Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Mice, Inbred C57BLMethylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Darkness: The absence of light.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Cheirogaleidae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Infusions, Intraventricular: The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Zimeldine: One of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS formerly used for depression but was withdrawn worldwide in September 1983 because of the risk of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME associated with its use. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p385)Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C: A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Methoxydimethyltryptamines: Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.Mice, Inbred ICRRotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Petromyzon: A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.PyrrolidinesOxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.PiperazinesTetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B: A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.FluorobenzenesFenclonine: A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.Homovanillic AcidEthylaminesNarcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Benzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Quipazine: A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nialamide: An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.Myristica fragrans: A plant species in the MYRISTICACEAE family. The seed is used as a spice and used for antimicrobial and psychoactive effects. Myristicin, SAFROLE, and methyleugenol are key components.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Benzylidene Compounds: Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidImipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Meyer ME (October 1996). "Mesolimbic 7-OH-DPAT affects locomotor activities in rats". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. ... "Effects of dopamine D3 receptor antagonists on spontaneous and agonist-reduced motor activity in NMRI mice and Wistar rats: ... "Effects on locomotor activity after local application of D3 preferring compounds in discrete areas of the rat brain". Journal ... a postsynaptic receptor inhibitory on rat locomotor activity". Journal of Neural Transmission. General Section. 94 (1): 11-9. ...
In Wistar rats with gravitational cerebral ischemia, Phenylpiracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations ... Phenylpiracetam demonstrates antiamnestic activity by restoring performance in the passive avoidance test and partially ... retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions, increased the survival rate, and lead to the favoring of local cerebral ... as much non-preferred rat chow than control rats; rats given 10 mg/kg Methylphenidate performed 170% as much work and consumed ...
"Effects of atomoxetine on locomotor activity and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat". Behavioural Brain Research ... The SHR strain was obtained during the 1960s by Okamoto and colleagues, who started breeding Wistar-Kyoto rats with high blood ... Transplanting a kidney from SHR to a normotensive Wistar rat increases blood pressure in the recipient. Conversely, ... Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an animal model of essential (or primary) hypertension, used to study cardiovascular ...
Lewis rats show more compulsive lever pressing behavior than Sprague Dawley or Wistar rats and are less responsive to the anti- ... Laboratory rats therefore run (forage) more in response to food shortages. The effect of semi-starvation on activity has also ... Captive parrots perform striking oral and locomotor stereotypies like pacing on the perch or repetitive play with a certain toy ... Activity anorexia (AA) is a condition where rats begin to exercise excessively while simultaneously cutting down on their food ...
These experiments have primarily focused on extensor muscles used extensively for postural support and locomotor activity. The ... is somewhat different from the more selective Type I myofiber atrophy observed in unloaded Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat muscle ... Additional experiments performed on these same animals, involving locomotor activity before and after spaceflight via muscle ... These findings reinforce the notion that it is the mechanical activity rather than the electrical activity imposed on the ...
... microinjected into lateral septal nuclei of male Wistar rats". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. ... Identified through structure-activity relationship studies on an older mGluR5 antagonist MPEP, MTEP has subsequently itself ... "Comparison of the effects of mGluR1 and mGluR5 antagonists on the expression of behavioral sensitization to the locomotor ... Lea, P. M.; Movsesyan, V. A.; Faden, A. I. (2009). "Neuroprotective activity of the mGluR5 antagonists MPEP and MTEP against ...
Activity anorexiaEdit. Activity anorexia (AA) is a condition where rats begin to exercise excessively while simultaneously ... Lewis rats show more compulsive lever pressing behavior than Sprague Dawley or Wistar rats and are less responsive to the anti- ... Captive parrots perform striking oral and locomotor stereotypies like pacing on the perch or repetitive play with a certain toy ... Laboratory rats therefore run (forage) more in response to food shortages. The effect of semi-starvation on activity has also ...
Effect of snuff on locomotor activity in albino Wistar rats. Line crossing is a form of locomotor behaviour - horizontal ... Figure 1: Locomotor activity of control, and test albino Wistar rats fed 15%, 24% and 30% w/w snuff diets ... Nicotine in tobacco causes depression of locomotor activity in rats; but, tolerance to this activity develops following chronic ... Neurobehavioural Activity In Albino Wistar Rats In The Open Field Maze Following Long Term Tobacco Diet Ingestion. O Mesembe, S ...
