###### Logic

The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)

###### Fuzzy Logic

Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.

###### Computers, Molecular

###### Synthetic Biology

###### Transistors, Electronic

###### Expert Systems

###### Gene Regulatory Networks

Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.

###### Electronics

###### Algorithms

###### Decision Making, Computer-Assisted

###### Software

###### Artificial Intelligence

###### Computer Simulation

###### Lab-On-A-Chip Devices

Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.

###### Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine

###### Nursing Informatics

###### Models, Biological

###### Vocabulary, Controlled

A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)

###### Sequence Inversion

###### Colonialism

The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Encyclopedias as Topic

###### Natural Language Processing

###### Linguistics

###### Information Storage and Retrieval

###### Alu Elements

The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.

###### MedlinePlus

###### Mathematical Concepts

###### Patient Care Team

###### Species Specificity

The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

###### Tsetse Flies

###### Fisheries

###### Mytilus edulis

###### Nursing, Team

###### Mathematics

###### Neural Networks (Computer)

A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

###### Markov Chains

###### Knowledge Bases

###### Models, Statistical

###### Likelihood Functions

###### User-Computer Interface

###### Developing Countries

###### Developed Countries

###### Semiconductors

## A logical analysis of T cell activation and anergy. (1/209)

Interaction of the antigen-specific receptor of T lymphocytes with its antigenic ligand can lead either to cell activation or to a state of profound unresponsiveness (anergy). Although subtle changes in the nature of the ligand or of the antigen-presenting cell have been shown to affect the outcome of T cell receptor ligation, the mechanism by which the same receptor can induce alternative cellular responses is not completely understood. A model for explaining both positive (cell proliferation and cytokine production) and negative (anergy induction) signaling of T lymphocytes is described herein. This model relies on the autophosphorylative properties of the tyrosine kinases associated with the T cell receptor. One of its basic assumptions is that the kinase activity of these receptor-associated enzymes remains above background level after ligand removal and is responsible for cellular unresponsiveness. Using a simple Boolean formalism, we show how the timing of the binding and intracellular signal-transduction events can affect the properties of receptor signaling and determine the type of cellular response. The present approach integrates into a common framework a large body of experimental observations and allows specification of conditions leading to cellular activation or to anergy. (+info)## Specific cognitive deficits in mild frontal variant frontotemporal dementia. (2/209)

Eight patients with relatively mild frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) were compared with age- and IQ-matched control volunteers on tests of executive and mnemonic function. Tests of pattern and spatial recognition memory, spatial span, spatial working memory, planning, visual discrimination learning/attentional set-shifting and decision-making were employed. Patients with fvFTD were found to have deficits in the visual discrimination learning paradigm specific to the reversal stages. Furthermore, in the decision-making paradigm, patients were found to show genuine risk-taking behaviour with increased deliberation times rather than merely impulsive behaviour. It was especially notable that these patients demonstrated virtually no deficits in other tests that have also been shown to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, such as the spatial working memory and planning tasks. These results are discussed in relation to the possible underlying neuropathology, the anatomical connectivity and the hypothesized heterogeneous functions of areas of the prefrontal cortex. In particular, given the nature of the cognitive deficits demonstrated by these patients, we postulate that, relatively early in the course of the disease, the ventromedial (or orbitofrontal) cortex is a major locus of dysfunction and that this may relate to the behavioural presentation of these patients clinically described in the individual case histories. (+info)## Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die. (3/209)

Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide. (+info)## Arguments for zero tolerance of sexual contact between doctors and patients. (4/209)

Some doctors do enter into sexual relationships with patients. These relationships can be damaging to the patient involved. One response available to both individual doctors and to disciplinary bodies is to prohibit sexual contact between doctors and patients ("zero tolerance"). This paper considers five ways of arguing for a zero tolerance policy. The first rests on an empirical claim that such contact is almost always harmful to the patient involved. The second is based on a "principles" approach while the third originates in "virtues" ethics. The fourth argues that zero tolerance is an "a priori" truth. These four attempt to establish that the behaviour is always wrong and ought, therefore, to be prohibited. The fifth argument is counterfactual. It claims a policy that allowed sexual contact would have unacceptable consequences. Given the responsibility of regulatory bodies to protect the public, zero tolerance is a natural policy to develop. (+info)## The future of philosophy. (5/209)

There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. (+info)## Illusions in reasoning about consistency. (6/209)

Reasoners succumb to predictable illusions in evaluating whether sets of assertions are consistent. We report two studies of this computationally intractable task of "satisfiability." The results show that as the number of possibilities compatible with the assertions increases, the difficulty of the task increases, and that reasoners represent what is true according to assertions, not what is false. This procedure avoids overloading memory, but it yields illusions of consistency and of inconsistency. These illusions modify our picture of human rationality. (+info)## Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game. (7/209)

In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a certain sum of money. All they must do is divide it. The proposer suggests how to split the sum. The responder can accept or reject the deal. If the deal is rejected, neither player gets anything. The rational solution, suggested by game theory, is for the proposer to offer the smallest possible share and for the responder to accept it. If humans play the game, however, the most frequent outcome is a fair share. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Ultimatum Game. We show that fairness will evolve if the proposer can obtain some information on what deals the responder has accepted in the past. Hence, the evolution of fairness, similarly to the evolution of cooperation, is linked to reputation. (+info)## Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics. (8/209)

Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning. (+info)###### Molecular logic gate - Wikipedia

###### Method and apparatus for logic synchronization - Patent # 6118304 - PatentGenius

###### Logical reasoning questions solutions pdf,Aptitude Questions

###### Selenoureas for anion binding as molecular logic gates - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)

###### Molecular logic gate operations using one-dimensional DNA nanotechnology - Journal of Materials Chemistry C (RSC Publishing)

###### Logic Gate Simulator download | SourceForge.net

###### Systems, Devices, and/or Methods for Managing Implantable Devices - Patent application

###### Spectral Logic and Its Applications for the Design of Digital Devices | Computer Science - General Interest | General &...

###### logic models · AEA365

###### Read From Logic Design To Logic Programming: Theorem Proving Techniques And P Functions

###### Inductive logic programming - Wikipedia

###### Supramolecular photochemistry applied to artificial photosynthesis and molecular logic devices<...

###### Novel Ethene-Bridged Diarylethene Photochromic Systems: Self-Assembly, Photoswitcher, and Molecular Logic Gates | SpringerLink

###### Logical reasoning deficits in schizophrenia<...

###### How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension, Reading and Writing | 10.1007...

###### Lesson Plan in Physics Logic Gates Essay - 2768 Words

###### Patent US4377849 - Macro assembler process for automated circuit design - Google Patents

###### Predicate Logic

###### Liposome logic | Sciweavers

###### An Information Gain Formulation for Active Volumetric 3D Reconstruction - NCCR Robotics

###### Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale | Nanochemistry | Nanotechnology General | Subjects | Wiley

###### University of Glasgow - Research - Research units A-Z - Synthetic Biology and Industrial Biotech - Who We Are - Yin, Huabing Dr

###### Patent US6550030 - On-line testing of the programmable logic blocks in field programmable gate ... - Google Patents

###### Atheism: Proving The Negative: God is Not Beyond Logic

###### Logic | Regents Academy - Private, Classical Christian School, Nacogdoches, Texas

###### Patente US5594364 - Programmable application specific integrated circuit and logic cell therefor - Google Patentes

