The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.
The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of mussel in the genus MYTILUS, family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA, known as the common mussel. It has a bluish-black shell and is highly edible.
Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Education and training outside that for the professions.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.

A logical analysis of T cell activation and anergy. (1/209)

Interaction of the antigen-specific receptor of T lymphocytes with its antigenic ligand can lead either to cell activation or to a state of profound unresponsiveness (anergy). Although subtle changes in the nature of the ligand or of the antigen-presenting cell have been shown to affect the outcome of T cell receptor ligation, the mechanism by which the same receptor can induce alternative cellular responses is not completely understood. A model for explaining both positive (cell proliferation and cytokine production) and negative (anergy induction) signaling of T lymphocytes is described herein. This model relies on the autophosphorylative properties of the tyrosine kinases associated with the T cell receptor. One of its basic assumptions is that the kinase activity of these receptor-associated enzymes remains above background level after ligand removal and is responsible for cellular unresponsiveness. Using a simple Boolean formalism, we show how the timing of the binding and intracellular signal-transduction events can affect the properties of receptor signaling and determine the type of cellular response. The present approach integrates into a common framework a large body of experimental observations and allows specification of conditions leading to cellular activation or to anergy.  (+info)

Specific cognitive deficits in mild frontal variant frontotemporal dementia. (2/209)

Eight patients with relatively mild frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) were compared with age- and IQ-matched control volunteers on tests of executive and mnemonic function. Tests of pattern and spatial recognition memory, spatial span, spatial working memory, planning, visual discrimination learning/attentional set-shifting and decision-making were employed. Patients with fvFTD were found to have deficits in the visual discrimination learning paradigm specific to the reversal stages. Furthermore, in the decision-making paradigm, patients were found to show genuine risk-taking behaviour with increased deliberation times rather than merely impulsive behaviour. It was especially notable that these patients demonstrated virtually no deficits in other tests that have also been shown to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, such as the spatial working memory and planning tasks. These results are discussed in relation to the possible underlying neuropathology, the anatomical connectivity and the hypothesized heterogeneous functions of areas of the prefrontal cortex. In particular, given the nature of the cognitive deficits demonstrated by these patients, we postulate that, relatively early in the course of the disease, the ventromedial (or orbitofrontal) cortex is a major locus of dysfunction and that this may relate to the behavioural presentation of these patients clinically described in the individual case histories.  (+info)

Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die. (3/209)

Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.  (+info)

Arguments for zero tolerance of sexual contact between doctors and patients. (4/209)

Some doctors do enter into sexual relationships with patients. These relationships can be damaging to the patient involved. One response available to both individual doctors and to disciplinary bodies is to prohibit sexual contact between doctors and patients ("zero tolerance"). This paper considers five ways of arguing for a zero tolerance policy. The first rests on an empirical claim that such contact is almost always harmful to the patient involved. The second is based on a "principles" approach while the third originates in "virtues" ethics. The fourth argues that zero tolerance is an "a priori" truth. These four attempt to establish that the behaviour is always wrong and ought, therefore, to be prohibited. The fifth argument is counterfactual. It claims a policy that allowed sexual contact would have unacceptable consequences. Given the responsibility of regulatory bodies to protect the public, zero tolerance is a natural policy to develop.  (+info)

The future of philosophy. (5/209)

There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.  (+info)

Illusions in reasoning about consistency. (6/209)

Reasoners succumb to predictable illusions in evaluating whether sets of assertions are consistent. We report two studies of this computationally intractable task of "satisfiability." The results show that as the number of possibilities compatible with the assertions increases, the difficulty of the task increases, and that reasoners represent what is true according to assertions, not what is false. This procedure avoids overloading memory, but it yields illusions of consistency and of inconsistency. These illusions modify our picture of human rationality.  (+info)

Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game. (7/209)

In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a certain sum of money. All they must do is divide it. The proposer suggests how to split the sum. The responder can accept or reject the deal. If the deal is rejected, neither player gets anything. The rational solution, suggested by game theory, is for the proposer to offer the smallest possible share and for the responder to accept it. If humans play the game, however, the most frequent outcome is a fair share. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Ultimatum Game. We show that fairness will evolve if the proposer can obtain some information on what deals the responder has accepted in the past. Hence, the evolution of fairness, similarly to the evolution of cooperation, is linked to reputation.  (+info)

Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics. (8/209)

Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning.  (+info)

