Isaacs Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)Myokymia: Successive and rapid contractions of motor units associated with chronic nerve injury. The discharges arise from the peripheral aspects of regenerating nerves, and clinically impart a nearly continuous undulation of the body surface overlying the muscle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Fasciculation: Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)Kv1.1 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
... (from the Greek -mŷs - "muscle," + kŷm, -kŷmia - "something swollen" or -kŷmos - "wave"), french, tic facial, is an involuntary, spontaneous, localised quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint. One type is superior oblique myokymia. Myokymia is commonly used to describe an involuntary eyelid muscle contraction, typically involving the lower eyelid or less often the upper eyelid. It occurs in normal individuals and typically starts and disappears spontaneously. However, it can sometimes last up to three weeks. Since the condition typically resolves itself, medical professionals do not consider it to be serious or a cause for concern. In contrast, facial myokymia is a fine rippling of muscles on one side of the face and may reflect an underlying tumor in the brainstem (typically a brainstem glioma), loss of myelin in the brainstem (associated with multiple sclerosis) or in the recovery stage of ...
... are an advanced form of Heck cattle, an attempt of breeding back the aurochs, the wild ancestor of domestic cattle. They are the result of crossbreeding traditional Heck cattle with aurochs-like cattle mostly from Southern Europe to achieve a greater resemblance to the aurochs and larger body size. Taurus cattle herds are located in Germany, Denmark, Hungary, Latvia and the Netherlands and are used in conservation of natural landscapes and biodiversity. Taurus cattle is a breed that is still being crossbred and selected. In 1996 the conservation group Arbeitgemeinschaft Biologischer Umweltschutz in Germany started to crossbreed Heck cattle with primitive cattle from Southern Europe such as Chianina, Sayaguesa Cattle and the Spanish fighting bull in the Lippeaue reserve near the town of Soest. The purpose was and is an increased resemblance to the extinct aurochs, because they considered Heck cattle not satisfying. For example, they write in one of their publications: ″The ...
1953年至1955年,伍德獲委任為公務員事務皇家委員委員,就公務員薪酬事宜展開研究。[12]委員會的工作促成她後來分別於1955年和1974年發表The Social Foundations of Wage Policy(《薪酬政策的社會基礎》)和Incomes Policy: an Inquest and a Proposal(《入息政策:研判和建議》)兩書,除了研究入息控制(英语:Incomes policy)對社會的影響以外,還提倡「理性薪俸」(rational pay)的概念。[3][13]. 1958年4月,國會通過《終身貴族爵位法令(英语:Life Peerages Act 1958)》,容許君主冊封普通庶民為終身貴族,與既有的世襲貴族一同以議員身份在上議院議事。[14]法令還首次准許女性獲冊封為終身貴族,意味法令生效後上議院將首度出現女性議員。[14]1958年7月24日,英廷在保守黨籍首相麥美倫提名下公佈首批14位終身貴族,當中包括伍德、雷丁侯爵夫人(英语:Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of ...
... (from the Greek -mŷs - "muscle," + kŷm, -kŷmia - "something swollen" or -kŷmos - "wave"), french, tic facial, is an involuntary, spontaneous, localised quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint. One type is superior oblique myokymia. Myokymia is commonly used to describe an involuntary eyelid muscle contraction, typically involving the lower eyelid or less often the upper eyelid. It occurs in normal individuals and typically starts and disappears spontaneously. However, it can sometimes last up to three weeks. Since the condition typically resolves itself, medical professionals do not consider it to be serious or a cause for concern. In contrast, facial myokymia is a fine rippling of muscles on one side of the face and may reflect an underlying tumor in the brainstem (typically a brainstem glioma), loss of myelin in the brainstem (associated with multiple sclerosis) or in the recovery stage of ...
... is a neurological disorder affecting vision and was named by Hoyt and Keane in 1970. It is a condition that presents as repeated, brief episodes of movement, shimmering or shaking of the vision of one eye, a feeling of the eye trembling, or vertical/tilted vision. It can present as one or more of these symptoms. Diagnosis is most often made by the elimination of other conditions, disorders or diseases. Onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the course is benign and is not commonly associated with other disorders. In 1983, Bringewald postulated that superior oblique myokymia resulted from vascular compression of the trochlear nerve (fourth cranial nerve), which controls the action of the superior oblique muscle in the eye. By 1998, there had been only one reported case of compression of the trochlear nerve by vessels. More recently, magnetic resonance imaging experiments have shown that neurovascular compression at the root exit zone of the trochlear nerve can result in ...
