Low Back Pain
Physical Therapy Modalities
Intervertebral Disc Displacement
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Range of Motion, Articular
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Physical Therapy Specialty
Exercise Movement Techniques
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Activities of Daily Living
Recovery of Function
Work Capacity Evaluation
Referral and Consultation
Severity of Illness Index
Reproducibility of Results
Myofascial Pain Syndromes
Spinal Nerve Roots
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Primary Health Care
Quality of Life
Return to Work
Muscle Stretching Exercises
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Electric Stimulation Therapy
The relationship between submaximal activity of the lumbar extensor muscles and lumbar posteroanterior stiffness. (1/2247)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some patients with low back pain are thought to have increased lumbar posteroanterior (PA) stiffness. Increased activity of the lumbar extensors could contribute to this stiffness. This activity may be seen when a PA force is applied and is thought to represent much less force than occurs with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Although MVCs of the lumbar extensors are known to increase lumbar PA stiffness, the effect of small amounts of voluntary contraction is not known. In this study, the effect of varying amounts of voluntary isometric muscle activity of the lumbar extensors on lumbar PA stiffness was examined. SUBJECTS: Twenty subjects without low back pain, aged 26 to 45 years (X=34, SD=5.6), participated in the study. METHODS: Subjects were asked to perform an isometric MVC of their lumbar extensor muscles with their pelvis fixed by exerting a force against a steel plate located over their T4 spinous process. They were then asked to perform contractions generating force equivalent to 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of that obtained with an MVC. Posteroanterior stiffness at L4 was measured during these contractions. RESULTS: A Friedman one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures demonstrated a difference in PA stiffness among all levels of muscle activity. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Voluntary contraction of the lumbar extensor muscles will result in an increase in lumbar PA stiffness even at low levels of activity. (+info)
SF 36 health survey questionnaire: I. Reliability in two patient based studies. (2/2247)OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire in two patient populations. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire followed up, if necessary, by two reminders at two week intervals. Retest questionnaires were administered postally at two weeks in the first study and at one week in the second study. SETTING: Outpatient clinics and four training general practices in Grampian region in the north east of Scotland (study 1); a gastroenterology outpatient clinic in Aberdeen Royal Hospitals Trust (study 2). PATIENTS: 1787 patients presenting with one of four conditions: low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, and varicose veins and identified between March and June 1991 (study 1) and 573 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic in April 1993. MAIN MEASURES: Assessment of internal consistency reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and of test-retest reliability with the Pearson correlation coefficient and confidence interval analysis. RESULTS: In study 1, 1317 of 1746 (75.4%) correctly identified patients entered the study and in study 2, 549 of 573 (95.8%). Both methods of assessing reliability produced similar results for most of the SF 36 scales. The most conservative estimates of reliability gave 95% confidence intervals for an individual patient's score difference ranging from -19 to 19 for the scales measuring physical functioning and general health perceptions, to -65.7 to 65.7 for the scale measuring role limitations attributable to emotional problems. In a controlled clinical trial with sample sizes of 65 patients in each group, statistically significant differences of 20 points can be detected on all eight SF 36 scales. CONCLUSIONS: All eight scales of the SF 36 questionnaire show high reliability when used to monitor health in groups of patients, and at least four scales possess adequate reliability for use in managing individual patients. Further studies are required to test the feasibility of implementing the SF 36 and other outcome measures in routine clinical practice within the health service. (+info)
SF 36 health survey questionnaire: II. Responsiveness to changes in health status in four common clinical conditions. (3/2247)OBJECTIVE: To assess the responsiveness of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire to changes in health status over time for four common clinical conditions. DESIGN: Postal questionnaires at baseline and after one year's follow up, with two reminders at two week intervals if necessary. SETTING: Clinics and four training general practices in Grampian region in the north east of Scotland. PATIENTS: More than 1,700 patients aged 16 to 86 years with one of four conditions: low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, and varicose veins; and a random sample of 900 members of the local general population for comparison. MAIN MEASURES: A transition question measuring change in health and the eight scales of the SF 36 health survey questionnaire; standardised response means (mean change in score for a scale divided by the standard deviation of the change in scores) used to quantify the instrument's responsiveness to changes in perceived health status, and comparison of patient scores at baseline and follow up with those of the general population. RESULTS: The response rate exceeded 75% in a patient population. Changes across the SF 36 questionnaire were associated with self reported changes in health, as measured by the transition question. The questionnaire showed significant improvements in health status for all four clinical conditions, whether in referred or non-referred patients. For patients with suspected peptic ulcer and varicose veins the SF 36 profiles at one year approximate to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of the responsiveness of the SF 36 questionnaire to changes in perceived health status in a patient population in the United Kingdom. (+info)
An interactive videodisc program for low back pain patients. (4/2247)Decisions about back pain treatment are often made in the presence of both physician and patient uncertainty. Therefore, we developed a computerized, interactive video program to help patients make informed decisions about undergoing low back surgery. Program development was guided by the shared decision-making model, a comprehensive literature synthesis, information from administrative databases, and focus groups of patients and physicians. Core segments are tailored to each patient's age and diagnosis; and include a narrative, excerpts from patient interviews, animated graphics illustrating spinal anatomy, and tabular summaries of the benefits and risks of both surgical and non-surgical treatment. As part of a multifocal information dissemination effort, interactive videodiscs were placed in five medical facilities in two Washington State counties. Patients (N = 239) who viewed the video program completed short evaluation forms. The majority rated the video's understandability (84%) and interest (64%) as very good or excellent. Most patients felt the amount of information provided was appropriate (75%) and over half (56%) believed the discussion of surgical versus non-surgical treatment was completely balanced. Fewer patients (17%) remained undecided about therapy after watching the program than before (29%). We conclude that interactive videodisc technology offers substantial promise as a means of involving patients in their own medical decision making. (+info)
Extradural inflammation associated with annular tears: demonstration with gadolinium-enhanced lumbar spine MRI. (5/2247)Annular tears are manifest on MRI as the high-intensity zone (HIZ) or as annular enhancement. Patients with annular tears may experience low back pain with radiation into the lower limb in the absence of nerve root compression. Inflammation of nerve roots from leak of degenerative nuclear material through full-thickness annular tears is a proposed mechanism for such leg pain. The aim of this study is to illustrate the appearance of extradural enhancement adjacent to annular tears in patients being investigated for low back pain with radiation into the lower limb(s). Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and axial T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained in eight patients being investigated for low back and leg pain. In all patients, the T1-weighted sequences were repeated following intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Annular tears were identified at 12 sites in eight patients. Extradural inflammation appeared as a region of intermediate signal intensity replacing the fat between the posterior disc margin and the theca, which enhanced following Gd-DTPA. The inflammatory change was always associated with an annular tear, and in four cases directly involved the nerve root. Enhancement of the nerve root was seen in two cases. The findings may be relevant in the diagnosis of chemical radiculopathy secondary to inflammation at the site of an annular leak from a degenerating disc. (+info)
The prevalence of low back pain in adults: a methodological review of the literature. (6/2247)The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) has been reported in the literature for different populations. Methodological differences among studies and lack of methodological rigor have made it difficult to draw conclusions from these studies. A systematic review was done for adult community prevalence studies of LBP published from 1981 to 1998. The technique of capture-recapture was performed to estimate the completeness of the search strategy used. Established guidelines and a methodological scoring system were used to critically appraise the studies. Thirteen studies were deemed methodologically acceptable. Differences in the duration of LBP used in the studies appeared to affect the prevalence rates reported and explain much of the variation seen. It was estimated that the point prevalence rate in North America is 5.6%. Further studies using superior methods are needed, however, before this estimate can be used with confidence to make health care policies and decisions relating to physical therapy. (+info)