A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation based on one or more physical or chemical inputs and a single output. The field has advanced from simple logic systems based on a single chemical or physical input to molecules capable of combinatorial and sequential operations such as arithmetic operations i.e. moleculators and memory storage algorithms. For logic gates with a single input, there are four possible output patterns. When the input is 0, the output can be either a 0 or 1. When the input is 1, the output can again be 0 or 1. The four output bit patterns that can arise corresponds to a specific logic type: PASS 0, YES, NOT and PASS 1. PASS 0 always outputs 0, whatever the input. PASS 1 always outputs 1, whatever the input. YES outputs a 1 when the input is 1 and NOT is the inverse YES - it outputs a 0 when the input is 1. An example of a YES logic gate is the molecular structure shown below. A 1 output is given only when sodium ions are present in solution (1 ...
The present invention comprises a plurality of clock signals with an approximately 50% duty cycle and overlapping phases. The phases of the plurality of clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount equal to the overlap of the phase of the next clock signal. The present invention further comprises a plurality of clocked precharge (CP) logic gates coupled in series. An individual CP logic gate couples to an individual clock signal though the CP logic gates evaluate device. For the data flow through the individual CP logic gate, the logic gate receives its data input from an earlier CP logic gate in the series and passes to the next CP logic gate in the series. The earlier CP logic gate couples to an earlier phase clock signal, and the next CP logic gate couples to the next phase clock signal. The present invention additionally provides that a logic gate may only feed another
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The first example of a molecular logic gate based on selenourea/anion host-guest interaction that performs a ternary logic operation using an 1H-NMR easy to read response output is described here. Selenoureas are very versatile receptors for anion binding, capable of forming both mono- and bi-coordinated add Chemosensors and Molecular Logic
Rapid progress in DNA nanotechnology has inspired scientists to engineer DNA-based bio-computing circuits for information processing. Here, we have employed a one-dimensional DNA nanotechnology for the construction of OR and AND molecular logic gates using gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction (HCR).
Download Logic Gate Simulator for free. Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and-drop gate layout and wiring, and user created integrated circuits.
0252] logic gate--a physical device adapted to perform a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and to produce a single logic output, which is manifested physically. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates, and via such combinations, complex operations can be performed. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. The most common implementations of logic gates are based on electronics using resistors, transistors, and/or diodes, and such implementations often appear in large arrays in the form of integrated circuits (a.k.a., ICs, microcircuits, microchips, silicon chips, and/or chips). It is possible, however, to create logic gates that operate based on vacuum tubes, electromagnetics (e.g., relays), mechanics (e.g., gears), fluidics, optics, chemical reactions, and/or DNA, including on a molecular scale. Each electronically-implemented logic gate ...
PREFACE. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.. LIST OF FIGURES.. LIST OF TABLES.. ACRONYMS.1. LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 1.1 Discrete Functions.. 1.2 Tabular Representations of Discrete Functions.. 1.3 Functional Expressions.. 1.4 Decision Diagrams for Discrete Functions.. 1.5 Spectral Representations of Logic Functions.. 1.6 Fixed-polarity Reed-Muller Expressions of Logic.Functions.. 1.7 Kronecker Expressions of Logic Functions.. 1.8 Circuit Implementation of Logic Functions.. 2. SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS FOR LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 2.1 Algebraic Structures for Spectral Transforms.. 2.2 Fourier Series.. 2.3 Bases for Systems of Boolean Functions.. 2.4 Walsh Related Transforms.. 2.5 Bases for Systems of Multiple-Valued Functions.. 2.6 Properties of DiscreteWalsh andVilenkin-Chrestenson Transforms.. 2.7 Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation Functions.. 2.8 Harmonic Analysis over an Arbitrary Finite Abelian Group.. 2.9 Fourier Transform on Finite Non-Abelian Groups.. 3. CALCULATION OF SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS.. 3.1 Calculation of Walsh ...
Kirk Knestis, CEO of Hezel Associates and huge logic model fan, back on aea365 to share what I think are useful tweaks to a common logic modeling approach. I use these Conditional Logic Models to avoid traps common when evaluators work with clients to illustrate the theory of action of a program or innovation being studied.. Rad Resource - The W.K. Kellogg Foundations Logic Model Development Guide is an excellent introduction to logic models. Its very useful to getting started or to ensuring that members of a team are on the same page regarding logic models. The graphic on the first page of Chapter 1 is also a perfect illustration on which to base description of a Lesson Learned and some Hot Tips that inform the Conditional Logic Model approach.. Lesson Learned - Variations abound, but the Kellogg-style model exemplifies key attributes of the general logic model many evaluators use-a few categorical headings framing a set of left-to-right, if-then propositions, the sum of which elaborate ...
Auch der Wirkstoff Fondaparinux wird unter have Haut gespritzt. Thrombozyten) read From Logic Design to Logic Programming: Theorem Proving Techniques and general. Patienten ein gerinnungshemmendes Medikament in Tablettenform orderly zu read From Logic Design to Logic Programming: Theorem Proving Techniques, bias air ventilation is Gerinnsel bildet. Blutgerinnung wichtigen Vitamin K. Vene im Bein-Beckenbereich erleiden, kann ein operativer Eingriff read From Logic Design to Logic Programming: Theorem Proving Techniques and P beste Behandlungsoption iPad. Dabei wird versucht, read From Logic Design to Logic Programming: Blutpfropf( Thrombus) mithilfe eines Katheters zu fassen book aus der Vene zu ziehen. Risiko eines Postthrombotischen Syndroms zu read From Logic. read From Logic Design in atelectasis Lunge geschwemmt werden. Christiane FuxChristiane Fux studierte in Hamburg Journalismus read From Psychologie. During read From Logic Design to Logic Programming: Theorem Proving Techniques and and ...
Inductive logic programming is particularly useful in bioinformatics and natural language processing. Gordon Plotkin and Ehud Shapiro laid the initial theoretical foundation for inductive machine learning in a logical setting.[1][2][3] Shapiro built their first implementation (Model Inference System) in 1981:[4] a Prolog program that inductively inferred logic programs from positive and negative examples. The term Inductive Logic Programming was first introduced[5] in a paper by Stephen Muggleton in 1991.[6] Muggleton also founded the annual international conference on Inductive Logic Programming, introduced the theoretical ideas of Predicate Invention, Inverse resolution,[7] and Inverse entailment.[8] Muggleton implemented Inverse entailment first in the PROGOL system. The term inductive here refers to philosophical (i.e. suggesting a theory to explain observed facts) rather than mathematical (i.e. proving a property for all members of a well-ordered set) induction. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supramolecular photochemistry applied to artificial photosynthesis and molecular logic devices. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Supramolecular photochemical systems consist of photochemically active components such as chromophores, electron donors or electron acceptors that are associated via non-covalent or covalent interactions and that interact in some functional way. Examples of interactions are singlet-singlet energy transfer, triplet-triplet energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, quantum coherence and spin-spin magnetic interactions. Supramolecular photochemical devices may have applications in areas such as solar energy conversion, molecular logic, computation and data storage, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, and displays. This short review illustrates supramolecular photochemistry with examples drawn from artificial photosynthesis, molecular logic, analog photochemical devices and models for avian magnetic orientation.. AB - Supramolecular ...
The last decade has witnessed the great expansion of the photochromic family, especially the most promising representative, diarylethene, owing to the excellent thermal stability and outstanding...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Logical reasoning deficits in schizophrenia. AU - Goel, V.. AU - Bartolo, A.. AU - St Clair, David Malcolm. AU - Venneri, A.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. KW - THINKING. U2 - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. DO - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. M3 - Article. VL - 66. SP - 87. EP - 88. JO - Schizophrenia Research. JF - Schizophrenia Research. SN - 0920-9964. ER - ...
Read How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension, Reading and Writing on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
LESSON PLAN I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, 80% should be able to: A. Differentiate the three basic logic gates B. Construct truth tables for each
A process automatically generating topology data for fabricating large scale integrated circuits. Technology data, a logic function description and logic circuit components are generated and input to a data processing system together with geometric dimension data descriptive of the basic elements of the logic circuit components. The geometric dimension data is assembled into a plurality of intermediate level geometric topology patterns under control of the logic function description and the intermediate level geometric topology patterns are assembled into a prime level geometric topology representative of the logic function description. The logic circuit components are merged with the prime level geometric topology to produce a grid array to be fabricated into a large scale integrated circuit.
Warren Vonroeschlaub Predicate logic is the study of why the above is funny. Actually, predicate logic is a mathematical model for reasoning with predicates (just as propositional logic is an algebra for reasoning about the truth of logical expressions). As in propositional logic, we can create logical expressions containing predicates, manipulate those expressions according to the algebraic laws of predicate logic, and construct proofs using rules of inference to deduce new facts from axioms. In fact, proofs in predicate logic (based on unification) are a form of computation used in the programming language Prolog. Although predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic, it too has its ...
Liposome logic - VLSI research, in its continuous push toward further miniaturisation, is seeking to break through the limitations of current circuit manufacture techniques by moving towards biomimetic methodologies that rely on self-assembly, selforganisation and evodevo-like processes. On the other hand, Systems and Synthetic biologys quest to achieve ever more detailed (multi)cell models are relying more and more on concepts derived from computer science and engineering such as the use of logic gates, clocks and pulse generator analogs to describe a cells decision making behavior. This paper is situated at the crossroad of these two enterprises. That is, a novel method of non-conventional computation based on the encapsulation of simple gene regulatory-like networks within liposomes is described. Three transcription Boolean logic gates were encapsulated and simulated within liposomes self-assembled from DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) amphiphiles using an implementation of Dissipative P...
We consider the problem of next-best view selection for volumetric reconstruction of an object by a mobile robot equipped with a camera. Based on a probabilistic volumetric map that is built in real time, the robot can quantify the expected information gain from a set of discrete candidate views. We propose and evaluate several formulations to quantify this information gain for the volumetric reconstruction task, including visibility likelihood and the likelihood of seeing new parts of the object. These metrics are combined with the cost of robot movement in utility functions. The next best view is selected by optimizing these functions, aiming to maximize the likelihood of discovering new parts of the object. We evaluate the functions with simulated and real world experiments within a modular software system that is adaptable to other robotic platforms and reconstruction problems. We release our implementation open source. ...
Preface xi. Acknowledgements xiii. 1 Introduction to the Theory of Information 1. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Definition and Properties of Information 2. 1.3 Principles of Boolean Algebra 4. 1.4 Digital Information Processing and Logic Gates 7. 1.4.1 Simple Logic Gates 7. 1.4.2 Concatenated Logic Circuits 10. 1.4.3 Sequential Logic Circuits 11. 1.5 Ternary and Higher Logic Calculi 14. 1.6 Irreversible vs Reversible Logic 16. 1.7 Quantum Logic 18. References 20. 2 Physical and Technological Limits of Classical Electronics 23. 2.1 Introduction 23. 2.2 Fundamental Limitations of Information Processing 24. 2.3 Technological Limits of Miniaturization 27. References 34. 3 Changing the Paradigm: Towards Computation with Molecules 37. References 53. 4 Low-Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors 63. 4.1 Dimensionality and Morphology of Nanostructures 63. 4.2 Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanoobjects and Nanostructures 70. 4.2.1 Metals 70. 4.2.2 Semiconductors 84. 4.3 Molecular Scale Engineering of ...
Generation of a large family of genetic logic gates for applications in biosensing and information processing.. Funded by BBSRC.. Co-I, shared with Prof Susan Rosser, University of Edinburgh (PI) and Dr Sean Colloms, University of Glasgow (Co-I). The ultimate objective of this project is to build genetic circuits that process and store information. These circuits will take inputs from bacteria based biosensors that detect pathogens, explosives etc., process them, and take appropriate action. Toward this goal, the project will generate a family of zinc finger transcription factors and regulated promoters to act as combinatorial logic gates. The output of these logic gates can be different fluorescence signals. To evaluate these genetic circuits, we will employ an integrated microfluidic - arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device that is capable of simultaneous quantification of multiple wavelengths (figure 2). The small footprint of this device will permit easy integration with additional modules, ...
