Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Manner or style of walking.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
An increase in the rate of speed.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The position or attitude of the body.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A decrease in the rate of speed.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The physical measurements of a body.
Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (1/4052)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

Does nicotine modify the psychotoxic effect of methamphetamine? Assessment in terms of locomotor sensitization in mice. (2/4052)

In this study, effects of nicotine on locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice were investigated to assess whether nicotine modified induction and expression of psychotoxic action of methamphetamine. Although nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg s.c.) had no effect at first administration, 5-time nicotine administrations at 3-day intervals progressively developed a significant locomotor stimulant effect, and caused an enhanced sensitivity (cross-sensitization) to methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.). Five-time administrations of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) at 3-day intervals produced not only a locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine itself, but also a cross-sensitization to nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg). Nicotine (0.03-1 mg/kg) did not affect the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) in the drug-naive mice. However, nicotine acted dose-dependently to reduce the progressive enhancement of the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine during 5-time repeated administrations. Mice treated with coadministration of methamphetamine with nicotine (1 mg/kg) showed less sensitization to methamphetamine than mice treated with methamphetamine alone. In addition, nicotine (1 mg/kg) inhibited the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine in mice sensitized to methamphetamine. These results suggest that methamphetamine and nicotine produce a symmetrical cross-sensitization, although nicotine may act to inhibit the induction and expression of locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine in mice.  (+info)

Active signaling of leg loading and unloading in the cockroach. (3/4052)

The ability to detect changes in load is important for effective use of a leg in posture and locomotion. While a number of limb receptors have been shown to encode increases in load, few afferents have been demonstrated to signal leg unloading, which occurs cyclically during walking and is indicative of slipping or perturbations. We applied mechanical forces to the cockroach leg at controlled rates and recorded activities of the tibial group of campaniform sensilla, mechanoreceptors that encode forces through the strains they produce in the exoskeleton. Discrete responses were elicited from the group to decreasing as well as increasing levels of leg loading. Discharges of individual afferents depended on the direction of force application, and unit responses were correlated morphologically with the orientation of the receptor's cuticular cap. No units responded bidirectionally. Although discharges to decreasing levels of load were phasic, we found that these bursts could effectively encode the rate of force decreases. These discharges may be important in indicating leg unloading in the step cycle during walking and could rapidly signal force decreases during perturbations or loss of ground support.  (+info)

Plantar aponeurosis and internal architecture of the ball of the foot. (4/4052)

On the basis of its internal structure, the ball of the foot can be divided into three transverse areas, each with a different mechanical function: (1) an area proximal to the heads of the metatarsals in which the retinacula cutis are developed into a series of transverse bands, and in which the deep fibres of the plantar aponeurosis form ten sagittal septa connected to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament and through this the proximal phalanges of the toes, (2) an area below the heads of the metatarsals in which vertical fibres from the joint capsules and the sides of the fibrous flexor sheaths form a cushion below each metatarsal head, and in which fat bodies cover the digital nerves and vessels in their passage between the cushions, and (3) a distal area which comprises the interdigital web. The superficial fibres of the plantar aponeurosis are inserted into the skin of this distal area, and deep to them the plantar interdigital ligament forms a series of transverse lamellae connected to the proximal phalanges by a mooring ligament which arches from one fibrous flexor sheath to the next. When the metatarsophalangeal joints are extended, the fibres of the three areas are tensed and the skin is anchored firmly to the skeleton. The direction of the fibres in the distal and proximal area promotes the transfer of forces exerted on the skin during push-off and braking respectively, while the intermediate area is adapted to bear the weight of the body. A concentration of Pacinian corpuscles is found along the digital nerves in the weight-bearing area below the transverse metatarsal ligament. The nerves for the second, and especially for the third, interstice are close to or in contact with the sharp proximal edges of the sagittal septa.  (+info)

Mound-cell movement and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. (5/4052)

To examine the mechanisms of cell locomotion within a three-dimensional (3-D) cell mass, we have undertaken a systematic 3-D analysis of individual cell movements in the Dictyostelium mound, the first 3-D structure to form during development of the fruiting body. We used time-lapse deconvolution microscopy to examine two strains whose motion represents endpoints on the spectrum of motile behaviors that we have observed in mounds. In AX-2 mounds, cell motion is slow and trajectories are a combination of random and radial, compared to KAX-3, in which motion is fivefold faster and most trajectories are rotational. Although radial or rotational motion was correlated with the optical-density wave patterns present in each strain, we also found small but significant subpopulations of cells that moved differently from the majority, demonstrating that optical-density waves are at best insufficient to explain all motile behavior in mounds. In examining morphogenesis in these strains, we noted that AX-2 mounds tended to culminate directly to a fruiting body, whereas KAX-3 mounds first formed a migratory slug. By altering buffering conditions we could interchange these behaviors and then found that mound-cell motions also changed accordingly. This demonstrates a correlation between mound-cell motion and subsequent development, but it is not obligatory. Chimeric mounds composed of only 10% KAX-3 cells and 90% AX-2 cells exhibited rotational motion, suggesting that a diffusible molecule induces rotation, but many of these mounds still culminated directly, demonstrating that rotational motion does not always lead to slug migration. Our observations provide a detailed analysis of cell motion for two distinct modes of mound and slug formation in Dictyostelium.  (+info)

Gliding mutants of Myxococcus xanthus with high reversal frequencies and small displacements. (6/4052)

Myxococcus xanthus cells move on a solid surface by gliding motility. Several genes required for gliding motility have been identified, including those of the A- and S-motility systems as well as the mgl and frz genes. However, the cellular defects in gliding movement in many of these mutants were unknown. We conducted quantitative, high-resolution single-cell motility assays and found that mutants defective in mglAB or in cglB, an A-motility gene, reversed the direction of gliding at frequencies which were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than that of wild type cells (2.9 min-1 for DeltamglAB mutants and 2.7 min-1 for cglB mutants, compared to 0.17 min-1 for wild-type cells). The average gliding speed of DeltamglAB mutant cells was 40% of that of wild-type cells (on average 1.9 micrometers/min for DeltamglAB mutants, compared to 4.4 micrometers/min for wild-type cells). The mglA-dependent reversals and gliding speeds were dependent on the level of intracellular MglA protein: mglB mutant cells, which contain only 15 to 20% of the wild-type level of MglA protein, glided with an average reversal frequency of about 1.8 min-1 and an average speed of 2.6 micrometers/min. These values range between those exhibited by wild-type cells and by DeltamglAB mutant cells. Epistasis analysis of frz mutants, which are defective in aggregation and in single-cell reversals, showed that a frzD mutation, but not a frzE mutation, partially suppressed the mglA phenotype. In contrast to mgl mutants, cglB mutant cells were able to move with wild-type speeds only when in close proximity to each other. However, under those conditions, these mutant cells were found to glide less often with those speeds. By analyzing double mutants, the high reversing movements and gliding speeds of cglB cells were found to be strictly dependent on type IV pili, encoded by S-motility genes, whereas the high-reversal pattern of mglAB cells was only partially reduced by a pilR mutation. These results suggest that the MglA protein is required for both control of reversal frequency and gliding speed and that in the absence of A motility, type IV pilus-dependent cell movement includes reversals at high frequency. Furthermore, mglAB mutants behave as if they were severely defective in A motility but only partially defective in S motility.  (+info)

Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. II. Effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs. (7/4052)

The effects of serotoninergic and noradrenergic drugs (applied intrathecally) on treadmill locomotion were evaluated in two adult cats subjected to a ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesion (T13). Despite the extensive spinal lesion, severely damaging important descending pathways such as the reticulo- and vestibulospinal tracts, both cats recovered quadrupedal voluntary locomotion. As detailed in a previous paper, the locomotor recovery occurred in three stages defined as early period, when the animal could not walk with its hindlimbs, recovery period, when progressive improvement occurred, and plateau period, when a more stable locomotor performance was observed. At this latter stage, the cats suffered from postural and locomotor deficits, such as poor lateral stability, irregular stepping of the hindlimbs, and inconsistent homolateral fore- and hindlimb coupling. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential of serotoninergic and/or noradrenergic drugs to improve the locomotor abilities in the early and late stages. Both cats were implanted chronically with an intrathecal cannula and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, which allowed determination, under similar recording conditions, of the locomotor performance pre- and postlesion and comparisons of the effects of different drugs. EMG and kinematic analyses showed that norepinephrine (NE) injected in early and plateau periods improved the regularity of the hindlimb stepping and stabilized the interlimb coupling, permitting to maintain constant locomotion for longer periods of time. Methoxamine, the alpha1-agonist (tested only at the plateau period), had similar effects. In contrast, the alpha2-agonist, clonidine, deteriorated walking. Serotoninergic drugs, such as the neurotransmitter itself, serotonin (5HT), the precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), and the agonist quipazine improved the locomotion by increasing regularity of the hindlimb stepping and by increasing the step cycle duration. In contrast, the 5HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (DPAT) caused foot drag in one of the cats, resulting in frequent stumbling. Injection of combination of methoxamine and quipazine resulted in maintained, regular stepping with smooth movements and good lateral stability. Our results show that the effects of drugs can be integrated to the residual voluntary locomotion and improve some of its postural aspects. However, this work shows clearly that the effects of drugs (such as clonidine) may depend on whether or not the spinal lesion is complete. In a clinical context, this may suggest that different classes of drugs could be used in patients with different types of spinal cord injuries. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs on the locomotion after partial spinal lesions are discussed.  (+info)

Gating of transmission in climbing fibre paths to cerebellar cortical C1 and C3 zones in the rostral paramedian lobule during locomotion in the cat. (8/4052)