###### Computer versus Bacteria: Round Two

###### Posters - Saturday Session | American Chemical Society - Florida Section

###### Florida Community College digital logic design

###### Multi-Input Regulation and Logic with T7 Promoters in Cells and Cell-Free Systems

###### Boffins make bio-chip breakthrough • The Register

###### natures logic dog food diarrhea

###### lo.logic - Gödels speed-up from constructive to classical logic? - MathOverflow

###### Download Linear Logic In Computer Science

###### Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

###### MethyLogic: Implementation of Boolean logic using DNA methylation<...

###### The evolution of logic circuits for the purpose of protein contact map prediction [PeerJ]

###### On Bias-Variance Analysis for Probabilistic Logic Models: Computer Science & IT Journal Article | IGI Global

###### Lindström quantifiers and higher-order notions on finite structures

###### Logic of possibility - Conservapedia

###### Logic Pro X version 10.5 is out! With many enhancements for VoiceOver users | AppleVis

###### May 2015 ~ Future of CIO

###### How to simulate digital logic using CMOS technology (MOSFET) in Proteus? | Forum for Electronics

###### theory | LEARNINGlover.com

###### Logical Reasoning - Classification Question-49 - General Knowledge Today

###### Fuzzy Description Logics from a Mathematical Fuzzy Logic point of view | IIIA CSIC

###### Logic and misunderstandings logic as it relates to the Bible | carefullogging.org

###### Type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications PDF Descargar Gratis

###### Going All Fuzzy: When Do You Avoid Discrete Logic? | AiGameDev.com

###### Information Gain and Mutual Information for Machine Learning 【FREE Online Courses】✔️✔️✔️

###### Download Lectures In Logic And Set Theory. Volume 1 Mathematical Logic

###### Introduction many valued and fuzzy logic semantics algebras and derivation systems | Logic | Cambridge University Press

###### Download Greek, Indian And Arabic Logic, Volume 1 (Handbook Of The History Of Logic) 2004

###### Rod logic | definition of Rod logic by Medical dictionary

###### Bayesian logic | definition of Bayesian logic by Medical dictionary

###### A discriminative method for family-based protein remote homology detection that combines inductive logic programming and...

###### Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence - Peter hrstr m, Per F. V. Hasle - Google Books

###### Comparing Scoring and Fuzzy Logic Method for Teacher Certification DSS in Indonesia - Universitas Udayana Repository

###### An adaptive hierarchical fuzzy logic system for modelling and predicti by Mark Kingham

###### On witnessed models in fuzzy logic III - witnessed Gödel logics - Häjek - 2010 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly - Wiley Online...

###### Chan, US - Patent applications

###### Download Marketing Management And Strategy

###### What Is The Meaning Of Logic And Critical Thinking

###### Quantum Chemical Design of Logic Gates of Classical and Quantum Molecular Computers and Light Driven Molecular Logical Machines

###### Xiang lifts Olympic gold for China despite neck injury - Canindia News

###### OSA | Photoconductive logic gate based on platinum decorated carbon nanotubes

###### Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications | Rent 9780792363255 | 0792363256

###### Download Automata Logics, And Infinite Games: A Guide To Current Research

###### Frontiers | High-Performance Biocomputing in Synthetic Biology-Integrated Transcriptional and Metabolic Circuits |...

###### US7548092B2 - Implementing logic functions with non-magnitude based physical phenomena - Google Patents

###### Phase-Engineered Molybdenum Telluride/Black Phosphorus Van der Waals Heterojunctions for Tunable Multivalued Logic. | AMERICAN...

###### Fuzzy logic | mathematics | Britannica

###### 26 - 28 February 2018, 2nd SYSMICS Workshop Substructural logics: semantics, proof theory and applications, Vienna, Austria |...

###### Risk assessment practice within primary mental health care: A logics perspective - Research Repository

###### Fuzzy Logic - Controls, Concepts, Theories and Applications

###### A Cleverly-Titled Logic Puzzle Blog: July 2018

###### PPT - MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3566635

###### Download Handbook Of Logic In Computer Science. Volume 5: Logic And Algebraic Methods

###### Repository at Hanyang University: Obstacle Avoidance and Path Planning for Mobile Robot Based on Fuzzy Logic Control System

###### Stock Logic plugin enhancements

###### Fuzzy Logic Ppt | Fuzzy Logic | Logic

###### Data Architecture COMN Sense: Relationships and Semantics | TDAN.com

###### An Oscilloscope Module for Novena « bunnies blog

###### UAEU Course Catalog

###### Numerical Reasoning Test at Graduate Wings

###### A Fuzzy Logic Model to Predict the Bioleaching Efficiency of Copper Concentrates in Stirred Tank Reactors

###### Fuzzy logic-based automotive airbag control system. by Tariq Mahmood. Mian

###### Improving Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning, and Clinical Judgment

###### Patente US5861347 - Method for forming a high voltage gate dielectric for use in integrated circuit - Google Patentes

###### Web Ontology Language

Description

**logics**are a family of**logics**that are decidable fragments of first-order**logic**with attractive and well-understood ... Relation to description**logics**[edit]. OWL classes correspond to description**logic**(DL) concepts, OWL properties to DL roles, ... description**logic**, while OWL 2 corresponds to the S. R. O. I. Q. (. D. ). {\displaystyle {\mathcal {SROIQ}}^{\mathcal {(D)}}}. ... OWL DL is so named due to its correspondence with description**logic**, a field of research that has studied the**logics**that form ...###### Talk:Radiation pattern

Missing

**logic**?[edit]. I don't get the**logic**in the end of the proof: "Analysis of a particular antenna (such as a Hertzian ...###### Power Macintosh G3

**Logic**board[edit]. The Beige G3 uses Apple's new "Gossamer"

**logic**board. As a compact and versatile motherboard, the Gossamer ... 1

**logic**boards is PCI646U2 and on Rev. 2

**logic**boards is 646U2-402.[28] ... The easiest way to tell if the unit is a Rev.2 is by looking at the CMD chip located on the

**logic**board. The CMD chip on Rev. ... The

**logic**board was positioned in the door, providing access to all components. Hard drives are mounted in a bracket affixed ...

###### Analysis of variance

**Logic**[edit]. The calculations of ANOVA can be characterized as computing a number of means and variances, dividing two ... Extended

**logic**[edit]. ANOVA consists of separable parts; partitioning sources of variance and hypothesis testing can be used ...

###### Selfish genetic element

**Logic**[edit]. Though selfish genetic elements show a remarkable diversity in the way they promote their own transmission, some ... The paper also provided a comprehensive introduction to the

**logic**of genomic conflicts, foreshadowing many themes that would ...

###### Wilhelm Wundt

Wundt divided up his three-volume Logik into General

**logic**and epistemology,**Logic**of the exact sciences, and**Logic**of the ... Eine Untersuchung der Prinzipien der Erkenntnis und der Methoden wissenschaftlicher Forschung (**Logic**. An investigation into the ... While**logic**, the doctrine of categories, and other principles were discussed by Wundt in a traditional manner, they were also ...**Logic**. An investigation into the principles of knowledge and the methods of scientific research), (Enke, Stuttgart 1880-1883; ...###### Lambda calculus

Formal system in mathematical

**logic**. Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical**logic**for ... History of Lambda-calculus and Combinatory**Logic**. In Gabbay and Woods (eds.), Handbook of the History of**Logic**, vol. 5. ... Combinatory**logic**- A notation for mathematical**logic**without variables. *SKI combinator calculus - A computational system ... Henk Barendregt, The Impact of the Lambda Calculus in**Logic**and Computer Science. The Bulletin of Symbolic**Logic**, Volume 3, ...###### Early Islamic philosophy

a b History of

**logic**: Arabic**logic**, Encyclopædia Britannica. *^ I. M. Bochenski (1961), "On the history of the history of**logic**...**Logic**[edit]. Main article:**Logic**in Islamic philosophy. In early Islamic philosophy,**logic**played an important role. Islamic ... Avicennian**logic**[edit]. Avicenna (980-1037) developed his own system of**logic**known as "Avicennian**logic**" as an alternative to ... By the 12th century, Avicennian**logic**had replaced Aristotelian**logic**as the dominant system of**logic**in the Islamic world.[30] ...###### Syntactic bootstrapping

**Logic**and evidence[edit]. The syntactic bootstrapping hypothesis is based on the idea that there are universal/innate links ...