Prognostic factors for chronic disability from acute low-back pain in occupational health care. (7/2247)OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine the prognostic indicators of low-back pain in an occupational health setting. METHODS: The identification of prognostic factors of (i) functional disability after 3 months' follow-up, (ii) functional disability after 12 months' follow-up, and (iii) time to return to work among 120 workers who reported to an occupational health unit and were off work with low-back pain for at least 10 days. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the 3 outcome measures. RESULTS: Factors related to a longer time to return to work were radiating pain, high functional disability at the beginning of the study, problems in relations with colleagues, and high work tempo and work quantity. High functional disability at the beginning of the study and a high avoidance coping style predicted functional disability at 3 months. Functional disability at 12 months was more accurately predicted by work-related and psychosocial factors. CONCLUSIONS: Especially radiating pain and functional disability predict a long duration of low-back pain in occupational health practice. Occupational physicians should also note work-related and psychosocial characteristics. (+info)
Maximizing use of a surgical clinic for referrals of patients having back problems. (8/2247)OBJECTIVE: To determine ways to improve the delivery of service in a surgical clinic, based on the outcome of surgical consultations for back pain. DESIGN: A prospective outcome study. SETTING: A university teaching hospital providing secondary and tertiary care. PATIENTS: One hundred and forty-two consecutive patients who presented to surgical clinics for assessment of a back problem between Apr. 14 and May 30, 1996. INTERVENTIONS: Surgeons determined the diagnosis and visit outcome; data were tabulated objectively by a third-party researcher. OUTCOME MEASURES: Waiting time for consultation, presence of referral letter, third-party interests, diagnosis and visit outcome. RESULTS: Twenty-five percent of patients had chronic pain not amenable to surgery, 19% of patients were surgical candidates and were offered an operation, 13% were symptomatically improved to the point of not wanting an operation, 11% wanted a second opinion only, 10% had mechanical back pain appropriate for referral to physiotherapy, 9% had not undergone an adequate trial of nonoperative treatment when seen in the clinic and were given follow-up appointments, 5% were "no shows," 3.5% were seen for a medicolegal assessment, 3.5% wanted confirmation from a specialist that they did not need surgery and 1% had symptoms due to a vascular rather than a spinal cause and were referred to a vascular surgeon. CONCLUSION: Delivery of service could be improved by more rigorous screening to reassign appointment times of patients who have not had an adequate trial of nonoperative treatment, are improved or do not intend to keep their appointment. (+info)
The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:
1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.
The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.
Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.
Prevention strategies for LBP include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.
There are many different types of back pain, including:
1. Lower back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine and can be caused by strained muscles or ligaments, herniated discs, or other factors.
2. Upper back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracic spine and can be caused by muscle strain, poor posture, or other factors.
3. Middle back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracolumbar junction and can be caused by muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
4. Lower left back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the left side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
5. Lower right back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the right side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
There are many different causes of back pain, including:
1. Muscle strain: This occurs when the muscles in the back are overstretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out and puts pressure on the surrounding nerves.
3. Structural problems: This includes conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, which can cause back pain due to the abnormal curvature of the spine.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory myopathies, and ankylosing spondylitis can cause back pain due to inflammation and joint damage.
5. Infections: Infections such as shingles, osteomyelitis, and abscesses can cause back pain by irritating the nerves or causing inflammation in the spine.
6. Trauma: Traumatic injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and compression fractures can cause back pain due to damage to the vertebrae, muscles, and other tissues.
7. Poor posture: Prolonged sitting or standing in a position that puts strain on the back can lead to back pain over time.
8. Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the back, leading to back pain.
9. Smoking: Smoking can reduce blood flow to the discs and other tissues in the spine, leading to degeneration and back pain.
10. Sedentary lifestyle: A lack of physical activity can lead to weak muscles and a poor posture, which can contribute to back pain.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms with your back pain:
1. Numbness or tingling in the legs or feet
2. Weakness in the legs or feet
3. Loss of bladder or bowel control
4. Fever and chills
5. Severe headache or stiff neck
6. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
These symptoms could indicate a more serious condition, such as a herniated disc or spinal infection, that requires prompt medical treatment.
There are many different types of chronic pain, including:
1. Musculoskeletal pain: This type of pain affects the muscles, bones, and joints, and can be caused by injuries, arthritis, or other conditions.
2. Nerve pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
3. Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS): This is a chronic pain condition that typically affects one limb and is characterized by burning, aching, or shooting pain.
4. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
5. Cancer pain: This type of pain is caused by cancer or its treatment, and can be severe and debilitating.
6. Postoperative pain: This type of pain is caused by surgery and can vary in severity depending on the type of procedure and individual's response to pain.
7. Pelvic pain: This type of pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
8. Headache disorders: This type of pain can include migraines, tension headaches, and other types of headaches that are severe and recurring.
Chronic pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to work, sleep, and participate in activities they enjoy. It can also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and depression.
There are many treatment options for chronic pain, including medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies like acupuncture and massage. It's important to work with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses the underlying cause of the pain and helps improve function and quality of life.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is persistent and ongoing, lasting more than 3 months. Acute pain is typically treated with medication, physical therapy, or other forms of therapy aimed at managing the underlying cause. In some cases, acute pain may be a symptom of an underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Here are some examples of acute pain:
1. Post-surgical pain: Pain that occurs after surgery is a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is usually managed with pain medication and subsides as the body heals.
2. Injury pain: Pain that occurs as a result of an injury, such as a sprain or strain, is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is often treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and may also be managed with pain medication.
3. Headache pain: Some types of headaches, such as tension headaches or migraines, are examples of acute pain. These types of headaches are typically treated with over-the-counter pain medication and may also involve lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers or practicing relaxation techniques.
4. Menstrual cramps: Cramps that occur during menstruation are a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is often managed with over-the-counter pain medication and may also be treated with heat or cold therapy.
5. Childbirth pain: Pain that occurs during childbirth is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is typically managed with breathing techniques, relaxation methods, and medical pain management options such as epidural anesthesia.
In summary, acute pain is a type of pain that is sudden and lasts for a limited period of time, often resolving once the underlying cause is treated or heals. It can be managed with a variety of techniques, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
The most common cause of sciatica is a herniated disc, which occurs when the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer disc. This can put pressure on the sciatic nerve and cause pain and other symptoms. Other possible causes of sciatica include spondylolisthesis (a condition in which a vertebra slips out of place), spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), and piriformis syndrome (compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle).
Treatment for sciatica depends on the underlying cause of the symptoms. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and anti-inflammatory medications are often effective in managing symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the sciatic nerve.
The term "sciatica" is derived from the Latin word "sciare," which means "to shoot." This refers to the shooting pain that can occur in the lower back and legs when the sciatic nerve is compressed or irritated.
IVDD can occur due to various factors such as trauma, injury, degenerative disc disease, or genetic predisposition. The condition can be classified into two main types:
1. Herniated Disc (HDD): This occurs when the soft, gel-like center of the disc bulges out through a tear in the tough outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves.
2. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD): This is a condition where the disc loses its water content and becomes brittle, leading to tears and fragmentation of the disc.
Symptoms of IVDD can include:
* Back or neck pain
* Muscle spasms
* Weakness or numbness in the legs or arms
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases)
Diagnosis of IVDD is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment options for IVDD vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches such as pain medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to surgical interventions in severe cases.
In summary, Intervertebral Disc Displacement (IVDD) is a condition where the soft tissue between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine is displaced or herniated, leading to pressure on nearby nerves and potential symptoms such as back pain, muscle spasms, and weakness. It can be classified into two main types: Herniated Disc and Degenerative Disc Disease, and diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches to surgical interventions.
There are many different types of back injuries that can occur, including:
1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the back are stretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
3. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the spinal discs wear down over time and lose their cushioning ability, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra in the spine slips out of place, which can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
5. Fractures: These are breaks in one or more of the bones in the back, which can be caused by trauma or overuse.
6. Spinal cord injuries: These are injuries that affect the spinal cord, either from trauma (e.g., car accidents) or from degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
7. Radiculopathy: This is a condition where a compressed nerve root in the back can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms or legs.
Treatment for back injuries depends on the specific type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated back injuries can lead to chronic pain and decreased mobility.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
There are several types of neck pain, including:
* Acute neck pain: This is a sudden onset of pain in the neck, often caused by an injury or strain.
* Chronic neck pain: This is persistent pain in the neck that lasts for more than 3 months.
* Mechanical neck pain: This is pain caused by misalignment or degeneration of the spinal bones and joints in the neck.
* Non-mechanical neck pain: This is pain that is not caused by a specific structural problem, but rather by factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, or pinched nerves.
Neck pain can be treated with a variety of methods, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on nerves
* Massage therapy to relax muscles and improve circulation
* Lifestyle changes such as improving posture, losing weight, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch.
It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration may include:
* Back pain
* Neck pain
* Stiffness in the back and neck
* Limited range of motion
* Muscle spasms
* Tingling or numbness in the arms or legs
Treatment for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to remove the damaged disc and fuse the adjacent vertebrae together.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the condition and prevent further damage.
Source: "Pain, Referred." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017.
* Endometriosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and bleeding.
* Adenomyosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and heavy bleeding.
* Fibroids: noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility.
* Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
* Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe pain and bleeding.
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause pain, fever, and infertility.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a condition that affects the large intestine and can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
* Interstitial cystitis: a chronic bladder condition that can cause pain and frequency of urination.
* Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, fever, and infertility.
Pelvic pain can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options for pelvic pain depend on the underlying cause and can include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.
Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:
* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.
Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.
Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.
It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.
Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.
In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.
Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:
* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.
Symptoms of spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain in the neck, back, or legs that worsens with walking or standing
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty controlling bladder or bowel functions
* Muscle weakness in the legs
Treatment for spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain medications
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Injections of steroids or pain relievers
* Surgery to remove bone spurs or decompress the spinal cord
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of spinal stenosis worsen over time, as untreated condition can lead to permanent nerve damage and disability.
Musculoskeletal pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform daily activities and enjoy leisure time. It can also lead to sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased productivity. Treatment options for musculoskeletal pain vary depending on the underlying cause but may include physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management.
The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.
Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.
The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.
The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.
Some common causes of shoulder pain include:
1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.
These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of FBSS can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they often include chronic low back pain, numbness, tingling, weakness in the legs, and difficulty walking or standing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or MRI scans, and other diagnostic tests.
Treatment for FBSS often involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include physical therapy, pain management, and other interventions to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the failed back surgery.
It is important for patients who have undergone back surgery and are experiencing persistent pain or disability to discuss their symptoms with their healthcare provider, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of further complications.
Symptoms of spondylolisthesis may include:
* Back pain
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the lower back
* Pain or numbness in the buttocks, thighs, or legs
* Difficulty maintaining a straight posture
* Muscle spasms
Spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for the condition may include:
* Conservative methods such as physical therapy, exercise, and pain management
* Medications such as muscle relaxants or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Spinal fusion surgery to stabilize the spine and correct the slippage
* Other surgical procedures to relieve pressure on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent back pain or stiffness, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the condition.
The causes of abdominal pain are numerous and can include:
1. Gastrointestinal disorders: Ulcers, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and appendicitis.
2. Infections: Urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
3. Obstruction: Blockages in the intestines or other hollow organs.
4. Pancreatic disorders: Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
5. Kidney stones or other kidney disorders.
6. Liver disease: Hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.
7. Hernias: Inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, and hiatal hernia.
8. Splenic disorders: Enlarged spleen, splenic rupture, and splenectomy.
9. Cancer: Colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer.
10. Reproductive system disorders: Ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, and testicular torsion.
The symptoms of abdominal pain can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Localized or generalized pain in the abdomen
* Cramping or sharp pain
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fever and chills
* Abdominal tenderness or guarding (muscle tension)
Abdominal pain can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans
3. Blood tests and urinalysis
4. Endoscopy and laparoscopy
Treatment for abdominal pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Medications such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and pain relievers
2. Surgery to repair hernias or remove tumors
3. Endoscopy to remove blockages or treat ulcers
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy
5. Lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of radiculopathy, including:
1. Cervical radiculopathy: This type affects the neck and arm region and is often caused by a herniated disk or degenerative changes in the spine.
2. Thoracic radiculopathy: This type affects the chest and abdominal regions and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
3. Lumbar radiculopathy: This type affects the lower back and leg region and is often caused by a herniated disk, spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes in the spine.
4. Sacral radiculopathy: This type affects the pelvis and legs and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the location and severity of the nerve compression. They may include:
1. Pain in the affected area, which can be sharp or dull and may be accompanied by numbness, tingling, or weakness.
2. Numbness or tingling sensations in the skin of the affected limb.
3. Weakness in the affected muscles, which can make it difficult to move the affected limb or perform certain activities.
4. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
5. Tremors or spasms in the affected muscles.
6. Decreased reflexes in the affected area.
7. Difficulty with bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).
Treatment for radiculopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes may be effective in managing symptoms and improving function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve root.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of radiculopathy, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.
These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.
The prevalence of OAS increases with age, affecting approximately 60% of people over the age of 65. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, joint injuries, and degenerative conditions such as scoliosis or spondylolisthesis.
The symptoms of OAS can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the specific location of the affected joints. Common symptoms include:
Back pain: Pain in the back, which can radiate to the buttocks, thighs, or arms
Stiffness: Limited mobility and rigidity in the spine
Limited range of motion: Decreased flexibility and ability to move the spine
Muscle spasms: Involuntary contractions of the muscles in the back
Decreased height: Compression fractures or loss of disc height can cause the spine to curve or shrink, leading to a decreased height.
The diagnosis of OAS is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment for OAS typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the condition. Conservative treatments may include:
Medications: Pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
Physical therapy: Exercise and stretching to improve flexibility and strength
Lifestyle modifications: Maintaining a healthy weight, bracing, and good posture
Injections: Corticosteroid injections or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy
Surgery: In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure on the spine, stabilize the joints, or fuse vertebrae together.
It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of OAS, as early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition.
* Headaches or migraines
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
* Eye problems (e.g., conjunctivitis, styes)
* Infections (e.g., colds, flu)
* Injuries or trauma
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
The types of facial pain include:
* Constant pain: Pain that is present all the time and does not change in intensity.
