**Odds Ratio**: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**United States**

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Smoking**: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Risk**: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**Asian Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Comorbidity**: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

**Japan**

**Haplotypes**: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

**China**: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic**: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**African Americans**: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Sweden**

**Environmental Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.

**Ethnic Groups**: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**California**

**Alcohol Drinking**: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Hospital Mortality**: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

**Great Britain**

**Stroke**: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**African Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.

**Hospitalization**: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Parity**: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Italy**

**Residence Characteristics**: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

**Life Style**: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Hypertension**: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Canada**: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

**Genetic Association Studies**: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.

**Diabetes Mellitus**: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.

**France**: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

**Pregnancy Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2**: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

**Hispanic Americans**: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

**Continental Population Groups**: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.

**Population Surveillance**: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

**Diet**: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

**Myocardial Infarction**: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**Pregnancy Outcome**: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.

**Linkage Disequilibrium**: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

**Germany**

**Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)**: Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**Colorectal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.

**Occupational Diseases**: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Genome-Wide Association Study**: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

**Denmark**

**Urban Population**: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

**Europe**

**Washington**

**Netherlands**: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Rural Population**: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

**Occupational Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

**Asthma**: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).

**India**

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Chronic Disease**: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Cardiovascular Diseases**: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.

**Premature Birth**: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Occupations**: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.

**Depression**: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

**Mass Screening**: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.

**Interviews as Topic**: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

**England**

**Length of Stay**: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.

**Recurrence**: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

**Causality**: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

**Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice**: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

**Republic of Korea**: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Publication Bias**: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.

**Age of Onset**: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

**Polymerase Chain Reaction**: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

**Bias (Epidemiology)**: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

**Mothers**: Female parents, human or animal.

**Disease Progression**: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

**Health Services Accessibility**: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

**Acute Disease**: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**New York**

**Outcome Assessment (Health Care)**: Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

**Norway**

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Massachusetts**

**Coronary Artery Disease**: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

**Taiwan**

**Overweight**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".

**Gestational Age**: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Pesticides**: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.

**Patient Acceptance of Health Care**: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Health Behavior**: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

**Ontario**: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

**North Carolina**

**Metabolic Syndrome X**: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)

**Australia**: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.

**Physician's Practice Patterns**: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.

**Breast Feeding**: The nursing of an infant at the breast.

**Lung Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.

**Wounds and Injuries**: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

**Social Class**: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

**Abortion, Spontaneous**: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.

**Diabetes Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.

**Forecasting**: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

**Coronary Disease**: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

**Phenotype**: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

**Survival Rate**: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

**Tobacco Smoke Pollution**: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.

**Maternal Exposure**: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.

**San Francisco**

**Patient Compliance**: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

**Meta-Analysis as Topic**: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

**Housing**: Living facilities for humans.

**Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects**: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.

**Parents**: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.

**Anti-Bacterial Agents**: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

**Infant, Low Birth Weight**: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**Stress, Psychological**: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

**Prostatic Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

**Sexual Behavior**: Sexual activities of humans.

**Income**: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.

**Finland**

**Attitude to Health**: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.

**Wisconsin**

**Contraceptives, Oral**: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.

**Patient Selection**: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.

**Poverty**: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.

**Emergency Service, Hospital**: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.

**Research Design**: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Family**: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.

**Mexico**

**Urban Health**: The status of health in urban populations.

**Brazil**

**Michigan**

**Family Health**: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

**Texas**

**History, 20th Century**: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Boston**

**Primary Health Care**: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)

**Disease Susceptibility**: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.

**Intensive Care Units**: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

**Mental Disorders**: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.

**Healthcare Disparities**: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.

Because the log of the

**odds****ratio**is estimated as a linear function of the explanatory variables, the estimated**odds****ratio**for ... This is the**odds****ratio**. In fact, the**odds****ratio**has much wider use in statistics, since logistic regression, often associated ... "When can**odds****ratios**mislead?**Odds****ratios**should be used only in case-control studies and logistic regression analyses". BMJ. ... the**odds****ratio**is commonly used for case-control studies, as**odds**, but not probabilities, are usually estimated. Relative risk ...... the

**odds****ratio**is 3.**Odds****ratio**statistics are on a different scale than Cohen's d, so this '3' is not comparable to a Cohen's ... This measure of effect size differs from the**odds****ratio**in that it compares probabilities instead of**odds**, but asymptotically ... In medical research, the**odds****ratio**is commonly used for case-control studies, as**odds**, but not probabilities, are usually ... The**odds****ratio**(OR) is another useful effect size. It is appropriate when the research question focuses on the degree of ...ISBN 0-521-14246-6 Bonett DG, Price RM (2015). "Varying coefficient meta-analysis methods for

**odds****ratios**and risk**ratios**". ... "9.4.4.2 Peto**odds****ratio**method". Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions v 5.1.0. March 2011. Bargaje R, ... AD is more commonly available (e.g. from the literature) and typically represents summary estimates such as**odds****ratios**or ......

**odds****ratios**, risk difference, gains and confidence intervals. An interface with R gives access to most statistical capabilities ......

**odds****ratios**are used.**Odds****ratios**are preferred over chi-square statistics for two main reasons: 1.**Odds****ratios**are independent ...**Odds****ratios**are not affected by unequal marginal distributions. R with the loglm function of the MASS package (see tutorial) ... If the likelihood**ratio**chi-square statistic is non-significant, then the model fits well (i.e., calculated expected ... The chi-square difference test is computed by subtracting the likelihood**ratio**chi-square statistics for the two models being ......

