertebra is a sacral vertebra ... The 6th LUMBAR vertebra, as the word lumbar would suggest, is not an outlier of the sacrum nor is it in any way related to the ... With no difference in the sacrum, there is simply an extra lumbar vertebra. The vertebra is sometimes subject to sacralization ...
The Examination of the Spine > Anatomy and kinesiology of the spine > The lumbar vertebrae ...
You are here: Home / Mars Categories / Remain Type / Hominid / Bone / Infracranial / Axial / Vertebra / Lumbar Vertebra ...
Denoyer Geppert SP68 Premier Lumbar Spine with Interchangeable Herniated Discs is an excellent anatomical spine model, ... Faithfully reproducing the human 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae, this natural cast replica includes the spinal cord and paired ...
... EXPORTERS developed by professionals medical pressure wheel. They ... develop to offer static and intermittent lumbar and cervical traction treatments. A football system controls their height. They ...
Cast from natural specimen, in SOMSO-Plast®. Mounted and separable, on a stand with green base.
66fit Anatomical Lumbar Vertebrae With Sacrum/Coccyx/Herniated Disc. ₨0.00. 66fit Anatomical Lumbar Vertebrae With Sacrum/ ... 66fit Anatomical Pelvis with 5pcs Lumbar Vertebrae. ₨0.00. Add to cart. * Sale! Ankle Cold Compression Cuff. ₨29,999.00. ₨ ... Be the first to review "66fit Anatomical Lumbar Vertebrae With Sacrum/Coccyx/Herniated Disc" Cancel reply. Your email address ...
Figure-6.2-Thoracic-and-Lumbar-Vertebra. Home » Chuck Wolf: The Big Movement Rocks » Figure-6.2-Thoracic-and-Lumbar-Vertebra ...
Lumbar vertebra (l ii) with lumbar region of spinal cord ... LUMBAR VERTEBRA (L II) WITH LUMBAR REGION OF SPINAL CORD. ...
Where the Vertebrae Roam acrylic on canvas, 14x18 Sarah Curl-Larson $325 ... "Lumbar Dreaming: Where the Vertebrae Roam" by Sarah Curl-Larson $325. "Lumbar Dreaming: Where the Vertebrae Roam" ... "Lumbar Dreaming: Where the Vertebrae Roam" by Sarah Curl-Larson $325. Art by Deep Ellum Art Company ... "Lumbar Dreaming: Where the Vertebrae Roam" by Sarah Curl-Larson $325. Art by Deep Ellum Art Company ...
Life-Size Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum & Coccyx and Herniated Disc - TM-119 - TECH-MODEL. S/0.00. ... Life-Size Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum & Coccyx and Herniated Disc - TM-119 - TECH-MODEL cantidad. ... Inicio / TM - MODELOS Y SIMULADORES - ALTA CALIDAD / Esqueletos y Partes Óseas / Life-Size Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum & ... Consist of the 5 lumbar vertebrae with intervertebral discs, sacrum with flap, coccyx, spinal nerves and dura mater of spinal ...
We present two patients with osteoid osteomas of the lumbar spine to highlight the delay in diagnosis and the utility of ... We present two patients with osteoid osteomas of the lumbar spine to highlight the delay in diagnosis and the utility of ... Conservative surgery for osteoid osteoma of the lumbar vertebrae. Surg Neurol Int, 25(5), 1-2.. Available at: https://ecommons. ...
Neumayer B, Widek T, Stollberger R, Scheurer E. Reproducibility of relaxometry of human lumbar vertebrae at 3 Tesla usingH MR ... Neumayer, B., Widek, T., Stollberger, R., & Scheurer, E. (2017). Reproducibility of relaxometry of human lumbar vertebrae at 3 ... Neumayer, B, Widek, T, Stollberger, R & Scheurer, E 2017, Reproducibility of relaxometry of human lumbar vertebrae at 3 Tesla ... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of relaxometry in human lumbar vertebrae required for the ...
The axial skeleton includes the bones of the skull, cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, [1] lumbar vertebrae ... which is thought to contribute the large range of anteroposterior bending possible between lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae ... which is thought to contribute the large range of anteroposterior bending possible between lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae ... The lumbar spine is the next mobile segment of the spine, typically consisting of 5 large vertebrae with classic features, ...