* Intermittent pain: Pain that comes and goes and may be triggered by specific activities or stimuli.
* Sharp pain: Pain that is sudden and stabbing.
* Dull pain: Pain that is ongoing and aching.
* Throbbing pain: Pain that is pulsing or beating, often with a rhythmic pattern.
The causes of facial pain can vary depending on the location and severity of the pain. Some common causes include:
* Muscle tension or spasm
* Nerve irritation or compression
* Inflammation or infection
* Injury or trauma to the face
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
The diagnosis of facial pain is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for facial pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications (e.g., pain relievers, antibiotics), lifestyle changes (e.g., avoiding triggers), or surgical intervention (e.g., to remove a tumor).
Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome include:
* Pain in specific areas of the body, such as the neck, back, or limbs
* Pain that is worse with movement or activity
* Muscle stiffness and limited range of motion
* Trigger points, which are areas of hypersensitivity within the muscle that can cause pain when stimulated
* Poor posture or gait
* Decreased strength and endurance
Treatment for myofascial pain syndrome typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management strategies, and self-care techniques. Physical therapy may include stretching exercises, myofascial release techniques, and other modalities to help relieve pain and improve range of motion. Pain management strategies may include medication, injections, or alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. Self-care techniques can also be helpful, such as heat or cold applications, relaxation techniques, and good posture.
The prognosis for myofascial pain syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, with appropriate treatment and self-care, many people are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, in some cases, the condition can be challenging to treat and may require ongoing management.
Overall, myofascial pain syndrome is a common and often misunderstood condition that can cause significant pain and disability. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, many people are able to find relief and improve their quality of life.
There are different types of spondylosis, including:
1. Cervical spondylosis: affects the neck area
2. Thoracic spondylosis: affects the chest area
3. Lumbar spondylosis: affects the lower back
4. Sacroiliac spondylosis: affects the pelvis and lower back
Spondylosis can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Aging - wear and tear on the spine over time
2. Injury - trauma to the spine, such as a fall or a car accident
3. Overuse - repetitive strain on the spine, such as from heavy lifting or bending
4. Genetics - some people may be more prone to developing spondylosis due to their genetic makeup
5. Degenerative conditions - conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative disc disease can contribute to the development of spondylosis.
Symptoms of spondylosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Pain - in the neck, back, or other areas affected by the condition
2. Stiffness - limited mobility and reduced flexibility
3. Limited range of motion - difficulty moving or bending
4. Muscle spasms - sudden, involuntary contractions of the muscles
5. Tenderness - pain or discomfort in the affected area when touched
Treatment for spondylosis depends on the severity and location of the condition, but may include:
1. Medications - such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
2. Physical therapy - exercises and stretches to improve mobility and reduce pain
3. Lifestyle changes - such as regular exercise, good posture, and weight management
4. Injections - corticosteroid or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
5. Surgery - in severe cases where other treatments have not been effective.
It's important to note that spondylosis is a degenerative condition, which means it cannot be cured, but with proper management and treatment, symptoms can be effectively managed and quality of life can be improved.
Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
* Loss of sensation below the level of the injury
* Weakness or paralysis below the level of the injury
* Pain or numbness in the back, arms, or legs
* Difficulty breathing or controlling bladder and bowel functions
* Changes in reflexes or sensation below the level of the injury.
Spinal injuries can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays or CT scans to assess the alignment of the spine and detect any fractures or dislocations
* MRI scans to assess the soft tissues of the spine and detect any damage to the spinal cord
* Electromyography (EMG) tests to assess the function of muscles and nerves below the level of the injury.
Treatment for spinal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include:
* Immobilization using a brace or cast to keep the spine stable
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms
* Rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and recreational therapy to help restore function and mobility.
In summary, spinal injuries can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Symptoms may include loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis, pain, difficulty breathing, and changes in reflexes or sensation. Diagnosis is typically made using X-rays, MRI scans, and EMG tests, and treatment may involve immobilization, medications, and rehabilitation therapies.
The word "arthralgia" comes from the Greek words "arthron," meaning joint, and "algos," meaning pain. It is often used interchangeably with the term "joint pain," but arthralgia specifically refers to a type of pain that is not caused by inflammation or injury.
Arthralgia can manifest in different ways, including:
1. Aching or dull pain in one or more joints
2. Sharp or stabbing pain in one or more joints
3. Pain that worsens with movement or weight-bearing activity
4. Pain that improves with rest
5. Pain that is localized to one joint or multiple joints
6. Pain that is accompanied by stiffness or limited range of motion
7. Pain that is worse in the morning or after periods of rest
8. Pain that is triggered by certain activities or movements
The diagnosis of arthralgia typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment for arthralgia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or other interventions.
There are several theories about what might cause fibromyalgia, including:
1. Overactive nerve endings: Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia may have overactive nerve endings that amplify pain signals.
2. Hormonal imbalance: Hormones such as cortisol and serotonin play a role in regulating pain and mood, and some studies suggest that hormonal imbalances might contribute to fibromyalgia.
3. Infections: Some research suggests that fibromyalgia may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, although more research is needed to confirm this theory.
4. Genetics: Fibromyalgia tends to run in families, which suggests that there may be a genetic component to the condition.
5. Environmental factors: Trauma, stress, and other environmental factors may also play a role in the development of fibromyalgia.
There is no single test for diagnosing fibromyalgia, and doctors must use a combination of physical examination, medical history, and other tests to rule out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms. Treatment for fibromyalgia typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management.
Some common symptoms of fibromyalgia include:
* Widespread muscle pain and stiffness
* Fatigue and decreased energy
* Tender points on the body (areas that are painful to the touch)
* Brain fog and cognitive difficulties (such as memory loss and difficulty concentrating)
* Sleep disturbances (including insomnia and restless sleep)
* Headaches and migraines
* Digestive problems (such as irritable bowel syndrome)
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Depression and anxiety
There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Some common medications used to treat fibromyalgia include:
* Pain relievers (such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
* Anti-seizure medications (which can help reduce pain and improve sleep)
* Antidepressants (which can help with mood issues and improve sleep)
* Muscle relaxants (which can help reduce muscle spasms and stiffness)
In addition to medication, physical therapy and lifestyle changes can also be helpful in managing fibromyalgia symptoms. These might include:
* Exercise programs that are tailored to the individual's needs and abilities
* Stress management techniques (such as meditation or yoga)
* Healthy sleep habits (such as establishing a consistent bedtime routine and avoiding caffeine and electronics before bedtime)
* A balanced diet and adequate hydration
* Massage therapy or other forms of relaxation techniques.
It's important to note that each person with fibromyalgia may respond differently to different treatments, so it may take some trial and error to find the right combination of medications and lifestyle changes that work best for an individual case. It's also important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor progress and adjust treatment plans as needed.
Discitis is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the discs in the spine, causing pain and stiffness in the neck, back, or other areas of the body. It is also known as discitis or infective discitis.
The term "discitis" comes from the Latin words "discus," meaning "disk," and "-itis," meaning "inflammation." Together, the term describes a condition where the soft, spongy tissue between the vertebrae in the spine becomes inflamed.
The condition is caused by bacterial or viral infections that enter the body through small tears in the outer layer of the disc. It can be triggered by activities such as heavy lifting, bending, or twisting, which put excessive pressure on the spine.