A method of self-testing the programmable logic blocks of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) during normal on-line operation includes configuring the FPGA into an initial self-testing area and a working area. The self-testing area may be further subdivided into self-testing tiles for concurrent testing if desired. The programmable logic blocks located within the self-testing area or self-testing tiles are established to function as a test pattern generator, an output response analyzer, and equivalently configured programmable logic blocks under test for testing. An exhaustive set of test patterns generated by the test pattern generator are applied to the programmable logic blocks under test which are repeatedly reconfigured in order to completely test the programmable logic blocks in all possible modes of operation. The outputs of the logic blocks are compared by the output response analyzer and resultant fault status data for each programmable logic block under test is received by a controller in
Second, theres a long history on this issue and its not just atheists who are holding God to the bounds of logic. The non-logical theist (NLT) needs to Anselm, Aquinas, Descartes, Plantinga, Craig,Weirenga, and a host of other philosophical theologians who all agree that Gods properties are all had within the boundaries of logic. Without logic, there wont be any way to say it is true that God is X, because logic is what allows us to demarcate between true and false. Logic and reason are not things you simply discard when the fancy strikes you. Without them, youve got no way to even make an assertion. Without them, human speech acts are just gibberish. To make an assertion, even one like, God is beyond logic, is to assert that there is some state of affairs that obtains in the world. A sentence of the form, X is . . . . says that something-X-is one way and not another. People like to say that our logic is limited and there could be things beyond it, but if something is not a thing and ...
11. Certainty. Logic has outer limits; thee are many things it cant give you. But logic has no inner limits: like math, it never breaks down. Just as 2 plus 2 are unfailingly 4, so if A is B and B is C, then A is unfailingly C. Logic is timeless and unchangeable. It is certain. It is not certain that the sun will rise tomorrow (it is only very, very probable). But it is certain that it either will or wont. And it is certain that if its true that it will, then its false that it wont.. In our fast-moving world, much of what we learn goes quickly out of date. He who weds the spirit of the times quickly becomes a widower, says G.K. Chesterton. But logic never becomes obsolete. The principles of logic are timelessly true.. Our discovery of these principles, of course, changes and progresses through history. Aristotle knew more logic than Homer and we know more logic than Aristotle, as Einstein knew more physics than Newton and Newton knew more physics than Aristotle.. Our formulations of ...
A field programmable gate array includes a programmable routing network, a programmable configuration network integrated with the programmable routing network; and a logic cell integrated with the programmable configuration network. The logic cell includes four two-input AND gates, two six input AND gates, three multiplexers, and a delay flipflop. The logic cell is a powerful general purpose universal logic building block suitable for implementing most TTL and gate array macrolibrary functions. A considerable variety of functions are realizable with one cell delay, including combinational logic functions as wide as thirteen inputs, all boolean transfer functions for up to three inputs, and sequential flipflop functions such as T, JK and count with carry-in.
Last year, scientists managed to use the bacteria Escherichia coli to solve a mathematical problem, described in this research. This year, the building blocks of a computer are made.. Researchers at the UCSF School of Pharmacys Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, led by Christopher A. Voigt have just published a paper which promises to get your circuits moving. This team has been working with the same bacteria to build logic gates like the ones found in computers directly into cells, making it possible to rewire and program them. The simple logic gates used in the experiment were built into genes then inserted into E. coli cells. The logic gates then acted as the communicator between the separate strains, allowing them to be connected together. Via ...
DNA is a promising biomaterial for the construction of nano-devices and biosensors. DNA-based constructs can be equipped with a computational capability that allows for the interpretation of patterns in DNA-DNA interactions in accordance with a built-in logic function. The resultant logical output can then be conveniently read, for example, as a color change. Such visual integrated sensors promise to advance the field of nucleic acid analysis and enable pathogen detection at point-of-care settings. Here, we report the design and implementation of visual integrated sensors for the detection of M. tuberculosis, a causative agent for tuberculosis disease. The sensors are based on split G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-based logic gates. The logic gates or their combination are arranged into a 3x5 template to produce a specific colorimetric, alphanumeric output depending on the presence of M. tuberculosis and, if bacteria are present, whether or not they are resistant to rifampin, a common drug used to ...
Find info concerning Florida Community College digital logic design. Qualifications for engineering jobs vary considerably. Learn about accredited engineering programs, and certificate courses you can take online.
Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on native host promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, can make the implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell-free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell-free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters
MIT boffins have made a breakthrough in biological computing that paves the way for cancer-detecting yogurts and other gloopy marvels.. The advance, which saw the researchers combine logic and memory within a single living cell, was published in the Synthetic circuits integrating logic and memory in living cells paper in Nature Biotechnology on Sunday.. The MIT researchers were able to create a biological circuit that could perform all 16 two-input Boolean logic functions in e-coli cells and store the output in DNA.. We have created an efficient system for integrated logic and memory within single cells, the researchers wrote in the Nature paper. Our modular DNA assembly strategy enables straightforward plug-and-play encoding of logic functions with concomitant memory arising from the ability of recombinases to write information in DNA.. The circuits work by using recombinases - genetic recombination enzymes - to invert targeted stretches of DNA, letting the researches encode a single ...
The high moisture content in our 100% all-natural Pumpkin Purée can also help keep your pet hydrated. This company was founded by Bob Milligan and the first Natureâ s Variety product hit pet store shelves in 2002. Highly recommended. Natureâ s Logic Canine Dry Kibble â Beef Formula Dog Food Review. Reviewed in the United States on December 26, 2017. Natures Logic Duck & Salmon Meal Feast is a highly palatable and nutrient dense meat-based dry dog food with concentrates of select fruits and vegetables. 1.0 out of 5 stars This flavor caused two different dogs to have diarrhea. ... Iâ m thinking of switching up again frtom Stella & Chewyâ s baked raw coated to slowly introducing Natures Logic Distinction. Loaded with fiber, Pumpkin Purée can help your furry friend overcome diarrhea and constipation. Scott Freeman founded Natureâ s Logic in 2005, focusing on the logic of whole nutrition, not synthetic chemicals and supplements. Natureâ s Logic Dog Food Reviews (Ratings, Recalls!) The 8 ...
Gödels speed-up theorem implies that some proofs can get significantly shortened when allowing extra axioms. There are concrete examples of this phenomenon for instance when moving from Peano arithmetic (PA) to PA + consistency(PA), or when moving from PA to second-order arithmetic, see for instance this question.. However, I am not aware of concrete examples of such a dramatic shortening when moving from constructive logic to classical logic. So, is there a known example of a statement that is both true in constructive and classical logic, that has a reasonably short proof in classical logic, but such that any proof in constructive logic would be gigantic (and thus not human-readable)? Ideally, an example would be a statement that would feel concrete enough for the average mathematician, i.e. a statement involving numbers, graphs, algebraic structures, etc. (Friedmans examples on Kruskals tree theorem fit the bill). (I would also be interested in an example that has a simple proof in ...
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In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As representation formalism we use Description Logics (DLs), thus assuming that the source and target KBs are given as a DL TBox+ABox, while the mappings have the form of DL TBox assertions. We study the problem of translating the knowledge in the source KB according to these mappings. We define a general framework of KB exchange, and address the problems of representing implicit source information in the target, and of computing different kinds of solutions, i.e., target KBs with specified properties, given a source KB and a mapping. We develop first results and study the complexity of KB exchange for DL-Lite_RDFS, a DL corresponding to the FOL fragment of RDFS, and for DL-Lite_R ...
TY - GEN. T1 - MethyLogic. T2 - 12th International Meeting on DNA Computing, DNA12. AU - Dimitrova, Nevenka. AU - Gal, Susannah. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - The MethyLogic method performs flexible and reversible modification of DNA in order to establish the logical value of true or false for a set of clauses. It combines both the biological meaning and experimental procedure with the logical implementation of the basic Boolean operators: OR, AND, and NOT. The original feature of methylation logic, MethyLogic, is the use of the reversibility of DNA methylation of cytosine and adenine. Logic variables can be negated by reversing the DNA methylation status. We introduce four implementation scenarios: three of them use methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes and the fourth uses methyl-binding proteins. Encoding can use either single or double-stranded DNA. In addition, we show how to solve a three variable SAT problem and how to implement a logic circuit.. AB - The MethyLogic method performs ...
Predicting protein structure from sequence remains a major open problem in protein biochemistry. One component of predicting complete structures is the prediction of inter-residue contact patterns (contact maps). Here, we discuss protein contact map prediction by machine learning. We describe a novel method for contact map prediction that uses the evolution of logic circuits. These logic circuits operate on feature data and output whether or not two amino acids in a protein are in contact or not. We show that such a method is feasible, and in addition that evolution allows the logic circuits to be trained on the dataset in an unbiased manner so that it can be used in both contact map prediction and the selection of relevant features in a dataset.
On Bias-Variance Analysis for Probabilistic Logic Models: 10.4018/jitr.2008070103: The article introduces bias-variance decomposition in probabilistic logic learning. We use Stochastic Logic Programs for probabilistic logic representation.
The expressive power of first-order logic is very limited on finite structures. One important way to obtain stronger logics is to add Lindström quantifiers, and another is to add higher-order quantification. We investigate two different ways of combing the two approaches. We define second-order generalised quantifiers by adapting the definition of Lindström quantifiers to a second-order setting. We also introduce existential and universal higher-order quantification where the objects quantified over are Lindström quantifiers rather than relations or higher-order relations.. Second-order generalized quantifiers are generally very expressive, but they can be sensitive to the underlying logic. We construct quantifiers which do not increase the expressive power of fist-order logic, but which dramatically increase the power of some modest extensions of it. For some combinations of syntactic types and classes of finite structures, almost any countable logic is equivalent to a uniformly obtained ...
The Logic of possibility is a peculiarly imaginative, inventive mode of argument. Unlike conventional logic, where the compound of possibilities does not result in a greater possibility or probability, but in a lesser one, the logic of possibility is one by which possibilities are assumed to add up to probability.[1][note 1] Effectively, the logic of possibility replaces one unknown mystery with another.[3][note 2] Darwin was criticised for using this method in The Origin of Species for there in it is assumed that the mere possibility of imagining a series of steps of transition from one condition of organs to another is to be accepted as a reason for believing that such transition has taken place.[5][note 3] Adopting the logic of possibility is an unscientific way of avoiding criticism of a hypothesis and attempt to free it from the burden of proof because a critic could reply to conjecture and imagination only with conjecture of his or her own, what would pointlessly lead nowhere.[1][note 4] ...
We finally have a direct go to who directly works for Apple who gets it about accessibility! Ive never been more excited! Ive long time been an avid, (OK, pun intended,) ProTools user, but, if we can get things working well with Logic, Id be willing to give it another go. Heres the problem I really really have.. I call the 1-877-204-3930 accessibility line and tell them I need help with Logic. Oh, we know Voiceover, but we dont know Logic at all. Let us transfer you to Pro apps support. Yeah yeah yeah... OK, fine, whatever. They transfer me. Oh, well, Darn it! We know Logic, but we have no clue about Voiceover, talk to Accessibility. See the predicament Im in here?. Even when I get them to conference in each other, then screen sare to help me, its a disaster 99 percent the time, as neither one has any knowledge about the other, so we basically go around in circles. The way you interact, (this time, no pun intended,) with Logic is so nonstandard in a lot of ways, as me being a blind ...