###### Contraposition

For contraposition in the field of symbolic

**logic**, see Transposition (**logic**).. In**logic**, contraposition is an inference that ... Subjective**logic**[edit]. Contraposition represents an instance of the subjective Bayes' theorem in subjective**logic**expressed as ... In first-order**logic**, the conditional is defined as:. A. →. B. ⟺. ¬. A. ∨. B. {\displaystyle A\to B\iff \neg A\lor B}. We have: ... of subjective**logic**produces an absolute FALSE conditional opinion ω. P. ,. ~. ¬. Q. A. {\displaystyle \omega _{P{\widetilde ...###### Talmud

same, Sefer ha-Higgayon, translated into English as The Book of

**Logic**, Feldheim 1995, ISBN 978-0-87306-707-2 ... Among Sephardi and Italian Jews from the 15th century on, some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian**logic**, ... Aviram Ravitzky, Aristotelian**Logic**and Talmudic Methodology (Hebrew): Jerusalem 2009, ISBN 978-965-493-459-6 ... Andrew Schumann, Talmudic**Logic**: (London: College Publications 2012), ISBN 978-1-84890-072-1 ...###### Or

Mathematics and

**logic**[edit]. *Exclusive or, a logical operation (e.g. "A or B, but not both") ...###### Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence

**Logic**Gate Matrices[edit].

**Logic**Gate Matrices (a.k.a. LGM), developed by Brian McConnell, describes a universal virtual ... Studies in

**Logic**and the Foundations of Mathematics (Book 28). North-Holland, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-444-53393-7. .. ... expands upon Astraglossa to create a general-purpose language derived from basic mathematics and

**logic**symbols.[19] Several ... the sender describes a small set of mathematic and

**logic**symbols that form the basis for a rudimentary programming language ...

###### Contraction

... (

**logic**), a structural rule in proof theory. Medicine[edit]. *Muscle contraction, the physiological condition of a ... Mathematics and**logic**[edit]. *Contraction (operator theory), in operator theory, state of a bounded operator between normed ...###### Brain Games (National Geographic)

"

**Logic**". March 9, 2015 (2015-03-09). 680,000[18]. 10. "Faces". March 16, 2015 (2015-03-16). 685,000[17]. ...###### Argument from analogy

Salmon, Merrilee (2012), "Arguments from analogy", Introduction to

**Logic**and Critical Thinking, Cengage Learning, pp. 132-142, ... Baronett, Stan (2008).**Logic**. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 321-325. ISBN 9780131933125. .. .mw-parser- ... Gensler, Harry J. (2003). Introduction to**Logic**. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 333-4.. ...###### Logical disjunction

In

**logic**and related fields, disjunction is customarily notated with an infix operator ∨. {\displaystyle \lor }. .[1][2] ... "Disjunction ,**logic**". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-09-03.. *^ Józef Maria Bocheński (1959), A Précis of Mathematical ... In**logic**, disjunction is a logical connective typically notated ∨. {\displaystyle \lor }. whose meaning either refines or ... In Jan Łukasiewicz's prefix notation for**logic**, the operator is A, short for Polish alternatywa (English: alternative).[4] ...###### Platonism

Edmund Husserl's arguments against psychologism are believed to derive from a Platonist conception of

**logic**, which he had ...###### William Stanley Jevons

**Logic**[edit]. In 1864 Jevons published a Pure

**Logic**; or, the

**Logic**of Quality apart from Quantity, which was based on Boole's ... Pure

**Logic**; or, the

**Logic**of Quality apart from Quantity, Edward Stanford, London ... "William Stanley Jevons and the Extent of Meaning in

**Logic**and Economics", History and Philosophy of

**Logic**, Volume 19, Issue 2, ... The most important of his works on

**logic**and scientific methods is his Principles of Science (1874),[8] as well as The Theory ...

###### Nami Melumad

"

**Logic**". genius.com. Retrieved 2018-11-11. none "Complete list of 2018 HMMA Music In Visual Media Nominations". hmmawards.com. ... As an orchestrator, she worked on The Little Mermaid and**Logic's**album Everybody. Nami is a member of Women in Film (Los ...###### Scientific management

These include: analysis; synthesis;

**logic**; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; ...###### Avraham Trahtman

Equational

**logic**and equational theories of algebras. Contrib. to math.**Logic**. Hannover, 1966, (Amst. 1968), 275-288. A. N. ...###### Nicholas J. J. Smith

Smith is known for his research on

**logics**.**Logic**: The Laws of Truth, Princeton University Press, 2012 Vagueness and Degrees of ... He is a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and a former President of the Australasian Association for**Logic**. ... The Laws of Truth". History and Philosophy of**Logic**. 35 (3): 306-308. doi:10.1080/01445340.2014.902243. ISSN 0144-5340. S2CID ... Truth, Oxford University Press, 2008 Temporal paradox Grandfather paradox Time travel Paoli, F. (27 March 2014). "**Logic**. ...###### Language of mathematics

"

**logic**". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-06-27. "1.11. Formal and Natural Languages - How to Think like a Computer ...###### Tilden Ladies' Seminary

...

**logic**; chemistry; astronomy; rhetoric; history (United States, civilization, England); evidence of Christianity; rhetoric; ...###### Comparison of programming languages (associative array)

**logic**!. value false; literal syntax can be used if the latter is desired: my-other-map: make map! [foo: 42 bar: #[false]] ; or ... assoc-if-not inverts the

**logic**, accepting the same arguments, but returning the first entry generating NIL. ;; Find the first ...

###### Supertask

Then, one can use the same

**logic**from above to show that while at t = 1, marble 1 is still in the jar, no other marbles can be ... Chakraborti, Chhanda (2006).**Logic**. Prentice Hall of India. p. 477. ISBN 81-203-2855-8. George Boolos. "A curious inference." ... Al-Dhalimy, Haidar; Geyer, Charles (December 2016). "Surreal Time and Ultratasks". The Review of Symbolic**Logic**. Cambridge ... Journal of Philosophical**Logic**16: 1-12. (JSTOR) Romero, Gustavo E. (2013). "The collapse of supertasks". arXiv:1309.0144 [ ...###### Psi (Greek)

**Logic**. 32 (3): 195-207. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF). ...

###### Mouse (set theory)

**Logic**. 20 (1): 43-75. doi:10.1016/0003-4843(81)90011-5. MR 0611394. Jech, Thomas (2003). Set Theory. Springer Monographs in ... Mitchell, William (1979). "Ramsey cardinals and constructibility". Journal of Symbolic