Symptoms of discitis may include back pain, stiffness, fever, chills, and difficulty moving or bending. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infections, as well as rest and physical therapy to help manage symptoms and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the affected disc.
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
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American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians
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Henry H. Kessler
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American Osteopathic Association Guidelines for Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) for Patients With Low Back Pain
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- An article in the European Spine Journal reported that people with severe sciatica were more likely to have disk herniation if their leg pain became worse when coughing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Sciatica is pain that results from the irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Sometimes the low back pain that radiates down into the buttocks and legs is confused with sciatica. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Sciatica, in its true form, can be caused by a herniated disc that is bulging in the lower spine. (pregnancy-info.net)
- If you have sciatica the leg pain will probably be worse than the back pain, radiating down below the knee and into the foot. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Join over 56,712 people who've erased back pain and sciatica from their lives. (losethebackpain.com)
- Acute pain may need a few days or more of rest and recovery before you begin working to build strength. (lifehack.org)
- Besides these possible physical causes for acute pain, there is also the possibility that the symptoms might be the result of a mindbody process, a neuromuscular disease, a systemic condition or other source. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Acute pain should not last long and most conditions should be noticeably better in a few days to a few weeks. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Longer lasting pain syndromes which become chronic problems, or recurrent bouts of severe acute pain, may be signs that something is amiss in the diagnostic process. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Psychosocial factors play a role in acute pain becoming chronic. (racgp.org.au)
- Nonopioid therapies are at least as effective as opioids for many common types of acute pain ( Recommendation 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Clinicians should maximize use of nonpharmacologic and nonopioid therapies as appropriate for the specific condition and patient and only consider opioid therapy for acute pain if benefits are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. (cdc.gov)
- Many acute pain conditions can often be managed most effectively with nonopioid medications. (cdc.gov)
- Noninvasive and nonpharmacologic approaches to acute pain also have the potential to improve pain and function without risk for serious harms. (cdc.gov)
- Here are some nonopioid medications and noninvasive nonpharmacologic approaches that can be used to treat acute pain. (cdc.gov)
- For additional information regarding nonopioid therapy approaches for treating acute pain, please refer to Recommendation 1 in the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline. (cdc.gov)
- This study explored the relationship between general physical activity levels and one form of acute pain, but data from other studies show a benefit for other forms of pain," said Cohen, who was not part of the research. (medscape.com)
- Acute pain is pain that has lasted for less than a month and has a known cause, like an injury, trauma, surgery, or infection. (cdc.gov)
- You may have experienced acute pain from outpatient medical procedures, like a wisdom tooth extraction, or injuries, like a broken bone. (cdc.gov)
- Acute pain normally gets better as your body heals. (cdc.gov)
- Results: Rehabilitation professionals experienced 73.7% 1-year lower back pain prevalence, 52.5% intense pain that lasted ≥ 1 day, 22.4% chronic lower back pain, 23.9% sick-leave-seeking lower back pain and 18.5% medical-care-seeking lower back pain. (who.int)
- Conclusion: Prevalence of lower back pain was high among rehabilitation professionals, with a high impact on activities of daily living. (who.int)
- To estimate the prevalence of low back pain among adolescents. (bvsalud.org)
- A high prevalence of low back pain was found in the study group without gender differences regarding pain characteristics. (bvsalud.org)
- BACKGROUND Low back pain (LBP) is a healthcare problem with high global prevalence, with non-operative management being the first line of treatment in the majority of patients. (who.int)
- Low back pain (LBP) has been recognised as a common occupational problem with a high prevalence among work -related musculoskeletal disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- Prevalence, recognition of work-relatedness, and effect on work of low back pain among U.S. workers. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of all 3 outcomes was lowest among workers employed in computer and mathematical occupations. (cdc.gov)
- This position can put stress on the lower back and may displace the vertebrae, or spinal bones, making lower back pain worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Spinal stenosis can also cause numbness or cramping pain in the lower back and legs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To reduce the effects of spinal stenosis, a person can try exercising to build up the muscles in the back to help support and strengthen it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Common spinal disorders, such as facet joint syndrome or sacroiliac joint dysfunction , can be exacerbated by golfing and result in additional dull pain below the lower back. (spine-health.com)
- It is scientifically explained that acupuncture needle points stimulate the nervous system releasing chemicals to the muscles of the spinal cord and brain resulting in pain relief for the back. (articlebiz.com)
- Researchers for a study published in the Journal of Musculoskeletal Research found that aquatic therapy provided better short-term improvement for both pain and functioning than conventional therapy in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis - an age-related condition causing the spinal canal to narrow and put pressure on the spinal cord. (aquaticsintl.com)
- Chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP) is defined as pain or discomfort originating from the waist, which lasts for at least 12 weeks, but no radiculopathy or specific spinal diseases. (iasp-pain.org)
- Pain Reduction and Posture Alignment Improvement in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Novel Approach Using Spinal Thermal Massage Bed and Calf Pneumatic Cell Compression. (bvsalud.org)
- The stooped posture, waddling gait, lumbar pain, and pain induced by spinal percussion are the result of skeletal changes and deformities. (cdc.gov)
- In pregnancy, kidney pain can generate low back pain that manifests as tenderness and discomfort in the lower back and around the abdomen. (pregnancy-info.net)
- If you have a UTI, your symptoms will include discomfort while urinating, blood in the urine, excessive urination, pain in the region of the bladder, cramping and pain in the lower abdomen and pain during intercourse. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Although this pain or discomfort can happen anywhere in your back, the most common area affected is your lower back. (medlineplus.gov)
- It may be that you are not directly able to pinpoint or verbally specify where your back pain or discomfort originates. (lifehack.org)
- Be mindful of how new your injury or pain discomfort seems to be. (lifehack.org)
- Directly focusing on lower back muscles and connections in the body is essential for proper recovery from pain, injury, or general discomfort. (lifehack.org)
- Pregnancy discomfort consisting of pelvic and lower back pain are also treated effectively with acupuncture. (articlebiz.com)
- Prolonged standing at work has been shown to be associated with a number of potentially serious health outcomes, such as lower back and leg pain, cardiovascular problems, fatigue, discomfort, and pregnancy-related health outcomes. (cdc.gov)
- Low back pain from a weak transversus abdominis may coincide with a slouched posture, weak balance, or a bulge in the stomach when performing abdominal exercises. (spine-health.com)
- Your provider will try to determine the cause of your back pain and whether it is likely to quickly get better with simple measures such as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. (medlineplus.gov)
- Spending your Friday evening doing back strengthening exercises may not catch your attention with ease. (lifehack.org)
- You might read through these exercises for strengthening your back and think, "Hmm. (lifehack.org)
- We have a list of back strengthening exercises just for that purpose. (lifehack.org)
- Selecting and regularly completing yoga-style exercises can help you care for your lower back and its surrounding muscle partners. (lifehack.org)
- Take your time working through these 12 back strengthening exercises. (lifehack.org)
- A machine designed for back exercises was also used by the particpants and appeared to have some beneficial effects. (hcplive.com)
- Effects of underwater lumbar traction with aquatic exercises for chronic low back pain clients. (aquaticsintl.com)