**odds**}}=e^{\beta _{0}+\beta _{1}x}.} For a continuous independent variable the**odds****ratio**can be defined as: O R =**odds** ( x + ... then takes the**ratio**of those**odds**(which is continuous but cannot be negative) and then takes the logarithm of that**ratio**( ... 1 (1). "How to Interpret**Odds****Ratio**in Logistic Regression?". Institute for Digital Research and Education. Everitt, Brian ( ... For a binary independent variable the**odds****ratio**is defined as a d b c {\displaystyle {\frac {ad}{bc}}} where a, b, c and d are ...As the

**odds****ratio**approached 1, approaches 0; rendering case control studies all but useless for low**odds****ratios**. For instance ... for an**odds****ratio**of 1.5 and cases = controls, the table shown above would look like this: For an**odds****ratio**of 1.1: Cohort ... The statistic generated to measure association is the**odds****ratio**(OR), which is the**ratio**of the**odds**of exposure in the cases ... confidence interval is related to the**odds****ratio**by the equation: total cases = A + C = 1.96 2 ( 1 + N ) ( 1 ln ( O R ) ) 2 ...A poker

**odds**calculator calculates a player's winning**ratio**. Winning**ratio**is defined as, the number of games won divided by ... Both a poker**odds**and advantage calculators can provide results provided a specific game scenario. Game scenario variables ... Poker calculators come in three flavors: poker advantage calculators, poker**odds**calculators and poker relative calculators. ... A poker advantage calculator calculates a player's winning**ratio**and normalizes (see Normalization (statistics)) the winning ...The

**odds****ratio**was 1.18 for every C allele. There are far fewer studies on the second common APOA5 polymorphism, Ser19>Trp, ...... with an of

**odds****ratio**1.3. Being morbidly obese increases the**odds****ratio**to 2.0. Obesity is related to many complications in ..."Adjusted

**odds****ratio**for diagnosis of major depressive disorder... suggested a strong association between restless legs syndrome ...... not only the

**odds****ratio**, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk**ratio**, ... Lee, James (1994). "**Odds****Ratio**or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 23 (1): 201- ... Schmidt, CO; Kohlmann, T (2008). "When to use the**odds****ratio**or the relative risk?". International journal of public health. 53 ...... red bus

**odds****ratio**of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1**ratio**of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ... Suppose the**odds****ratio**between the two is 1 : 1. Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent ... Separate**odds****ratios**are determined for all independent variables for each category of the dependent variable with the ... This assumption states that the**odds**of preferring one class over another do not depend on the presence or absence of other " ...Both the relative risk and

**odds****ratio**are relevant in retrospective cohort studies, but only the**odds****ratio**can be used in case ... This is expressed as a risk**ratio**or**odds****ratio**. This is fundamentally the same methodology as for a prospective cohort study, ...adjusted

**odds****ratio**[OR] 1.22) Humphries TJ, Merritt GJ (August 1999). "Review article: drug interactions with agents used to ...We will say that the

**odds****ratio**is ω = ω1 / ω2. Now we are taking balls randomly in such a way that the probability of taking a ... The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the**odds****ratio**is 1. Unfortunately, both ... Their**odds****ratio**is given as ω = ω X ω Y = π X / ( 1 − π X ) π Y / ( 1 − π Y ) {\displaystyle \omega ={\frac {\omega _{X}}{\ ... successes with the**odds****ratio**w {\displaystyle w} . { w f ( x ) ( x − n ) ( n succ − x ) − ( x + 1 ) f ( x + 1 ) ( n + n succ ...We will say that the

**odds****ratio**is ω = ω1 / ω2. Now we are taking n balls, one by one, in such a way that the probability of ... The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the**odds****ratio**is 1. It is far from ... The equation for the mean is also useful for estimating the**odds**from experimentally obtained values for the mean. No good way ... The same equation can be used for estimating the**odds**from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. Wallenius' ...However, the

**odds****ratio**is easier to interpret in the logit model. Practical reasons for choosing the probit model over the ... The Wald and likelihood-**ratio**test are used to test the statistical significance of each coefficient b in the model (analogous ... trading Computational sociology Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History Disease surveillance Learning analytics**Odds**...Chung, Yujin; Lee, Seung Yeoun; Elston, Robert C.; Park, Taesung (2007-01-01). "

**Odds****ratio**based multifactor-dimensionality ... These include family-based methods, fuzzy methods, covariate adjustment,**odds****ratios**, risk scores, survival methods, robust ... Here, the**ratio**of counts is 0/1 which is less than our fixed threshold of 1. Since 0/1 < 1 we encode a new attribute (Z) as a ... In this simple example, Y=1 occurs zero times and Y=0 occurs once for the combination of X1=0 and X2=0. With MDR, the**ratio**of ...An

**odds**-**ratio**combat system is used to play out combat between armies. Players can win with their Ring-based objective from the ...Taking the

**ratio**of one of these groups of**ratios**yields a final**ratio**, the diagnostic**odds****ratio**(DOR). This can also be ... One can take**ratios**of a complementary pair of**ratios**, yielding four likelihood**ratios**(two column**ratio**of**ratios**, two row ...**ratio**of**ratios**). This is primarily done for the column (condition)**ratios**, yielding likelihood**ratios**in diagnostic testing. ... There are thus two pairs of column**ratios**and two pairs of row**ratios**, and one can summarize these with four numbers by ...... which are themselves

**ratios**of True Rates or Prediction Values). This has a useful interpretation - as an**odds****ratio**- and is ... or indirectly as a**ratio**of**ratio**of**ratios**(**ratio**of likelihood**ratios**, ... Further statistics can be obtained by taking**ratios**of these**ratios**,**ratios**of**ratios**, or more complicated functions. The ... The diagnostic**odds****ratio**(DOR) is a more useful overall metric, which can be defined directly as (TP×TN)/(FP×FN) = (TP/FN)/(FP ...It can be calculated as ( 1 − relative risk ) or as ( 1 −

**odds****ratio**). Aschengrau, Ann; Seage, George R. (2003). Essentials of ... is a calculation that can be derived from relative risk or**odds****ratio**. It may be used when an exposure seems to reduce the risk ...**Odds**

**ratio**0.8888; p-value 1.75 ×10−7.[17] SNP rs6024870, RegulomeDB[18] score 2b, which means that this SNP is likely to ...