1. Climbing fibre field potentials evoked by low intensity (non-noxious) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve have been recorded in the rostral paramedian lobule (PML) in awake cats. Chronically implanted microwires were used to monitor the responses at eight different C1 and C3 zone sites during quiet rest and during steady walking on a moving belt. The latency and other characteristics of the responses identified them as mediated mainly via the dorsal funiculus-spino-olivocerebellar path (DF-SOCP). 2. At each site, mean size of response (measured as the area under the field, in mV ms) varied systematically during the step cycle without parallel fluctuations in size of the peripheral nerve volley. Largest responses occurred overwhelmingly during the stance phase of the step cycle in the ipsilateral forelimb while smallest responses occurred most frequently during swing. 3. Simultaneous recording from pairs of C1 zone sites located in the anterior lobe (lobule V) and C1 or C3 zone sites in rostral PML revealed markedly different patterns of step-related modulation. 4. The findings shed light on the extent to which the SOCPs projecting to different parts of a given zone can be regarded as functionally uniform and have implications as to their reliability as channels for conveying peripheral signals to the cerebellum during locomotion.  (+info)

Galloping Elk (all images from Eadweard Muybridges Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular, animations via Wikimedia). The 19th century photographs by Eadweard Muybridge captured something that had previously been too fleeting for the human eye: the mechanics of animal locomotion. In his 1893 book Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular, Muybridge described his most famous animal locomotion capture of a horse. The series of photographs aimed to settle a dispute over the possibility of a horse having all of his feet free of contact with the ground at the same instant, while trotting, even at a high rate of speed. The photographs revealed conclusively for the first time that a horses feet do indeed leave the ground all at once while in full gallop, the horse pulling its legs briefly underneath itself before sprinting forward. Muybridges animal locomotion studies were a great success and he traveled around showing the ...
This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated control. For that subcircuit, we present a model that relies on a chain of oscillators along the body which are driven by local and proximate mechano-sensory input. Computer simulations were used to study the model under a variety of conditions and to test whether it is behaviourally plausible. Within our model, we find that a minimal circuit of AVB interneurons and B-class motoneurons is sufficient to generate and sustain fictive forward locomotion patterns that are robust to significant environmental perturbations. The model predicts speed and amplitude modulation by the AVB command interneurons. An extended model including D-class ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between resting medial gastrocnemius stiffness and drop jump performance. AU - Ando, Ryosuke. AU - Sato, Shinya. AU - Hirata, Naoya. AU - Tanimoto, Hiroki. AU - Imaizumi, Naoto. AU - Suzuki, Yasuhiro. AU - Hirata, Kosuke. AU - Akagi, Ryota. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported in part by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI grant 18K17813 to R. Ando and 16H05918 to R. Akagi. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2021/6. Y1 - 2021/6. N2 - Although the influence of the series elastic element of the muscle-tendon unit on jump performance has been investigated, the corresponding effect of the parallel elastic element remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between the resting calf muscle stiffness and drop jump performance. Twenty-four healthy men participated in this study. The shear moduli of the medial gastrocnemius and the soleus were measured at rest as an index of muscle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave ...
Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
Fin and flipper locomotion occurs mostly in aquatic locomotion, and rarely in terrestrial locomotion. From the three common states of matter - gas, liquid and solid, these appendages are adapted for liquids, mostly fresh or saltwater and used in locomotion, steering and balancing of the body. Locomotion is important in order to escape predators, acquire food, find mates and bury for shelter, nest or food. Aquatic locomotion consists of swimming, whereas terrestrial locomotion encompasses walking, crutching, jumping, digging as well as covering. Some animals such as sea turtles and mudskippers use these two environments for different purposes, for example using the land for nesting, and the sea to hunt for food. Fish live in Fresh or Saltwater habitats and some exceptions are capable of coming on land (Mudskippers). Most fish have a line of muscle blocks, called myomeres, along each side of the body. To swim, they alternately contract one side and relax the other side in a progression which ...
The use of motor imagery (MI) with locomotion is a skill that may assist in performance improvement. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of MI with and without locomotion on throwing accuracy in recreationally active college students at Whitworth University. METHODS: Sixteen college-aged, recreationally active males (n = 8) and females (n = 8; age: 20.75 ± 0.93 years) completed three throwing sessions: a MI only session, a MI with locomotion session (e.g. concurrent rehearsal of the throwing motion), and a control session in which neither MI nor locomotion was used. The order of the throwing sessions was randomly determined for each participant. A repeated measures ANOVA (significance level p ≤ 0.05) was utilized to determine the existence of significant differences in radial error between experimental conditions. RESULTS: No statistical differences were observed between conditions for throwing accuracy (MI: 27.6 ± 5.8 cm, MI with locomotion: 26.2 ± 6.9 cm, control: 25.4
Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cats lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites) increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD) for NE and 5-HT,
Artificial locomotion is when movement in the virtual world does not directly correspond to physical movement. For example, when you walk, turn, or move through the virtual world in response to controller inputs, such as pushing a thumbstick.. The most common use of artificial locomotion is to make it possible for people to move through virtual environments that are larger than their physical playspace; however, there are many other scenarios where it is necessary or useful to use artificial locomotion. For example, movement can sometimes be controlled by, or in response to, the environment, like an elevator or a roller coaster. Games that are designed primarily for physical locomotion can usually benefit from supporting artificial locomotion because it will make it possible for people with limited space or mobility issues to experience the content. Unless physical locomotion is core to the design, it is recommended to support artificial locomotion to make the application as accessible as ...
Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted, and galloped over 0°, +15°, and -15° sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers, and work were estimated at the goats hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined, and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
The paper deals with modeling and design of energy-optimal motion of mechatronic system having less number of actuators than degrees of freedom. Such mechatronic system is termed underactuated. We consider an underactuated mechatronic system modeled a bipedal locomotion robot with 11 degrees of freedom. The system comprises nine links and is used to represent the biped s planar dynamics in sagittal plane. The bodies are connected by friction-free hinge joints. It s assumed that the control inputs are torque actuators acting only at hip and knee joints. The ankle and the metatarsal joints of the feet are spanned with springs al-lowing discrete switching of their stiffness parameters in accordance to varying constraints imposed on the system s motion. The algorithm has been developed for synthesizing the energy-optimal anthropomorphic motion of the bipedal locomotion system with passively controlled feet and discrete switching of their joint stiffness parameters. Algorithm uses the smoothing cubic splines
Existing models for C. elegans locomotion (Niebur and Erdös, 1993; Bryden and Cohen, 2008; Karbowski et al., 2008) address only forward locomotion during crawling. In all of these models, VB and DB are the sources of alternating activity to ventral and dorsal muscle. We were not able to discern any such alternating activity between pairs of VB and DB motoneurons that innervate contralateral muscle cells. If alternating motoneuron activity does occur, then one of several reasons may account for our failure to detect it. First, the activity of motoneurons at the recording site might be affected by the tethering. In addition, the decay time constant of YC2.60 we used to detect calcium changes accompanying forward and backward locomotion was too slow (5.2 s) (Hendel et al., 2008) to allow us to resolve the faster oscillatory signals. Although YC3.60 has a faster decay time constant, the signals it generated were consistently smaller than YC2.60 and fast rhythmic signals accompanying sinusoidal ...
This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion ... More. This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion requires the integration of these principles. Toward this end, we provide the necessary introductory foundation that will allow a more in-depth understanding of the physical biology and physiology of animal movement. In so doing, we hope that this book will illuminate the fundamentals and breadth of these systems, while inspiring our readers to look more deeply into the scientific literature and investigate new features of animal movement. Several themes run through this book. The first is that by comparing the modes and mechanisms by which animals have evolved the capacity for movement, we can ...
This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion ... More. This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion requires the integration of these principles. Toward this end, we provide the necessary introductory foundation that will allow a more in-depth understanding of the physical biology and physiology of animal movement. In so doing, we hope that this book will illuminate the fundamentals and breadth of these systems, while inspiring our readers to look more deeply into the scientific literature and investigate new features of animal movement. Several themes run through this book. The first is that by comparing the modes and mechanisms by which animals have evolved the capacity for movement, we can ...
Locomotion - Locomotion - Flagellar locomotion: Most flagellate protozoans possess either one or two flagella extending from the anterior (front) end of the body. Some protozoans, however, have several flagella that may be scattered over the entire body; in such cases, the flagella usually are fused into distinctly separate clusters. Flagellar movement, or locomotion, occurs as either planar waves, oarlike beating, or three-dimensional waves. All three of these forms of flagellar locomotion consist of contraction waves that pass either from the base to the tip of the flagellum or in the reverse direction to produce forward or backward movement. The planar waves, which occur along a
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Eadweard J. Muybridge. _Man Throwing an Iron Disk:_Plate 307 from Animal Locomotion (1887). 1884-86. Collotype. 10 1/4 × 10 11/16 (26 × 27.1 cm). Gift of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum. SC1999.28. Photography