Logic began with Aristotelian logic. Aristotle discovered logic, the syllogism by analysis of language. Aristotle was perhaps the first philosopher of language (discovered philosophy of language). If logic was discovered through an analysis of language, logic must be part of the language. Language is larger than logic in that context; it can express illogical and irrational things as well as non-logical or non-propositional things (examples, interrogatives, and commands). When Frege improved Aristotelian logic with an actual mathematical-logical language, the predicate calculus, and quantificational predicate calculus and proved that true/false sentences of language can all be expressed in this propositional calculus, he proved that true/false statements in language are based on logic. Logic is a part of the language, a deep structure of language. Language as narrowly defined by academic linguists requires logic to comply with rules of grammar and syntax, thus, such languages depend upon logic, ...
Hello Im having trouble with Proteus to do this CMOS logic simulation, I used transistors, I can do the logic perfectly, but when I use CMOS for some...
I was recently asked by someone how they should be taking notes in math class. I could immediately relate because I once asked this very same question. In both undergrad and grad, I had to ask myself how to take notes because I often would leave class with a bunch of sentence fragments based on what the professor said, but without anything I could use as a study guide. At best, it would be a garbled thing that I could combine with somebody elses notes and try to make some legible out of it. Generally though, I would just ignore my notes and go to the text book if it was well written, or the library if the text book was not well written.. So how did I get past this? Well, after taking the Set Theory course, I started seeing mathematics as more of a construction job, like building a house. Mathematics is based on proofs which is nothing more than logical reasoning, and logical reasoning is just a series of statements that are either assumptions, definitions, or conclusions drawn from those ...
Which among the following does not belong in the same group as others? [A]Lymphocytes [B]Plasma [C]Fibrinogen [D]Haemoglobin [E]Pepsin Show Answer Pepsin In this question, all except Pepsin are constituents of blood, while Pepsin is an enzyme. Hence, the answer is Pepsinogen.
Description Logic is a formalism that is widely used in the framework of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. It is based on Classical Logic in order to guarantee the correctness of the inferences on the required reasoning tasks. It is indeed a fragment of First Order Predicate Logic whose language is strictly related to the one of Modal Logic. Fuzzy Description Logic is the generalization of the classical Description Logic framework thought for reasoning with vague concepts that often arise in practical applications. Fuzzy Description Logic has been investigated since the last decade of the 20th century. During the first fifteen years of investigation its semantics has been based on Fuzzy Set Theory. A semantics based on Fuzzy Set Theory, however, has been shown to have some counter-intuitive behavior, due to the fact that the truth function for the implication used is not the residuum of the truth function for the conjunction. In the meanwhile, Fuzzy Logic has ...
Logic is the art or science reasoning. Therefore, think logically to conclude the matter as it makes sense. People who find fault with the Bible tend to use faulty logic for their claims. This is why it is necessary for trúvarnarmaðurinn to learn and understand the logic so that it can provide a logical, objective and accurate answers to his criticisms. Logic is a normative science of inductions and deductions. It is a bridge that takes an idea from concept to model. Logic is referred to as the science of science. deductive / inductive Logic Logic addresses inductions and deductions. Inductive reasoning is forming conclusions from a given set of facts. In deduction, the results of just general statements. These statements are called housing. In Apologetics, deductive reasoning is the one that would be used the most. in deductive reasoning, it is not always easy to establish a true or false result. It all depends on the ground. If one or more of the premises are false then obviously the ...
Learn how to create and use a logic model, a visual representation of your initiatives activities, outputs, and expected outcomes whats my personality type? Fuzzy logic: from the very beginning of fuzzy sets. it is employed to handle the concept of. fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. type-2 fuzzy sets and systems generalize standard type-1 fuzzy sets and systems so that more uncertainty can be handled. fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications truth values of variables may be any type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications real number between 0 and 1. membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a.. ...
This weeks developer discussion is all about fuzzy logic. Click here to join the conversation by posting a comment. Have you used fuzzy logic before? If so, how did you apply it to your game AI? If not, why didnt you use fuzzy logic? Nice and Crisp Theres no argument here: discrete logic is the default in the game AI industry. Heres my take on why thats the case: Crisp logic is easier to implement, whether using finite state machines, behavior trees, or planners. Its more efficient to consider the best choice rather than having to calculate probabilities for alternatives. Design is more intuitive when the choices are crisp. Its easier to predict the outcome of an emergent system. Crisp decisions for the behaviors are easier to understand for the player, and less confusing. In a way, these are points against fuzzy logic. Do you agree with them? When to Go Fuzzy? Like any tool, fuzzy logic certainly has its advantages. To name a few: Its easier to write logic for reasoning with
print(Information Gain: %.3f bits % gain). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. # calculate the information gain. from math import log2. # calculate the entropy for the split in the dataset. def entropy(class0, class1):. return -(class0 * log2(class0) + class1 * log2(class1)). # split of the main dataset. class0 = 13 / 20. class1 = 7 / 20. # calculate entropy before the change. s_entropy = entropy(class0, class1). print(Dataset Entropy: %.3f bits % s_entropy). # split 1 (split via value1). s1_class0 = 7 / 8. s1_class1 = 1 / 8. # calculate the entropy of the first group. s1_entropy = entropy(s1_class0, s1_class1). print(Group1 Entropy: %.3f bits % s1_entropy). # split 2 (split via value2). s2_class0 = 6 / 12. s2_class1 = 6 / 12. # calculate the entropy of the second group. s2_entropy = entropy(s2_class0, s2_class1). print(Group2 Entropy: %.3f bits % s2_entropy). # calculate the information gain. gain = s_entropy ...
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Professor Merrie Bergmann presents an accessible introduction to the subject of many-valued and fuzzy logic designed for use on undergraduate and graduate courses in non-classical logic. Bergmann discusses the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic - problems arising from vague language - and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three-valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems - Lukasiewicz, Gödel, and product logics - are then presented as generalisations of three-valued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, that ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and that engage students in the comparison of logical systems. ...
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Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the twilight zone we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our
Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence deals with the history of temporal logic as well as the crucial systematic questions within the field. The book studies the rich contributions from ancient and medieval philosophy up to the downfall of temporal logic in the Renaissance. The modern rediscovery of the subject, which is especially due to the work of A. N. Prior, is described, leading into a thorough discussion of the use of temporal logic in computer science and the understanding of natural language. Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence thus interweaves linguistic, philosophical and computational aspects into an informative and inspiring whole.
Graduation of teacher certification participants plays an important role in improving the quality of education in Indonesia. This paper presents a decision support system using a Scoring and Fuzzy Logic method to determine the participants graduation of teacher certification based on requirements fulfilled. Five criteria were used as the input of the system. In Fuzzy Logic method, each criteria is divided into three parts: low, medium and high; while scoring method is determined by using a 1 - 5 scale for each requirement fulfilled. Graduation and participants ranking using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic is the output of the system. In this paper, the assessment using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic showed different ranks and results in some scores, particularly in practice assessment by using scoring method for score 64,5 would not graduated the participants since the score of practice assessment is 65. While Fuzzy Logic would observe the scores of the four different methods, if those four criteria in the ...
In this thesis, an intelligent fuzzy logic system using genetic algorithms for the prediction and modelling of interest rates is developed. The proposed system uses a Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic system in which a genetic algorithm is used as a training method for learning the fuzzy rules knowledge bases. A fuzzy logic system is developed to model and predict three month quarterly interest rate fluctuations. The system is further trained to model and predict interest rates for six month and one year periods. The proposed system is developed with first two, three, then four and finally five hierarchical knowledge bases to model and predict interest rates. A Feed Forward Fuzzy Logic system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms is developed to predict interest rates for three months periods. A back-propagation Hierarchical Neural Network system is further developed to predict interest rates for three months, six months and one year periods. These two systems are then compared with the Hierarchical Fuzzy
Häjek, P. (2010), On witnessed models in fuzzy logic III - witnessed Gödel logics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly, 56: 171-174. doi: 10.1002/malq.200810047 ...
Race Logic Synthesis for Large-Scale Integrated Circuit Designs - Techniques for performing race logic synthesis on an integrated circuit (IC) are described herein. According to one aspect of the invention, HDL (hardware description language) and/or ESL (electronic system level) design source files of an IC design are compiled into a common design database. Race logic analysis is performed on the IC design, either by a third-party tool or by the same EDA (electronic design automation) tool that also performing race logic synthesis, if the latter has built-in race logic audit functions. Based on the race logic audit results, race logic synthesis is performed on the common design database, and getting rid of all identified race logic in the IC design. This renders the EDA tool can perform concurrent analysis of the IC design, via the race-free common design database, using multi-CPU/core computers and the results will be the same as if the EDA tool had performed serial analysis of the IC design ...
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Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3PW91-TD\6-311G** model calculations of azo-dye disperse Orange 3 (DO3) molecule charge transfer indicate that in radiationless transitions charge move out from -N=N- bridge that support per linear isomerisation way [1, 2]. The results of light induced internal molecular motions in azo-dyes molecules have been used for the design and B3PW91-Time Dependent (TD)/6-311G** calculations of light driven OR logically controlled molecular machines composed from photoactive organic molecules such as electron donor: dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]thiophene and ferocene (C10H10Fe) and electron accepting and moving part of DO3 molecule. Applied DFT-TD method and our visualization program showed from which fragments electron is hopping in various excited states [2]. Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity ...
Rio de Janeiro, Aug 11 (IANS) Weightlifter Xiang Yanmei of China shrugged off an unexpected neck injury to win the gold medal for China in the womens 69kg category at the ongoing Rio Olympics here. Xiang, winner at the world championships in 2013 and 2015, failed in her third attempt in the snatch competition on Wednesday when she put the 118kg barbell above her head but suddenly the barbell fell awkwardly on her head and down her neck and dropped to the floor, reports Xinhua.. I saw little stars all of a sudden. I got hurt a little bit; I felt hurt when I knocked my head, Xiang said.. Despite the thrill, the 24-year-old Xiang still took the lead and kept the momentum to jerk 145kg with a winning total of 261kg.. But I didnt think about it at all during the jerk, so it didnt affect my performance in the jerk, she said.. Zhazira Zhapparkul of Kazakhstan, who has stood below Xiang on the podium at the 2015 worlds, claimed the silver with a total of 259kg and the bronze went to Sara Ahmed of ...
C. Mercado-Zúñiga,1 J. R. Vargas-García,1,* F. Cervantes-Sodi,2 M. Trejo-Valdez,3 R. Torres-Martínez,4 and C. Torres-Torres5 1Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07300 D.F., Mexico 2Depto. Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01219 D.F., Mexico 3ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada Unidad Querétaro, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76090, Mexico 5Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, ESIME ZAC, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico *Corresponding author: [email protected] ...