**Logic**. 44 (2): 260-266. doi:10.2307/ ...

###### Logical form

The fundamental difference between modern formal

**logic**and traditional, or Aristotelian**logic**, lies in their differing analysis ... In**logic**, logical form of a statement is a precisely-specified semantic version of that statement in a formal system. ... For example, the sentence "All men are mortal" involves, in term**logic**, two non-logical terms "is a man" (here M) and "is ... The importance of the concept of form to**logic**was already recognized in ancient times. Aristotle, in the Prior Analytics, was ...**Logic** Models

Developing

**Logic**Models *Developing a**logic**model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in ... The LibGuide includes materials in four categories:**Logic**Models for Program Planning and Implementation,**Logic**Models for ... A**logic**model for the integration of mental health into chronic disease prevention and health promotionExternal. James Lando, ... The VERB™ campaign**logic**model: a tool for planning and evaluationExternal. Marian Huhman, Carrie Heitzler, Faye Wong. Prev ...###### Lockbox **Logic**

###### Tobacco 21 **Logic** Models

Long descriptions of sample Tobacco 21

**logic**model images for Figures 1, 2, and 3. ... Figure 1: Generic T21**Logic**Model. Evaluators can use this model as a guide and tailor it to best fit the evaluation needs of ... This**logic**model also covers sections for both unintended consequences and an environmental context that gives states and ... Activities in Hawaiis**logic**model involves enacting the T21 law, developing and distributing educational materials, educating ...###### Abductive **logic** programming - Wikipedia

"In Kakas, A.C.; Sadri, F. (eds.). Computational

**Logic**:**Logic**Programming and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Robert A. Kowalski. ... The abductive**logic**program, ⟨. P. ,. A. ,. I. C. ⟩. {\displaystyle \langle P,A,{\mathit {IC}}\rangle }. , has in P. {\ ... and the notion of consistency of the (extended)**logic**programs. Any of the different semantics of**logic**programming such as the ... Abductive**logic**programs have three components, ⟨. P. ,. A. ,. I. C. ⟩. ,. {\displaystyle \langle P,A,IC\rangle ,}. where: *P ...###### Fruit Smasher **Logic** Feedback

###### Arithmetic **logic** unit - Wikipedia

An arithmetic

**logic**unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on ... Hwang, Enoch (2006). Digital**Logic**and Microprocessor Design with VHDL. Thomson. ISBN 0-534-46593-5.. ... Zero, which indicates all bits of Y are**logic**zero.. *Negative, which indicates the result of an arithmetic operation is ... Typically, the external circuitry employs sequential**logic**to control the ALU operation, which is paced by a clock signal of a ...**Logic** Pro - Apple (CA)

**Logic**Pro is a complete professional recording studio on the Mac. And it has everything musicians need to go from first note to ...

**Logic**Remote Touch and flow.

**Logic**Remote lets you use your iPhone or iPad to control

**Logic**Pro on your Mac. Use Multi-Touch ...

**Logic**Remote. Touch and flow.. Download

**Logic**Remote for iPad and iPhone free from the App Store ...

**Logic**Pro makes it all easy to do - and undo. You can create projects with up to 1000 stereo or surround audio tracks and up to ...

###### Linear **logic** semantics

... which shows that the study of the semantics of this

**logic**predates the syntax of the**logic**itself. Of course, a lot of this is ... Re semantics of linear**logic**: we wish to point out that there is a large and active body of work on the semantics of linear ... The LL structure these monoids have is essentially as in Barrs preprint "Fuzzy models of linear**logic**" - Barr adds the ... and some of the work we refer to above suggests this may well be the case in linear**logic**as well. Of course, this is not to ...###### Ornitho-**logic** | Audubon

###### Ignore CASCADE Buffers **logic** option

###### RIF Framework for
**Logic** Dialects

Almost all known

**logics**define entailment this way. The difference lies in which set S they use. For instance,**logics**that are ... HiLog: A Foundation for higher-order**logic**programming, W. Chen, M. Kifer, D.S. Warren. Journal of**Logic**Programming, vol. 15, ... The Stable Model Semantics for**Logic**Programming, M. Gelfond and V. Lifschitz.**Logic**Programming: Proceedings of the Fifth ... The RIF Framework for**Logic**-based Dialects (RIF-FLD) is a formalism for specifying all**logic**-based dialects of RIF, including ...###### Fuzzy **logic** | mathematics | Britannica

... a form of

**logic**based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a ... continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1. In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy**logic**refers to a system of approximate reasoning, ... Fuzzy**logic**, in mathematics, a form of**logic**based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in ... applied**logic**: Fuzzy**logic**and the paradoxes of vagueness. Certain computational methods for dealing with concepts that are not ...###### Nu:**Logic** on Spotify

###### implication | **logic** | Britannica.com

In most systems of formal

**logic**, a broader relationship called material... ... In**logic**, a relationship between two propositions in which the second is a logical consequence of the first. ... In most systems of formal**logic**, a broader relationship called material implication is employed, which is read "If A, then B," ... In**logic**, a word or group of words that joins two or more propositions together to form a connective proposition. Commonly used ...###### CiteSeerX - Markov **Logic** Networks

A Markov

**logic**network (MLN) is a first-order knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with ... Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive**logic**programming techniques. Experiments with a real-world database ... We propose a simple approach to combining first-order**logic**and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. ... OTHER**LOGIC**PROGRAMMING APPROACHES Stochastic**logic**programs (SLPs) (=-=Muggleton, 1996-=-; Cussens, 1999) are a combination of ...**logic** element | Encyclopedia.com

... typically a

**logic**gate. Source for information on**logic**element: A Dictionary of Computing dictionary. ...**logic**element A small part of a digital**logic**circuit, ...**logic**element A small part of a digital**logic**circuit, ...**Logic**elements can be represented by operators in symbolic**logic**.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ...**logic**element A Dictionary of Computing © A Dictionary of Computing 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...###### Soft Pretzel **Logic** - Philly

**Logic** Models

Building Strong Departments , Degree Programs , Program Assessment ,

**Logic**Models. Share**Logic**Models. This web page was ... A well-developed**logic**model articulates, step by step, how a proposed program will achieve its goals. Developing a**logic**model ... Three key reasons for using**logic**models are. *to clarify your chain of**logic**about the outcomes and impacts of what you are ... Jump Down To How to Develop a**Logic**Model , Using a**Logic**Model to Evaluate a Program , References and Additional Resources ...**Logic** Wasted. - The New York Times

**Logic** Gate Simulator download | SourceForge.net

**Logic** Remote on the App Store

Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots and learn more about

**Logic**Remote. Download**Logic**Remote and enjoy it ...**Logic**Remote is a companion app for**Logic**Pro X on the Mac. It provides an innovative way to extend the creative power of**Logic**... Bei mir läuft alles unter high Sierra und**Logic**10.4. Bei der alten**Logic**Version ebenfalls nicht verbunden aber seit**Logic**... Bei mir läuft alles unter high Sierra und**Logic**10.4. Bei der alten**Logic**Version ebenfalls nicht verbunden aber seit**Logic**...###### Overlay Polygons Using Set **Logic**