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE. THE HUMAN AND ANIMAL LOCOMOTION PHOTOGRAPHS, ADAM, HANS CHRISTIAN, S/.85,00. English photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) is a pioneer in ...
Locomotor movements are any movements that take place over some distance. These include walking, running, leaping, jumping, hopping, galloping, crawling, sliding and skipping....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is a Bimodal Force-Time Curve Related to Countermovement Jump Performance?. AU - Kennedy, Rodney. AU - Drake, David. N1 - Reference text: 1. Mandic, R.; Jakovljevic, S.; Jaric, S. Effects of countermovement depth on kinematic and kinetic patterns of maximum vertical jumps. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2015, 25, 265-272, doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.11.001. 2. Silva, J.R.; Rumpf, M.C.; Hertzog, M.; Castagna, C.; Farooq, A.; Girard, O.; Hader, K. Acute and residual soccer match-related fatigue: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017, 1-45, doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0798-8. 3. Claudino, J.G.; Cronin, J.; Mezêncio, B.; McMaster, D.T.; McGuigan, M.; Tricoli, V.; Amadio, A.C.; Serrão, J.C. The countermovement jump to monitor neuromuscular status: A meta-analysis. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2017, 20, 397-402, doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.08.011. 4. Rowell, A.E.; Aughey, R.J.; Hopkins, W.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Cormack, S.J. Identification of sensitive measures of recovery following external ...
Human locomotion has been well described but is still not well understood. This is largely true because the observable aspects of locomotion-neuromuscular activity that generates forces and motions-relate to both the task solution and the problem being solved. Identifying the fundamental task achieved in locomotion makes it possible to critically evaluate the motor control strategy used to accomplish the task goal. We contend that the readily observed movements and activities of locomotion should be considered mechanism(s). Our proposal is that the fundamental task of walking and running is analogous to flight, and should be defined in terms of the interaction of the individuals mass with the medium in which it moves: a low-density fluid for flight, or the supporting substrate for legged locomotion. A rigorous definition of the fundamental task can help identify the constraints and opportunities that influence its solution and guide the selection of appropriate mechanisms to accomplish the task
With increasing sensing, motion, and processing capabilities, robots start to master more and more complex tasks in difficult applications. Especially working in hazardous environments, such as exploring extraterrestrial planets or nuclear disaster sites, demand robotic solutions with advanced locomotion capabilities in unstructured terrain. Four-legged systems can provide the desired mobility. The hominid robot Charlie has, in contrast to most quadrupeds, an active ankle joint with Multi-Contact-Point-Feet to support four-legged as well as two-legged locomotion. In this paper, the advantages of this foot design for four-legged locomotion is analyzed. The paper summarizes briefly Charlies hardware and software components. In detail, the foot design and the behavior modules which utilize the possibilities of actively controlled Multi-Contact-Point-Feet are described. The experimental results show that a positive effect on traction and range of motion are achieved which improve the mobility of ...
Gait kinetics of above- and below-branch quadrupedal locomotion in lemurid primatess profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Animal locomotion, which is the act of self-propulsion by an animal, has many manifestations, including running, swimming, jumping and flying. Animals move for a variety of reasons, such as to find food, a mate, or a suitable microhabitat, and to escape predators. For many animals the ability to move is essential to survival and, as a result, selective pressures have shaped the locomotion methods and mechanisms employed by moving organisms. For example, migratory animals that travel vast distances (such as the Arctic tern) typically have a locomotion mechanism that costs very little energy per unit distance, whereas non-migratory animals that must frequently move quickly to escape predators (such as frogs) are likely to have costly but very fast locomotion. The study of animal locomotion is typically considered to be a sub-field of biomechanics. Locomotion requires energy to overcome friction, drag, inertia, and gravity, though in many circumstances some of these factors are negligible. In ...
Authors: Hattori, Satoshi , Li, Qianming , Matsui, Nobuo , Nishino, Hitoo Article Type: Research Article Abstract: To evaluate the physiological role of striatal dopamine (DA) during exercise and the mechanism of functional recovery mediated by grafted DAergic neurons, the locomotor ability (treadmill running) and DA turnover were investigated using treadmill running combined with in vivo microdialysis in the intact control rats, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats (hemi-parkinsonian model rats) and DAergic cell grafted rats. The 3 groups of rats were trained to run on a straight treadmill at a speed of 1,800 cm/min for 20 min every day for 7 consecutive days. If the rats could not follow the speed they got electrostimulation (ES) from the grid …behind the treadmill belt. The numbers of ES rats received during treadmill running were counted to quantify the locomotor ability. Control rats could keep up with the treadmill easily (0-1 ES/10 min), whereas lesioned rats could not follow the ...
Modulatory inputs acting via G-protein coupled receptors provide neuronal circuits with the flexibility required to adapt their activity to internal and external changes. In the spinal cord, the network producing locomotor activity is subject both to intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation. In many vertebrates, 5-HT is considered to play an important role in organizing the locomotor pattern and can profoundly modulate the motor output. In some preparations the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying the 5-HT modulation of the network activity have begun to be elucidated. In Xenopus tadpoles, fictive locomotion can be induced by skin stimulation, and application of 5-HT increases the locomotor burst duration, depresses mid-cycle inhibition, and modulates NMDA receptors (Sillar et al., 1992; Scrymgeour-Wedderburn et al., 1997; Sillar et al., 1998). In the newborn mammalian spinal cord, 5-HT is important for generating a stable locomotor pattern induced pharmacologically (Cazalets et al., 1992; ...
The main topic of this lab is the study of human locomotion and its neurorehabilitation. The target groups are the major diseases of the central nervous system (Stroke, SCI, Parkinson) and other syndromes that affect human locomotion. The area seeks to advance the sciences of biomechanics, neurophysiology and applications of ICT to design of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to improve gait recovery processes. It is our primal goal to experimentally demonstrate the key aspects to optimal functional recovery of gait.. The long-term research activities and projects are separated in the following target outcomes:. - Optimization of therapies for recovery of gait function. Humans (healthy and impaired) can be conditioned to modulate neural control for recovery of a function by means of one or a combination of therapies (biofeedback, robotic, neuroprosthetic and/or pharmacologic). Our long-term researches will apply a rigorous approach to find interventions that enhance adaptation, skill ...
Legs behave like compression springs during bouncing gaits such as running and hopping. During the first half of the ground contact phase, leg length (i.e. the distance between hip and toe) decreases while the ground reaction force increases, and during the second half of the ground contact phase, leg length increases while the ground reaction force decreases. In the search for general principles underlying bouncing gaits, biomechanists have modelled the body as a linear massless spring supporting a point mass equivalent to body mass [1,2]. The stiffness of the spring, typically referred to as leg spring, is determined from the relationship between the magnitude of the ground reaction force and the distance between the centre of mass (CM) and the centre of pressure on the ground [2]. It has been shown abundantly that the stiffness of the leg spring changes when humans change hopping height (e.g. [3]) or frequency (e.g. [3-5]), or when the viscous or elastic properties of the surface underfoot ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in both the coordination patterns of segmental actions and the dynamics of vertical jumping that accompany changes in vertical jump performance (VJP) occurring from trial to trial in single subjects. Ground reaction forces and video data were analyzed for 50 maximal vertical jumps for 8 subjects. It was possible to predict VJP from whole-body or even segmental kinematics and kinetics in spite of the small jump performance variability. Best whole-body models included peak and average mechanical power, propulsion time, and peak negative impulse. Best segmental models included coordination variables and a few joint torques and powers. Contrary to expectations, VJP was lower for trials with a proximal-to-distal sequence of joint reversals. ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Moving On 2014, Author: University of Sussex Students Union, Name: Moving On 2014, Length: 24 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-12-04
Biology Assignment Help, Locomotion in star fish, LOCOMOTION IN STAR FISH - With the help of tube feet aided by fluid pressure in them. In a tube feet upper ampulla, middle podium and lower sucker present.
Author: Craig Liebenson and Brett Winchester. Title: A Key Link in the Locomotor System - The Upper-Thoracic Spine. Summary: With chiropractic backgrounds rooted in motion palpation and functional...
The difference between walking and being paralyzed could be as simple as turning a light switch on and off, a culmination of years of research shows.. Recently, University of Missouri Assistant Professor of biology Samuel T. Waters isolated a coding gene that he found has profound effects on locomotion and central nervous system development.. Waters work with gene expression in embryonic mouse tissue could shed light on paralysis and stroke and other disorders of the central nervous system, like Alzheimers disease.. Waters works extensively with two coding genes called Gbx1 and Gbx2. These genes - exist in the body with approximately 20,000 other protein-coding genes - are essential for development in the central nervous system.. To understand whats going wrong, its critical that we know thats right, Waters said.. Coding genes essentially assign functions for the body. They tell your fingernail to grow a certain way, help develop motor control responsible for chewing and, as shown in ...
A clearly defined subpopulation of neurons in the brainstem is essential to execute locomotion at high speeds. Interestingly, these high-speed neurons are intermingled with others that can elicit immediate stopping. How defined groups of brainstem neurons can regulate important aspects of full motor programs, reports a study by researchers of the Biozentrum at the University of Basel and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI). The journal Nature has published the results.
Post-Activation Potentiation or PAP - what is it? It means if you squat heavy, you can jump higher. Science looks at how much weight it takes to activate this potential and how you can apply it, too.