- Exercises for Lower Back Pain? (indianapolisfitnessandsportstraining.com)
- There really aren't exercises specifically for lower back pain regardless of what you have heard or read. (indianapolisfitnessandsportstraining.com)
- The lumbar spine and low back pain in golf: a literature review of swing biomechanics and injury prevention. (spine-health.com)
- The low back area, commonly referred to as the lumbar spine , has a sinister reputation as a problematic region. (cure-back-pain.org)
- The lower lumbar spine is tender to percussion, but the patient does not complain of pain on straight leg raising. (cdc.gov)
- Resting for too long can cause the muscles in the back to tighten, which may worsen the pain . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The natural inward curve of the lower back can deepen when core muscles are strained. (spine-health.com)
- Weaker core and pelvic muscles that are the source of low back pain can be identified by accompanying symptoms. (spine-health.com)
- The sudden pain may be described as sharp or stabbing, and is usually a result of overworked muscles. (spine-health.com)
- Pain in the middle or upper back may be related to an overworked erector spinae, a set of 3 muscles that start near the sacrum and run upward along the sides of the vertebral column. (spine-health.com)
- Acute low back pain is most often caused by a sudden injury to the muscles and ligaments supporting the back. (medlineplus.gov)
- The pain may be caused by muscle spasms or a strain or tear in the muscles and ligaments. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is important to prevent your back and abdominal muscles from becoming too weak. (medlineplus.gov)
- Yet, working to develop and maintain the muscles in your lower back can help make your favorite weekend activities more enjoyable. (lifehack.org)
-  Your body may need a few gentle reminders each week to help get your muscles and joints back into pain-free cooperation with one another. (lifehack.org)
- Working with your lower back muscles can help your body be better equipped to handle the unexpected. (lifehack.org)
- Specifically focusing on afflicted back muscles when training, can help those suffering from back pain experience better results, according to study results published in the Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. (hcplive.com)
- If you want to bring about physiological change to help the development and endurance of back muscles, you must focus your training on those specific muscles and not other muscular groups such as hip extensors,' said study conductor Christian LariviÃ¨re, a professor at the Institut de recherche Robert-SauvÃ© en santÃ© et en sÃ©curitÃ© du travail (IRSST). (hcplive.com)
- Researchers said the machine helps decrease the use of hip muscles and increase the use of back muscles. (hcplive.com)
- The procedure relaxes the body muscles relieving lower back pain while stimulating the body to heal itself. (articlebiz.com)
- For someone with joint or low-back pain, water exercise can help strengthen muscles without putting stress on the joints. (aquaticsintl.com)
- The psoas muscle gets a lot of attention too because tight hip flexor muscles (on the front side of your hip) get blamed for back pain as well. (indianapolisfitnessandsportstraining.com)
- Posterior pelvic pain is the type of pain symptoms most pregnant women feel in their low back. (pregnancy-info.net)
- The difference between the pain from a UTI and that of a kidney infection lies in the degree of pain (which is severe with a kidney infection), along with accompanying symptoms of fever, vomiting, chills, increased urination, pain while urinating and blood in the urine. (pregnancy-info.net)
- You may feel a variety of symptoms if you have hurt your back. (medlineplus.gov)
- This will help relieve your symptoms and reduce any swelling in the area of the pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- The reason is most of the treatments that patients with back pain receive only address the symptoms. (losethebackpain.com)
- And while treating the symptoms can provide some pain relief, it is often only temporary. (losethebackpain.com)
- In fact, for many cases of intractable gut-wrenching back ache, the symptoms may be completely idiopathic in nature or sourced from a minor and transient injury or other structural concern. (cure-back-pain.org)
- The diversity of low back symptoms experienced can range greatly, depending on the particular patient and the true underlying causative condition. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Getting stressed out over the pain and fearing for your future will only worsen the symptoms and extend their duration. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Do self-reported psychosocial working conditions predict low back pain after adjustment for both physical work load and depressive symptoms? (bmj.com)
- Objectives To investigate whether psychosocial working conditions predict the development of low back pain (LBP) in female eldercare workers while adjusting for physical workload and depressive symptoms. (bmj.com)
- However, low and medium influence at work predicted risk for LBP for more than 30 days after adjustment for both physical workload and depressive symptoms. (bmj.com)
- The symptoms of low potassium are: headaches, dizziness/shaky or faint feeling, blurred or strange vision, the chills, diarrhea or vomiting, shallow breathing or feeling you can't quite catch your breath, cramping in the arms, legs or tummy. (medications.com)
- Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a distinctive modality commonly used by osteopathic physicians to complement conventional management of musculoskeletal disorders, including those that cause low back pain (LBP). (nih.gov)
- Musculoskeletal disorders and the workplace : low back and upper extremities / Panel on Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (who.int)
- Lumbar pain is in the lumbar vertebrae region of your lower back and posterior pelvic pain is experienced at the back of your pelvis. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Women who have posterior pelvic pain often have pain over the pubic bone as well. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Outcome measures included pain level assessed by the visual analog scale , trunk and pelvic tilting angles indicating spine curvature, stress level of the autonomic nervous system , Oswestry Disability Index, and EuroQol five-dimensions QoL questionnaire . (bvsalud.org)
- satisfaction with the intervention, and no serious side effects were reported CONCLUSIONS This study provides compelling evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of combining STMB with intermittent pneumatic calf compression in reducing pain intensity and stress levels and improving trunk and pelvic tilting angles. (bvsalud.org)
- Pain around the back of your pelvis, or sacroiliac (SI) joint. (medlineplus.gov)
- Another study examined the effects of underwater lumbar traction in combination with aquatic exercise for people with chronic low back pain. (aquaticsintl.com)
- Many military veterans suffer from chronic low back pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- BACKGROUND Chronic low back pain (CLBP) significantly affects the well-being of older adults , leading to diminished quality of life and heightened stress. (bvsalud.org)
- One of the more common causes of low back pain and neck pain in pregnancy is the change in the center of gravity that comes as a result of the growing baby. (pregnancy-info.net)
- As the body tries to balance and adjust to the constantly changing dynamics, stress and strain on the joints and ligaments contribute to pain in the low back and neck pain. (pregnancy-info.net)
- The study also found similar moderate to low confidence evidence for other secondary outcomes, including serious adverse events and discontinuation from treatment, as well as a secondary analysis of medication classes. (news-medical.net)
- These charts include workers' responses to questions related to the following low back pain outcomes: Frequent, Severe Low Back Pain and Low Back Pain Attributed to Work. (cdc.gov)
- This is because the lower back supports most of your body's weight. (medlineplus.gov)
- This pain fighting formula penetrates deep into your muscle tissue and repairs damage to your body's cells - where all of your muscle pain starts. (losethebackpain.com)
- The chemicals work by changing the whole pain experience or trigger the release of other hormones and chemicals that influence the body's internal regulating system. (articlebiz.com)
- Pain Education is an intervention designed to help individuals experiencing chronic pain understand what is happening within their own body's, it aims to reconceptualize pain as a protective output of the brain rather than it being an accurate measure of tissue damage. (physio-pedia.com)
- In a 2005 systematic review conducted by Licciardone et al3 and the basis of the LBP guidelines published in 2010, it was determined that OMT reduces pain more than expected from placebo effects alone, and these results had the potential to last beyond the first year of treatment. (nih.gov)
- 2023) Comparative effectiveness and safety of analgesic medicines for adults with acute non-specific low back pain: systematic review and network meta-analysis. (news-medical.net)
- This pain is an all-over pain, felt in the low back and spine, a little above the waist with pain that can radiate down your legs. (pregnancy-info.net)
- He is recognized expert in the treatment of back pain and has been featured on both television news programs like NBC, radio programs across the US, magazines like Woman's World, Entrepreneur and on leading website like Spine-Health.com, Ediets.com and About.com. (losethebackpain.com)