In such setups, the fundamental unit for reporting effect sizes is the

**odds****ratio**. The**odds****ratio**is the**ratio**of two**odds**, ... The median**odds****ratio**is 1.33 per risk-SNP, with only a few showing**odds****ratios**above 3.0. These magnitudes are considered ... a P-value for the significance of the**odds****ratio**is typically calculated using a simple chi-squared test. Finding**odds****ratios**... After**odds****ratios**and P-values have been calculated for all SNPs, a common approach is to create a Manhattan plot. In the ...The

**odds****ratio**is related to the Pearson correlation coefficient between the phenotype and the marker genotype for each ... In interval mapping, each locus is considered one at a time and the logarithm of the**odds****ratio**(LOD score) is calculated for ...**Odds**

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**odds****ratios**of greater than one), the**odds****ratio**will be no more than twice the relative risk so long as the**odds****ratio**times ...**odds****ratios**of about 0.1), the**odds****ratio**is only 50% smaller than the relative risk (0.1 for the**odds****ratio**compared with a ...**odds****ratio**)). For studies in which the**odds****ratio**is ,1, the multiplier minus 1 gives the discrepancy ((P1×**odds****ratio**)−P1). ... But by how much? How do we interpret an**odds****ratio**of, say, 0.5 or an**odds****ratio**of 3? A lack of familiarity with**odds**means ...Cristian Baicus is correct in pointing out the inconsistency in terms in our article.1 We intended to refer to relative risks in all instances. The type of analysis (univariate or multivariate) would not determine the type of value generated.. Madhu K. Natarajan Rizwan Afzal Division of Cardiology Population Health Research Institute McMaster University Hamilton, Ont.. ...

i am required to show that the

**odds****ratio**, OR, and relative risk, RR, are related by: OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \frac{1}{(1 ... i am required to show that the**odds****ratio**, OR, and relative risk, RR, are related by:. [tex] OR = \frac{RR}{(1-p_{0})} \ ...Adjusted traditional

**odds****ratios**(TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative ... measures the post-exposure**odds**divided by the pre-exposure**odds**(i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A ... desirable property of an adjusted**ratio**estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude**ratio**will not change after ... The informational**odds****ratio**(IOR) measures the post-exposure**odds**divided by the pre-exposure**odds**(i.e., information gained ...... and population log

**odds****ratio**(LOR): Cohens h Diagnostic**odds****ratio**Forest plot Hazard**ratio**Rate**ratio**Cornfield, J (1951). " ... The**odds****ratio**is the**ratio**of the**odds**of an event occurring in one group to the**odds**of it occurring in another group. The ... compute the**odds**that the same individual has "A" Divide the**odds**from step 1 by the**odds**from step 2 to obtain the**odds****ratio**... Thus the**odds****ratio**equals one if and only if X and Y are independent. The**odds****ratio**is a function of the cell probabilities, ..."

**Odds****Ratio**Estimates" table). proc glimmix; class A; model y = A x A*x / dist=binary**oddsratio**; run; By default,**odds****ratios**...**odds****ratio**estimates. The**odds****ratios**computed for the covariate are based on differencing this set of least squares means with ... It consists of estimates of**odds****ratios**and their confidence limits.**Odds****ratios**are produced for the following: * ... statement are available to obtain customized**odds****ratio**estimates. For customized**odds****ratios**that cannot be obtained with ...The

**odds****ratio**is formed as the**ratio**of the row 1**odds**to the row 2**odds**. The estimate of the**odds****ratio**is computed as ... An**odds****ratio**greater than 1 indicates that the**odds**of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. An**odds****ratio**... is the estimate of the variance of the log**odds****ratio**and is the percentile of the t distribution with df degrees of freedom. ( ... The OR option provides estimates of the**odds****ratio**, the column 1 relative risk, and the column 2 relative risk for tables, ......

**odds****ratio**explanation free. What is**odds****ratio**? Meaning of**odds****ratio**medical term. What does**odds****ratio**mean? ... Looking for online definition of**odds****ratio**in the Medical Dictionary? ...**odds****ratio**. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.**odds****ratio**.**ratio**of two ...**odds****ratio**. Epidemiology Cross-product**ratio**, exposure**odds****ratio**overdispersion A measure of association in a case-control ...... produces a plot of log

**odds**vs x2 with 0.95 confidence intervals. , How do I , get a plot of**odds****ratios**vs x2 instead? You ...**Odds****ratios**from lrm plot. David Winsemius dwinsemius at comcast.net Sat Nov 12 03:57:47 CET 2011 *Previous message: [R]**Odds**...The diagnostic

**odds****ratio**is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic**odds****ratio**, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{ ... As an**odds****ratio**, the logarithm of the diagnostic**odds****ratio**is approximately normally distributed.[clarification needed] The ... We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic**odds****ratio**of this test as [9, 134]. The diagnostic**odds****ratio**is ... the diagnostic**odds****ratio**is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. It is defined as the**ratio**of the**odds**of the ...Calculating a pooled