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Here we describe a simple method to measure larval muscle contraction and locomotion behavior. The method enables the user to acquire data, without the necessity of using expensive equipment (Rotstein et al., 2018). To measure contraction and locomotion behaviour, single larvae are positioned at the center of a humidified Petri dish. Larval movement is recorded over time using the movie function of a consumer digital camera. Subsequently, videos are analyzed using ImageJ (Rueden et al., 2017) for distance measurements and counting of contractions. Data are represented as box or scatter plots using GraphPad Prism (©GraphPad Software).
Locomotion (2004) ist ein Spiel von Chris Sawyer Productions, das von Atari vertrieben wird. Es gehört zum Strategie-Genre, Unterkategorie Wirtschaftssimulation und ist am 30.09.2004 erschienen. Die unterstützte Spiele-Plattform ist PC, die USK (Unterhaltungssoftware-Selbstkontrolle) hat dem Game die Altersfreigabe „ab 0 freigegeben gegeben. In diesem Steckbrief fassen wir alle unsere News, Screenshots und ggf. auch Videos sowie Preview und Test zu Locomotion (2004) zusammen. Unsere User geben dem Spiel im Schnitt die Note 7.2. Du kannst übrigens als Archivar-User von GamersGlobal an dieser Übersicht mitarbeiten!. ...
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And God said, Let the earth give birth to all sorts of living things, cattle and all things moving on the earth, and beasts of the earth after their sort: and it was so. BBE Genesis 1:24
Taking the Risk of Moving On2018-02-082018-02-08 Part of Him ...
International Journal of Exercise Science 14(6): 815-828, 2021. There is evidence to suggest that aquatic plyometric training (APT) may be an effective and safer alternative to traditional land-based plyometric training (LPT) when training to increase jump performance. The aim of this review was to critically examine the current literature regarding the effects of APT vs. LPT on jump performance in athletic populations. Key terms were employed in five separate databases to complete the current review. Available articles were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine which studies were deemed eligible for review. Outcome measure in these studies included those assessing lower extremity power and jump performance (i.e., drop jumps, broad jumps, sergeant jumps, repeated countermovement jumps, and vertical jumps). All but one of the studies included in this critical review showed significant improvements in jump performance after LPT and APT interventions. Both LPT and APT groups
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The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worms behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worms connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs. inhibition) is huge. To deal effectively with this combinatorial problem we devised a novel and relatively fast technique based on genetic algorithms and large-scale parallel computations, which we combined with detailed neurophysiological modeling of interneuron dynamics and compared the theory to the available behavioral data. As a result of these massive computations, we found that the optimal connectivity pattern that matches the best locomotory data is the one in ...
Called Locomotion Vault, the project was developed by researchers at the Universities of Birmingham, Copenhagen, and Microsoft Research. It aims to provide a central, freely available resource to analyze the numerous locomotion techniques currently available.. The aim is to make it easier for developers to make informed decisions about the appropriate technique for their application and researchers to study which methods are best. By cataloguing available techniques in the Locomotion Vault, the project will also give creators and designers a head-start on identifying gaps where future investigation might be necessary. The database is an interactive resource, so it can be expanded through contributions from researchers and practitioners.. Researcher Massimiliano Di Luca, of the University of Birminghams School of Psychology, said: Locomotion is an essential part of virtual reality environments, but there are many challenges. A fundamental question, for example, is whether there should be a ...
After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.
Locomotives on the Great Central Railway There are many steam and diesel locomotives based at the Great Central Railway. Some are being restored, some being repaired and maintained and some are in service. Because of the nature of these veteran forms of railway motive power the running situation changes frequently. And, of course, we have visiting locomotives to add to the variety. Please see these pages for the latest situation on any particular locomotive. Detailed reports on the condition of locomotives are given in Main Line, the quarterly magazine for members of Friends of the Great Central Main Line.. STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Effects of impaired visual acuity on locomotion inside the built environment.. AU - Vivekanandaraja, P.. AU - Shields, J.. AU - Reinhardt-Rutland, Anthony. AU - Anderson, Roger. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. M3 - Other contribution. ER - ...
Album: Unknown Testo della canzone Locomotion di Alexia Come on Come on do the locomotion with me Locomotion (Come on) You got the notion, Locomotion Do
This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most research attention. All three groups show two types of locomotion: crawling (moving over a solid substrate) and swimming (moving through a liquid). The adults of all three groups form a hydroskeleton by controlling the pressure within the segments, and they locomote by controlling the shapes of the individual segments in coordinated spatial and temporal patterns. Many annelid larvae use cilia to move through water. Four aspects of the locomotory patterns are considered: the kinematics (the movement patterns), biomechanics (how muscle contractions produce movement), the neuronal basis of the movement patterns, and efforts to produce robots that move like annelid worms.
Despite the importance of the deep intrinsic spinal muscles for trunk control, few studies have investigated their activity during human locomotion or how this may change with speed and mode of locomotion. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether the postural and respiratory functions, of which these muscles take part, can be coordinated when locomotor demands are increased. EMG recordings of abdominal and paraspinal muscles were made in seven healthy subjects using fine-wire and surface electrodes. Measurements were also made of respiration and gait parameters. Recordings were made for 10s as subjects walked on a treadmill at 1 and 2 ms(-1) and ran at 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms(-1). Unlike the superficial muscles, transversus abdominis was active tonically throughout the gait cycle with all tasks, except running at speeds of 3 ms(-1) and greater. All other muscles were recruited in a phasic manner. The relative duration of these bursts of activity was influenced by speed and/or mode of locomotion. ...
Górska T., Chojnicka-Gittins B., Majczyński H., Zmysłowski W. (2007)Overground locomotion after incomplete spinal lesions in the rat: quantitative gait analysis. J Neurotrauma 24: 1198-1218. Sanusi J., Sławińska U., Vrbova G., Navarrete R. (2007) Effect of precocious locomotor activity on the development of motoneurones and motor units of slow and fast muscles in rat. Behav Brain Res 178:1-9 Celichowski J. , Mrówczyński W., Krutki P., Górska T., Majczński H., Sławińska U. (2006) Changes of contractile properties of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after total transection of the spinal cord. Exp Physiol 91: 887-95. Majczyński H ., Cabaj A., Sławińska U., Górska T. (2006) Intrathecal administration of yohimbine impairs locomotion in intact rats. Behav Brain Res 175: 315-322. Majczyński H ., Maleszak K., Cabaj A. Sławińska U. (2005) Serotonin-related enhancement of recovery of hind limb motor functions in spinal rats after grafting of embryonic raphe nuclei. J ...
Locomotion is generally defined as any type of motor activity that animals use, including humans, to produce activity such as walking, running, swimming, jumping, flying, and gliding. In vertebrates, these activities are controlled by a complex neural network located in the spinal cord referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. Spinal CPG adjustments, rely mostly on sensory motor stretch reflexes, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motoneurons (MNs) innervating the muscle which has been stretched, and thus sending that information to the spinal interneurons for readjustments on movements or posture. After the loss of supraspinal brain/brainstem) inputs to the spinal cord via injury or disease, locomotion is entirely directed by the CPG and the sensory information coming from periphery. Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network ...
Advances in our understanding of the control of locomotion enable us to optimize the rehabilitation of patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Based on various animal models, it is generally accepted that central pattern generators (CPG) exists for the rhythmic generation of stepping movements, and that this is also the case in humans. However, in humans supraspinal control is also essential for the performance of locomotion. For regaining locomotor function, incomplete SCI subjects strongly depend on visual input to compensate for proprioceptive deficits and impaired balance. In addition, they require additional attentional capacity to stand, walk and handle their walking aids. These factors might contribute to their higher risk of falling. During the last decade, task-specific functional training performed by physiotherapists, combined with manual or robotic assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training have improved the regaining of ambulatory function in patients with incomplete SCI. At ...
Computer simulation has been used to investigate several aspectsof locomotion in salamanders. Here we introduce a three-dimensionalforward dynamics mechanical model of a salamander, with physicallyrealistic weight and size parameters. Movements of the four limbs and ofthe trunk and tail are generated by sets of linearly modeled skeletalmuscles. In this study, activation of these muscles were driven byprescribed neural output patterns. The model was successfully used tomimic locomotion on level ground and in water. We compare thewalking gait where a wave of activity in the axial muscles travelsbetween the girdles, with the trotting gait in simulations usingthe musculo-mechanical model. In a separate experiment, the model is usedto compare different strategies for turning while stepping; either bybending the trunk or by using side-stepping in the front legs. We foundthat for turning, the use of side-stepping alone or in combination withtrunk bending, was more effective than the use of trunk bending alone.
Our results imply that speeds on sand and hard ground are similar, because for both treatments limbs do not slip during locomotion, stride length is constant and 〈vx〉 = sf. On hard ground, no-slip is maintained by a claw engaging irregularities. On sand, entirely different mechanics account for no-slip: in successful runs, material behind the flipper did not move during the thrust phase, supporting the hypothesis that the turtle advances via solidification of the material behind it.. Forward movement of the body on sand without slipping of the flipper requires that net thrust forces F thrust remain below the yield force of the granular medium, Fthrust , Fyield. We assume that the mechanics of the large front flipper (maintaining surface normal vector parallel to vx) produces the dominant contribution to Fthrust. Observation of the smaller hind limbs indicate that at initiation of stance, the foot remains plantar and above the surface during the entire step, presumably contributing to lifting ...