- The treatment-based classification (TBC) and the recently proposed Specific Treatment for Problems of the Spine (STOPS) approach for physical therapy management of patients with low back pain are covered. (functionalmovement.com)
- Surprisingly, the majority of published data on humans goes back to the latter part of the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
- To relieve the pain of disk herniation, a person can try resting the back, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ), and applying a cloth-covered ice pack for 10 minutes several times per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Despite nearly 60 years of research, there is still a lack of high certainty evidence on the effectiveness and safety of commonly used painkillers (analgesics) for short bouts of low back pain, finds an analysis of the evidence published by The BMJ. (news-medical.net)
- The researchers say that until higher quality trials comparing analgesics with each other are published, 'clinicians and patients are advised to take a cautious approach to manage acute non-specific low back pain with analgesic medicines. (news-medical.net)
- Analgesics such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, and codeine are widely used to treat acute non-specific low back pain, defined as pain lasting less than six weeks. (news-medical.net)
- This review paper was written by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to describe the current state of knowledge regarding LBP - the causes, risk factors for LBP, effectiveness of treatments, recovery from back pain, and methods that can be used to help control the problem. (cdc.gov)
- Simple solutions to address these risk factors will prevent or reduce episodes of back pain. (spine-health.com)
- Data on different measures of lower back pain, and its consequences and risk factors were collected. (who.int)
- The identified risk factors were female gender and low supervisor support. (bvsalud.org)
Suffer from chronic1
- People who suffer from chronic or recurrent episodes of low back pain can be frustrated because the pain hinders their ability to play golf. (spine-health.com)
- During the physical exam, your provider will try to pinpoint the location of the pain and figure out how it affects your movement. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you suffer from lower back pain, or any other physical condition or injury for that matter, I am willing to bet that you have never heard these two words from the mouth of your doctor, physical therapist or other health care provider. (losethebackpain.com)
- However, most traditional physicians will still not have the insight or training to even consider that a very physical-appearing pain condition may be caused purely by a nonstructural process. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Usually pain which is caused by a physical, anatomical cause will respond well to appropriate treatment by a qualified care provider. (cure-back-pain.org)
- The basic treatment given that may include physical therapy has proved to be effective in relieving lower back pain during pregnancy and after delivery. (articlebiz.com)
- It's possible that for many cases of low back pain, participating in water exercise or physical therapy may be more beneficial than the land-based version. (aquaticsintl.com)
- Multidisciplinary rehabilitation can improve physical function and alleviate short-term and long-term pain. (iasp-pain.org)
- Background: Occupational and physical therapists are at risk of musculoskeletal pain and injuries possibly due to their work-related activities, posture and affected body mechanics. (who.int)
- Results High emotional demands, high and medium role conflicts and low influence predicted risk for reporting LBP for between 1 and 30 days in the past year at follow-up after adjustment for sociodemographics, health behaviours and physical workload. (bmj.com)
- IFAST Physical Therapy in Indianapolis offers a free consultation to anyone dealing with lower back pain issues. (indianapolisfitnessandsportstraining.com)
- Low back pain (LBP) is the most frequently reported work-related musculoskeletal disorder associated with physical demands of various professions (2). (who.int)
- In a large observational study of more than 10,000 adults, researchers found those who consistently engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over the 7- to 8-year study period reported the highest pain tolerance. (medscape.com)
- There were indications that both total amount of physical activity over time, as well as the direction of change in activity level over time matters to how high your pain tolerance is," lead investigator Anders Pedersen Årnes, PT, MPH, research fellow and advisor at the University Hospital of North Norway, affiliated with the University of Tromsø, told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
- As an observational study, this points towards the possibility that increased physical activity might increase pain tolerance. (medscape.com)
- Data on physical activity, experimental pain tolerance, sex, sociodemographic covariates, and chronic pain was collected through questionnaires, biological samples and clinical examination. (medscape.com)
- Engaging in habitual physical activity in leisure-time is associated with higher pain tolerance," Årnes said. (medscape.com)
- Researchers also found that people who were sedentary at baseline who reported greater physical activity at follow-up also had higher pain tolerance than those who remained sedentary, although this finding was not statistically significant. (medscape.com)
- Results indicate that a positive change in physical activity level over time was associated with higher pain tolerance," Årnes said. (medscape.com)
- The long follow up and large number of patients are two strengths of the study, said Steven Cohen, MD, chief of pain medicine and professor of Anesthesiology, Neurology, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University, who commented on the findings for Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
- Many people experience chronic pain, which can lead to impaired physical functioning, poor mental health, reduced quality of life, and contributes to substantial disability and death each year. (cdc.gov)
- The main measures of interest were low back pain intensity at the end of treatment (on a 0-100 point scale) and safety (number of participants who reported any adverse event during treatment). (news-medical.net)
- Average pain intensity among participants at the start of each trial was 65 out of 100. (news-medical.net)
- The researchers noted low or very low confidence in evidence for reduced pain intensity (around 25 points) after treatment with muscle relaxant tolperisone, anti-inflammatory drug aceclofenac plus muscle relaxant tizanidine, and the anti-convulsant drug pregabalin, compared with placebo. (news-medical.net)
- Very low confidence was also noted in evidence for large reductions in pain intensity (around 20 points) for four medicines, such as the muscle relaxant thiocolchicoside and anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen, moderate reductions (10-20 points) for seven medicines, including anti-inflammatory drugs aceclofenac, etoricoxib and ketorolac, and small reductions (5-10 points) for three medicines including ibuprofen and paracetamol. (news-medical.net)
- Our review of analgesic medicines for acute non-specific low back pain found considerable uncertainty around effects for pain intensity and safety,' they write. (news-medical.net)
- The ability to engage in moderate-intensity cardio exercise allows for better results in achieving weight loss goals, which can also help improve low back pain. (aquaticsintl.com)
- To improve pain intensity and functional status. (racgp.org.au)
- About two-thirds of the adolescents (63.1%) said they did not fail to perform their daily activities due to pain.There was no statistically significant association between gender and low back pain (p = 0.117) or pain intensity (p = 0.065), although for the latter a variable marginal p-value was found. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS The study revealed significant reductions in pain intensity between baseline and mid-term scores (p=0.002) and between baseline and post-test scores (p=0.001). (bvsalud.org)
- Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals that bind to receptors in your brain or body to reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain. (cdc.gov)
- The 2022 CDC Clinical Practice Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Pain (2022 Clinical Practice Guideline) has expanded guidance on evidence-based nonopioid options for pain. (cdc.gov)
- COCA is excited to partner with CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control to offer this call series on CDC's Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Dowell is lead author of the 2016 CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. (cdc.gov)
- These guidelines update the AOA guidelines for osteopathic physicians to utilize OMT for patients with nonspecific acute or chronic LBP published in 2010 on the National Guideline Clearinghouse.1 METHODS: This update process commenced with literature searches that included electronic databases, personal contact with key researchers of OMT and low back pain, and Internet search engines. (nih.gov)
- Osteopathic manipulative treatment significantly reduces pain and improves functional status in patients, including pregnant and postpartum women, with nonspecific acute and chronic LBP. (nih.gov)