**odds****ratio**from an adjusted**odds****ratio**? , , Hello, , I have individual adjusted**odds****ratios**from different ... st: RE: Calculating a pooled**odds****ratio**from an adjusted**odds****ratio**?. From. Marcos Vinicius ,[email protected],. To. ... st: RE: Calculating a pooled**odds****ratio**from an adjusted**odds****ratio**?. Date. Fri, 25 Oct 2013 05:57:35 -0800. , -----Original ... Previous by thread: st: RE: Calculating a pooled**odds****ratio**from an adjusted**odds****ratio**? ...Math Help Forum is a free math help forum for Calculus, Algebra, LaTeX, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics and Probability, Differential Equations, Discrete Math

I took the first relative risk or

**odds****ratio**that was given and its P value. If the first result was a hazard**ratio**or a ... Believability of relative risks and**odds****ratios**in abstracts: cross sectional study BMJ 2006; 333 :231 ... Believability of relative risks and**odds****ratios**in abstracts: cross sectional study ... Believability of relative risks and**odds****ratios**in abstracts: cross sectional study ......

**odds****ratios**are relative to hsCRP=0.5 mg/L, the median of the lowest hsCRP quartile. Circles mark direct**odds****ratio**estimates ... Panel C shows**odds****ratios**estimates (bold solid line) and 95% confidence limits (lighter lines above and below) obtained in a ...**Odds****ratios**obtained from logistic regression describe associations of biomarkers with clinical events; failure to accurately ... Analysis of biomarker data: logs,**odds****ratios**, and receiver operating characteristic curves.. Grund B1, Sabin C. ...This page of Statistical Java describes 11 different probability distributions including the Binomial, Poisson, Negative Binomial, Geometric, T, Chi-squared, Gamma, Weibull, Log-Normal, Beta, and F. Each distribution has its own applet in which users can manipulate the parameters to see how the distribution changes. The parameters are described on the main page as well as situations that would use each distribution. The equations of the distributions are not given. To select between the different applets you can click on Statistical Theory, Probability Distributions and then the Main Page. At the bottom of this page you can make your applet selection. This page was formerly located at http://www.stat.vt.edu/~sundar/java/applets/ ...

... jestinah mahachie jmahachie at gmail.com Thu Dec 4 10:56:32 CET 2008 * ... Next message: [R] Getting

**Odds****ratios**for tree branches-CART model * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: [R] Getting**Odds****ratios**for tree branches-CART model * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ...In epidemiological terms, the

**odds****ratio**is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies.**Odds****ratio**... The**odds****ratio**((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. ... Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the**odds****ratio**is greater than or ... A confidence interval (CI) for the**odds****ratio**is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method (Martin and Austin, ...Unbiased estimating equations are used to estimate and compare the

**odds****ratios**representing the**odds**of heightened anxiety ... Unbiased estimating equations are used to estimate and compare the**odds****ratios**representing the**odds**of heightened anxiety ... Comparing**odds****ratios**measuring improvement or deterioration across repeated exposure or treatment sessions.. ...The Relative Risk

**Ratio**and**Odds****Ratio**are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment to which people are exposed. ... The risk or**odds****ratio**is the risk or**odds**in the exposed group divided by the risk or**odds**in the control group. A risk or ... The Relative Risk**Ratio**and**Odds****Ratio**are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment or variable to which people ... Home » Blog » Blog Type » Word of the Week » Relative Risk**Ratio**and**Odds****Ratio**. ...... fixed

**odds****ratio**for a disease association, and highlight a number of factors that can cause**odds****ratios**to vary using examples ... The travel-sick**odds****ratio**. If we should be concerned about the effect of the environment on OR estimates then we should be ...**Odds****ratios**can also vary according to age. A study published in this months edition of the New England Journal of Medicine ... The environmentally unfriendly**odds****ratio**. In a recent Friday Links Luke highlighted a paper in PLoS Medicine showing ...**odds**

**ratio**answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ...

**odds**

**ratio**is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "

**Odds**

**Ratio**." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/739851/all/

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**ratio**.

**Odds**

**ratio**. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ...

Scientific Experts about Experts and Doctors on

**odds****ratio**in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ... Experts and Doctors on**odds****ratio**in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. Summary. Locale: Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ... You are here: Locale , United Kingdom , England , Experts and Doctors on**odds****ratio**in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom ...If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...

Finally, in Crohns disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low

**odds****ratio**of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our ... By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the**odds****ratios**are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10− ...ProbabilitiesCoefficientsLogitMeta-analysesTerms of odds ratiosEstimates of odds ratiosBayesCommonlyHazardBinary logistic regressionExposureConfidence limitsRelative riskOutcomesCalculate the odds ratioPLoS GeneticsRiskPredictorsRegressionConfounderSimplifiesComputationConvertCalculatesLikelihood ratiosComputeStatisticalHaving a myocardial infarctionDifferencesConditional oddsPlotQuartilesMathematicallyTablePrevalence ratioAlleleInferenceEffectMultivariateCurves0.05Percentage

- My impression is that, although it is true that predicted probabilities might be easier to understand, odds ratios have been used extensively in research when we interpret results from logit models. (stata.com)
- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
- One other area where we deal with odds, rather than probabilities, where the latter would seem more natural, is logistic regression. (statistics.com)
- However, after the model is fit, it is possible to convert from odds to probabilities. (statistics.com)
- Odds ratios are an alternate way of expressing probabilities, which simplifies the process of updating them with new evidence. (lesswrong.com)
- Fortunately, Bayes' theorem has a very intuitive formulation, not in terms of probabilities but in terms of odds ratios. (cornell.edu)
- Clearing the denominators reveals that we've just multiplied by an odds ratio of 9, which is the ratio of the two probabilities of getting a positive test result (9/10 in one case, 1/10 in the other). (cornell.edu)
- Whether consciously or subconsciously, your own assessments of the probabilities will be guided by what the odds suggest. (fussballgames.eu)
- Furthermore, we provide code for converting ORs into other measures of test performance like predictive values, post-test probabilities, and likelihood ratios, under mild conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- A likelihood ratio of 1 implies that there will be no difference between pretest and posttest probabilities. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To use this formulation, probabilities must be converted to odds, where the odds of having a disease are expressed as the chance of having the disease divided by the chance of not having the disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Odds are summaries of probabilities that get used by sports books and nearly no one else, because they are counter-intuitive non-linear approximations to probabilities. (jasonkerwin.com)