Fuzzy logic provides a unique method of approximate reasoning in an imperfect world. This text is a bridge to the principles of fuzzy logic through an application-focused approach to selected topics in Engineering and Management. The many examples point to the richer solutions obtained through fuzzy logic and to the possibilities of much wider applications. There are relatively few texts available at present in fuzzy logic applications. The style and content of this text is complementary to those already available. New areas of application are presented in a graded approach in which the underlying concepts are first described. The text is broadly divided into two parts which treat Processes and Materials and also System Applications. The level enables a selection of the text to be made for the substance of a senior undergraduate level course. There is also sufficient volume and quality for the basis of a postgraduate course. A more restricted and judicious selection can provide the material for ...
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Biocomputing uses molecular biology parts as the hardware to implement computational devices. By following pre-defined rules, often hard-coded into biological systems, these devices are able to process inputs and return outputs-thus computing information. Key to the success of any biocomputing endeavor is the availability of a wealth of molecular tools and biological motifs from which functional devices can be assembled. Synthetic biology is a fabulous playground for such purpose, offering numerous genetic parts that allow for the rational engineering of genetic circuits that mimic the behavior of electronic functions, such as logic gates. A grand challenge, as far as biocomputing is concerned, is to expand the molecular hardware available beyond the realm of genetic parts by tapping into the host metabolism. This objective requires the formalization of the interplay of genetic constructs with the rest of the cellular machinery. Furthermore, the field of metabolic engineering has had little intersection
An n-valued switch with n≧2, with an input enabled to receive a signal in one of n states, an output enabled to provide a signal in one of at least 2 states, under control of a control signal having one of at least 2 states is disclosed. Signals are instances of a physical phenomenon, an instance representing a state. N-valued inverters are also disclosed. Different types of signals are disclosed, including optical signals with different wavelengths, electrical signals with different frequencies and signals represented by a presence of a material. A kit including an n-valued switch is also disclosed.
Recently, multivalued logic (MVL) circuits have attracted tremendous interest due to their ability to process more data by increasing the number of logic states rather than the integration density. Here, we fabricate logic circuits based on molybdenum telluride (MoTe)/black phosphorus (BP) van der Waals heterojunctions with different structural phases of MoTe. Owing to the
Fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1. In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, but its widest meaning
Substructural logics are non-classical logics lacking some of the structural rules of classical logic, and are motivated by philosophical, linguistic and computational considerations. Traditionally...
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service. The analysis is informed by a critical logics approach which, using ideas from discourse theory as well as Lacanian psychoanalysis, involves developing a set of logics to describe, analyse and explain social phenomena. We characterise the assessments as functioning according to social logics of well-oiled administration and preservation, whereby bureaucratic processes are prioritised, contingency ironed out or ignored, and a need to manage potential ...
This book introduces new concepts and theories of Fuzzy Logic Control for the application and development of robotics and intelligent machines. The book consists of nineteen chapters categorized into 1) Robotics and Electrical Machines 2) Intelligent Control Systems with various applications, and 3) New Fuzzy Logic Concepts and Theories. The intended readers of this book are engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in fuzzy logic control systems….. To read more, please open the following link :. ...
Send your answer to the above puzzle to glmathgrant[at]gmail[dot]com before 11:59 PM Central time on July 20, 2018 to enter the contest. A randomly-selected entrant with the correct answer will win signed copies of the Spring 2015 issue of Will Shortzs Wordplay, the April 2018 and June 2018 issues of Games World of Puzzles, and my book Logic Puzzles 101! Said winner and up to 15 other randomly-selected entrants with the correct answer will win the LiveJournal Logic Pack, a digital packet of 300 logic puzzles that I wrote before starting this blog. Yes, thats up to 16 winners! I will also donate $3 to Childs Play Charity, which outfits childrens hospitals and shelters with toys and games, making coping with the circumstances which put them there just a little bit easier, for every winner I have. That means if I have at least 16 entrants, Ill donate $48 to Childs Play Charity! You might want to spread the word to your puzzle-loving friends if you want to help me reach this goal ...
MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. CS364 Artificial Intelligence. MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Introduction Graphical User Interface (GUI) Tools Example: Dinner for two. Introduction. MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox facilitates the development of fuzzy-logic systems using:. Slideshow 3566635 by onslow
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In this paper, a method to avoid obstacle and path-planning based on fuzzy logic system is proposed. In order to let a mobile robot be able to generate the safety path to the goal point. The following steps to complete these operations. Firstly, the theory of collision avoidance and obstacle detection were introduced. Secondly, a fuzzy logic control system was designed. Finally, the suitable path to avoid the moving obstacle is found by using the fuzzy logic control system. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB, and result verified the good performance of the proposed algorithm ...
The Alchemy software synthesizer first arrived with Logic Pro X 10.2. In this Logic Pro X 10.2.1 update tutorial audio engineer Scott Hirsch explores the new drag and drop from apple loop libarry to perforn spectral synthesis. While in spectral mode, Scott explores the eleven new spectral effects available in the updated Logic.
FUZZY LOGICT.C.Kanish Assistant Professor (Sr.) VIT University OVERVIEW What is Fuzzy Logic? Where did it begin? What is MatLab Fu...
Relationships and Semantics. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is widely used to represent semantics (roughly, meaning) on the Internet, and is based on something called description logics. The paper, A Description Logic Primer (Markus Krötzsch, František Simančik, Ian Horrocks, 2013), states that roles represent binary relation[ship]s between individuals. In fact, roles are aspects of relationships and do not represent relationships. OWL calls an expression such as employs(LexisNexis, Ted Hills) a role assertion, but in fact it is a relationship assertion that asserts that two entities play two distinct roles in a relationship. The expression names neither role, and identifies the relationship type only indirectly: we know that employs is one way to read an employment relationship. These terminology choices are one thing that makes the field of semantics so hard to comprehend.. It is straightforward to see how a graph database can represent relationships between any two things (binary ...
One of Novenas most distinctive features is its FPGA co-processor. An FPGA, or Field Programmable Gate Array, is a sea of logic gates and memory elements that can be wired up according to hardware descriptions programmed in languages such as Verilog or VHDL. Verilog can be thought of as a very strictly typed C where every line of the code executes simultaneously. Thus, every bit of logic in Novenas Spartan 6 LX45 FPGA could theoretically perform a computation every clock cycle - all 43,000 logic cells, 54,000 flip flops, and 58 fixed-point multiply accumulate DSP blocks. This potential for massive parallelism underlies one half of the exciting prospects enabled by an FPGA. The other exciting half of an FPGA relates to its expansive I/O capabilities. Every signal pin of an FPGA can be configured to comply with a huge range of physical layer specifications, from vanilla CMOS to high-speed differential standards such as TMDS (used in HDMI) and SSTL (used to talk to DDR memories). Each signal pin ...
MOS Digital Circuits: Digital Circuit Design Overview, the MOSFET as a Digital Circuit Element Design and performance Analysis of the CMOS Inverter, CMOS Logic Circuits Pseudo-NMOS Circuits, Pass-Transistor Logic Circuits, Dynamic Logic Circuits, Latches and Flip-Flops, Multivibrators, Semiconductor Memories: Types and Architectures, Random-Access Memory (RAM) Cells, Read-Only Memory (ROM). Bipolar Digital Circuits: The BJT as a Digital Circuit Element, Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL or T?L) 3. Characteristics of Standard TTL; TTL Families with Improved Performance; Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL), Timing Circuits (Astable, Bistable, Monostable). Advanced Technology Digital Circuits: BiCMOS Digital Circuits, Overview of Silicon Germanium (SiGe) and Gallium-Arsenid. ...
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Multiplicity of the chemical, biological, electrochemical and operational variables and nonlinear behavior of metal extraction in bioleaching environments complicate the mathematical modeling of these systems. This research was done to predict copper and iron recovery from a copper flotation concentrate in a stirred tank bioreactor using a fuzzy logic model. Experiments were carried out in the presence of a mixed culture of mesophilic bacteria at 35° C, and a mixed culture of moderately thermophilic bacteria at 50° C. Input variables were method of operation (bioleaching or electrobioleaching), the type of bacteria and time (day), while the recoveries of copper and iron were the outputs. A relationship was developed between stated inputs and the outputs by means of
Fuzzy Logic implementation is becoming increasingly important, and finding applications in diverse areas of current interest, such as control, pattern recognition, robotics, and other decision making applications. Fuzzy decision process offer a significant advantage over crisp decision process which is the ability to process different levels of truth instead of only 1 or 0 levels. Fuzzy Logic does not require precise inputs, it is inherently robust, and can process any reasonable number of inputs but system complexity increases rapidly with more inputs and outputs. Distributed processors would probably be easier to implement. Simple, plain-language IF X AND Y THEN Z rules are used to describe the desired system response in terms of linguistic variables rather than mathematical formulas. The number of these is dependent on the number of inputs, outputs, and the designers control response goals. The new Motorola 68HC12 MCU has an embedded fuzzy logic instruction set. Using this instruction set, we can
Section 2: What are Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning? Section 3: Critical Thinking Versus Clinical Reasoning. Section 4: Problem-solving Versus Improvement Section 5: Three Stages of Thinking - Thinking Ahead - Thinking in Action - Thinking Back (reflecting on thinking). Section 6: Shifting to a Predictive Clinical Reasoning Model. Section 7: Thinking with Electronic Health Records. Section 8: What do Critical Thinkers Look Like?. Section 9: Critical Thinking Indicators Section 10: CTIs are divided into three categories. - General attitudes/ characteristics indicators. - Knowledge indicators. - Intellectual skill indicators/ competencies. - Personal Critical Thinking Indicators. Section 11: Nursing and Other Healthcare Provider Process. Section 12: Reflecting on care - Including Patients. Section 13: Developing Critical Thinking. - Gain insight - Acquire specific theoretical and experiential knowledge. - Learn Stategies. - Practice - Ask for Feedback. Section 14: Strategies Promoting CT ...
A method for form an integrated circuit device begins by growing a tunnel oxide (22). The tunnel oxide is exposed to a nitrogen containing ambient whereby nitrogen is incorporated at atomic locations at the interface between the tunnel oxide (22) and a substrate (11). This tunnel oxide and nitrogen exposure is performed for all of a floating gate active area (12), a high voltage active area (14) and a logic gate active area (16). A floating gate electrode (24) and interpoly dielectric regions (26 through 30) are then formed in the floating gate region (12). The tunnel oxide (22) is etched from the active areas (14 and 16) whereby nitrogen contamination (32) may remain. An optional sacrificial oxidation and a low temperature 830 C. wet oxidation process utilizing HCL, H2 and O2 is then used to grow a high voltage gate dielectric (34) which has been shown to improve charge to breakdown characteristics by a factor of 1,000. After the formation of the high voltage gate oxide (34), a lower voltage logic
Description logics are a family of logics that are decidable fragments of first-order logic with attractive and well-understood ... Relation to description logics[edit]. OWL classes correspond to description logic (DL) concepts, OWL properties to DL roles, ... description logic, while OWL 2 corresponds to the S. R. O. I. Q. (. D. ). {\displaystyle {\mathcal {SROIQ}}^{\mathcal {(D)}}}. ... OWL DL is so named due to its correspondence with description logic, a field of research that has studied the logics that form ...
Missing logic?[edit]. I don't get the logic in the end of the proof: "Analysis of a particular antenna (such as a Hertzian ...
Logic board[edit]. The Beige G3 uses Apple's new "Gossamer" logic board. As a compact and versatile motherboard, the Gossamer ... 1 logic boards is PCI646U2 and on Rev. 2 logic boards is 646U2-402.[28] ... The easiest way to tell if the unit is a Rev.2 is by looking at the CMD chip located on the logic board. The CMD chip on Rev. ... The logic board was positioned in the door, providing access to all components. Hard drives are mounted in a bracket affixed ...
Logic[edit]. The calculations of ANOVA can be characterized as computing a number of means and variances, dividing two ... Extended logic[edit]. ANOVA consists of separable parts; partitioning sources of variance and hypothesis testing can be used ...
Logic[edit]. Though selfish genetic elements show a remarkable diversity in the way they promote their own transmission, some ... The paper also provided a comprehensive introduction to the logic of genomic conflicts, foreshadowing many themes that would ...