**Logic** & Philosophy of Language | Springer

###### erasable programmable **logic** device - Wiktionary

erasable programmable

**logic**device (plural erasable programmable**logic**devices). *(semiconductors) An integrated circuit that ... is composed of an array of programmable**logic**devices that do not come pre-connected; the connections are programmed ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=erasable_programmable_**logic**_device&oldid=47116433" ...###### Fuzzy **Logic** Toolbox
- MATLAB & Simulink

###### Natural **Logic** and Semantics | SpringerLink

Two of the main motivations for

**logic**and (model-theoretic) semantics overlap in the sense that both subjects are concerned ... This paper returns to the topic of language and**logic**, presenting to semanticists natural**logic**, the study of**logics**for ... Purdy, W.C.: A**Logic**for Natural Language. Notre Dame J. Formal**Logic**32(3), 409-425 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle ... Pratt-Hartmann, I., Moss, L.S.:**Logics**for the Relational Syllogistic. Review of Symbolic**Logic**2(4), 647-683 (2009)zbMATH ...###### Safety **logic** - AOPA

**Logic** and Information - Keith Devlin - Google Books

... to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of intelligence and knowledge acquisition we must broaden our concept of

**logic**. ...**Logic**and Information. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretica. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science.**Logic**and Information ... books.google.com/books/about/**Logic**_and_Information.html?id=AqrwD8PYbakC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareLogic and Information. ... Information Flow: The**Logic**of Distributed Systems. Jon Barwise,Jerry Seligman. Limited preview - 1997. ...###### Love and **Logic** Supports 9Cares Colorado Shares

Love and

**Logic**is happy to support the regions largest one-day food, toy, and clothing drive. The Love and**Logic**staff ... Love and**Logic**is happy to support the regions largest one-day food, toy, and clothing drive. Past News Releases. RSS. *Love ... Love and**Logic**Institute, Inc. is helping families in need by donating 3,135 pounds of food to the 28th Annual 9Cares Colorado ... Love and**Logic**Institute, Inc. is helping families in need by donating 3,135 pounds of food to the 28th Annual 9Cares Colorado ...Mathematical2000FuzzyRejectEntailSemanticsInferenceEncompassTruth2017SymbolicSyllogisticComputationParaconsistentPrologFormal logicPredicate logicConstructPhilosophyPrinciples1991MathematicsSentencesIPadClausal formInductiveConditional logicContent1999ProgrammableFallaciesRefersStructuresSearchPropositionalClassical logicFiniteOperateController1984AbstractPropositionsModalValidityInputsAssumptionsIllustrateExamplesLove and LogicConceptualArticleGatesImplicationClassificationTheory

###### Mathematical11

- In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, but its widest meaning is usually identified with a mathematical theory of classes with unclear, or "fuzzy," boundaries. (britannica.com)
- Imre Lakatos in 1961 on the occasion of his Cambridge University doctoral award for his now world renowned PhD thesis "Essays in the Logic of Mathematical Discovery", published in part as Proofs and Refutations . (lse.ac.uk)
- This is the first part in a three-term sequence of courses which provides an introduction to the basic concepts and results of mathematical logic and set theory. (caltech.edu)
- But in contrast with [ 1 - 4 ], where the Lukasiewicz logic was only proposed as the basis for "fuzzification" of axioms and no proofs were presented for both fuzzy predicates and fuzzy axiomatization of incidence geometry, we use fuzzy logic from [ 5 ] for all necessary mathematical purposes to fill up above-mentioned "gap. (hindawi.com)
- It was Isaac Newton who was able to translate into a closed mathematical formalism both the ontological presuppositions present in Aristotelian (Eleatic) logic, and the materialistic ideal of 'res extensa' together with actuality as its mode of existence. (utm.edu)
- Mathematical logic is an extension of symbolic logic into other areas, in particular to the study of model theory, proof theory, set theory, and computability theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Ideas and methods of mathematical logic have always played an important role in the theory of knowledge representation. (utexas.edu)
- This is a calculus that is central to modern mathematical logic and important for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists whose work impinges upon logic. (doverpublications.com)
- Professor Curry begins by asking a simple question: What is mathematical logic? (doverpublications.com)
- If we can define logic as "the analysis and criticism of thought" (W. E. Johnson), then mathematical logic is, according to Curry, "a branch of mathematics which has much the same relation to the analysis and criticism of thought as geometry does to the science of space. (doverpublications.com)
- What Is Mathematical Logic? (doverpublications.com)

###### 20002

- 4. Gottwald S., A treatise on many-valued logics , Research Studies Press, Baldock 2000. (planetmath.org)
- His publications include One: Being an Investigation into the Unity of Reality and of its Parts, including the Singular Object which is Nothingness (2014, OUP) and A Very Short Introduction to Logic (2000, OUP). (oxfordreference.com)

###### Fuzzy21

- The LL structure these monoids have is essentially as in Barr's preprint "Fuzzy models of linear logic" - Barr adds the additive units, as points at +- infinity, which AA didn't consider. (upenn.edu)
- Fuzzy logic , in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. (britannica.com)
- Control systems based on fuzzy logic are used in many consumer electronic devices in order to make fine adjustments to changes in the environment . (britannica.com)
- Fuzzy logic concepts and techniques have also been profitably used in linguistics, the behavioral sciences, the diagnosis of certain diseases, and even stock market analysis. (britannica.com)
- Certain computational methods for dealing with concepts that are not inherently imprecise are known as fuzzy logics. (britannica.com)
- In a logic based on fuzzy sets, the principle of the excluded middle is therefore invalid. (britannica.com)
- In technical applications, fuzzy control refers to programs or algorithms using fuzzy logic to allow machines to make decisions based on the practical knowledge of a human operator. (britannica.com)
- is a new chapter of logic which originates from the notion of fuzzy subset proposed by L. A. Zadeh. (planetmath.org)
- From a semantical point of view, fuzzy logic is not different in nature from first-order multi-valued logic. (planetmath.org)
- apparatus, fuzzy logic is a totally different and new topic. (planetmath.org)
- In such a way it is possible to reduce the question of the deduction in fuzzy logic to the classical paradigm based on logical axioms and crisp inference rules (see the basic book of P. HÃ Â¡jek). (planetmath.org)
- As with Neural Networks Fuzzy Logic is something of a black art in that there are few books and articles about it and most of them tend to be extremely specialized. (codeproject.com)
- This gives the whole area a degree of mystery that separates it from being a useful tool and strands it in the realm of academics/professionals who seem either unwilling or unable to explain the concepts of Fuzzy Logic in a manner that would be useful to people who want to see what it has to offer without spending years studying. (codeproject.com)
- The Fuzzy Dot Net series of articles intends to break this restrictive chain by publishing a Fuzzy Logic Library that is free to use with no restrictions in whatever context that anyone who comes across the code wishes to use it. (codeproject.com)
- The aim of these articles is to not only provide a library but to describe Fuzzy Logic in such a way that as long as the person reading it knows how to program in C# they should be able to follow the articles and be in a position to use the library to write their own Fuzzy Logic enabled code. (codeproject.com)
- Most, if not all programmers have heard the term Fuzzy Logic but few could actually describe what it means and until I read Bart Kosko's "Fuzzy Thinking" book I can't say that I was any more enlightened than any one else in this respect. (codeproject.com)
- So I'm going to start with an explanation I gave recently to a friend who has no idea about programming computers at all because it quite simply isn't his field and he doesn't want to know but what the hell if he can rabbit on to me about sport I can try an make him understand the basic concepts behind Fuzzy Logic. (codeproject.com)
- What I told him is that basically Fuzzy Logic is about degrees of correctness, that it is trying to move away from the concept of absolute right or wrong black or white. (codeproject.com)
- In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. (hindawi.com)
- The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. (hindawi.com)
- The true character of Darwinian hypotheses, labelled by John Wiester as "just-so stories" dominated by fuzzy logic, has been exemplified by William Hopkins' criticism in which he pointed out that Darwin, unlike Newton , made at any time but little use of the verb "to prove" in any of its inflections. (conservapedia.com)