- There is a direct relationship between the coefficients and the odds ratios. (ucla.edu)
- This means that the coefficients in logistic regression are in terms of the log odds, that is, the coefficient 1.695 implies that a one unit change in gender results in a 1.695 unit change in the log of the odds. (ucla.edu)
- Since the coefficients are returned in log odds, exponentiating converts them to odds. (pjs-web.de)

- So let's define the logit function as the log of the odds. (coursera.org)
- P1 minus logit P2, that's the log odds ratio for P1 to P2. (coursera.org)
- Wald statistics: The squared ratio of the unstandardized logit coefficient to its standard error . (wikiversity.org)

- Pair-Matched Case -Control Table and the McNemar test and the Pair-Matched Odds Ratio to evaluate whether an association It looks like there are no examples One relative risk versus two odds ratios: implications for meta-analyses involving paired and unpaired binary data. (mastersgfp.org)

- The reviewer commented that all results are expressed in terms of odds ratios which makes it very difficult to assess the magnitude of the effect. (stata.com)

- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)
- We again reconsider the previous examples and produce estimates of odds ratios and compare these to our estimates of risk differences and relative risks. (mastersgfp.org)

- The odds ratio form of Bayes' rule is one way mathematicians can give back to doctors. (cornell.edu)

- Odds ratios are commonly written as the ratio of two numbers separated by a colon. (lesswrong.com)
- Odds ratios are most commonly used in case-control studies, however, they can also be used in cross-sectional and cohort study designs as well (with some modifications and/or assumptions). (wordpress.com)
- The goal of this post is to explain the meanings of (commonly-heard) metrics that indicate the "odds" of something (either directly or indirectly). (fullybooked.club)
- Odds ratios are also commonly used in epidemiological studies to describe the likely harm an exposure might cause Bandolier therefore turned to Jon Deeks, PDF Prevalence odds ratio versusconvert hazard ratio to relative risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds ratio (OR) is a statistic commonly encountered in professional or scientific medical literature.Posted in UncategorizedTagged odds ratio vs relative risk usmle, relationship between odds ratio and relative risk, relative risk and Statistical ratios. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- First of all, the discussion is framed in terms of "matched pairs", which have nothing to do with odds ratios, or with the study designs and regression models from which odds ratios are commonly estimated. (andershuitfeldt.net)
- Odds are most commonly expressed as ratios, but converting them to percentages often make them easier to work with. (wikipedia.org)
- These can easily be used to calculate odd ratios, which are commonly used to interpret effects using such techniques, particularly in medical statistics. (proteus.co.nz)

- Risk Ratio Confidence Interval Standard Errors The odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs), incidence-rate ratios (IRRs), and relative-risk ratios (RRRs) are all just univariate transformations of the estimated betas for the logistic, survival, and multinomial Confidence Interval Crosses 1 Specifically, the OR measures the ratio of the odds that an event or result will occur to the odds of the event not happening. (comunidadwindows.org)
- Some studies use relative risks (RRs) to describe results others use odds ratios (ORs).Barnett, M. Tags: critical appraisal, epidemiology, evidence, hazard ratio, hazard ratios, interpreting, patients, research An expense ratio is what each investor pays into a Statistics. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds ratio.Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted as risk ratio (or relative risk), but they are not technically the same. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- However, if that helps you to understand hazard ratio then it is OK. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk - Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why wouldYouTube. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Tutorial about Hazard Ratios - Students 4 Best Evidence - Hazard Ratios vs. Risk Ratios (or Relative Risk) Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Kaplan-Meier Curves, Hazard Ratios Composite Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire.relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Hazard ratio. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- So if the relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) is 1.0, the two groups have the same chance of having whatever the study is measuring, be it an heart attack or stroke or death or whatever.Help with difference between odds ratio and relative risk (example included)? (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- 1. Odds Ratio It is defined as the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group or to a Relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk and number needed to treat.RATE, RISK, HAZARD, AND ODDS Depending upon the focus, different indices are used to assess disease occurrence in a group of subjects. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- hazard ratio vs relative risk reduction.are hazard ratio and relative risk the same thing. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why would we want to calculate the odds ratio?Can hazard ratios be used instead of risk ratios in population with OR vs HR varies with the Odds Ratio versus Relative Risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- La plupart des commentaires des acheteurs disent que le Hazard Ratio Vs Relative Risk Vs Odds Ratio sont excellent produit. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Effect ratios such as odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) are useful measures of relative treatment effects and are used extensively in randomized clinical trials (RCT). (fharrell.com)
- Log odds and log hazard ratios have an unlimited ranges and can possibly apply to everyone. (fharrell.com)
- The proportional hazard fit will report odds ratios for single variables (i.e. sex, variable 1, variable 2), but only gives a warning for the variable involved in an interaction (same as with logistic regressions). (jmp.com)

- Typically, a binary logistic regression analysis would give you more output than this, but today we will focus on the odds ratio. (statisticssolutions.com)