The Drosophila tachykinin gene (dtk) produces five different neuropeptides (DTK1-5). These are expressed in about 100 interneurons branching in several neuropils in the Drosophila brain, e. g. the fan-shaped body (FB) of the central complex, a neuropil believed to be a higher center for locomotor control. Previously, DTKs have been shown to modulate locomotor behavior: flies virtually devoid of DTKs (accomplished by RNAi) displayed altered activity in Buridans arena, monitoring a 15 min period of walking activity between two opposing landmarks (Winther et al, 2006, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 31: 399). In the present study we wanted to further explore the impact of DTKs on locomotor behavior. We studied the spontaneous walking activity of the fly, over a period of 7 hours, extracting several parameters from video-tracks using Ethovision software. We found that flies with DTK depletion in all DTK-neurons of the central nervous system (driving expression of the RNAi construct with the pan-neural ...
FUNDED PHD POSITION IN MODELLING BIOLOGICAL NEURO-MUSCULAR CONTROL IN DYNAMIC LOCOMOTION WITH A LINK TO BIOROBOTICS (BIOMECHANICS / BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING / (BIO-)PHYSICS) We are currently seeking a highly motivated PHD STUDENT (F/M/D) WE OFFER a FUNDED RESEARCHER POSITION FOR 36 MONTHS in our project „Neuro-muscular contraction in dynamic locomotion. The project has a strong focus on basic research investigating the function of biological muscles in locomotion and how to transfer important characteristics to novel bio-inspired robotic systems. You will be part of an interdisciplinary multi-center research group with muscle physiology and biorobotics researchers in a team of at least three PhD students. Your contribution will be focused on modelling and simulation of neuro-muscular control. Your contract should start in the first half of 2021. Salary will be based on previous experience. ABOUT US You will become a member of the group /Multi-Level Modeling in Motor Control and Rehabilitation ...
This study investigated whether the modular control of changes in direction while running is influenced by perturbations to balance. Twenty-two healthy men performed 90° side-step unperturbed cutting manoeuvres while running (UPT) as well as manoeuvres perturbed at initial contact (PTB, 10 cm translation of a moveable force platform). Surface EMG activity from 16 muscles of the supporting limb and trunk, kinematics, and ground reaction forces were recorded. Motor modules composed by muscle weightings and their respective activation signals were extracted from the EMG signals by non-negative matrix factorization. Knee joint moments, co-contraction ratios and co-contraction indexes (hamstrings/quadriceps) and motor modules were compared between UPT and PTB. Five motor modules were enough to reconstruct UPT and PTB EMG activity (variance accounted for UPT = 92±5%, PTB = 90±6%). Moreover, higher similarities between muscle weightings from UPT and PTB (similarity = 0.83±0.08) were observed in comparison
This paper presents a formal framework for achieving multi-contact bipedal robotic walking, and realizes this methodology experimentally on two robotic platforms: AMBER2 and ATRIAS. Inspired by the key feature encoded in human walking- multi-contact behavior-this approach begins with the analysis of human locomotion and uses it to motivate the construction of a hybrid system model representing a multi-contact robotic walking gait. Human-inspired outputs are extracted from reference locomotion data to characterize the human model or the SLIP model, and then employed to develop the human-inspired control and an optimization problem that yields stable multi-domain walking. Through a trajectory reconstruction strategy motivated by the process that generates the walking gait, the mathematical constructions are successfully translated to the two physical robots experimentally ...
Sports injuries are injuries resulting from sports activities. More broadly,these are all injuries sustained during a sporting activity,of which there are many. They include a potential TBI,or traumatic brain injury.. In the narrow sense,they represent injuries to the locomotor system,movement systems (muscles,tendons,ligaments,joints,bones). As in professional as well as in recreational sports,dominant injuries of the locomotor system are dominant,with sports injuries we mean locomotor system injuries.. Sports injuries are divided into acute and chronic.. 1) Acute sports injuries Acute injuries occur as a result of the immediate action of a strong force (movement or contact),which exceeds the compensatory capacity of our body and leads to mechanical damage to the tissue. The soft tissues (muscles,ligaments,tendons) of the locomotor system support your joints and prevent injury. They resist the force exerting on your body to a certain extent,after which soft tissue structure is disturbed ...
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Before submitting a question, please visit Frequently Asked Questions. If you have something to share that would enrich our knowledge about this object, use the form below. After review, selected comments will appear on this page along with the name you provide.. Please note that we generally cannot answer questions about the history, rarity, or value of your personal artifacts.. If you require a personal response, please use our contact page. Personal information will not be shared or result in unsolicited email. We may use the provided email to contact you if we have additional questions. See our privacy statement. ...
Abstract: Planning whole-body motions while taking into account the terrain conditions is a challenging problem for legged robots since the terrain model might produce many local minima. Our coupled planning method uses stochastic and derivatives-free search to plan both foothold locations and horizontal motions due to the local minima produced by the terrain model. It jointly optimizes body motion, step duration and foothold selection, and it models the terrain as a cost-map. Due to the novel attitude planning method, the horizontal motion plans can be applied to various terrain conditions. The attitude planner ensures the robot stability by imposing limits to the angular acceleration. Our whole-body controller tracks compliantly trunk motions while avoiding slippage, as well as kinematic and torque limits. Despite the use of a simplified model, which is restricted to flat terrain, our approach shows remarkable capability to deal with a wide range of non-coplanar terrains. The results are ...
The preferred habitats and locomotory methods of goniopholidids are also worth pondering. There is some evidence that larger Wealden goniopholidids were mostly confined to a semi-aquatic existence, as their interlocking osteoderms likely strengthened their backs and improved terrestrial competency (as it does for atoposaurids and several other type of ancient crocodyliform), but their sheer weight likely impeded terrestrial locomotion over sustained periods (Salisbury and Frey 2000). The same is true of large modern crocodiles: here, reinforced vertebral joints perform a similar job to osteoderm bracing but still fail to facilitate effective, fast terrestrial locomotion for long periods. Larger crocodilians therefore spend much of their time in water, and certainly find most of their food there. If so, this makes the atypically long forelimbs of goniopholidids all the more interesting. Often, development of relatively equate limb lengths in quadrupeds is considered a sign of good terrestrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A bioinspired autonomous swimming robot as a tool for studying goal-directed locomotion. AU - Manfredi, L.. AU - Assaf, T.. AU - Mintchev, S.. AU - Marrazza, S.. AU - Capantini, L.. AU - Orofino, S.. AU - Ascari, L.. AU - Grillner, S.. AU - Wallén, P.. AU - Ekeberg, O.. AU - Stefanini, C.. AU - Dario, P.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The bioinspired approach has been key in combining the disciplines of robotics with neuroscience in an effective and promising fashion. Indeed, certain aspects in the field of neuroscience, such as goal-directed locomotion and behaviour selection, can be validated through robotic artefacts. In particular, swimming is a functionally important behaviour where neuromuscular structures, neural control architecture and operation can be replicated artificially following models from biology and neuroscience. In this article, we present a biomimetic system inspired by the lamprey, an early vertebrate that locomotes using anguilliform swimming. The artefact ...
Bipedalism is a form of movement on the ground. Some tetrapods have evolved the ability to move on two limbs. Those that do, use their rear limbs. Some animals move on two limbs all the time, they are called habitual bipeds. Optional bipeds can move on two or four legs. Early quadruped animals used all four limbs for locomotion but many later ones are bipedal. The earliest dinosaurs were bipedal but millions of years later some reverted and became quadrupeds. Birds are descendants of bipedal dinosaurs, and are bipeds themselves. Their forelimbs have become wings. Some optional bipeds stand on two legs to drive away competitors and predators, to see farther, or as body language. Their locomotion is on four limbs. ...
Temperature dependence, energetics, and speed of locomotion have important implications for the ecology and evolution of ants. Here, we report the results of a full-factorial study investigating the responses of active metabolic rate (AMR), voluntary locomotion speed, and cost of transport (COT) to …
The paper reports the electronics used in a new developed wireless endoscopic capsule provided with novel focus and locomotion features. The locomotion is
Buy Locomotion Laminates - Greenlam Laminates from Greenlam to decorate your space. Install Locomotion Laminates sheets at your home for the modern look.
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We conduct research to understand neurocontrol and mechanical principles of dynamic legged locomotion in animals, by designing and applying running legged robots and their computational models.
Motor modules linear units with spindle drive CAD файлове в 2D и 3D от утвърдени от доставчика каталози
Reviewers on Locomotion of Expressions are sent a complimentary item in exchange for their honest opinions and receiving a free product does not influence their review posts. All opinions and thoughts are their own, and different people may have different outcomes. We are not responsible for those who purchase these items and experience different results. Occasionally, the company provides a product to give away as well as monetary compensation. Even on the rare occasion on which a post is sponsored, it still has the reviewers honest opinion contained herein. ...
Reviewers on Locomotion of Expressions are sent a complimentary item in exchange for their honest opinions and receiving a free product does not influence their review posts. All opinions and thoughts are their own, and different people may have different outcomes. We are not responsible for those who purchase these items and experience different results. Occasionally, the company provides a product to give away as well as monetary compensation. Even on the rare occasion on which a post is sponsored, it still has the reviewers honest opinion contained herein. ...
We are using single molecule fluorescence techniques to monitor movements of molecular motors moving on RNA. First, I will present our recent finding that a cytosolic viral RNA sensor RIG-I (Retinoic acid-Inducible Gene 1) is a translocase on double stran