###### Reject2

- A paraconsistent logic is further constrained to reject one of proof by contradiction , the rule of weakening or double negation elimination - provided one accepted such ideas in the first place! (everything2.com)
- Therefore we see that one man call his Logics Truth because it works for him, while he reject that of another as false. (hubpages.com)

###### Entail3

- For example, it's apparently possible to create 'paraconsistent logics' where self-contradictions are not forbidden in all cases, but this does not entail that every proposition must be judged true--see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraconsistent_logic and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Priest for some more on this. (mail-archive.com)
- In a deductive logic, the premises of a valid deductive argument logically entail the conclusion, where logical entailment means that every logically possible state of affairs that makes the premises true must make the conclusion truth as well. (stanford.edu)
- Hence gynocentric eco-logics entail an essentialism that is historical rather than biological. (jhu.edu)

###### Semantics9

- Re semantics of linear logic: we wish to point out that there is a large and active body of work on the semantics of linear logic already in the literature, with new preprints appearing at a rapid rate. (upenn.edu)
- The framework describes mechanisms for specifying the syntax and semantics of logic-based RIF dialects through a number of generic concepts such as signatures, symbol spaces, semantic structures, and so on. (w3.org)
- Two of the main motivations for logic and (model-theoretic) semantics overlap in the sense that both subjects are concerned with representing features of natural language meaning and inference. (springer.com)
- His book Logic and Information (1991) is an introduction to situation theory and situation semantics for mathematicians. (google.com)
- That is, incorporating ω-terms into first order logic programming does not change its denotational semantics. (springer.com)
- Our exposition of relevant logic is backwards to most found in the literature We will begin, rather than end, with the semantics, since most philosophers at present are semantically inclined. (stanford.edu)
- Now, in Kripke's semantics for modal logic, the accessibility relation is a binary relation. (stanford.edu)
- Like the semantics of modal logic, the semantics of relevance logic relativises truth of formulae to worlds. (stanford.edu)
- The CL Standard includes specifications for three dialects, the Common Logic Interchange Format (CLIF) (Annex A), the Conceptual Graph Interchange Format (CGIF) (Annex B), and an XML-based notation for Common Logic (XCL) (Annex C). The semantics of these dialects are defined in the Standard by their translation to the abstract syntax and semantics of Common Logic. (wikipedia.org)

###### Inference6

- The variable sharing principle says that no formula of the form A → B can be proven in a relevance logic if A and B do not have at least one propositional variable (sometimes called a proposition letter) in common and that no inference can be shown valid if the premises and conclusion do not share at least one propositional variable. (stanford.edu)
- As a science, logic is the study of the first principles of knowledge, through inductive and deductive inference, and of the norms for clear thinking that leads to firm certitude. (catholicculture.org)
- Logic (from Greek: λογική, logikḗ, 'possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative') is the systematic study of valid rules of inference, i.e. the relations that lead to the acceptance of one proposition (the conclusion) on the basis of a set of other propositions (premises). (wikipedia.org)
- Formal logic is the study of inference with purely formal content. (wikipedia.org)
- In many definitions of logic, logical consequence and inference with purely formal content are the same. (wikipedia.org)
- Symbolic logic is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical inference, often divided into two main branches: propositional logic and predicate logic. (wikipedia.org)

###### Encompass2

- Such logics can encompass the finitude of physical embodiment as an epistemological principle, and hence I identify them as gynocentric. (jhu.edu)
- Following Darwin , the adherents of Theory of evolution also often encompass the logic of possibility in their asserts implying that things virtually construct themselves, the typical example is the book Climbing Mount Improbable by Richard Dawkins . (conservapedia.com)

###### Truth3

- The Science of Logic, however, is the Knowing of the Thinking in its truth. (marxists.org)
- Therefore there is much logics within the false as there is with Truth. (hubpages.com)
- I accept his argument that the logic of modernity is scientific objectivity, and I use his account of truth and essence to argue that knowledge is situated rather than universal. (jhu.edu)

###### 20171

- I interviewed at Animal Logic (Mumbai (India)) in February 2017. (glassdoor.com)

###### Symbolic4

- Logic elements can be represented by operators in symbolic logic . (encyclopedia.com)
- The Association for Symbolic Logic is an international organization supporting research and critical studies in logic. (utoronto.ca)
- Examples of formal logic include (1) traditional syllogistic logic (a.k.a. term logic) and (2) modern symbolic Logic: Syllogistic logic can be found in the works of Aristotle, making it the earliest known formal study and studies types of syllogism. (wikipedia.org)
- and President of the Association for Symbolic Logic. (doverpublications.com)

###### Syllogistic3

- Moss, L.S.: Syllogistic Logics with Verbs. (springer.com)
- Moss, L.S.: Logics for Two Fragments Beyond the Syllogistic Boundary. (springer.com)
- Leibniz's main aim in logic, however, was to extend the traditional syllogistic to a "Universal Calculus. (utm.edu)

###### Computation2

- Computation in ALP combines the backwards reasoning of normal logic programming (to reduce problems to sub-problems) with a kind of integrity checking to show that the abductive explanations satisfy the integrity constraints. (wikipedia.org)
- His work has appeared in Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic , Studia Logica , Journal of Philosophical Logic , Journal of Logic and Computation , and Logica Universalis . (oxfordreference.com)

###### Paraconsistent3

- A paraconsistent logic is one in which inconsistent assertions can be tolerated in that unrelated assertions can be handled in a reliable fashion. (everything2.com)
- To reason about such systems, then, one must abandon ex falso quodlibet , arriving instead at what are described as paraconsistent logics . (everything2.com)
- His primary interest is philosophical logic, with focuses on many-valued model theory, paraconsistent logic, and the logical work of William Parry. (oxfordreference.com)

###### Prolog5

- We present an extension of Horn logic programs, called ω-Prolog, which allows a finite schematization of infinitely many clauses via predicates with ω-terms as arguments. (springer.com)
- We show that for every ω-Prolog program there is an equivalent Horn logic program. (springer.com)
- Throughout the early 1970's Colmerauer and Kowalskis=-=[17]-=- were instrumental in the development of the logic based programming lan-sguage Prolog. (psu.edu)
- Prolog statements are phrased in a restricted clausal form calledsHorn clause logic. (psu.edu)
- COLORE is a repository of Common Logic Ontologies Hets supports Common Logic cltools is a PROLOG library with partial support for Common Logic Conceptual graph Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) Knowledge representation languages Sowa, John F. "Conceptual graphs summary. (wikipedia.org)

###### Formal logic1

- Modern formal logic follows and expands on Aristotle. (wikipedia.org)

###### Predicate logic2

###### Construct2

- De-novo -designed RNA molecules are used to construct cellular computing devices that can implement complex logic functions. (nature.com)
- Quantum Logic (QL) was developed as an attempt to construct a propositional structure that would allow for describing the events of interest in Quantum Mechanics (QM). (utm.edu)