- The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
- ratio of two odds, but as used in the analysis of data from a case control study, a simple calculation, also called the cross-products ratio, which yields an approximate value for the relative risk of the exposure that has been examined in a case control study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Comparing odds ratios measuring improvement or deterioration across repeated exposure or treatment sessions. (cdc.gov)
- In other words, the exponential function of the regression coefficient ( e b1 ) is the odds ratio associated with a one-unit increase in the exposure. (wordpress.com)
- Greater precision produces a smaller odds ratio The matched pairs design in the The estimator of the risk ratio from the matched pairs matched pair odds ratio based the risk ratio associated with exposure. (mastersgfp.org)
- The odds are the number of times an event or exposure happens within a group, divided by the number of times is does not. (robertbarrington.net)
- The exposure odds ratio is equal to the disease odds ratio. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Highlighting the calculations of exposure to calculation matched and processing asbestos fiber, serious calculation is also expressed for ratios in the study ratio and ratio who matched control case mines, different sites or processing facilities. (j.pl)

- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the odds ratio by using the log transform. (sas.com)
- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the relative risk by using the log transform, which is similar to the odds ratio computations described previously. (sas.com)

- Odds ratios are hard to comprehend directly and are usually interpreted as being equivalent to the relative risk. (bmj.com)
- However, serious divergence between the odds ratio and the relative risk occurs only with large effects on groups at high initial risk. (bmj.com)
- The relative risk of one group compared with another is simply the ratio of the risks in the two groups. (bmj.com)
- table, the column 1 relative risk is the ratio of the column 1 risks for row 1 to row 2. (sas.com)
- If the condition being studied is rare, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk. (thefreedictionary.com)
- See odds ratio and relative risk ratio (below). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Design Cross sectional study of all 260 abstracts in PubMed of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" and reported results from a randomised trial, and random samples of 130 abstracts from cohort studies and 130 from case-control studies. (bmj.com)
- On 15 October 2004, I searched PubMed for all abstracts of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" in any field. (bmj.com)
- The Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment or variable to which people are exposed. (statistics.com)
- That is a difference of 0.2, a relative risk of 1.53, and an odds ratio of 2.25. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- So that's a difference of 0.4-0.2, a relative risk of 0.4 / 0.2 and an odds ratio of (0.4 / (1-0.4) / ) / (0.2 / (1-0.2)).That is 0.2, 2, and 2.66. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- We get average adjusted effects, difference = 0.2, relative risk = 1.53, and odds ratio = 2.66. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- I can derive the the marginal odds ratio, the risk difference and the relative risk from the adjusted logistic regression even though the model results are conditional odds. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- We can work out the marginal difference, relative risk and odds ratio as before. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- And, while it is not the only method of analysis for individually matched case-control studies, the predominant method of analysis is conditional logistic regression.We only get odds ratio from a case-control study which is an inferior measure of strength of association as compared to relative risk. (bsaconcordia.com)
- In most cases, the odds ratio and the relative risk will give a similar value and can in most cases be considered as interchangeable. (robertbarrington.net)
- For example, if the treatment and control groups have the same number of events (i.e. the treatment effect is small), the odds ratio and relative risk will both be the same (1). (robertbarrington.net)
- In contrast, as the treatment effect increases, the odds ratio and relative risk will diverge. (robertbarrington.net)
- The odds ratio is always further away from 1 than the relative risk, but they are more similar when the baseline risk is small. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- what are the difference between odds ratio and relative risk? (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- So, given a rare condition, the Odds Ratio approximates the Relative Risk (or Risk Ratio). (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- where D is having aRelative risk includes two important features: (i) a comparison of 19 Mar 2011 Odds Ratio Vs Relative Risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- If an event has an X% chance of happening, the odds that it happens are (X%)/(100-X%). The basic problem with odds ratios is that long ago someone (we should figure out who and curse their name) realized that for rare outcomes, an OR is approximately a relative risk, or (% chance thing occurs in treatment group)/(% chance thing occurs in control group). (jasonkerwin.com)
- This includes the odds ratio, relative risk and risk difference. (coursera.org)

- Odds ratios (95% CIs) comparing those with fatty kidney to those without fatty kidney are presented for dichotomous outcomes. (zanran.com)
- An approach for modelling multiple correlated outcomes in a network of interventions using odds ratios. (semanticscholar.org)

- you have to learn how to calculate the odds ratio. (muscle-fitness.ga)
- In this video Darryl explains how you can calculate the odds ratio, as well calculations for associated confidence intervals estimates and standard errors. (proteus.co.nz)

- Somewhat reassuringly, a recent study published in PLoS Genetics showed that odds ratios at 19 Type II diabetes associated SNPs were consistent across European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. (genomesunzipped.org)