Wundt divided up his three-volume Logik into General logic and epistemology, Logic of the exact sciences, and Logic of the ... Eine Untersuchung der Prinzipien der Erkenntnis und der Methoden wissenschaftlicher Forschung (Logic. An investigation into the ... While logic, the doctrine of categories, and other principles were discussed by Wundt in a traditional manner, they were also ... Logic. An investigation into the principles of knowledge and the methods of scientific research), (Enke, Stuttgart 1880-1883; ...
Formal system in mathematical logic. Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for ... History of Lambda-calculus and Combinatory Logic. In Gabbay and Woods (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic, vol. 5. ... Combinatory logic - A notation for mathematical logic without variables. *SKI combinator calculus - A computational system ... Henk Barendregt, The Impact of the Lambda Calculus in Logic and Computer Science. The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 3, ...
a b History of logic: Arabic logic, Encyclopædia Britannica. *^ I. M. Bochenski (1961), "On the history of the history of logic ... Logic[edit]. Main article: Logic in Islamic philosophy. In early Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. Islamic ... Avicennian logic[edit]. Avicenna (980-1037) developed his own system of logic known as "Avicennian logic" as an alternative to ... By the 12th century, Avicennian logic had replaced Aristotelian logic as the dominant system of logic in the Islamic world.[30] ...
Logic and evidence[edit]. The syntactic bootstrapping hypothesis is based on the idea that there are universal/innate links ...
For contraposition in the field of symbolic logic, see Transposition (logic).. In logic, contraposition is an inference that ... Subjective logic[edit]. Contraposition represents an instance of the subjective Bayes' theorem in subjective logic expressed as ... In first-order logic, the conditional is defined as:. A. →. B. ⟺. ¬. A. ∨. B. {\displaystyle A\to B\iff \neg A\lor B}. We have: ... of subjective logic produces an absolute FALSE conditional opinion ω. P. ,. ~. ¬. Q. A. {\displaystyle \omega _{P{\widetilde ...
same, Sefer ha-Higgayon, translated into English as The Book of Logic, Feldheim 1995, ISBN 978-0-87306-707-2 ... Among Sephardi and Italian Jews from the 15th century on, some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian logic, ... Aviram Ravitzky, Aristotelian Logic and Talmudic Methodology (Hebrew): Jerusalem 2009, ISBN 978-965-493-459-6 ... Andrew Schumann, Talmudic Logic: (London: College Publications 2012), ISBN 978-1-84890-072-1 ...
Mathematics and logic[edit]. *Exclusive or, a logical operation (e.g. "A or B, but not both") ...
Logic Gate Matrices[edit]. Logic Gate Matrices (a.k.a. LGM), developed by Brian McConnell, describes a universal virtual ... Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics (Book 28). North-Holland, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-444-53393-7. .. ... expands upon Astraglossa to create a general-purpose language derived from basic mathematics and logic symbols.[19] Several ... the sender describes a small set of mathematic and logic symbols that form the basis for a rudimentary programming language ...
... (logic), a structural rule in proof theory. Medicine[edit]. *Muscle contraction, the physiological condition of a ... Mathematics and logic[edit]. *Contraction (operator theory), in operator theory, state of a bounded operator between normed ...
"Logic". March 9, 2015 (2015-03-09). 680,000[18]. 10. "Faces". March 16, 2015 (2015-03-16). 685,000[17]. ...
Salmon, Merrilee (2012), "Arguments from analogy", Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking, Cengage Learning, pp. 132-142, ... Baronett, Stan (2008). Logic. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 321-325. ISBN 9780131933125. .. .mw-parser- ... Gensler, Harry J. (2003). Introduction to Logic. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 333-4.. ...
In logic and related fields, disjunction is customarily notated with an infix operator ∨. {\displaystyle \lor }. .[1][2] ... "Disjunction , logic". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-09-03.. *^ Józef Maria Bocheński (1959), A Précis of Mathematical ... In logic, disjunction is a logical connective typically notated ∨. {\displaystyle \lor }. whose meaning either refines or ... In Jan Łukasiewicz's prefix notation for logic, the operator is A, short for Polish alternatywa (English: alternative).[4] ...
Edmund Husserl's arguments against psychologism are believed to derive from a Platonist conception of logic, which he had ...
Logic[edit]. In 1864 Jevons published a Pure Logic; or, the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity, which was based on Boole's ... Pure Logic; or, the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity, Edward Stanford, London ... "William Stanley Jevons and the Extent of Meaning in Logic and Economics", History and Philosophy of Logic, Volume 19, Issue 2, ... The most important of his works on logic and scientific methods is his Principles of Science (1874),[8] as well as The Theory ...
"Logic". Retrieved 2018-11-11. none "Complete list of 2018 HMMA Music In Visual Media Nominations". ... As an orchestrator, she worked on The Little Mermaid and Logic's album Everybody. Nami is a member of Women in Film (Los ...
These include: analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; ...
Equational logic and equational theories of algebras. Contrib. to math. Logic. Hannover, 1966, (Amst. 1968), 275-288. A. N. ...
Smith is known for his research on logics. Logic: The Laws of Truth, Princeton University Press, 2012 Vagueness and Degrees of ... He is a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and a former President of the Australasian Association for Logic. ... The Laws of Truth". History and Philosophy of Logic. 35 (3): 306-308. doi:10.1080/01445340.2014.902243. ISSN 0144-5340. S2CID ... Truth, Oxford University Press, 2008 Temporal paradox Grandfather paradox Time travel Paoli, F. (27 March 2014). "Logic. ...
"logic". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-06-27. "1.11. Formal and Natural Languages - How to Think like a Computer ...
... logic; chemistry; astronomy; rhetoric; history (United States, civilization, England); evidence of Christianity; rhetoric; ...
logic!. value false; literal syntax can be used if the latter is desired: my-other-map: make map! [foo: 42 bar: #[false]] ; or ... assoc-if-not inverts the logic, accepting the same arguments, but returning the first entry generating NIL. ;; Find the first ...
Then, one can use the same logic from above to show that while at t = 1, marble 1 is still in the jar, no other marbles can be ... Chakraborti, Chhanda (2006). Logic. Prentice Hall of India. p. 477. ISBN 81-203-2855-8. George Boolos. "A curious inference." ... Al-Dhalimy, Haidar; Geyer, Charles (December 2016). "Surreal Time and Ultratasks". The Review of Symbolic Logic. Cambridge ... Journal of Philosophical Logic 16: 1-12. (JSTOR) Romero, Gustavo E. (2013). "The collapse of supertasks". arXiv:1309.0144 [ ...
Logic. 32 (3): 195-207. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF). ...
Logic. 20 (1): 43-75. doi:10.1016/0003-4843(81)90011-5. MR 0611394. Jech, Thomas (2003). Set Theory. Springer Monographs in ... Mitchell, William (1979). "Ramsey cardinals and constructibility". Journal of Symbolic Logic. 44 (2): 260-266. doi:10.2307/ ...
The fundamental difference between modern formal logic and traditional, or Aristotelian logic, lies in their differing analysis ... In logic, logical form of a statement is a precisely-specified semantic version of that statement in a formal system. ... For example, the sentence "All men are mortal" involves, in term logic, two non-logical terms "is a man" (here M) and "is ... The importance of the concept of form to logic was already recognized in ancient times. Aristotle, in the Prior Analytics, was ...
Developing Logic Models *Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in ... The LibGuide includes materials in four categories: Logic Models for Program Planning and Implementation, Logic Models for ... A logic model for the integration of mental health into chronic disease prevention and health promotionExternal. James Lando, ... The VERB™ campaign logic model: a tool for planning and evaluationExternal. Marian Huhman, Carrie Heitzler, Faye Wong. Prev ...
The reason is that lockbox logic threatens to paint Democrats into a corner of their own. The Bush administrations newest ...
Long descriptions of sample Tobacco 21 logic model images for Figures 1, 2, and 3. ... Figure 1: Generic T21 Logic Model. Evaluators can use this model as a guide and tailor it to best fit the evaluation needs of ... This logic model also covers sections for both unintended consequences and an environmental context that gives states and ... Activities in Hawaiis logic model involves enacting the T21 law, developing and distributing educational materials, educating ...
"In Kakas, A.C.; Sadri, F. (eds.). Computational Logic: Logic Programming and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Robert A. Kowalski. ... The abductive logic program, ⟨. P. ,. A. ,. I. C. ⟩. {\displaystyle \langle P,A,{\mathit {IC}}\rangle }. , has in P. {\ ... and the notion of consistency of the (extended) logic programs. Any of the different semantics of logic programming such as the ... Abductive logic programs have three components, ⟨. P. ,. A. ,. I. C. ⟩. ,. {\displaystyle \langle P,A,IC\rangle ,}. where: *P ...
Anything related to html5 game Fruit Smasher Logic. Anything related to the game, page, ui, gameplay, layout, colors, is it fun ...
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on ... Hwang, Enoch (2006). Digital Logic and Microprocessor Design with VHDL. Thomson. ISBN 0-534-46593-5.. ... Zero, which indicates all bits of Y are logic zero.. *Negative, which indicates the result of an arithmetic operation is ... Typically, the external circuitry employs sequential logic to control the ALU operation, which is paced by a clock signal of a ...
Logic Pro is a complete professional recording studio on the Mac. And it has everything musicians need to go from first note to ... Logic Remote Touch and flow. Logic Remote lets you use your iPhone or iPad to control Logic Pro on your Mac. Use Multi-Touch ... Logic Remote. Touch and flow.. Download Logic Remote for iPad and iPhone free from the App Store ... Logic Pro makes it all easy to do - and undo. You can create projects with up to 1000 stereo or surround audio tracks and up to ...
... which shows that the study of the semantics of this logic predates the syntax of the logic itself. Of course, a lot of this is ... Re semantics of linear logic: we wish to point out that there is a large and active body of work on the semantics of linear ... The LL structure these monoids have is essentially as in Barrs preprint "Fuzzy models of linear logic" - Barr adds the ... and some of the work we refer to above suggests this may well be the case in linear logic as well. Of course, this is not to ...
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All Logic Options. Parent topic: All Logic Options Ignore CASCADE Buffers logic option. A logic option that ignores CASCADE. ...
Almost all known logics define entailment this way. The difference lies in which set S they use. For instance, logics that are ... HiLog: A Foundation for higher-order logic programming, W. Chen, M. Kifer, D.S. Warren. Journal of Logic Programming, vol. 15, ... The Stable Model Semantics for Logic Programming, M. Gelfond and V. Lifschitz. Logic Programming: Proceedings of the Fifth ... The RIF Framework for Logic-based Dialects (RIF-FLD) is a formalism for specifying all logic-based dialects of RIF, including ...
... a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a ... continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1. In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, ... Fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in ... applied logic: Fuzzy logic and the paradoxes of vagueness. Certain computational methods for dealing with concepts that are not ...
Listen to Nu:Logic now.. Listen to Nu:Logic in full in the Spotify app ... The first proper Nu:Logic EP appeared some six years later, with the release of 2010s New Technique. A track on Sick Music 3 ...
In most systems of formal logic, a broader relationship called material... ... In logic, a relationship between two propositions in which the second is a logical consequence of the first. ... In most systems of formal logic, a broader relationship called material implication is employed, which is read "If A, then B," ... In logic, a word or group of words that joins two or more propositions together to form a connective proposition. Commonly used ...
A Markov logic network (MLN) is a first-order knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with ... Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a real-world database ... We propose a simple approach to combining first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. ... OTHER LOGIC PROGRAMMING APPROACHES Stochastic logic programs (SLPs) (=-=Muggleton, 1996-=-; Cussens, 1999) are a combination of ...
... typically a logic gate. Source for information on logic element: A Dictionary of Computing dictionary. ... logic element A small part of a digital logic circuit, ... logic element A small part of a digital logic circuit, ... Logic elements can be represented by operators in symbolic logic.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ... logic element A Dictionary of Computing © A Dictionary of Computing 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
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Building Strong Departments , Degree Programs , Program Assessment , Logic Models. Share Logic Models. This web page was ... A well-developed logic model articulates, step by step, how a proposed program will achieve its goals. Developing a logic model ... Three key reasons for using logic models are. *to clarify your chain of logic about the outcomes and impacts of what you are ... Jump Down To How to Develop a Logic Model , Using a Logic Model to Evaluate a Program , References and Additional Resources ...
The telegraphic report of yesterdays proceedings in Congress informs us that Senator COLLAMER made an elaborate and able speech to show that, under the Constitution, Congress has full power to prohibit Slavery in the Territories ...
Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and- ... Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and- ...
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erasable programmable logic device (plural erasable programmable logic devices). *(semiconductors) An integrated circuit that ... is composed of an array of programmable logic devices that do not come pre-connected; the connections are programmed ... Retrieved from "" ...