###### Philosophy8

- The Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method seeks applications for a one-year LSE Fellowship in Philosophy. (lse.ac.uk)
- Imre Lakatos (1922-74), the internationally renowned philosopher of mathematics and science, lectured at the LSE in its Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method from 1960 until his untimely death in 1974 at the age of 51. (lse.ac.uk)
- A Dictionary of Logic expands on Oxford's coverage of the topic in works such as The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy . (oxfordreference.com)
- He is well known for his work on non-classical logic, and its application to metaphysics and the history of philosophy. (oxfordreference.com)
- Title: Philosophy and logic of predication / [edited by] Piotr Stalmaszczyk. (peterlang.com)
- The fact that Aristotelian logic transformed during the twentieth century into different formal, axiomatic logical systems used in today's philosophy and science doesn't really matter, because the fundamental principle, and therefore the fundamental ontology, remained the same ([40], p. xix). (utm.edu)
- Historically, logic has been studied mainly in philosophy (since Antiquity), mathematics (since mid-19th century), and computer science (since mid-20th century). (wikipedia.org)
- Charles Sanders Peirce, First Rule of Logic Philosophical logic is an area of philosophy. (wikipedia.org)

###### Principles3

- This framework defines the general principles that logic-based dialects are to use in specifying their concrete XML-based syntaxes. (w3.org)
- Presumably in problems outside these special classes, rules of classical logic could be violated, which I'm guessing wouldimply violating the principle of non-contradiction or at least the law of the excluded middle (unless there are forms of logic which preserve these principles but still differ from classical logic, I'm not sure). (mail-archive.com)
- You might want to review that section first and then come back here for a more thorough review of the principles of logic. (commnet.edu)

###### 19911

- Chen H., Hsiang J. (1991) Logic programming with recurrence domains. (springer.com)

###### Mathematics1

- Featuring entries primarily concentrating on technical terminology, the history of logic, the foundations of mathematics, and non-classical logic, this dictionary is an essential resource for anyone studying philosophical logic at undergraduate level or above. (oxfordreference.com)

###### Sentences2

- This paper returns to the topic of language and logic, presenting to semanticists natural logic , the study of logics for reasoning with sentences close to their surface form. (springer.com)
- Simply put, to formalize simply means to translate English sentences into the language of logic. (wikipedia.org)

###### IPad6

- Control music-making sessions from your iPad or iPhone with Logic Remote. (apple.com)
- Logic Remote lets you use your iPhone or iPad to control Logic Pro on your Mac. (apple.com)
- Use a variety of onscreen instruments, such as keyboards, guitars and drum pads, to play any software instrument in Logic Pro from your iPad or iPhone. (apple.com)
- It provides an innovative way to extend the creative power of Logic by using your iPad. (apple.com)
- Designed to take full advantage of Multi-Touch on iPad, Logic Remote offers new ways to record, mix, and even perform instruments in Logic Pro X from anywhere in the room, turning your iPad or iPhone* into a mixer, transport control, and a flexible Touch Instrument. (apple.com)
- Robo Logic 2 HD, the successor of the popular iPhone puzzle game 'Robo Logic', redesigned for the iPad. (apple.com)

###### Clausal form1

- rst-order logic can be converted to clausal form using a mechanical sequence of steps. (psu.edu)

###### Inductive9

- this is studied in the field of inductive logic programming (ILP) (Lavrač & Dˇzero. (psu.edu)
- An inductive logic is a logic of evidential support. (stanford.edu)
- An inductive logic extends this idea to weaker arguments. (stanford.edu)
- If a logic of good inductive arguments is to be of any real value, the measure of support it articulates should be up to the task. (stanford.edu)
- This article will focus on the kind of the approach to inductive logic most widely studied by epistemologists and logicians in recent years. (stanford.edu)
- Thus, this approach to the logic of evidential support is often called a Bayesian Inductive Logic or a Bayesian Confirmation Theory . (stanford.edu)
- This article will first provide a detailed explication of a Bayesian approach to inductive logic. (stanford.edu)
- Coq's built-in logic is very small: the only primitives are Inductive definitions, universal quantification ( ∀ ), and implication ( → ), while all the other familiar logical connectives - conjunction, disjunction, negation, existential quantification, even equality - can be encoded using just these. (upenn.edu)
- This has led to the inception of a new area of machine learning called Inductive Logic Programming [1. (psu.edu)

###### Conditional logic2

- Below are a few scenarios that use conditional logic. (axure.com)
- Figure 3.3 Conditional logic can be used to create changes in both content and stylistic output. (informit.com)

###### Content1

- Logic has for its content the determinations peculiar to the thinking activity itself - which have no other ground, than the Thinking. (marxists.org)

###### 19991

- Cussens, 1999) are a combination of logic programming and log-linear models. (psu.edu)

###### Programmable10

- SMX - PLCs (programmable logic controllers) and PLC repair solutions. (google.com)
- The UNAUTHORISED service centre for the busted programmable logic controller which its manufacturer can't fix. (google.com)
- OE manufacturer of Programmable Logic Controller for the engineering industry in India since 1985. (google.com)
- Retrofits of PLC (programmable logic controller) systems. (google.com)
- An UNAUTHORISED service centre for the programmable logic controller which manufacturers don't fix. (google.com)
- compatible with BISON's programmable logic controller. (google.com)
- Control Panels, Mimic Panels using PLC programmable logic controls. (google.com)
- a field service department for programmable logic controller PLC start-up & commissioning services. (google.com)
- Powerblanket recently set the bar even higher for the heating solutions industry with the addition of the company's new programmable logic controllers (PLCs). (prweb.com)
- A programmable logic controller is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of a device (in this case, a Powerblanket industrial heating blanket) in order to make decisions based upon a custom program that controls the output devices of the system. (prweb.com)

###### Fallacies2

- This resource covers using logic within writing-logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. (purdue.edu)
- The study of fallacies is an important branch of informal logic. (wikipedia.org)

###### Refers1

- Normally, the logic program P does not contain any clauses whose head (or conclusion) refers to an abducible predicate. (wikipedia.org)

###### Structures1

- Logics for Linguistic Structures, pp. 143-173. (springer.com)

###### Search2

- Logic became relevant to AI research in yet another way when we started using fast satisfiability solvers for solving combinatorial search problems. (utexas.edu)
- According to Balandin and his collaborators, UCR professors Roger Lake and Alexander Khitun, these super-fast non-Boolean logic circuits can be implemented with graphene field-effect transistors connected to harness NDR in circuits that are particularly well suited for many data-processing tasks, such as image recognition, data encryption, and database search. (eetimes.com)

###### Propositional2

- be it propositional logic, first-order logic or context-free grammar ules.sThirdly, this would bring the PAC-learning model into line with other approachessdeveloped from algorithmic omplexity theory =-=[40, 6, 2]-=- and Bayesian statistics.sAccording to Bayes' LawsPr(HIO ) = Pr(H)'Pr(OIH)sPr(O)sIf we treat bit-encoded escriptions as though they were the outcome of repeat-sedly tossing an unbiased coin, the prior. (psu.edu)
- The ideas can be divided into four areas: the Syllogism, the Universal Calculus, Propositional Logic , and Modal Logic. (utm.edu)