- Franke et al specifically stated that clinically relevant effects of OMT were found for reducing pain and improving functional status in patients with acute and chronic nonspecific LBP and for LBP in pregnant and postpartum women 3 months after treatment. (nih.gov)
- The Chinese Association for the Study of Pain (CASP): Consensus on the Assessment and Management of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain. (iasp-pain.org)
- 2021). Epidemiology of work-related lower back pain among rehabilitation professionals in Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
Patients With Low Back2
- With the release of relaxin into the body to encourage the loosening of ligaments and bones, the back and neck suffer the consequences of instability as your body prepares for labor and birth. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Researcher Lariviere recommended, in a news release, thatÂ patients with severe hurt begin with stretches on the ground using low to medium effort. (hcplive.com)
- Completing yoga-style stretches pre and post-workouts can be pivotal for avoiding lower back pain that inevitably arises when sitting for too long in the office. (t3.com)
- Here, we're shown several yoga-style stretches to help alleviate lower back pain relief and tightness in your hips. (t3.com)
- You may have been told that you have tight hamstrings, so you should perform hamstring stretches for your lower back pain. (indianapolisfitnessandsportstraining.com)
- Most of the time, back pain will get better using these methods. (medlineplus.gov)
- The procedure is performed by specially trained practitioners either as stand alone form of treatment or in combination with other methods of treating lower back pain. (articlebiz.com)
- Review patient evaluation methods that can be used to identify the most appropriate treatment options for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
- To fill this knowledge gap, researchers trawled scientific databases for randomized controlled trials comparing analgesic medicines with another analgesic, placebo, or no treatment in patients reporting acute non-specific low back pain. (news-medical.net)
- The researchers noted moderate to very low confidence evidence for increased adverse events, such as nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, and headache, with tramadol, paracetamol plus sustained release tramadol, baclofen, as well as paracetamol plus tramadol compared to placebo. (news-medical.net)
- A new UNSW evidence review has found there is still no consensus between researchers about why exercise works for low back pain patients - despite decades of studies on the topic. (edu.au)
- For more detailed guidance on the use of nonopioid medications to treat acute, subacute, and chronic pain, please refer to the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline . (cdc.gov)
- Chronic pain can be managed with or without prescription opioids, but many of the nonopioid options have been shown to work better with fewer side effects. (cdc.gov)
- Consider ways to manage pain that do not include opioids. (cdc.gov)
- If after talking to your doctor about your pain treatment, you are prescribed opioids, be sure to ask about the risks and benefits. (cdc.gov)
- Take over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or acetaminophen (Tylenol). (medlineplus.gov)
- The agony of lower back pain has been described by some doctors as the most painful condition in clinical medicine. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Specific diagnoses should be considered for patients with clinical features of infection, malignancy and a history of trauma, or when pain worsens or persists without improvement. (racgp.org.au)
- Clinical manifestation of CNLBP includes discogenic LBP, zygapophyseal joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and lumbar muscle strain. (iasp-pain.org)
- Dr. Joseph Cheng joins us to discuss lumbar fusion strategies for low back pain and/or low grade spondylolisthesis, including clinical tools to help determine a surgical plan. (cns.org)
- On this page, you'll learn about the types of pain - acute, subacute, and chronic - and options for treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Subacute pain is pain that lasts longer than 1 month but not more than 3 months. (cdc.gov)
- Talk to your doctor about your treatment goals and the benefits and risks of different types of treatment for subacute pain. (cdc.gov)
- Sometimes acute or subacute pain that is not effectively managed becomes chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
- Exercise, mind-body interventions, and behavioral treatments (including cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness practices) can encourage active patient participation in the care plan and help address the effects of pain in the patient's life. (cdc.gov)
Bowel or bladder1
- If you have no sign of a serious cause for your back pain (such as loss of bowel or bladder control, weakness, weight loss, or fever), then you should stay as active as possible. (medlineplus.gov)
- Acupuncture is a great alternative to conventional treatments for pain relief for the back and has very limited risks to it. (articlebiz.com)
- And describe the role of patient beliefs and expectations and value of exercise, education, and non-opioid drug treatments and the management of muscular skeletal pain complaints. (cdc.gov)
- This is particularly important if the patient has already run the gauntlet of traditional back pain treatment choices without enjoying real or enduring relief. (cure-back-pain.org)
- This treatment is related to lower back pain control while it has broader medical applications that can be explained in clearer details by an acupuncture practitioner. (articlebiz.com)
- Relievant Medsystems' minimally invasive Intracept Procedure is reported to be the only FDA-cleared treatment for the relief of vertebrogenic pain. (orthoworld.com)
- All patients should receive treatment for pain that provides the greatest benefits relative to risks. (cdc.gov)
- No matter what form of treatment is used, discuss with your doctor what kind of pain relief and improvement you can expect overall and continue to follow up with your doctor on your progress. (cdc.gov)
- You and your doctor should work together to establish treatment goals for pain and function in your daily life. (cdc.gov)
- CDC's Recommendations for Non-Opioid Treatment in the Management of Chronic Pain. (cdc.gov)
- State the evidence related to effectiveness and potential risk associated with non-opioid treatment for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
- Outline non-pharmacologic and opioid pharmacologic treatment options for various chronic pain conditions. (cdc.gov)
- The same-day, outpatient procedure uses targeted radiofrequency energy to stop the basivertebral nerve from transmitting pain signals from the vertebrae, and takes approximately one hour to perform. (orthoworld.com)
- Lower back pain was responsible for stopping work in 32.5% of participants, with a mean 1.38 (±2.96) days off work during the last year. (who.int)
- Pain tolerance was measured using the cold-pressor test (CPT), in which participants submerge their hand in icy water for as long as possible. (medscape.com)
- There was no significant difference in pain tolerance between men and women and all participants experienced a decline in tolerance over time. (medscape.com)
- Golf-related low back pain: a review of causative factors and prevention strategies. (spine-health.com)
- Psychosomatic back pain is a very common variety of causative condition which is rarely accurately diagnosed, and unless treated properly, will usually result in an ongoing chronic pain syndrome. (cure-back-pain.org)
- These can help reduce muscle tension in the back and relieve inflammation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If you usually sleep on your back, place a pillow or rolled towel under your knees to relieve pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
- The principle of the management is to relieve pain, restore function, and avoid recurrence. (iasp-pain.org)
- Coughing may worsen existing lower back pain for some people, whereas for others, lower back pain may only become noticeable when they cough. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people with back pain improve or recover within 4 to 6 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
- Each year millions of people struggle with lower back pain and unfortunately, many of them unnecessarily. (losethebackpain.com)
- While people tend to attach it to an incident like shoveling snow, sneezing or picking up a box, the fact is the problem has been there for months or years but you are just now aware because there's now pain. (losethebackpain.com)
- Over 32,000 people in 94 different countries around the world have used his "Lose The Back Pain" system to eliminate their pain. (losethebackpain.com)
- Over 5 million people suffer from vertebrogenic pain in the U.S., and we know that these 10,000 patients are the first of many to receive pain relief and potentially realize a better quality of life. (orthoworld.com)
- Access and cost can be barriers for patients, particularly people who have low incomes, do not have health insurance or have inadequate insurance, have transportation challenges, or live in rural areas where services might not be available. (cdc.gov)
- Many people experience pain every day. (cdc.gov)
- Kiss your pain goodbye when you sign up to receive our free, LIVE PAIN FREE email newsletter, which is always full of the latest and most powerful, pain relieving information from the world's leading pain relief experts. (losethebackpain.com)