... resulting in lower peak moments at the lumbar spine, hip, and ankle (p , 0.05) and an increased peak moment at the knee (p , ... Lumbar Vertebrae * Male * Posture * Resistance Training / instrumentation* * Spine / physiology * Sports Equipment* * Weight ...
The maximum lumbar angle did not increase compared to the light box condition. Only the threat to balance appeared to be ... The maximum lumbar angle did not increase compared to the light box condition. Only the threat to balance appeared to be ... Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology* * Male * Movement / physiology* * Postural Balance* * Probability * Reference Values * Risk ...
The Four Stage Vertebrae Set is an anatomical model featuring 4 pairs of life-size lumbar vertebrae in 3 stages of degeneration ... Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set - Includes Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx Axis Scientific ... This German made human lumbar spinal column model consists of the 5 lumbar vertebrae with intervertebral discs, sacrum with ... Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and ...
Shu Yians office home car ball electric massager lumbar support hot compress waist protector shoulder pad cervical vertebra ... Shu Yians office home car ball electric massager lumbar support hot compress waist protector shoulder pad cervical vertebra ...
N2 - A butterfly vertebra is a congenital anomaly often associated with a series of syndromic diseases and is often recognized ... AB - A butterfly vertebra is a congenital anomaly often associated with a series of syndromic diseases and is often recognized ... A butterfly vertebra is a congenital anomaly often associated with a series of syndromic diseases and is often recognized ... abstract = "A butterfly vertebra is a congenital anomaly often associated with a series of syndromic diseases and is often ...
  • The coccyx - or tailbone - is a much smaller single bone - at the very end of your spine comprised of three to five tiny coccygeal vertebrae that are fused. (
  • A comparative roentgenographic analysis of the lumbar spine in male army recruits with and without lower back pain. (
  • We present two patients with osteoid osteomas of the lumbar spine to highlight the delay in diagnosis and the utility of precise radiological localization enabling tumor resection without jeopardizing spinal stability. (
  • The thoracolumbar junction begins at the T9 vertebra and extends to L2, and is the location of the spines change from kyphosis, the slight outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae, to the lordosis, or inward curvature, of the lumbar spine. (
  • This detailed and life sized section of the spine displays the sacrum and coccygeal region in full, including the 1-4th vertebrae of the coccyx, as well as the full lumbar spine, and partial thoracic spine (T8-T12). (
  • This top of the line lumbar spine has been created from casts of original human bone, making it the perfect model for an uncompromised view of the human vertebrae. (
  • Pyogenic infections of the spine most frequently involve the lumbar spine (58%), followed by the thoracic (30%) and cervical (11%) regions. (
  • The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull. (
  • The upper section of the cervical spine consists of the first cervical vertebrae (C1) and the second cervical vertebrae (C2). (
  • The T12 vertebra is the twelfth thoracic vertebra in the spine of the human body. (
  • These results suggest that for patients with rotational deformity of the spine, such as scoliosis, measurements of lumbar spine bone mineral content by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is not affected, while bone mineral density measurements are not reliable. (
  • Getting the S-shape of the spine was insanely hard, I had to guess what angle each vertebrae had to be at, I only had to redo it three times! (
  • Five lumbar vertebrae connect your upper spine to your pelvis. (
  • Beginning in 2005, DXA scans of the lumbar spine have been administered in the NHANES mobile examination center (MEC). (
  • The spine scans provide bone measurements for the total spine and vertebrae L1 - L4. (
  • The trabecular bone score (TBS) is an indirect measure of the microarchitecture of the trabeculae, or lattice structures, that compose the trabecular (spongy) bone in the lumbar spine. (
  • It is measured by evaluating gray-level variations in the pixels of an anterior-posterior lumbar spine DXA scan. (
  • In 2013, TBS software (Med-Imap SA TBS Calculator version was used to estimate the trabecular bone scores for individual lumbar vertebra (L1-L4), as well as an overall TBS score for the total lumbar spine, in adults aged 20 years and older with nonmissing body mass index (BMI) data. (
  • The cervical spine is much more mobile than the thoracic or lumbar regions of the spine. (