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Two of the main motivations for logic and (model-theoretic) semantics overlap in the sense that both subjects are concerned ... This paper returns to the topic of language and logic, presenting to semanticists natural logic, the study of logics for ... Purdy, W.C.: A Logic for Natural Language. Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 32(3), 409-425 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle ... Pratt-Hartmann, I., Moss, L.S.: Logics for the Relational Syllogistic. Review of Symbolic Logic 2(4), 647-683 (2009)zbMATH ...
Safety logicSafety logic Adding safety equipment to address accident causes. July 1, 2019 By Ian J. Twombly ...
... to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of intelligence and knowledge acquisition we must broaden our concept of logic. ... Logic and Information. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretica. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science. Logic and Information ... and Information. ... Information Flow: The Logic of Distributed Systems. Jon Barwise,Jerry Seligman. Limited preview - 1997. ...
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  • In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, but its widest meaning is usually identified with a mathematical theory of classes with unclear, or "fuzzy," boundaries. (
  • Imre Lakatos in 1961 on the occasion of his Cambridge University doctoral award for his now world renowned PhD thesis "Essays in the Logic of Mathematical Discovery", published in part as Proofs and Refutations . (
  • This is the first part in a three-term sequence of courses which provides an introduction to the basic concepts and results of mathematical logic and set theory. (
  • But in contrast with [ 1 - 4 ], where the Lukasiewicz logic was only proposed as the basis for "fuzzification" of axioms and no proofs were presented for both fuzzy predicates and fuzzy axiomatization of incidence geometry, we use fuzzy logic from [ 5 ] for all necessary mathematical purposes to fill up above-mentioned "gap. (
  • It was Isaac Newton who was able to translate into a closed mathematical formalism both the ontological presuppositions present in Aristotelian (Eleatic) logic, and the materialistic ideal of 'res extensa' together with actuality as its mode of existence. (
  • Mathematical logic is an extension of symbolic logic into other areas, in particular to the study of model theory, proof theory, set theory, and computability theory. (
  • Ideas and methods of mathematical logic have always played an important role in the theory of knowledge representation. (
  • This is a calculus that is central to modern mathematical logic and important for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists whose work impinges upon logic. (
  • Professor Curry begins by asking a simple question: What is mathematical logic? (
  • If we can define logic as "the analysis and criticism of thought" (W. E. Johnson), then mathematical logic is, according to Curry, "a branch of mathematics which has much the same relation to the analysis and criticism of thought as geometry does to the science of space. (
  • What Is Mathematical Logic? (
  • 4. Gottwald S., A treatise on many-valued logics , Research Studies Press, Baldock 2000. (
  • His publications include One: Being an Investigation into the Unity of Reality and of its Parts, including the Singular Object which is Nothingness (2014, OUP) and A Very Short Introduction to Logic (2000, OUP). (
  • The LL structure these monoids have is essentially as in Barr's preprint "Fuzzy models of linear logic" - Barr adds the additive units, as points at +- infinity, which AA didn't consider. (
  • Fuzzy logic , in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. (
  • Control systems based on fuzzy logic are used in many consumer electronic devices in order to make fine adjustments to changes in the environment . (
  • Fuzzy logic concepts and techniques have also been profitably used in linguistics, the behavioral sciences, the diagnosis of certain diseases, and even stock market analysis. (
  • Certain computational methods for dealing with concepts that are not inherently imprecise are known as fuzzy logics. (
  • In a logic based on fuzzy sets, the principle of the excluded middle is therefore invalid. (
  • In technical applications, fuzzy control refers to programs or algorithms using fuzzy logic to allow machines to make decisions based on the practical knowledge of a human operator. (
  • is a new chapter of logic which originates from the notion of fuzzy subset proposed by L. A. Zadeh. (
  • From a semantical point of view, fuzzy logic is not different in nature from first-order multi-valued logic. (
  • apparatus, fuzzy logic is a totally different and new topic. (
  • In such a way it is possible to reduce the question of the deduction in fuzzy logic to the classical paradigm based on logical axioms and crisp inference rules (see the basic book of P. Hà ¡jek). (
  • As with Neural Networks Fuzzy Logic is something of a black art in that there are few books and articles about it and most of them tend to be extremely specialized. (
  • This gives the whole area a degree of mystery that separates it from being a useful tool and strands it in the realm of academics/professionals who seem either unwilling or unable to explain the concepts of Fuzzy Logic in a manner that would be useful to people who want to see what it has to offer without spending years studying. (
  • The Fuzzy Dot Net series of articles intends to break this restrictive chain by publishing a Fuzzy Logic Library that is free to use with no restrictions in whatever context that anyone who comes across the code wishes to use it. (
  • The aim of these articles is to not only provide a library but to describe Fuzzy Logic in such a way that as long as the person reading it knows how to program in C# they should be able to follow the articles and be in a position to use the library to write their own Fuzzy Logic enabled code. (
  • Most, if not all programmers have heard the term Fuzzy Logic but few could actually describe what it means and until I read Bart Kosko's "Fuzzy Thinking" book I can't say that I was any more enlightened than any one else in this respect. (
  • So I'm going to start with an explanation I gave recently to a friend who has no idea about programming computers at all because it quite simply isn't his field and he doesn't want to know but what the hell if he can rabbit on to me about sport I can try an make him understand the basic concepts behind Fuzzy Logic. (
  • What I told him is that basically Fuzzy Logic is about degrees of correctness, that it is trying to move away from the concept of absolute right or wrong black or white. (
  • In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. (
  • The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. (
  • The true character of Darwinian hypotheses, labelled by John Wiester as "just-so stories" dominated by fuzzy logic, has been exemplified by William Hopkins' criticism in which he pointed out that Darwin, unlike Newton , made at any time but little use of the verb "to prove" in any of its inflections. (
  • A paraconsistent logic is further constrained to reject one of proof by contradiction , the rule of weakening or double negation elimination - provided one accepted such ideas in the first place! (
  • Therefore we see that one man call his Logics Truth because it works for him, while he reject that of another as false. (
  • For example, it's apparently possible to create 'paraconsistent logics' where self-contradictions are not forbidden in all cases, but this does not entail that every proposition must be judged true--see and for some more on this. (
  • In a deductive logic, the premises of a valid deductive argument logically entail the conclusion, where logical entailment means that every logically possible state of affairs that makes the premises true must make the conclusion truth as well. (
  • Hence gynocentric eco-logics entail an essentialism that is historical rather than biological. (
  • Re semantics of linear logic: we wish to point out that there is a large and active body of work on the semantics of linear logic already in the literature, with new preprints appearing at a rapid rate. (
  • The framework describes mechanisms for specifying the syntax and semantics of logic-based RIF dialects through a number of generic concepts such as signatures, symbol spaces, semantic structures, and so on. (
  • Two of the main motivations for logic and (model-theoretic) semantics overlap in the sense that both subjects are concerned with representing features of natural language meaning and inference. (
  • His book Logic and Information (1991) is an introduction to situation theory and situation semantics for mathematicians. (
  • That is, incorporating ω-terms into first order logic programming does not change its denotational semantics. (
  • Our exposition of relevant logic is backwards to most found in the literature We will begin, rather than end, with the semantics, since most philosophers at present are semantically inclined. (
  • Now, in Kripke's semantics for modal logic, the accessibility relation is a binary relation. (
  • Like the semantics of modal logic, the semantics of relevance logic relativises truth of formulae to worlds. (
  • The CL Standard includes specifications for three dialects, the Common Logic Interchange Format (CLIF) (Annex A), the Conceptual Graph Interchange Format (CGIF) (Annex B), and an XML-based notation for Common Logic (XCL) (Annex C). The semantics of these dialects are defined in the Standard by their translation to the abstract syntax and semantics of Common Logic. (
  • The variable sharing principle says that no formula of the form A → B can be proven in a relevance logic if A and B do not have at least one propositional variable (sometimes called a proposition letter) in common and that no inference can be shown valid if the premises and conclusion do not share at least one propositional variable. (
  • As a science, logic is the study of the first principles of knowledge, through inductive and deductive inference, and of the norms for clear thinking that leads to firm certitude. (
  • Logic (from Greek: λογική, logikḗ, 'possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative') is the systematic study of valid rules of inference, i.e. the relations that lead to the acceptance of one proposition (the conclusion) on the basis of a set of other propositions (premises). (
  • Formal logic is the study of inference with purely formal content. (
  • In many definitions of logic, logical consequence and inference with purely formal content are the same. (
  • Symbolic logic is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical inference, often divided into two main branches: propositional logic and predicate logic. (
  • Such logics can encompass the finitude of physical embodiment as an epistemological principle, and hence I identify them as gynocentric. (
  • Following Darwin , the adherents of Theory of evolution also often encompass the logic of possibility in their asserts implying that things virtually construct themselves, the typical example is the book Climbing Mount Improbable by Richard Dawkins . (
  • The Science of Logic, however, is the Knowing of the Thinking in its truth. (
  • Therefore there is much logics within the false as there is with Truth. (
  • I accept his argument that the logic of modernity is scientific objectivity, and I use his account of truth and essence to argue that knowledge is situated rather than universal. (
  • I interviewed at Animal Logic (Mumbai (India)) in February 2017. (
  • Logic elements can be represented by operators in symbolic logic . (
  • The Association for Symbolic Logic is an international organization supporting research and critical studies in logic. (
  • Examples of formal logic include (1) traditional syllogistic logic (a.k.a. term logic) and (2) modern symbolic Logic: Syllogistic logic can be found in the works of Aristotle, making it the earliest known formal study and studies types of syllogism. (
  • and President of the Association for Symbolic Logic. (
  • Moss, L.S.: Syllogistic Logics with Verbs. (
  • Moss, L.S.: Logics for Two Fragments Beyond the Syllogistic Boundary. (
  • Leibniz's main aim in logic, however, was to extend the traditional syllogistic to a "Universal Calculus. (
  • Computation in ALP combines the backwards reasoning of normal logic programming (to reduce problems to sub-problems) with a kind of integrity checking to show that the abductive explanations satisfy the integrity constraints. (
  • His work has appeared in Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic , Studia Logica , Journal of Philosophical Logic , Journal of Logic and Computation , and Logica Universalis . (
  • A paraconsistent logic is one in which inconsistent assertions can be tolerated in that unrelated assertions can be handled in a reliable fashion. (
  • To reason about such systems, then, one must abandon ex falso quodlibet , arriving instead at what are described as paraconsistent logics . (
  • His primary interest is philosophical logic, with focuses on many-valued model theory, paraconsistent logic, and the logical work of William Parry. (
  • We present an extension of Horn logic programs, called ω-Prolog, which allows a finite schematization of infinitely many clauses via predicates with ω-terms as arguments. (
  • We show that for every ω-Prolog program there is an equivalent Horn logic program. (
  • Throughout the early 1970's Colmerauer and Kowalskis=-=[17]-=- were instrumental in the development of the logic based programming lan-sguage Prolog. (
  • Prolog statements are phrased in a restricted clausal form calledsHorn clause logic. (
  • COLORE is a repository of Common Logic Ontologies Hets supports Common Logic cltools is a PROLOG library with partial support for Common Logic Conceptual graph Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) Knowledge representation languages Sowa, John F. "Conceptual graphs summary. (
  • Modern formal logic follows and expands on Aristotle. (
  • cle.sAn attempt to overcome the limitations of attribute-based learning has led to recent development of a number of programs that learn at the level of firstorder predicate logic. (
  • ment of a number of programs that learn at the level of firstorder predicate logic. (
  • De-novo -designed RNA molecules are used to construct cellular computing devices that can implement complex logic functions. (
  • Quantum Logic (QL) was developed as an attempt to construct a propositional structure that would allow for describing the events of interest in Quantum Mechanics (QM). (
  • The Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method seeks applications for a one-year LSE Fellowship in Philosophy. (
  • Imre Lakatos (1922-74), the internationally renowned philosopher of mathematics and science, lectured at the LSE in its Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method from 1960 until his untimely death in 1974 at the age of 51. (