- In my discipline (epidemiology) we have relied heavily on odds ratios simply out of habit and convenience (logistic regression) when our interest is almost never in the OR itself, but rather in the risk or prevalence ratio or difference. (stata.com)
- Because of past help I have received on this list I have learned how to convert model-based predictions from logistic regression into risk ratios or differences using marginal standardization with bootstrapped confidence intervals. (stata.com)
- A second problem with odds is that, although they are related to risk, the relation is not straightforward. (bmj.com)
- For risks of less than about 20% the odds are not greatly dissimilar to the risk, but as the risk climbs above 50% the odds start to look very different. (bmj.com)
- The most informative thing to compute would be the risk ratio, RR. (wikipedia.org)
- but then D E / ( D E + H E ) ≈ D E / H E , {\displaystyle D_{E}/(D_{E}+H_{E})\approx D_{E}/H_{E},} in other words, for the exposed population, the risk of developing the disease is approximately equal to the odds. (wikipedia.org)
- This function calculates odds ratios and population attributable risk with confidence intervals. (statsdirect.com)
- Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or equal to one ( Sahai and Kurshid, 1996 ). (statsdirect.com)
- The risk or odds ratio is the risk or odds in the exposed group divided by the risk or odds in the control group. (statistics.com)
- A risk or odds ratio = 1 indicates no difference between the groups. (statistics.com)
- This obviously presents a problem for DTC companies because they must use odds ratio estimates to predict disease risk without considering the environment in which customers reside. (genomesunzipped.org)
- Use of the prevalence ratio v the prevalence odds ratio as a measure of risk in cross sectional studies. (bmj.com)
- Analyze matched case helps you use the McNemar's test calculator that is part In this example, the odds ratio for the association between risk, Abstract Binary as well as polytomous logistic models have been found useful for estimating odds ratios when the under matched pair example is presented and. (mastersgfp.org)
- around the odds or risk ratio being the total number of matched pairs in the study. (mastersgfp.org)
- Mar 12, 2019 · Smoking - The risk related to 'any smoking' in pregnancy carries an odds ratio of 1.23, which increased to 1.32 when evaluating the pregnancy in which miscarriage occurred. (theveganapprentice.com)
- In general, people with alcohol consumption had an increased risk of GERD (odds ratio [OR], 1.48) when. (theveganapprentice.com)
- The odds differ from the absolute risk, in that the former uses the number of subject who have an event divided by the number that do not, whereas the latter uses the number of subjects who have an event divided by the total subjects in the group. (robertbarrington.net)
- In comparison with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and nucleoside backbone (odds ratio 1.0), the risk of a DDI was much lower with dolutegravir or raltegravir and nucleoside backbone (odds ratio 0.02), but higher with a boosted antiretroviral and nucleoside backbone (odds ratio 4.12). (aidsmap.com)
- Here the risk ratio is 2.08, not 3.20. (jasonkerwin.com)
- Illustration of the distortion between the odds ratio and the risk ratio (RR). (muscle-fitness.ga)
- How do we set the odds on Inter not losing at home again or Wigan sneaking victory over title-chasing Arsenal.Horse betting odds function, essentially, as a reward-to-risk ratio.Particularly in the world of gambling, odds are sometimes. (muscle-fitness.ga)

- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)
- Provides structured output (data frame) of all predictors and their corresponding odds ratios and confident intervals for further analyses. (fiocruz.br)
- It helps to avoid false references of predictors and increments by specifying these parameters in a list instead of using 'exp(coef(model))' (standard approach of odds ratio calculation for GLMs) which just returns a plain numeric output. (fiocruz.br)
- For GAM(M)s, odds ratio calculation is highly simplified with this package since it takes care of the multiple 'predict()' calls of the chosen predictor while holding other predictors constant. (fiocruz.br)
- Usually you just create a vector which stores the increments of your predictors you want to calculate odds ratios for. (pjs-web.de)
- output (which is usually the intercept) because you only want to calculate odds ratios for your predictors! (pjs-web.de)

- I have a question regarding a reviewer's comment on my use of odds ratio in interpreting the results of a logistic regression, and would appreciate it very much if you can provide any insight or any references for responding to the comment. (stata.com)
- Browse other questions tagged regression logistic odds-ratio or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
- How do I interpret the odds ratio of an interaction term in Conditional Logistic Regression? (stackexchange.com)
- FAQ: How do I interpret odds ratios in logistic regression? (ucla.edu)
- In this page, we will walk through the concept of odds ratio and try to interpret the logistic regression results using the concept of odds ratio in a couple of examples. (ucla.edu)
- Exact Logistic Regression for a Matched Pairs a Matched Pairs case-Control Design with Polytomous in estimating odds ratios under matched pairs case, It only deals with the case of a matched pair: For this example, the odds ratio is computed as 21/4 = 5.25. (mastersgfp.org)
- When averaging two odds ratios (sort of what the adjusted regression is doing), their average will not usually be the unadjusted odds ratio even in the absence of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- That has ever since been taught to applied statisticians working in certain fields (public health is one example) who use odds ratios for the scientifically important reason that they are the default output of many regression packages when you run a logistic regression. (jasonkerwin.com)
- The object which they call the "odds ratio" does not correspond to the parameter which is estimated from logistic regression models or case-control studies, and it is not a ratio of odds . (andershuitfeldt.net)
- Hi JMP users - I'm a newbie and cannot figure out how to do a simple logistic regression which will display in a table format my variables with p-values, odds ratios, and confidence intervals. (jmp.com)

- Hi, So we have been given odds ratio for males and females in four different scenarios to find out if sex is a confounder or effect modifier in a study looking at the association between lung cancer and smoking. (talkstats.com)
- I'm not sure as to how to interpret these ratios in order to say if sex is a confounder or effect modifier. (talkstats.com)
- But it is common to see papers comparing odds ratios before and after confounder adjustment as a method of judging the extent of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)

- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- This package simplifies the calculation of odds ratios in binomial models. (pjs-web.de)
- This new definition of the odds ratio then simplifies to the traditional odds ratio under certain independence conditions. (andershuitfeldt.net)

- He is we can exist the download unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds designed by participating that pas are Second located, not just to any theories, but to those in a there been Computation. (wierdeier.de)

- On this page you'll be able to convert sports betting odds across the three different formats, or convert chance of winning percentages to each of the different formats, hassle-free and in a flash. (bookofranovoline.net)
- After entering the numbers, click "Calculate" to convert the odds ratio to NNT. (knowledgetranslation.net)
- Now you can analyze those values and, if you want to present summary statistics as odds ratios instead of log odds ratios, you can just convert them back. (deeplytrivial.com)
- To convert this ratio to the equivalent percentage, these two numbers are added together and the cost of the call is divided by this sum. (wikipedia.org)
- To convert any percentage or fraction to the equivalent odds, the numerator is subtracted from the denominator and then this difference is divided by the numerator. (wikipedia.org)