###### Classical logic6

- But if there are other versions of logic besides classical logic, then the decision to use classical logic is itself an 'assumption about logic', just like the decision to use euclidean geometry in a certain problem would be an assumption about geometry, since other non-euclidean forms are known to be possible. (mail-archive.com)
- They claim that these formulae fail to be valid if we interpret → as representing the concept of implication that we have before we learn classical logic. (stanford.edu)
- In addition, relevance logicians have had qualms about certain inferences that classical logic makes valid. (stanford.edu)
- He added a new connective to classical logic, that of strict implication. (stanford.edu)
- The proposal of the founding fathers of QL was to replace the Boolean structure of classical logic by a weaker structure which relaxed the distributive properties of conjunction and disjunction. (utm.edu)
- It was Aristotle who created classical logic and used it in order to develop his own physical and metaphysical scheme, providing an answer to the problem of movement and knowledge set down by the Heraclitean and Eleatic schools of thought. (utm.edu)

###### Finite1

- A Finite Presentation Theorem for Approximating Logic Programs. (springer.com)

###### Operate2

- Our universe doesn't necessarily operate on logic (again, as far as I can see), but logic can explain how the universe works. (hubpages.com)
- The mind need logic to operate. (hubpages.com)

###### Controller1

- HMI (Human Machine interface) compatible with BISON's program logic controller. (google.com)

###### 19841

- Journal of Logic Programming , 1, 1984. (springer.com)

###### Abstract1

- Logic" in this context does not mean the formal discipline [End Page 75] in which rules for the proper manipulation of abstract statements are laid down. (jhu.edu)

###### Propositions1

- Implication , in logic , a relationship between two propositions in which the second is a logical consequence of the first. (britannica.com)

###### Modal1

- Works on Modal Logic. (utm.edu)

###### Validity2

- One leading idea is that the target logics for translations should have a decidable validity problem, ruling out first-order logic. (springer.com)
- 6. Conservatives comprehend the fundamental logic of the Bible as a unified, coherent work, rather than frantically quoting individual, out-of-context passages in an attempt to disprove its validity. (conservapedia.com)

###### Inputs4

- A logic model is a graphic representation of a program that shows the relationship between resources (inputs) and results (outcomes). (cdc.gov)
- The inputs for Hawaii's logic model are as follows: T21 law, funding from CDC and other coalitions, external partnerships with public health departments and organizations, state-based networks like military bases and youth coalitions, surveillance and monitoring systems (HYTS, YRBS, BRFSS, SYNAR, etc.), and cessation quitline services. (cdc.gov)
- A logic gate is a device performing an elementary Boolean function, producing a logical 0 or 1 output depending on one or several such logical inputs. (nature.com)
- Cellular compartmentalization is an effective way to build gene circuits capable of complex logic operations, in which binary inputs are converted into binary outputs according to user-defined rules. (nature.com)

###### Assumptions3

- Logic modeling is a tool that can be used to unpack this hypothesis in order to understand the underlying assumptions and create strategies to test the hypothesis. (carleton.edu)
- assumptions about logic to understand it. (mail-archive.com)
- I might need logic to make further inferences, but I don't need assumptions about logic to understand it. (mail-archive.com)

###### Illustrate3

- Logic models illustrate program components in context, showing who is affected by each program element, what the anticipated effects of that program element will be on the participants, and any anticipated ripple effects from those participants affecting others around them. (carleton.edu)
- Trump's remarks about O'Donnell, Fiorina, and Kelly vividly illustrate misogyny's underlying logic. (bostonreview.net)
- To illustrate the potential of this approach, some logic circuits even a four-bit square-root circuit that comprised 130 DNA strands were shown in [ 15 , 17 ], which all enabled fast and reliable function. (hindawi.com)

###### Examples1

- Provided are examples of points to include in a T21 logic model. (cdc.gov)

###### Love and Logic13

- Love and Logic Institute, Inc. is helping families in need by donating 3,135 pounds of food to the 28th Annual 9Cares Colorado Shares Holiday Drive. (prweb.com)
- The Love and Logic staff understands that a lot of families are suffering due to the poor economy and that every little bit helps. (prweb.com)
- Love and Logic participated in the 9Cares Colorado Shares Corporate Challenge with the staff collecting non-perishable food items from October 13 through November 10. (prweb.com)
- Love and Logic® Institute, Inc. ( http://www.loveandlogic.com ) is dedicated to making parenting and teaching fun and rewarding, instead of stressful and chaotic. (prweb.com)
- Love and Logic® Institute, Inc. (prweb.com)
- Training children to develop responsibility while putting the fun back into parenting are the goals of a parenting method known as Love and Logic™ parenting. (medicinenet.com)
- The Love and Logic™ system has been described and advanced by Jim Fay, a former school principal and renowned educational consultant, Charles Fay, PhD, a child psychologist, and child psychiatrist Foster Cline, MD. (medicinenet.com)
- The idea behind the Love and Logic™ theory is this: Parents should provide an atmosphere of love, acceptance, and empathy while allowing the natural consequences of a child's behavior and actions to do the teaching. (medicinenet.com)
- The Love and Logic™ method advocates offering choices that are acceptable to the parent, so it isn't about letting 3-year-olds choose whether they want to play in the street or the fenced yard and letting them suffer the dire consequences of a poor decision. (medicinenet.com)
- An example of the Love and Logic™ theory might be allowing a second-grader to decide how much he prepares for a spelling test. (medicinenet.com)
- Using Love and Logic™ to help children learn decision-making lets them learn from consequences of their actions before the consequences become too big and far-reaching. (medicinenet.com)
- Another aspect of Love and Logic™ parenting is the focus on "enforceable" versus "non-enforceable" statements. (medicinenet.com)
- Many schools offer Love and Logic™ parenting courses, but you can also learn the method from books, tapes, and DVDs. (medicinenet.com)

###### Conceptual1

- Logic models are conceptual models of how a program works. (carleton.edu)

###### Article2

- In this article we will give a brief and relatively non-technical overview of the field of relevance logic. (stanford.edu)
- Section 4 will show precisely how this condition is satisfied by the logic of evidential support articulated in Sections 1 through 3 of this article. (stanford.edu)

###### Gates6

- Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. (sourceforge.net)
- Here the authors design strand displacement gRNAs that can add functionality to Cas12a by acting as multi-input logic gates. (nature.com)
- Here the authors present dual activator-repressor switches, designed via directed evolution, for orthogonal logic gates and multi-input circuit architectures. (nature.com)
- Computers use transistor-based logic gates as the basis of their functions, but molecular logic gates would make them much faster. (nature.com)
- A report of DNA-based logic gates could be a first step towards molecular computing. (nature.com)
- Several computing devices, such as logic gates, circuits, and tiny circuit boards, have been developed based on DNA molecules. (hindawi.com)

###### Implication2

- Called 'relevant logics' in Britain and Australasia, these systems developed as attempts to avoid the paradoxes of material and strict implication. (stanford.edu)
- As we shall see, however, relevant logic does provide us with a relevant notion of proof in terms of the real use of premises (see the section "Proof Theory" below), but it does not by itself tell us what counts as a true (and relevant) implication. (stanford.edu)

###### Classification1

- However, the scope of logic (broadly construed) includes: The classification of arguments. (wikipedia.org)

###### Theory2

- This constructive ambiguity has proved useful in categorical proof theory, and some of the work we refer to above suggests this may well be the case in linear logic as well. (upenn.edu)
- The former work deals with some issues in the theory of the syllogism, while the latter contains investigations of what is nowadays called deontic logic. (utm.edu)