  • Unlike the other regions of the spine, the cervical spine has foramina in each vertebra for the arteries supplying blood to the brain. (
  • The vertebrae support most of the weight to the spine. (
  • The spine (spinal column) consists of back bones (vertebrae). (
  • The lower spine (lumbar spine) connects to the spine in the upper back (thoracic spine) above and to the pelvis through the sacrum below. (
  • The lumbar spine is flexible to allow turning, twisting and bending, and provides strength-for standing, walking, and lifting. (
  • Lateral thoracic/lumbar spine radiographs were taken of 1,453 men. (
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of using combined general/epidural anesthesia (CGEA) on early recovery after lumbar spine surgeries. (
  • Toni, The sacrum is a single bone comprised of five sacral vertebrae that are normally fused. (
  • Consist of the 5 lumbar vertebrae with intervertebral discs, sacrum with flap, coccyx, spinal nerves and dura mater of spinal cord. (
  • Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx securely fastened to the base for a great desktop reference. (
  • The fifth vertebra contains certain peculiarities, which are detailed below. (
  • The fifth cervical vertebra (C5 ) is the fifth vertebra from the top of the column. (
  • The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis. (
  • It features a male pelvis, lumbar vertebrae, spinal. (
  • About the Axis Scientific Male Pelvis with Lumbar Section and Femur Heads: Did you know that the male pelvis is often taller and more narrow than a female pelvis? (
  • The only bones that lack a true cortex are the vertebrae, which are covered by a compact condensation of trabecular bone. (
  • To estimate how axial rotation of lumbar vertebrae quantitatively affects bone mineral density, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the anteroposterior plane. (
  • The measured bone area increased approximately 24% and the bone mineral density decreased approximately 19% when the vertebrae were rotated by 45 degrees. (
  • a computer tomodensitometry scan showed corporeal bone defects in the L1 vertebra. (
  • The L-5 and L-6 nerve roots were entrapped at the intervertebral foramina between L-5 and the butterfly vertebra (L-6) and between L-6 and S-1 in the concave side. (
  • Seventeen specimens of lumbar discs, attached to the caudal and cranial halves of the adjacent vertebral bodies, were subjected to a maximum compressive load of 5.5 kN in six stages. (
  • The authors report the case of a 13-year-old girl with lumbar scoliosis and mild spondylolisthesis associated with a butterfly vertebra at L-6 causing radiculopathy. (
  • Three portions or tubercles can be noticed in a transverse process of a lower lumbar vertebrae: the lateral or costiform process, the mammillary process, and the accessory process. (
  • The lumbar vertebrae allow movements such as flexion and extension, and some lateral flexion. (
  • The pedicles change in morphology from the upper lumbar to the lower lumbar. (
  • In the upper three vertebrae they arise from the junctions of the pedicles and laminae, but in the lower two they are set farther forward and spring from the pedicles and posterior parts of the vertebral bodies. (
  • Laterally, the epidural space is formed by the pedicles of the vertebrae and the intravertebral foramen. (
  • As with other vertebrae, each lumbar vertebra consists of a vertebral body and a vertebral arch. (
  • The lower section consists of the third cervical vertebrae (C3) through seventh cervical vertebrae (C7). (
  • The tenth thoracic vertebra (T10) is one of twelve vertebrae that make up the central section of the vertebral column. (
  • Faithfully reproducing the human 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae, this natural cast replica includes the spinal cord and paired spinal nerves. (
  • If the spinal cord injury is at or above the C5, the person may be unable to breathe, since the spinal cord nerves located between the third and fifth cervical vertebrae control respiration. (
  • Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs through a tunnel formed by your vertebrae. (
  • Along the length of the spinal cord, the spinal nerves emerge from the sides through spaces between the vertebrae to connect with nerves throughout the body. (
  • Lumbar spinous processes are more horizontal. (
  • Some variation exists, because humans may have different numbers of certain bones (eg, vertebrae and ribs). (
  • The lumbar vertebrae are the largest movable bones of the backbone. (
  • Vertebrae are classified as irregular bones due to their complex shape. (
  • The fifth lumbar vertebra is by far the most common site of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. (
  • At each stage of compression, a radiograph of the specimen was recorded, and the bulging of the end-plate into the caudal vertebra was measured using a displacement transducer. (