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A large number of aminergic and peptidergic modulatory systems and metabotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B and glutamate receptors are present in the lamprey central nervous system. These systems tune the activity of the locomotor network to meet varying external and internal demands. Immunohistochemical studies have shown cells below the central canal that are immunoreactive to 5-HT, dopamine, and tachykinins. They give rise to a dense ventromedial plexus in which the dendrites of locomotor network neurons are distributed. In this plexus, modulators are released in a paracrinic fashion because these cells do not form conventional synaptic contacts with dendrites of spinal neurons. The frequency of the locomotor bursts is reduced by blocking the reuptake of either 5-HT or dopamine during fictive locomotion (Fig. 2D⇑) (5, 11). Similarly, exogenous application of these modulators also reduces the locomotor frequency. Through activation of 5-HT1A-like receptors, 5-HT blocks KCa channels ...
Horses evolved in the Northern Hemispheres northern latitudes and are well adapted to cold provided they live in a herd, have 24/7 appropriate forage and fresh water (although it is reported horses can live on certain snows, dont try this at home), and move a lot through the day. Place your feeders so the horses have to move about to eat, and never let the forage disappear completely, please. Movement is the nature of the horse. Heavy horses require more movement rather than less hay. Keep your ponies moving to keep them warm and healthy. Digestion is dependent on locomotion. Mobile horses require miles of walking each and every day to maintain optimal health. Humans often fail their horses by depriving them of the abundant locomotion they require each day to stay healthy. Every system of the horse is dependent on abundant daily locomotion ...
Trends in the dynamics of respiration rate and the efficiency of swimming in dependence on mechanical energy of locomotion were analyzed in six species of Black...
Eyespots cannot form images but enable the animal to sense the direction of light, because the pigment cell shades the photoreceptor from one side. In Platynereis, selective illumination of one eyespot changes the beating of adjacent cilia by direct cholinergic innervation, resulting in locally reduced water flow. Computer simulations of larval swimming show that these local effects are sufficient to direct the helical swimming trajectories of larvae towards the light. The computer model also shows that axial rotation of the larval body is essential for phototaxis and that helical swimming increases the precision of navigation. Our findings in Platynereis larvae provide a general mechanistic understanding of phototaxis in marine zooplankton larvae and its regulation by simple eyespots. It is possible that a similar direct coupling of light-sensing with ciliary locomotor control was a principal feature of the first animal eyes. ...
Chairman Of The Board - Leaps tall buildings in a single bound. Is more powerful than a speeding locomotive; faster than a speeding bullet. Walks on water. Gives policy to God.President - Leaps short buildings in a single bound. Is more powerful than a switch engine; just as fast as a speeding bullet. Walks on water when the water is calm. Talks with God.Executive Vice-President - Leaps short buildings with a running start and favorable winds. Is almost as powerful as a switch engine; not quite as fast as a speeding bullet. Walks on water in an indoor swimming pool. Talks to God if special request is granted.Vice President - Barely clears a quonset hut. Loses tug of war with locomotive. Can fire a speeding bullet. Swims well. Is occasionally addressed by God.General Manager - Makes high marks on the wall when trying to leap buildings. Is run over by a locomotive. Can sometimes handle a gun without inflicting self-injury. Dog paddles. Talks to animals.Manager - Runs into buildings. Recognizes locomotive
The first train was hauled by Stephenson's Locomotion No 1 at speeds of 12 to 15 miles per hour (19 to 24 km/h). Four ... "Locomotion". Darlington Railway Centre and Museum. Retrieved 27 November 2006. Nock, O. S. "Twenty-five years to Rainhill". ... Locomotion: A world survey of railway traction. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7100-8222-0. Awdry, Christopher (1990). Encyclopaedia of ... locomotives named Locomotion were constructed; they were effectively beam engines on wheels with vertical cylinders. They were ...
Locomotion railway museum, in Shildon Spennymoor - Jubilee park Tanfield Railway, in Tanfield Ushaw College, Catholic Seminary ... "Life in the booming railway town". Locomotion. Pattison, Gary (2004). "Planning for decline: The 'D'‐village policy of County ...
"Locomotion". The Engineer. June 1960. p. 930. Rong, Blake Z. (March 19, 2014). "500-mph Ford hovercar is the future we were ...
"Flatworld - [] - TV". Locomotion. Archived from the original on 17 April 2001. Retrieved 28 May 2019. "BAFTA ... It premiered on 18 July 1997 on the Locomotion channel, which broadcast the film alongside The Making of Flatworld, a ...
ISBN 0-904078-07-8. Nock, O. S. (August 1975). Locomotion. Routledge & Kegan Paul PLC. ISBN 978-0710082220. OCLC 21980980. OL ...
Locomotion, previously known as Locomotion: the National Railway Museum at Shildon or Shildon Locomotion Museum is a railway ... Locomotion was shortlisted as one of the final five contenders in the Gulbenkian Prize, which is the largest arts prize in the ... Locomotion: visiting exhibits LMS Hughes Crab LNWR Cornwall LSWR T3 class No. 563 Trains portal North East England portal List ... Locomotion landmarks Hackworth's cottage Soho workshop Goods shed Coal drops Engine Shed interior The museum is home to several ...
Lin, Michael (2019). Locomotion. Manila: De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde, Inc. Official website. ... Lin worked with local communities and art college students in Manila on his exhibition Locomotion (MCAD Manila, 2016). He ... Cruz, Joselina (2019). "Local Motion". Locomotion. Manila: De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde, Inc. pp. 4-8. Sahakian, ... Locomotion, Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, Manila, Philippines 2017: The National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, ...
A re-recorded version of "The Loco-Motion" saw peaks in the top ten of the charts it entered, while "Got to Be Certain" and "Je ... That same year, she released a cover of the Little Eva song "Locomotion". It spent seven weeks on top of the ARIA Singles Chart ... "Music :: Singles :: 'The Loco-Motion'". Kylie Minogue. Parlophone Music UK. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. ... "Locomotion (Original)". EMI. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. Sutherland, ...
Ito served as the president of the television program production company, Locomotion. "Profile" (in Japanese). Locomotion. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Locomotion Co. Ltd (in Japanese) Profile (in Japanese). ...
"Locomotion". Nintendo America. Retrieved July 27, 2020. "Locomotion". Nintendo Europe. Retrieved July 27, 2020. "Lonely ...
ISBN 978-1-78155-464-7. Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "2: The First Industrial Locomotives: 1812-1815". Loco Motion. The History ...
Hill, Marta (2004). "Animal Locomotion". In Herbert, Stephen (ed.). Eadweard Muybridge: The Kingston Museum Bequest. East ...
Locomotion Papers. 156. Headington, Oxford: The Oakwood Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-85361-321-4. Butt, R. V. J. (1995). The Directory ... Locomotion Papers. 156. Headington, Oxford: The Oakwood Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-85361-321-4. "Old Devonport". Retrieved 9 October ...
Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "The Bury Type". Loco Motion. The History Press. pp. 136-138. ISBN 978-0-7524-9101-1.. ...
Locomotion Papers. 143 (4th ed.). Usk, Monmouthshire: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-655-9. Connor, J. E. (2005). The ...
Animal Locomotion. M. Saastamoinen, E. Barrey (2000). "Conformation, Locomotion and Physiological Traits". In A.T. Bowling, A. ...
"The evolution of underwater flight and the locomotion of plesiosaurs", In: J.M.V. Rayner and R.J. Wootton (eds.) Biomechanics ... Hawthorne and co-authors concluded that all four flippers were used simultaneously for locomotion, per Robinson's model and ... Wilhelm, B.C., 2010, Novel anatomy of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs with comments on axial locomotion. Ph.D thesis, Marshall ... 131-144 Lingham-Soliar, T. (2000). "Plesiosaur locomotion: Is the four-wing problem real or merely an atheoretical exercise?". ...
Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "The Patentee Type: Lion 0-4-2". Loco Motion. The History Press. pp. 120-122. ISBN 978-0-7524-9101-1 ...
ISBN 1-85414-275-5. Jones, Ken (1974). The Wotton Tramway (Brill Branch). Locomotion Papers. Blandford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN ...
Locomotion Papers. Blandford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-149-1. Jones, Robin (2010). Britain's Weirdest Railways. ...
Locomotion Papers. Headington: Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-414-8. LP179. Jenkins, S.C. Leek and Manifold Light Railway (video) ...
Jones, Ken (1974). The Wotton Tramway (Brill Branch). Locomotion Papers. The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-149-1. Karol, Eitan ( ...
Locomotion Papers. Usk: Oakwood Press. 2000. ISBN 0-85361-558-6. Coed Ely Station on navigable 1947 O.S. map v t e. ...
Locomotion 16. All the Lovers 17. Dancing 18. Spinning Around Miley Cyrus 1. Nothing Breaks Like a Heart with Mark Ronson 2. ...
Seeking to haul greater amounts, the idea of steam-powered locomotion was proposed. The leaders in steam technology at the time ... Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "John Rastrick's Locomotives 1828-29". Loco Motion. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-9101-1. Lewis ...
This form of locomotion is the primary means of locomotion for the small gibbons and siamangs of southeast Asia. Gibbons in ... Brachiation (from "brachium", Latin for "arm"), or arm swinging, is a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from ... Suspensory behavior Arboreal locomotion Birx, H. (2006). Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Thousand Oaks, California. doi:10.4135/ ... Another theory postulates that brachiation is a quieter and less obvious mode of locomotion than quadrupedal jumping and ...
Scientists are not certain how far back in the theropod family tree this type of posture and locomotion extends. Non-avian ... Farlow, J.O.; Gatesy, S.M.; Holtz, Jr.; Hutchinson, J.R.; Robinson, J.M. (2000). "Theropod locomotion". Am. Zool. 40 (4): 640- ... Hutchinson, J.R. (March-April 2006). "The evolution of locomotion in archosaurs". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 5 (3-4): 519-530. doi ... held parallel to the spine and with the forward force of locomotion generated at the knee. ...
Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "John Rastrick's Locomotives 1828-29". Loco Motion. The History Press. pp. 39-46. ISBN 978-0-7524- ...
Loco Motion. The History Press. pp. 39-46. ISBN 978-0-7524-9101-1. Oliver, Smith Hempstone (1956). The First Quarter-century of ...
ISBN 978-1-78155-464-7. Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "2: The First Industrial Locomotives: 1812-1815". Loco Motion. The History ...
Locomotion or Loco-Motion may refer to: Motion (physics) Specific types of motion Animal locomotion Terrestrial locomotion ... UK Games Loco-Motion (video game), a 1982 arcade game by Konami Chris Sawyers Locomotion, a 2004 computer game by Chris Sawyer ... "Locomotion", a song on John Coltranes album Blue Train "The Loco-Motion", a 1962 hit song originally performed by Little Eva ... including Trotting Travel Walking Robot locomotion Clubs Loco Motion (Youth Group), a film and media club based in Essex, ...