Anxiety, exploration and locomotor activities: The Anxiety, Exploration and Locomotor activities were studied using open field ... Anxiety, exploration and locomotor activities:. The frequency of lines crossed by rats: Figure 5 showed the weekly changes in ... Forty adult male Wistar rats weighing between 160-200 g were randomly grouped into four consisting of ten rats each viz: A. ... The central square was used because some rat strains have high locomotor activity and could cross the lines of the test ...
Age-related changes in working and reference memory performance and locomotor activity in the Wistar rat. ... Effects of nicotine, caffeine, and their combination on locomotor activity in rats. ... effects of nicotine injection into the nucleus accumbens on locomotor activity in nicotine-naive and nicotine-tolerant rats. ... Evaluating activity and emotional reactivity in a hexagonal tunnel maze: correlational and factorial analysis from a study with ...
Adult male Wistar rats were used in these experiments. In behavioral study, the reversible inactivation of VTA was done through ... Conditioning score and locomotor activity were recorded by Ethovision software. Firing rate of neurons was recorded by single ... Type I diabetes was induced in male wistar rats (200-250 g) by injection of 65 mg/kg, i.p of streptozotocin. Before this and 5 ... Diabetes was confirmed in rats having fasting blood glucose level above 250 mg/dL. Diabetic rats were divided into 5 groups ...
This result can be explained by the fact that Qu affects neither the levels of anxiety nor the locomotor activity in rats. ... The animals used in this study, rats from the wistar strain, were born, bred and housed in groups of five rats in acrylic cages ... Rats naive to the apparatus and treatments were used for all the experiments and each rat was used only once. Rats were allowed ... In the FST, the parameter IT was measured in the groups of control rats receiving NaCl (0.9%), rats treated with Clmp and rats ...
Locomotor activity in rats was measured using activity boxes equipped with photocells sensitive to infrared light. The activity ... Albino Wistar rats are commonly used for standard behavioral testing of CNS compounds, and the pigmented LH and LE strains are ... 2 hours before placing them in the activity box for assessment of locomotor activity for a 1-hour recording period. Eight rats ... Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Rats. The equipment described for assessing d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity was used. ...
These data are in general agreement with studies in rats in which the cholinergic basal forebrain is lesioned very early in ... Developmental effects of Malathion exposure on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in Wistar rat. *Pacôme Kouadio NGo ... Developmental Effects of Malathion Exposure on Recognition Memory and Spatial Learning in Males Wistar Rats. *Pacôme Kouadio ... Acetylcholinesterase activity and neurodevelopment in boys and girls.. *José Ricardo Suárez-López, John H. Himes, David R. ...
S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate ... and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S- ... Rats, Wistar * Rats, Zucker * Weight Gain / drug effects* Substances * Blood Glucose * Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport ... Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and ...
Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. On days 8 and 9, we evaluated ... Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD (0.5 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (days 2-5). On days 3 and 5, animals received also ... Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD (0.5 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (days 2-5). On days 3 and 5, animals received also ... Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. On days 8 and 9, we evaluated ...
Both strategies reduce cocaine-induced locomotor activity and self-administration in rats. A different antibody-based approach ... Animals. Male Wistar rats (n = 16; Charles River Breeding Laboratories), weighing 200-225 g on arrival, were housed in groups ... Statistical Analysis. Locomotor activity data were analyzed by subjecting 10-min total means for locomotor activity to a two- ... and their locomotor responses were measured during a 90-min session. Based on locomotor activity scores, animals were assigned ...
In the neonatal rat, rostral lumbar segments (L1/L2) have a greater capacity to express locomotor-like activity than the caudal ... Experiments were performed on neonatal (1-5 d of age) Wistar rats (n = 84) and Hb9:eGFP transgenic mice (n = 5) (Wichterle et ... 1999) Differential effects of potassium channel blockers on the activity of the locomotor network in neonatal rat. Brain Res ... 1996) Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a ...
In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, ... In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, ... Several studies have found that 5-HT1BR agonists stimulate locomotor activity in drug-naïve rats (Oberlander et al., 1986, 1987 ... GR 127935 reduces basal locomotor activity and prevents RU24969-, but not D-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, in the Wistar- ...
... temperature and locomotor activity are modified by anaesthetics in rats: a telemetric study. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch ... in Wistar rats. Rats were instrumented with a telemetric system for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial ... Nine male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 275 ± 24 g were obtained from Charles River Laboratories, Sulzfeld, Germany. ... Another rat died during induction of KX anaesthesia in run 6. With MMF there was one rat in its 6th run with an elevated BT and ...
