Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.JapanHaplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.SwedenEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.CaliforniaAlcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Great BritainStroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).ItalyResidence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.GermanyConfounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.DenmarkUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.EuropeWashingtonNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).IndiaSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.EnglandLength of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.New YorkOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).NorwayNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.MassachusettsCoronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.TaiwanOverweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)North CarolinaMetabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.San FranciscoPatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.FinlandAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.WisconsinContraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.MexicoUrban Health: The status of health in urban populations.BrazilMichiganFamily Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.TexasHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.BostonPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Because the log of the odds ratio is estimated as a linear function of the explanatory variables, the estimated odds ratio for ... This is the odds ratio. In fact, the odds ratio has much wider use in statistics, since logistic regression, often associated ... "When can odds ratios mislead? Odds ratios should be used only in case-control studies and logistic regression analyses". BMJ. ... the odds ratio is commonly used for case-control studies, as odds, but not probabilities, are usually estimated. Relative risk ...
... the odds ratio is 3. Odds ratio statistics are on a different scale than Cohen's d, so this '3' is not comparable to a Cohen's ... This measure of effect size differs from the odds ratio in that it compares probabilities instead of odds, but asymptotically ... In medical research, the odds ratio is commonly used for case-control studies, as odds, but not probabilities, are usually ... The odds ratio (OR) is another useful effect size. It is appropriate when the research question focuses on the degree of ...
ISBN 0-521-14246-6 Bonett DG, Price RM (2015). "Varying coefficient meta-analysis methods for odds ratios and risk ratios". ... "9.4.4.2 Peto odds ratio method". Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions v 5.1.0. March 2011. Bargaje R, ... AD is more commonly available (e.g. from the literature) and typically represents summary estimates such as odds ratios or ...
... odds ratios, risk difference, gains and confidence intervals. An interface with R gives access to most statistical capabilities ...
... odds ratios are used. Odds ratios are preferred over chi-square statistics for two main reasons: 1. Odds ratios are independent ... Odds ratios are not affected by unequal marginal distributions. R with the loglm function of the MASS package (see tutorial) ... If the likelihood ratio chi-square statistic is non-significant, then the model fits well (i.e., calculated expected ... The chi-square difference test is computed by subtracting the likelihood ratio chi-square statistics for the two models being ...
... odds}}=e^{\beta _{0}+\beta _{1}x}.} For a continuous independent variable the odds ratio can be defined as: O R = odds ⁡ ( x + ... then takes the ratio of those odds (which is continuous but cannot be negative) and then takes the logarithm of that ratio ( ... 1 (1). "How to Interpret Odds Ratio in Logistic Regression?". Institute for Digital Research and Education. Everitt, Brian ( ... For a binary independent variable the odds ratio is defined as a d b c {\displaystyle {\frac {ad}{bc}}} where a, b, c and d are ...
As the odds ratio approached 1, approaches 0; rendering case control studies all but useless for low odds ratios. For instance ... for an odds ratio of 1.5 and cases = controls, the table shown above would look like this: For an odds ratio of 1.1: Cohort ... The statistic generated to measure association is the odds ratio (OR), which is the ratio of the odds of exposure in the cases ... confidence interval is related to the odds ratio by the equation: total cases = A + C = 1.96 2 ( 1 + N ) ( 1 ln ⁡ ( O R ) ) 2 ...
A poker odds calculator calculates a player's winning ratio. Winning ratio is defined as, the number of games won divided by ... Both a poker odds and advantage calculators can provide results provided a specific game scenario. Game scenario variables ... Poker calculators come in three flavors: poker advantage calculators, poker odds calculators and poker relative calculators. ... A poker advantage calculator calculates a player's winning ratio and normalizes (see Normalization (statistics)) the winning ...
The odds ratio was 1.18 for every C allele. There are far fewer studies on the second common APOA5 polymorphism, Ser19>Trp, ...
... with an of odds ratio 1.3. Being morbidly obese increases the odds ratio to 2.0. Obesity is related to many complications in ...
"Adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of major depressive disorder... suggested a strong association between restless legs syndrome ...
... not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, ... Lee, James (1994). "Odds Ratio or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 23 (1): 201- ... Schmidt, CO; Kohlmann, T (2008). "When to use the odds ratio or the relative risk?". International journal of public health. 53 ...
... red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ... Suppose the odds ratio between the two is 1 : 1. Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent ... Separate odds ratios are determined for all independent variables for each category of the dependent variable with the ... This assumption states that the odds of preferring one class over another do not depend on the presence or absence of other " ...
Both the relative risk and odds ratio are relevant in retrospective cohort studies, but only the odds ratio can be used in case ... This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. This is fundamentally the same methodology as for a prospective cohort study, ...
adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.22) Humphries TJ, Merritt GJ (August 1999). "Review article: drug interactions with agents used to ...
We will say that the odds ratio is ω = ω1 / ω2. Now we are taking balls randomly in such a way that the probability of taking a ... The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the odds ratio is 1. Unfortunately, both ... Their odds ratio is given as ω = ω X ω Y = π X / ( 1 − π X ) π Y / ( 1 − π Y ) {\displaystyle \omega ={\frac {\omega _{X}}{\ ... successes with the odds ratio w {\displaystyle w} . { w f ( x ) ( x − n ) ( n succ − x ) − ( x + 1 ) f ( x + 1 ) ( n + n succ ...
We will say that the odds ratio is ω = ω1 / ω2. Now we are taking n balls, one by one, in such a way that the probability of ... The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the odds ratio is 1. It is far from ... The equation for the mean is also useful for estimating the odds from experimentally obtained values for the mean. No good way ... The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. Wallenius' ...
However, the odds ratio is easier to interpret in the logit model. Practical reasons for choosing the probit model over the ... The Wald and likelihood-ratio test are used to test the statistical significance of each coefficient b in the model (analogous ... trading Computational sociology Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History Disease surveillance Learning analytics Odds ...
Chung, Yujin; Lee, Seung Yeoun; Elston, Robert C.; Park, Taesung (2007-01-01). "Odds ratio based multifactor-dimensionality ... These include family-based methods, fuzzy methods, covariate adjustment, odds ratios, risk scores, survival methods, robust ... Here, the ratio of counts is 0/1 which is less than our fixed threshold of 1. Since 0/1 < 1 we encode a new attribute (Z) as a ... In this simple example, Y=1 occurs zero times and Y=0 occurs once for the combination of X1=0 and X2=0. With MDR, the ratio of ...
An odds-ratio combat system is used to play out combat between armies. Players can win with their Ring-based objective from the ...
Taking the ratio of one of these groups of ratios yields a final ratio, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). This can also be ... One can take ratios of a complementary pair of ratios, yielding four likelihood ratios (two column ratio of ratios, two row ... ratio of ratios). This is primarily done for the column (condition) ratios, yielding likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing. ... There are thus two pairs of column ratios and two pairs of row ratios, and one can summarize these with four numbers by ...
... which are themselves ratios of True Rates or Prediction Values). This has a useful interpretation - as an odds ratio - and is ... or indirectly as a ratio of ratio of ratios (ratio of likelihood ratios, ... Further statistics can be obtained by taking ratios of these ratios, ratios of ratios, or more complicated functions. The ... The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) is a more useful overall metric, which can be defined directly as (TP×TN)/(FP×FN) = (TP/FN)/(FP ...
It can be calculated as ( 1 − relative risk ) or as ( 1 − odds ratio ). Aschengrau, Ann; Seage, George R. (2003). Essentials of ... is a calculation that can be derived from relative risk or odds ratio. It may be used when an exposure seems to reduce the risk ...
Odds ratio 0.8888; p-value 1.75 ×10−7.[17] SNP rs6024870, RegulomeDB[18] score 2b, which means that this SNP is likely to ...