  • Caudal steroid injections should only be used for patients with leg pain of sacral origin or in whom direct access to the lumbar region is impossible. (
  • abstract = "A butterfly vertebra is a congenital anomaly often associated with a series of syndromic diseases and is often recognized incidentally without any presenting symptoms. (
  • They are situated in front of the articular processes instead of behind them as in the thoracic vertebrae, and are homologous with the ribs. (
  • Lumbar disorders that normally affect L5 will affect L4 or L6 in these latter individuals. (
  • End-Plate Displacement During Compression of Lumbar Vertebra. (
  • Wobbler syndrome occurs when malformation of the cervical vertebrae results in spinal canal narrowing and cervical spinal cord compression. (
  • They presented with symptoms and signs due to cord compression at the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. (
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of relaxometry in human lumbar vertebrae required for the correction of fat fraction measurements using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. (
  • Such information provides error estimates and guidance regarding reliability for future studies.STUDY TYPE: Prospective.SUBJECTS: Forty-six healthy volunteers (22 female [f], 24 male [m]) participated in this study.FIELD STRENGTH: All subjects underwent three consecutive multi-TE/multi-TRMR spectroscopy measurements at 3 Tesla.ASSESSMENT: A total of 2580 spectra of lumbar vertebrae L2 and L3 of 43 subjects (21f, 22m) were quantified using jMRUI software. (
  • Lumbar spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower part of your back. (
  • Isolated fracture of a single thoracic or lumbar vertebra, classified as type A2 or A3 according to the AOSpine classification. (
  • Le présent article décrit les manifestations cliniques, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la schistosomiase médullaire chez cinq patients admis dans les hôpitaux Shaab et Ibn Khaldoun de Khartoum entre 1997 et 2007. (
  • The adjacent figure depicts the general characteristics of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae. (
  • This double-life size model depicts two thoracic vertebrae with the integrated rib ends and costovertebral articulations. (
  • The maximum lumbar angle did not increase compared to the light box condition. (
  • BACKGROUND: MR spectroscopy is widely used for fat fraction quantification of human lumbar vertebrae. (
  • Neumayer, B, Widek, T , Stollberger, R & Scheurer, E 2017, ' Reproducibility of relaxometry of human lumbar vertebrae at 3 Tesla usingH MR spectroscopy ', Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging . (
  • The human backbone is a column of 33 total vertebrae, of which 24 are movable and free (the remainder are fused). (
  • Diagnostic evaluations should include thin-slice CT scan to assist in planning the most restricted/conservative en-bloc surgical resection while preserving vertebral stability with facet preservation, and thus avoiding instrumented fusions. (
  • Cadaver lumbar vertebrae (L2 to L4) were removed from four adults. (
  • They are horizontal in the upper three lumbar vertebrae and incline a little upward in the lower two. (
  • The lumbar vertebrae help support the weight of the body, and permit movement. (
  • The vertebral body of each lumbar vertebra is kidney shaped, wider from side to side than from front to back, and a little thicker in front than in back. (
  • The mammillary is connected in the lumbar region with the back part of the superior articular process. (
  • These vertebrae receive the most stress and are the weight-bearing portion of the back. (
  • I went to a chiropractor last summer for pain in my lower back and he told me I had a 6th lumbar vertebrae, (I guess meaning 2 tailbones) and he said it could cause more pain during pregnancy for some and my doctor tells me not to worry. (
  • If you have lumbar spinal stenosis, you may have trouble walking distances or find that you need to lean forward to ease pressure on your lower back. (
  • In the upper lumbar region the lamina are taller than wide but in the lower lumbar vertebra the lamina are wider than tall. (
  • ASSESSMENT: A total of 2580 spectra of lumbar vertebrae L2 and L3 of 43 subjects (21f, 22m) were quantified using jMRUI software. (
  • This detailed lumbar spinal model is a fully articulating model of L1 through L5, including a herniated disc shown between L3 and L4. (
  • pain in cervical vertebrae. (
  • Lumbar sympathetic blocks are more appropriate for evaluating and treating complex regional pain syndromes, as they provide a more selective evaluation by providing a discrete sympathetic block. (
  • A complete set of the lumbar vertebrae from a single individual. (