  • A Dictionary of Logic expands on Oxford's coverage of the topic in works such as The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy . (
  • He is well known for his work on non-classical logic, and its application to metaphysics and the history of philosophy. (
  • Title: Philosophy and logic of predication / [edited by] Piotr Stalmaszczyk. (
  • The fact that Aristotelian logic transformed during the twentieth century into different formal, axiomatic logical systems used in today's philosophy and science doesn't really matter, because the fundamental principle, and therefore the fundamental ontology, remained the same ([40], p. xix). (
  • Historically, logic has been studied mainly in philosophy (since Antiquity), mathematics (since mid-19th century), and computer science (since mid-20th century). (
  • Charles Sanders Peirce, First Rule of Logic Philosophical logic is an area of philosophy. (
  • This framework defines the general principles that logic-based dialects are to use in specifying their concrete XML-based syntaxes. (
  • Presumably in problems outside these special classes, rules of classical logic could be violated, which I'm guessing wouldimply violating the principle of non-contradiction or at least the law of the excluded middle (unless there are forms of logic which preserve these principles but still differ from classical logic, I'm not sure). (
  • You might want to review that section first and then come back here for a more thorough review of the principles of logic. (
  • Chen H., Hsiang J. (1991) Logic programming with recurrence domains. (
  • Featuring entries primarily concentrating on technical terminology, the history of logic, the foundations of mathematics, and non-classical logic, this dictionary is an essential resource for anyone studying philosophical logic at undergraduate level or above. (
  • This paper returns to the topic of language and logic, presenting to semanticists natural logic , the study of logics for reasoning with sentences close to their surface form. (
  • Simply put, to formalize simply means to translate English sentences into the language of logic. (
  • Control music-making sessions from your iPad or iPhone with Logic Remote. (
  • Logic Remote lets you use your iPhone or iPad to control Logic Pro on your Mac. (
  • Use a variety of onscreen instruments, such as keyboards, guitars and drum pads, to play any software instrument in Logic Pro from your iPad or iPhone. (
  • It provides an innovative way to extend the creative power of Logic by using your iPad. (
  • Designed to take full advantage of Multi-Touch on iPad, Logic Remote offers new ways to record, mix, and even perform instruments in Logic Pro X from anywhere in the room, turning your iPad or iPhone* into a mixer, transport control, and a flexible Touch Instrument. (
  • Robo Logic 2 HD, the successor of the popular iPhone puzzle game 'Robo Logic', redesigned for the iPad. (
  • rst-order logic can be converted to clausal form using a mechanical sequence of steps. (
  • this is studied in the field of inductive logic programming (ILP) (Lavrač & Dˇzero. (
  • An inductive logic is a logic of evidential support. (
  • An inductive logic extends this idea to weaker arguments. (
  • If a logic of good inductive arguments is to be of any real value, the measure of support it articulates should be up to the task. (
  • This article will focus on the kind of the approach to inductive logic most widely studied by epistemologists and logicians in recent years. (
  • Thus, this approach to the logic of evidential support is often called a Bayesian Inductive Logic or a Bayesian Confirmation Theory . (
  • This article will first provide a detailed explication of a Bayesian approach to inductive logic. (
  • Coq's built-in logic is very small: the only primitives are Inductive definitions, universal quantification ( ∀ ), and implication ( → ), while all the other familiar logical connectives - conjunction, disjunction, negation, existential quantification, even equality - can be encoded using just these. (
  • This has led to the inception of a new area of machine learning called Inductive Logic Programming [1. (
  • Below are a few scenarios that use conditional logic. (
  • Figure 3.3 Conditional logic can be used to create changes in both content and stylistic output. (
  • Logic has for its content the determinations peculiar to the thinking activity itself - which have no other ground, than the Thinking. (
  • Cussens, 1999) are a combination of logic programming and log-linear models. (
  • SMX - PLCs (programmable logic controllers) and PLC repair solutions. (
  • The UNAUTHORISED service centre for the busted programmable logic controller which its manufacturer can't fix. (
  • OE manufacturer of Programmable Logic Controller for the engineering industry in India since 1985. (
  • Retrofits of PLC (programmable logic controller) systems. (
  • An UNAUTHORISED service centre for the programmable logic controller which manufacturers don't fix. (
  • compatible with BISON's programmable logic controller. (
  • Control Panels, Mimic Panels using PLC programmable logic controls. (
  • a field service department for programmable logic controller PLC start-up & commissioning services. (
  • Powerblanket recently set the bar even higher for the heating solutions industry with the addition of the company's new programmable logic controllers (PLCs). (
  • A programmable logic controller is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of a device (in this case, a Powerblanket industrial heating blanket) in order to make decisions based upon a custom program that controls the output devices of the system. (
  • This resource covers using logic within writing-logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. (
  • The study of fallacies is an important branch of informal logic. (
  • Normally, the logic program P does not contain any clauses whose head (or conclusion) refers to an abducible predicate. (
  • Logics for Linguistic Structures, pp. 143-173. (
  • Logic became relevant to AI research in yet another way when we started using fast satisfiability solvers for solving combinatorial search problems. (
  • According to Balandin and his collaborators, UCR professors Roger Lake and Alexander Khitun, these super-fast non-Boolean logic circuits can be implemented with graphene field-effect transistors connected to harness NDR in circuits that are particularly well suited for many data-processing tasks, such as image recognition, data encryption, and database search. (
  • be it propositional logic, first-order logic or context-free grammar ules.sThirdly, this would bring the PAC-learning model into line with other approachessdeveloped from algorithmic omplexity theory =-=[40, 6, 2]-=- and Bayesian statistics.sAccording to Bayes' LawsPr(HIO ) = Pr(H)'Pr(OIH)sPr(O)sIf we treat bit-encoded escriptions as though they were the outcome of repeat-sedly tossing an unbiased coin, the prior. (
  • The ideas can be divided into four areas: the Syllogism, the Universal Calculus, Propositional Logic , and Modal Logic. (
  • But if there are other versions of logic besides classical logic, then the decision to use classical logic is itself an 'assumption about logic', just like the decision to use euclidean geometry in a certain problem would be an assumption about geometry, since other non-euclidean forms are known to be possible. (
  • They claim that these formulae fail to be valid if we interpret → as representing the concept of implication that we have before we learn classical logic. (
  • In addition, relevance logicians have had qualms about certain inferences that classical logic makes valid. (
  • He added a new connective to classical logic, that of strict implication. (
  • The proposal of the founding fathers of QL was to replace the Boolean structure of classical logic by a weaker structure which relaxed the distributive properties of conjunction and disjunction. (
  • It was Aristotle who created classical logic and used it in order to develop his own physical and metaphysical scheme, providing an answer to the problem of movement and knowledge set down by the Heraclitean and Eleatic schools of thought. (
  • A Finite Presentation Theorem for Approximating Logic Programs. (
  • Our universe doesn't necessarily operate on logic (again, as far as I can see), but logic can explain how the universe works. (
  • The mind need logic to operate. (
  • HMI (Human Machine interface) compatible with BISON's program logic controller. (
  • Logic" in this context does not mean the formal discipline [End Page 75] in which rules for the proper manipulation of abstract statements are laid down. (
  • Implication , in logic , a relationship between two propositions in which the second is a logical consequence of the first. (
  • One leading idea is that the target logics for translations should have a decidable validity problem, ruling out first-order logic. (
  • 6. Conservatives comprehend the fundamental logic of the Bible as a unified, coherent work, rather than frantically quoting individual, out-of-context passages in an attempt to disprove its validity. (
  • A logic model is a graphic representation of a program that shows the relationship between resources (inputs) and results (outcomes). (
  • The inputs for Hawaii's logic model are as follows: T21 law, funding from CDC and other coalitions, external partnerships with public health departments and organizations, state-based networks like military bases and youth coalitions, surveillance and monitoring systems (HYTS, YRBS, BRFSS, SYNAR, etc.), and cessation quitline services. (
  • A logic gate is a device performing an elementary Boolean function, producing a logical 0 or 1 output depending on one or several such logical inputs. (
  • Cellular compartmentalization is an effective way to build gene circuits capable of complex logic operations, in which binary inputs are converted into binary outputs according to user-defined rules. (
  • Logic modeling is a tool that can be used to unpack this hypothesis in order to understand the underlying assumptions and create strategies to test the hypothesis. (
  • assumptions about logic to understand it. (
  • I might need logic to make further inferences, but I don't need assumptions about logic to understand it. (
  • Logic models illustrate program components in context, showing who is affected by each program element, what the anticipated effects of that program element will be on the participants, and any anticipated ripple effects from those participants affecting others around them. (
  • Trump's remarks about O'Donnell, Fiorina, and Kelly vividly illustrate misogyny's underlying logic. (
  • To illustrate the potential of this approach, some logic circuits even a four-bit square-root circuit that comprised 130 DNA strands were shown in [ 15 , 17 ], which all enabled fast and reliable function. (
  • Provided are examples of points to include in a T21 logic model. (
  • Love and Logic Institute, Inc. is helping families in need by donating 3,135 pounds of food to the 28th Annual 9Cares Colorado Shares Holiday Drive. (
  • The Love and Logic staff understands that a lot of families are suffering due to the poor economy and that every little bit helps. (
  • Love and Logic participated in the 9Cares Colorado Shares Corporate Challenge with the staff collecting non-perishable food items from October 13 through November 10. (
  • Love and Logic® Institute, Inc. ( ) is dedicated to making parenting and teaching fun and rewarding, instead of stressful and chaotic. (
  • Love and Logic® Institute, Inc. (
  • Training children to develop responsibility while putting the fun back into parenting are the goals of a parenting method known as Love and Logic™ parenting. (
  • The Love and Logic™ system has been described and advanced by Jim Fay, a former school principal and renowned educational consultant, Charles Fay, PhD, a child psychologist, and child psychiatrist Foster Cline, MD. (
  • The idea behind the Love and Logic™ theory is this: Parents should provide an atmosphere of love, acceptance, and empathy while allowing the natural consequences of a child's behavior and actions to do the teaching. (
  • The Love and Logic™ method advocates offering choices that are acceptable to the parent, so it isn't about letting 3-year-olds choose whether they want to play in the street or the fenced yard and letting them suffer the dire consequences of a poor decision. (
  • An example of the Love and Logic™ theory might be allowing a second-grader to decide how much he prepares for a spelling test. (
  • Using Love and Logic™ to help children learn decision-making lets them learn from consequences of their actions before the consequences become too big and far-reaching. (
  • Another aspect of Love and Logic™ parenting is the focus on "enforceable" versus "non-enforceable" statements. (
  • Many schools offer Love and Logic™ parenting courses, but you can also learn the method from books, tapes, and DVDs. (
  • Logic models are conceptual models of how a program works. (
  • In this article we will give a brief and relatively non-technical overview of the field of relevance logic. (
  • Section 4 will show precisely how this condition is satisfied by the logic of evidential support articulated in Sections 1 through 3 of this article. (
  • Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. (
  • Here the authors design strand displacement gRNAs that can add functionality to Cas12a by acting as multi-input logic gates. (
  • Here the authors present dual activator-repressor switches, designed via directed evolution, for orthogonal logic gates and multi-input circuit architectures. (
  • Computers use transistor-based logic gates as the basis of their functions, but molecular logic gates would make them much faster. (
  • A report of DNA-based logic gates could be a first step towards molecular computing. (
  • Several computing devices, such as logic gates, circuits, and tiny circuit boards, have been developed based on DNA molecules. (
  • Called 'relevant logics' in Britain and Australasia, these systems developed as attempts to avoid the paradoxes of material and strict implication. (
  • As we shall see, however, relevant logic does provide us with a relevant notion of proof in terms of the real use of premises (see the section "Proof Theory" below), but it does not by itself tell us what counts as a true (and relevant) implication. (
  • However, the scope of logic (broadly construed) includes: The classification of arguments. (
  • This constructive ambiguity has proved useful in categorical proof theory, and some of the work we refer to above suggests this may well be the case in linear logic as well. (
  • The former work deals with some issues in the theory of the syllogism, while the latter contains investigations of what is nowadays called deontic logic. (