In such setups, the fundamental unit for reporting effect sizes is the odds ratio. The odds ratio is the ratio of two odds, ... The median odds ratio is 1.33 per risk-SNP, with only a few showing odds ratios above 3.0. These magnitudes are considered ... a P-value for the significance of the odds ratio is typically calculated using a simple chi-squared test. Finding odds ratios ... After odds ratios and P-values have been calculated for all SNPs, a common approach is to create a Manhattan plot. In the ...
The odds ratio is related to the Pearson correlation coefficient between the phenotype and the marker genotype for each ... In interval mapping, each locus is considered one at a time and the logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD score) is calculated for ...
Odds ratio The problem is that vastly different sets of numbers can give you the same odds ratio... same odds ratio, with ... RE: st: Odds ratio. From. Garth Rauscher ,[email protected],. To. ,[email protected],. Subject. RE: st: Odds ratio ... Would it hurt to give the proportions? You can actually generate those effect size numbers (d) if you report an Odds Ratio with ... Your effect size can come from the log of the odds-ratio, but the variance will be determined by the actual proportions ...
... odds ratios of greater than one), the odds ratio will be no more than twice the relative risk so long as the odds ratio times ... odds ratios of about 0.1), the odds ratio is only 50% smaller than the relative risk (0.1 for the odds ratio compared with a ... odds ratio)). For studies in which the odds ratio is ,1, the multiplier minus 1 gives the discrepancy ((P1×odds ratio)−P1). ... But by how much? How do we interpret an odds ratio of, say, 0.5 or an odds ratio of 3? A lack of familiarity with odds means ...
Cristian Baicus is correct in pointing out the inconsistency in terms in our article.1 We intended to refer to relative risks in all instances. The type of analysis (univariate or multivariate) would not determine the type of value generated.. Madhu K. Natarajan Rizwan Afzal Division of Cardiology Population Health Research Institute McMaster University Hamilton, Ont.. ...
i am required to show that the odds ratio, OR, and relative risk, RR, are related by: OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \frac{1}{(1 ... i am required to show that the odds ratio, OR, and relative risk, RR, are related by:. [tex] OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \ ...
Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative ... measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A ... desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after ... The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained ...
... and population log odds ratio (LOR): Cohens h Diagnostic odds ratio Forest plot Hazard ratio Rate ratio Cornfield, J (1951). " ... The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group. The ... compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio ... Thus the odds ratio equals one if and only if X and Y are independent. The odds ratio is a function of the cell probabilities, ...
"Odds Ratio Estimates" table). proc glimmix; class A; model y = A x A*x / dist=binary oddsratio; run; By default, odds ratios ... odds ratio estimates. The odds ratios computed for the covariate are based on differencing this set of least squares means with ... It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. Odds ratios are produced for the following: * ... statement are available to obtain customized odds ratio estimates. For customized odds ratios that cannot be obtained with ...
The odds ratio is formed as the ratio of the row 1 odds to the row 2 odds. The estimate of the odds ratio is computed as ... An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the odds of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. An odds ratio ... is the estimate of the variance of the log odds ratio and is the percentile of the t distribution with df degrees of freedom. ( ... The OR option provides estimates of the odds ratio, the column 1 relative risk, and the column 2 relative risk for tables, ...
... odds ratio explanation free. What is odds ratio? Meaning of odds ratio medical term. What does odds ratio mean? ... Looking for online definition of odds ratio in the Medical Dictionary? ... odds ratio. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. odds ratio. ratio of two ... odds ratio. Epidemiology Cross-product ratio, exposure odds ratio overdispersion A measure of association in a case-control ...
... produces a plot of log odds vs x2 with 0.95 confidence intervals. , How do I , get a plot of odds ratios vs x2 instead? You ... Odds ratios from lrm plot. David Winsemius dwinsemius at comcast.net Sat Nov 12 03:57:47 CET 2011 *Previous message: [R] Odds ...
The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{ ... As an odds ratio, the logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio is approximately normally distributed.[clarification needed] The ... We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, 134]. The diagnostic odds ratio is ... the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the ...