- Free online Odds Ratio (OR) statistical calculator calculates Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval from a 2x2 table. (bookofranovoline.net)
- pari mutuel system that calculates and continually updates betting odds. (muscle-fitness.ga)

- ODDS-LIKELIHOOD RATIOS is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests . (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios of serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios can be calculated using the above formulas. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios between 1 and 2 and between 0.5 and 1 indicate small differences (rarely clinically significant). (unboundmedicine.com)

- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)
- We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, (wikipedia.org)
- As reported elsewhere , you can compute the standard error of the proportion as square root of the product of P * (1 - P) / N, where P is the ratio of patients with events/all patients, and N is the sample size (ie all patients). (stackexchange.com)
- I am not aware of any formula to compute the standard error of an odds, but it is reasonable you could find one. (stackexchange.com)
- Next, we will add another variable to the equation so that we can compute and odds ratio. (ucla.edu)
- In SPSS, the syntax is very similar to Excel: COMPUTE log_oddsratio = LN(oddratio). (deeplytrivial.com)

- In this paper, we investigate dichotomisation for statistical inference about odds ratios in a situation where two underlying distributions from which independent samples are drawn are skewed and unknown. (lboro.ac.uk)

- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 5/15 = 0.33. (robertbarrington.net)
- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 8/12 = 0.66. (robertbarrington.net)
- Therefore the odds of having a myocardial infarction while taking magnesium were about 0.5 (or 50 %) of the odds of having a myocardial infarction while not talking magnesium. (robertbarrington.net)

- DIFF=FIRST computes differences from the first level, and DIFF=ALL computes odds ratios based on all pairwise differences. (sas.com)
- Comparing one group with another, expresses differences in the odds of something happening. (aidsmap.com)

- The joint distributions are used to calculate conditional odds ratios. (mastersgfp.org)

- produces a plot of log odds vs x2 with 0.95 confidence intervals. (ethz.ch)
- get a plot of odds ratios vs x2 instead? (ethz.ch)
- Calculated odds ratio of GAM(M)s can be inserted into the smooth function plot. (fiocruz.br)
- We have also shown the plot of log odds against odds. (ucla.edu)
- Add odds ratios into plot of GAM(M) smoothing function. (r-pkg.org)
- Calculate or plot the odds ratio for a 2x2 table of counts. (rdocumentation.org)

- Circles mark direct odds ratio estimates comparing higher hsCRP quartiles to the lowest quartile. (nih.gov)
- The odds of hypertension decreased across quartiles of 3-MU. (theveganapprentice.com)

- The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}} where T P {\displaystyle TP} , F N {\displaystyle FN} , F P {\displaystyle FP} and T N {\displaystyle TN} are the number of true positives, false negatives, false positives and true negatives respectively. (wikipedia.org)

- The table shows the odds for various risks. (bmj.com)
- This table is produced by the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement. (sas.com)
- My understanding is that an odds ratio can not be calculated unless you have a 2x2 contingency table with an experimental group and a control group. (stackexchange.com)
- Is it possible to recover original numbers of 2x2 table from odds ratio with given 95% confidence interval? (stackexchange.com)
- The estimates table does not give these comparisons as displayed in the odds ratio table. (sas.com)
- I referred back to the 2x2 contingency table from the odds ratio post and decided to test out some different frequencies. (deeplytrivial.com)

- In genetic case-control association studies the OR typically represents the ratio of the odds of disease if allele A is carried compared to if allele B is carried. (genomesunzipped.org)
- In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDTwith new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. (elsevier.com)

- Liang, K. Y. (1985), Odds ratio inference with dependent data. (springer.com)
- Okay, so let's talk about exact inference odds ratios. (coursera.org)

- Your effect size can come from the log of the odds-ratio, but the variance will be determined by the actual proportions involved in calculating the OR. (stata.com)
- You can actually generate those effect size numbers (d) if you report an Odds Ratio with CI95 and a sample size, but that is more convoluted. (stata.com)
- Odds ratios are a common measure of the size of an effect and may be reported in case-control studies, cohort studies, or clinical trials. (bmj.com)
- We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. (elsevier.com)
- In meta-analysis of analgesic effect, the odds ratio (OR) was used as an index of the validity of the analgesic effect, and was presented at a 95 percent confidence interval (CI). (theveganapprentice.com)
- The moral of the story is that (to me) odds ratios sound bigger than they really are, and effect sizes sound smaller, so you should be really careful comparing two studies that report their results differently. (fullybooked.club)
- I frequently hear criticism of adjusted effect ratios to the effect "How do you know your model is correct? (fharrell.com)

- Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)

- Analysis of biomarker data: logs, odds ratios, and receiver operating characteristic curves. (nih.gov)

- Including "alpha = 0.05" in the parameter list fixes the default value for alpha at 0.05, which yields the 95% confidence intervals for the computed odds ratio, based on the Wald approximation described above. (blogspot.com)

- Also, this package allows odds ratio calculation of percentage steps across the whole predictor distribution range for GAM(M)s. (fiocruz.br)
- In percentage method: I calc from those pot odds how much of the whole pot is mine. (stackexchange.com)
- Every book and every site covering poker "explain" this without actually explaining why this work (the comparison of hand and pot odds in either ratio or percentage method) and these are the only explanations I have been able to come up with. (stackexchange.com)