Effects of Dimethoate Exposure on Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Female Wistar Rat. Acetylcholinesterase ... Activity, Neurotoxicity, Dimethoate, Neurobehavior, Organophosphate Insecticides. Paper Information Full Paper: PDF (Size: ...
Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and ... The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?. Machado FS1, ... The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA ... These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are ...
"Evaluation of locomotor activity after a local induction of toxic demyelination in the brainstem of Wistar rats," Arquivos de ... nucleotidase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide and ... They observed a decrease in the membrane ADA activity and expression, in AngII-treated rats. Furthermore, despite the adenosine ... "Effect of vitamin E on ectonucleotidase activities in synaptosomes and platelets and parameters of oxidative stress in rats ...
CPP and locomotor activity. WIN 55,212-2-induced CPP and locomotor activity were evaluated during EtOH deprivation. Figure 4 ... In this study, we used male Wistar rats, which have been shown to develop the alcohol deprivation effect (Hölter et al., 1996; ... and their activity was registered throughout the following 30 min. The effects of WIN 55,212-2 or vehicle on locomotor activity ... CPP and locomotor activity. The rewarding or aversive effects of WIN 55,212-2 were evaluated using the CPP paradigm in a three- ...
After BN administration, locomotor activity did not significantly change, compared with a vehicle-injected group. The anorexia ... dose-dependently decreased food intake in male Wistar rats fasted for 17 h. Neuromedin B (NMB) did not show any effect on food ... locomotor activity, and body temperature suggested that NMU is ... ... It has been shown that central or peripheral injections of the peptide relaxin induces water intake, not sodium intake in rats ...
... and alterations in locomotor activity (Mason & Kang, 1994). The animals were weighed before the beginning of treatment, once a ... Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ... Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extrac on adult Wistar rats in vivo. Braz Arch Biol Technol 49 ... Immature male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) of thirty days old and weighing around 70 g were obtained from ...
MEL and DZ reported in this study concerns selective modulation of behavioral anxiety and depression since locomotor activity ... on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. For this purpose, different doses of MEL (2, 4 or 16 mg/kg) or DZ (2 mg ... "Effects of Photoperiod Regimen on Emotional Behaviour in Two Tests for Anxiolytic Activity in Wistar Rat," Brain Research ... A. V. Shaji and S. K. Kulkarni, "Central Nervous System Depressant Activities of Melatonin in Rats and Mice," Indian Journal of ...
The locomotor activity was recorded by placing rats in the Opto-Varimex apparatus (Columbus Instruments, USA). The distance ... for 2 weeks in male Wistar rats did not cause any difference in motor coordination (37). In ischemia reperfusion injury in rats ... rats were tested with the rotarod test and the open-field test for locomotor activity. Later, blood was collected and serum was ... The TAA-CLF rats showed a significant increase of the hepatic expression of TNF-α mRNA compared to the control rats. All ...
... administration of titanium dioxide on locomotor and brain activity locomotor and activity aggressive behavior of wistar rats ... In vivo study of hemocytes proliferative activity in Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia) exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes ... Silver-containing nanocomposites on the basis of humic substances and their antioxidant activity ... The research of nitrogen compounds effect on the activity of cracking catalysts ...
Body composition, locomotor activity, and indirect calorimetry.. Determinations of total body lean and fat mass and liver ... Male Wistar rats (250-275 g; Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) were individually housed and provided with ad libitum access to water ... The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: a key site for mediating leptins effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity. Cell ... Lean LA/N rats (Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY) were maintained on standard rat chow (Purina, St. Louis, MO). All procedures ...
In addition, evidence indicates that cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway is involved in the modulation of glial cell activity. ... 184] showed that sildenafil was beneficial in the 3NP-HD model induced in Wistar rats, improving cognitive and motor functions ... dose dependently restored body weight and improved memory performance and locomotor activity. The PDE5-I attenuated succinate ... Inhibition ; activation; increased expression/activity; decreased expression/activity.. Puzzo et al., in 2009 [102], and ...
Impact of a novel environment on alcohol-induced locomotor activity in Wistar rats. ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929089/impact-of-a-novel-environment-on-alcohol-induced-locomotor-activity-in-wistar-rats ... The aim of this work was to investigate alcohol-induced motor effects in Wistar rats with different responses to novelty. ... Forced ethanol ingestion by Wistar rats from a juvenile age increased voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood, with the ...

No FAQ available that match "locomotor activity rats wistar"