Substitutiary locomotion I want substitutiary locomotion Very substitutiary is the key Substitutiary locomotion come to me! ... "Substitutiary Locomotion" is a song written by the Sherman Brothers for the 1971 Walt Disney musical film production Bedknobs ... Treguna Mekoides and Trecorum Satis Dee Substitutiary locomotion Mystic power thats far beyond the wildest notion Its so ... Substitutiary locomotion is the key The key to guide the tide thats stronger than the ocean I want substitutiary locomotion It ...
"Locomotion No. 1, George Stephenson and the worlds first public railway".. *^ Science Museum (1958). The British railway ... Locomotion No. 1 (originally named Active) is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the ... Satow, F.; Satow, M.G.; Wilson, L.S. (1976). Locomotion - concept to creation: the story of the reproduction 1973-1975. Beamish ... Locomotion No. 1 was on display in Alfred Kitchings workshop near Hopetown Carriage Works from 1857 to the 1880s. From 1892 to ...
Ive just flown from London to North Carolina, a trip of around 6,200km. As flights go, its a pathetic one, a mere jaunt in the park compared to the epic voyage of the Arctic tern. Every year, this greatest of animal travellers makes a 70,000 km round-trip, in a relentless, globe-trotting pursuit of daylight. In summer, it spends its time in the sun-soaked Arctic and in winter, it heads for the equally bright climes of Antarctica. In its 30 years of life, this champion aeronaut flies more than 2.4 million kilometres - the equivalent of three return journeys to the Moon. The Arctic tern… ...
Find Locomotion software downloads at CNET, the most comprehensive source for safe, trusted, and spyware-free ...
Pre-Bilateria Locomotion Cross references: Early Behavior Parazoa Placozoa Porifera Coelenterata Bilateria Bilateria Locomotion ... The hydra is capable of very active locomotion, but I dont seem to have a reference for it at the moment. ... "They have three cellular layers: ... the bottom layer is made up of cylinder cells which possess cilia used in locomotion" ... "Active locomotion by individual marine and freshwater sponges across glass, plastic and rubber substrata has been studied in ...
The driving force for the nanoscale locomotion is about 320 kilopascals per square nanometre for a 6-nm-wide nanoflake on a ... Barnard, A. Nanoscale locomotion without fuel. Nature 519, 37-38 (2015). ...
... locomotion: Principles: In axial locomotion, which includes the hydraulic ramjet method of ejecting water (e.g., squid), ... In locomotion: Principles. In axial locomotion, which includes the hydraulic ramjet method of ejecting water (e.g., squid), ... Other articles where Axial locomotion is discussed: ...
Walk, in horsemanship, moderately slow four-beat gait of a horse, during which each foot strikes the ground separately and the horse is supported by two or three feet at all times. The normal sequence of a walk is the order in which the feet are raised: a pattern such as right hind, right fore,
The field of research of our lab is the physiology and the biomechanics of terrestrial locomotion and the analysis of movements ... Guillaume BASTIEN (Arsalis - Commission dencadrement de physiologie et de biomécanique de la locomotion - UCL - FSM) ... there are many di fferent modes of terrestrial locomotion: some vertebrates move on Earth on two legs while others use four. ey ... may modify the pattern of locomotion (stride length, step frequency, muscular activity, ...). The aim of our research is to ...
A locomotion interface is a device that creates an artificial sensation of physical walking. It should ideally be equipped with ... Locomotion interface Walking Virtual environment Virtual reality Treadmill Walking-in-place This is a preview of subscription ... A locomotion interface is a device that creates an artificial sensation of physical walking. It should ideally be equipped with ... Iwata H. (2013) Locomotion Interfaces. In: Steinicke F., Visell Y., Campos J., Lécuyer A. (eds) Human Walking in Virtual ...
The Loco-Motion» er en sang skrevet av Gerry Goffin og Carole King som ble spilt inn og gitt ut på singel med Eva Boyd i 1962[1 ... The Loco-Motion» er rangert som #350 på magasinet Rolling Stones liste over «The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time». ... The Vampires spilte inn sangen 2. oktober 1962 og ga den ut på singlen Columbia 45GN 1707 og på EP-platen Loco-motion (Columbia ... Hentet fra «» ...
This entry was posted on Saturday, June 18th, 2011 at 5:22 pm and is filed under News. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed. ...
Onward - Worried about the touchpad locomotion?Gaming (self.Vive). submitted 3 years ago. *. by JamesButlinGo to /r/Vive_VR or ... As far as locomotion methods, I find that Vivecraft does it best for me. Being able to hold down the left trigger and aiming ... Onwards style of locomotion hasnt been done before. That Im aware of at least?! Its the left (/non-dominant, you can pick) ... Its my biggest worry as well! I was amongst the most likely to pass on a game if it only used touchpad locomotion, hence why I ...
... ,. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine,. vol. 1. ,. Article ID 656213. ,. 7. ...
Delcomyn F. (1981) Insect Locomotion on Land. In: Herreid C.F., Fourtner C.R. (eds) Locomotion and Energetics in Arthropods. ... Locomotion in the coleoptera adephaga, especially carabidae. J. Zool. Lond. 181, 189-226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The locomotion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol. 54, 443-452.Google Scholar ... The effect of limb amputation on locomotion in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol. 54, 453-469.Google Scholar ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
... power-saving and balanced locomotion preceded the diversification of crown amniotes ... The evolution of advanced locomotion on land-that is, locomotion that is more erect, balanced and mechanically power-saving ... Reverse-engineering the locomotion of a stem amniote. *John A. Nyakatura1. ,2. na1, ... Ashley-Ross, M. Hindlimb kinematics during terrestrial locomotion in a salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). J. Exp. Biol. 193, ...
... on Steam today to introduce smooth locomotion to the game. The update will also enable support for Windows Mixed Reality ... Smooth locomotion is a nice addition to Doom VFR, and many people believe the movement option should have been available on day ... The smooth locomotion option includes speed adjustment options and a button that allows you to toggle Dash mode on and off. ... But you could already play the game with smooth locomotion enabled if you wanted to with a tool called Open VR Input Emulator. ...
This robotic concept uses a braided mesh that can be continuously deformed to create smooth waves of motion. The improvements in kinematics result in a much ...
Mining Publication: Locomotion in Restricted space: Kinematic and Electromyographic Analysis of Stoopwalking and Crawling. ...
3D locomotion models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR ...
"We have a huge amount of uphill locomotion in the literature - the low-hanging fruit, so to speak," he said. "In contrast, ... Most studies of animal locomotion have been on level terrain. While is it relatively straightforward to predict the demand on ... This constrains how the foot must be orientated during locomotion.". Birn-Jeffery and Higham used Chondrodactylus bibronii ( ... "This multi-functionality of the gecko adhesive system permits effective locomotion on both uphill and downhill slopes," said ...
Make research projects and school reports about Locomotion easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Locomotion Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Locomotion. Locomotion is the active movement from one place to another ... Locomotion Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Locomotion. Animals have evolved an amazing variety of ways to ... Terrestrial Locomotion. This is the form of locomotion humans use to get around. However, few species use the pure bipedal ...
Drosophila larval locomotion offers a valuable opportunity to link genes to behavior, and also link sensory inputs to motor ... This review article will provide a brief introduction to Drosophila larval locomotion for researchers who are new to the field ... Neural circuits underlying fly larval locomotion. Bentham Science Publishers. Journal. Current Pharmaceutical Design. Keywords ... Locomotion is a complex motor behavior that may be expressed in different ways using a variety of strategies depending upon ...
Water striders Gerridae are insects of characteristic length 1 cm and weight 10 dynes that reside on the surface of ponds, rivers, and the open ocean. Their weight is supported by the surface tension force generated by curvature of the free surface5,6, and they propel themselves by driving their central pair of hydrophobic legs in a sculling motion. Previous investigators have assumed that the hydrodynamic propulsion of the water strider relies on momentum transfer by surface waves. This assumption leads to Dennys paradox: infant water striders, whose legs are too slow to generate waves, should be incapable of propelling themselves along the surface. We here resolve this paradox through reporting the results of high-speed video and particle-tracking studies. Experiments reveal that the strider transfers momentum to the underlying fluid not primarily through capillary waves, but rather through hemispherical vortices shed by its driving legs. This insight guided us in constructing a ...
A website designed for sports enthusiasts and aimed at Montreals high end gym audience, for a gym located nearby an abandoned railway station.
... Abstract Robotic locomotion is based in a variety o … Robotic locomotion is based in a ... In this paper we explore the use of tools from differential geometry to model and analyze this class of locomotion mechanisms ... In particular, we describe locomotion in terms of the geometric phase associated with a connection on a principal bundle, and ...
RoboFossil Reveals Locomotion of Beast from Deep Time. Modeling shows the 290-million-year-old Orobates had an advanced way of ... That is the portrait emerging from a new multidisciplinary study that has reconstructed the locomotion of this long-extinct ... did they start to evolve different styles of locomotion that helped them enter new ecological niches available to them on land ... erect form of locomotion evolved roughly 40 million years earlier than previously surmised. ...
Original 1887 of fencers in motion. Old Albumin print photograph glued to back. Dimensions: H 18.5 x W 23.75 Condition: Toning, pencil marks, tape stains at edges.
  • Even some normally sessile animals use crude forms of locomotion to escape predators. (
  • Whether passive or active locomotion is used, the physical environments occupied by animals fall into four broad categories, each requiring unique forms of locomotion. (
  • Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. (
  • Both forms of locomotion entail a perfect interplay between arms and legs, yet the speed at which this happens is strikingly different. (
  • But these forms of locomotion that come to mind all seem to derive from the animal kingdom. (
  • The field of research of our lab is the physiology and the biomechanics of terrestrial locomotion and the analysis of movements in sports (particularly in gymnastics and in track and field). (
  • At €first glance, there are many di fferent modes of terrestrial locomotion: some vertebrates move on Earth on two legs while others use four. (
  • Our metrics indicate that Orobates exhibited more advanced locomotion than has previously been assumed for earlier tetrapods 7 , 9 , which suggests that advanced terrestrial locomotion preceded the diversification of crown amniotes. (