Approximately four hundred mutations of the GJB1 gene have been identified in people with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX).[14] CMTX is predominantly classified with symptoms related to muscle weakness and sensory problems, especially in the outer extremities of the limbs.[8] CMTX is the second most common type of CMT (about 10% of all patients) and is transmitted as an x-linked dominant trait.[7] It is categorised by the lack of male-to-male transmission of the mutated GJB1 gene and the differences in severity between heterozygous women and hemizygous men, with the later being more severely affected.[11]. Most of the mutations of the GJB1 gene switch or change a single amino acid in the gap junction (connexin-32) protein, although some may result in a protein of irregular size.[7][11][13][14] Some of these mutations also cause hearing loss in patients with CMTX.[14] Currently it is unknown how the mutations of the GJB1 gene lead to these specific features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...
In 1990, during a Milli Vanilli performance recorded by MTV at the Lake Compounce theme park in Bristol, Connecticut, what sounded to be a pre-recorded track of the group's song "Girl You Know It's True" jammed and began to skip, repeating the partial line "Girl, you know it's..." over and over. Due to rising public questions regarding the source of singing talent in the group, owner Frank Farian confessed to reporters on November 12, 1990, that Morvan and Pilatus did not actually sing on the records. As a result of American media pressure, Milli Vanilli's Grammy was withdrawn four days later,[26] and Arista Records dropped the act from its roster and deleted their album and its masters from their catalog, taking Girl You Know It's True out of print. After these details emerged, at least 26 different lawsuits were filed under various U.S. consumer fraud protection laws.[27] On August 28, a settlement was approved that refunded those who attended concerts along with those who bought Milli Vanilli ...
... , sold under the trade name Hyzaar among others, is a combination medication used to treat high blood pressure when losartan is not sufficient.[1] It consists of losartan (an angiotensin II receptor antagonist) and hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic).[1] It is taken by mouth.[1] Common side effects include dizziness, back pain, and upper respiratory tract infections.[2] Serious side effects may include low blood pressure, kidney problems, allergic reactions, and electrolyte problems.[2] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is not recommended.[3] Losartan works by blocking the effects of angiotensin II while hydrochlorothiazide works by decreasing the ability of the kidneys to absorb electrolytes.[2] Interactions include with lithium, agents which increase potassium, and NSAIDs.[2] The combination was approved for medical use in the United States in 1995.[2] It is available as a generic medication.[1] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about ...
... s (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin-angiotensin system. Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry cough and/or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.[citation needed] More recently, they have been used for the treatment of heart failure in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy, in particular candesartan. Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in ...
... or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and regulates aldosterone secretion. It is an important effector controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are drugs indicated for hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. The AT1 receptor mediates the major cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II. Effects include vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, increased vasopressin secretion, cardiac hypertrophy, augmentation of peripheral noradrenergic activity, vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, decreased renal blood flow, renal renin inhibition, renal tubular sodium reuptake, modulation of central sympathetic nervous system activity, cardiac contractility, central osmocontrol and extracellular matrix formation. The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in ...
... , otherwise known as the compound SC-52458, is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and, similar to other ARBs, it protects the kidneys from kidney blood vessel damage caused by increased kidney blood pressure by blocking renin-angiotensin system activation. Forasartan is administered in the active oral form which means that it must go through first pass metabolism in the liver. The dose administered ranges between 150 mg-200 mg daily. Increasing to more than 200 mg daily does not offer significantly greater AT1 receptor inhibition. Forasartan is absorbed quickly in the GI, and within an hour it becomes significantly biologically active. Peak plasma concentrations of the drug are reached within one hour. Negative side effects of Forasartan are similar to other ARBs, and include hypotension and hyperkalemia. There are no drug interactions identified with forasartan. Angiotensin II binds to ...
The angiotensin II receptors, (AGTR1) and (AGTR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II. The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand. The AT1 receptor is the best elucidated angiotensin receptor. The AT1 subtype is found in the heart, blood vessels, kidney, adrenal cortex, lung and brain and mediates the vasoconstrictor effects. The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to Gq/11 and Gi/o and thus activates phospholipase C and increases the cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, which in turn triggers cellular responses such as stimulation of protein kinase C. Activated receptor also inhibits adenylate cyclase and ...
... (rINN) /ˌkændɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. The prodrug candesartan cilexetil is marketed by AstraZeneca and Takeda Pharmaceuticals, commonly under the trade names Diceran,Blopress, Atacand, Amias, and Ratacand. It is available in generic form. As with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, candesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Results from the CHARM study (early 2000s) demonstrated the morbidity and mortality reduction benefits of candesartan therapy in congestive heart failure. Thus, while ACE inhibitors are still considered first-line therapy in heart failure, candesartan can be used in combination with an ACE to achieve improved mortality and morbidity vs. an ACE alone and additionally is an alternative in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. In a four-year randomized controlled trial, candesartan was compared to placebo to see whether it could prevent or postpone the ...

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