Calculating a pooled odds ratio from an adjusted odds ratio? , , Hello, , I have individual adjusted odds ratios from different ... st: RE: Calculating a pooled odds ratio from an adjusted odds ratio?. From. Marcos Vinicius ,[email protected],. To. ... st: RE: Calculating a pooled odds ratio from an adjusted odds ratio?. Date. Fri, 25 Oct 2013 05:57:35 -0800. , -----Original ... Previous by thread: st: RE: Calculating a pooled odds ratio from an adjusted odds ratio? ...
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I took the first relative risk or odds ratio that was given and its P value. If the first result was a hazard ratio or a ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study BMJ 2006; 333 :231 ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study ... Believability of relative risks and odds ratios in abstracts: cross sectional study ...
... odds ratios are relative to hsCRP=0.5 mg/L, the median of the lowest hsCRP quartile. Circles mark direct odds ratio estimates ... Panel C shows odds ratios estimates (bold solid line) and 95% confidence limits (lighter lines above and below) obtained in a ... Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression describe associations of biomarkers with clinical events; failure to accurately ... Analysis of biomarker data: logs, odds ratios, and receiver operating characteristic curves.. Grund B1, Sabin C. ...
This page of Statistical Java describes 11 different probability distributions including the Binomial, Poisson, Negative Binomial, Geometric, T, Chi-squared, Gamma, Weibull, Log-Normal, Beta, and F. Each distribution has its own applet in which users can manipulate the parameters to see how the distribution changes. The parameters are described on the main page as well as situations that would use each distribution. The equations of the distributions are not given. To select between the different applets you can click on Statistical Theory, Probability Distributions and then the Main Page. At the bottom of this page you can make your applet selection. This page was formerly located at http://www.stat.vt.edu/~sundar/java/applets/ ...
... jestinah mahachie jmahachie at gmail.com Thu Dec 4 10:56:32 CET 2008 * ... Next message: [R] Getting Odds ratios for tree branches-CART model * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: [R] Getting Odds ratios for tree branches-CART model * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ...
In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. Odds ratio ... The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. ... Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or ... A confidence interval (CI) for the odds ratio is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method (Martin and Austin, ...
Unbiased estimating equations are used to estimate and compare the odds ratios representing the odds of heightened anxiety ... Unbiased estimating equations are used to estimate and compare the odds ratios representing the odds of heightened anxiety ... Comparing odds ratios measuring improvement or deterioration across repeated exposure or treatment sessions.. ...
The Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment to which people are exposed. ... The risk or odds ratio is the risk or odds in the exposed group divided by the risk or odds in the control group. A risk or ... The Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment or variable to which people ... Home » Blog » Blog Type » Word of the Week » Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio. ...
... fixed odds ratio for a disease association, and highlight a number of factors that can cause odds ratios to vary using examples ... The travel-sick odds ratio. If we should be concerned about the effect of the environment on OR estimates then we should be ... Odds ratios can also vary according to age. A study published in this months edition of the New England Journal of Medicine ... The environmentally unfriendly odds ratio. In a recent Friday Links Luke highlighted a paper in PLoS Medicine showing ...
odds ratio answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... odds ratio is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Odds Ratio." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/739851/all/odds_ratio. Odds ratio. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ...
Scientific Experts about Experts and Doctors on odds ratio in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ... Experts and Doctors on odds ratio in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. Summary. Locale: Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ... You are here: Locale , United Kingdom , England , Experts and Doctors on odds ratio in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ...
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Finally, in Crohns disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our ... By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10− ...
  • The reviewer commented that all results are expressed in terms of odds ratios which makes it very difficult to assess the magnitude of the effect. (stata.com)
  • In this paper, we investigate dichotomisation for statistical inference about odds ratios in a situation where two underlying distributions from which independent samples are drawn are skewed and unknown. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}} where T P {\displaystyle TP} , F N {\displaystyle FN} , F P {\displaystyle FP} and T N {\displaystyle TN} are the number of true positives, false negatives, false positives and true negatives respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic case-control association studies the OR typically represents the ratio of the odds of disease if allele A is carried compared to if allele B is carried. (genomesunzipped.org)
  • In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDTwith new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. (elsevier.com)