  • At UC Riverside, his research generally focuses on comparative biomechanics of terrestrial locomotion. (
  • Her new study published in the Journal of Experimental Biology investigates the stresses experienced by the limb bones of tiger salamanders during terrestrial locomotion. (
  • Terrestrial locomotion has evolved many times as animals moved onto the land from the water. (
  • Movement on appendages is the most common form of terrestrial locomotion, it is the basic form of locomotion of two major groups with many terrestrial members, the vertebrates and the arthropods. (
  • Gravity plays an essential role in terrestrial locomotion. (
  • Most terrestrial mammals can jump or leap, but some use this form of locomotion far more regularly than others. (
  • This book offers a succinct but comprehensive description of the mechanics of muscle contraction and legged terrestrial locomotion. (
  • This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. (
  • In this review, we will consider the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. (
  • The overall purpose of this investigation was to examine whether any kinematic factors could be identified as determinants of the preferred transition speed (PTS) during human locomotion. (
  • Typically, the animal uses the same mode of locomotion for all these functions, but there are exceptions. (
  • This mode of locomotion is found among some reptiles and amphibians. (
  • Active locomotion by individual marine and freshwater sponges across glass, plastic and rubber substrata has been studied in relation to the behavior of the sponges' component cells. (
  • In ethology , or the study of animal behavior, locomotion is defined as movement that results in progression from one place to another. (
  • Drosophila larval locomotion offers a valuable opportunity to link genes to behavior, and also link sensory inputs to motor outputs in cellular and molecular resolution. (
  • Locomotion is a complex motor behavior that may be expressed in different ways using a variety of strategies depending upon species and pathological or environmental conditions. (
  • The smooth locomotion option includes speed adjustment options and a button that allows you to toggle Dash mode on and off. (
  • You can also toggle jumping support when smooth locomotion is enabled. (
  • As Capelli points out "it was absolutely fascinating to see how one population of neurons in the brainstem can elicit a full motor program that recruits both fore- and hindlimbs and all the muscles involved in a manner indistinguishable from natural locomotion. (
  • Further experiments demonstrated that the identified excitatory neurons, the stimulation of which elicits locomotion, are also needed during natural locomotion at high speeds. (
  • This volume developed from a Workshop on Natural Locomotion in Fluids and on Surfaces: Swimming, Flying, and Sliding which was held at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) at the University of Minnesota, from June 1-5, 2010. (
  • They provide a representative if necessarily incomplete account of the field of natural locomotion during a period of rapid growth and expansion. (
  • Smooth locomotion is a nice addition to Doom VFR , and many people believe the movement option should have been available on day one. (
  • Locomotion is not the same as movement. (
  • In the end, the walk they deemed most probable for the ancient tetrapod was one that resembled the movement of the caiman, a species of crocodilian-indicating this more advanced, erect form of locomotion evolved roughly 40 million years earlier than previously surmised. (
  • Survios said that Fluid Locomotion is a natural and intuitive arms-driven movement system that uses natural "intended motion" to drive and steer your avatar. (
  • The modes of locomotion used by animals have been divided up into more than 30 different types… and it is not unusual for an animal to change from one type of movement to another (i.e. from walking to jumping in a given period of locomotion). (
  • All forms of body movement including locomotion are controlled at several levels of the nervous system. (
  • The first was to describe the physiological function of muscle tissue (which may be considered as the "motor") contracting at a constant length, during shortening, during lengthening, and under a condition that occurs most frequently in the back-and-forth movement of the limbs during locomotion, namely the stretch-shortening cycle of the active muscle. (
  • Researchers have identified subpopulations of neurons in the spinal cord that help coordinate the movement of the arms and legs to ensure a stable body posture during locomotion. (
  • Bricklaying: Plate 505 from Animal Locomotion (1887). (
  • Man Jumping, Pole Vaulting: Plate 165 from Animal Locomotion (1887). (
  • Despite these apparent differences in modes of locomotion, both vertebrate and invertebrate species share, at least in part, comparable neural control mechanisms for locomotor rhythm and pattern generation and modulation. (
  • Interactive training appeared to accelerate the recovery of locomotion and maintain smooth locomotor movements. (
  • LFP Oscillations in the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region during Voluntary Locomotion. (
  • LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. (
  • Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined. (
  • Robotic locomotion is based in a variety of instances upon cyclic changes in the shape of a robot mechanism. (
  • The disadvantage of this type of locomotion is that the animal is at the whim of wind and wave. (
  • Many reptiles and amphibians, some or all of the time, use this method of locomotion. (
  • Passive locomotion is the simplest form of animal locomotion. (
  • Nervous system control produces rhythmic movements of the appendages or body that result in locomotion. (
  • Plate in: Animal locomotion : an electro-photographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movements, 1872-1885 / By Eadweard Muybridge. (
  • Plate descriptions from: Animal locomotion : an electro-photographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movements : prospectus and catalogue of plates / by Eadweard Muybridge. (
  • Locomotion has evolved to enhance the animal's success at finding food, reproducing, escaping predators, or escaping unsuitable habitats. (
  • Robot based on Orobates pabsti , a 290-million-year-old tetrapod, helped researchers reconstruct this extinct animal's locomotion. (
  • According to foot trimmer David Thornley, the key to identifying lameness lay in studying the animal's locomotion. (
  • The hydra is capable of very active locomotion, but I don't seem to have a reference for it at the moment. (
  • Most animals exhibit active locomotion at some stage of their life cycle. (
  • Active locomotion can be appendicular or axial. (
  • Iwata H, Yano H, Nakaizumi F (2001) Gait Master: a versatile locomotion interface for uneven virtual terrain. (
  • Polychaete annelid worms provide a biological paradigm of versatile locomotion and effective motion control, adaptable to a large variety of unstructured environmental conditions (water, sand, mud, sediment, etc. (
  • A clearly defined subpopulation of neurons in the brainstem is essential to execute locomotion at high speeds. (
  • Paolo Capelli, PhD student in Arber's group and first author of the study, remembers that the most exciting breakthrough of the project was when he started to study the identified neuronal cell types separately: "When we activated neurons releasing the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in one small region of the brainstem called Lateral Paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), but not in other neighboring regions, we reliably induced full body locomotion at short latency. (
  • Photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge was fascinated by motion, and today, scientists at the Locomotion Lab of the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena continue to use cameras to research how we walk. (
  • 10532994765 Elephant walking from 'Animal Locomotion', Eadweard Muybridge // // 100.00 GBP OutOfStock 10% off CultureLabel Collection Prints! (
  • The 19th century photographs by Eadweard Muybridge captured something that had previously been too fleeting for the human eye: the mechanics of animal locomotion. (
  • University of Copenhagen researchers have identified two areas of the midbrain that appear to play specific roles in the start, speed and content of dependent selection of locomotion in mice. (
  • In his 1893 book Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular , Muybridge described his most famous animal locomotion capture of a horse. (
  • The 'JenaFox' walking robot and the Zeiss Makro-Planar T* 2/50 ZF.2 in action in the Locomotion Lab of the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena. (
  • This robot was created by the University of Zürich for motion analysis at the Locomotion Lab in Jena. (
  • One key element of this soft robot is that its stationary base and vine-like locomotion both have its roots in the plant kingdom. (
  • This intricate restructuring of bones within the foot is thought to have been driven by selection for bipedalism over arboreal locomotion ( 3 ), with the latter requiring an opposable hallux for grasping branches. (
  • Arboreal locomotion: aye, there's the rub! (
  • After reading Locomotion by Jacqueline Woodson use this printable and interactive Word Search puzzle to extend student learning. (
  • In axial locomotion, which includes the hydraulic ramjet method of ejecting water (e.g., squid), production of a body wave (eel), or the contract-anchor-extend method (leech), the body shape is modified, and the interaction of the entire body with the surrounding environment provides the propulsive force. (
  • Axial locomotion occurs when the animal modifies its body shape to achieve motion. (
  • In appendicular locomotion, various appendages such as legs, wings, and flippers interact with the environment by pushing or flapping to produce the propulsive force. (
  • The undulatory locomotion of their segmented body is characterized by the combination of a unique form of tail-to-head body undulations, with the rowing-like action of numerous lateral appendages distributed along their body. (
  • Locomotion in Restricted space: Kinematic and Electromyograp! (
  • Gingerich, P. D. Land-to-sea transition in early whales: evolution of Eocene Archaeoceti (Cetacea) in relation to skeletal proportions and locomotion of living semiaquatic mammals. (
  • The decrease in mass-specific muscle force in mammals weighing 0.1 to 300 kilogram indicates that peak muscle stresses are also constant and correlates with a decrease in mass-specific energy cost of locomotion. (
  • Darken R, Cockayne W, Carmein D (1997) The omni-directional treadmill: a locomotion device for virtual worlds. (
  • Nagamori A, Wakabayashi K, Ito M (2005) The ball array treadmill: a locomotion interface for virtual world. (
  • Here we record the oscillatory activity during treadmill locomotion in MLR sites effective for inducing locomotion with electrical stimulation in rats. (
  • Increased knowledge of locomotion kinematics, kinetics, muscular activity patterns, and sensory feedback modulation may help to facilitate more effective exercise countermeasures, develop innovative technologies for gait rehabilitation, and provide new insights into our understanding of the physiological effects of gravity. (
  • The institute SR aims at using the results from MASCOT to improve methods of locomotion on small bodies like asteroids. (
  • This multi-functionality of the gecko adhesive system permits effective locomotion on both uphill and downhill slopes," said Timothy Higham , an assistant professor of biology, in whose lab the research was done. (
  • A locomotion interface is a device that creates an artificial sensation of physical walking. (
  • the other contained a horizontal ladder ( Fig. 1 A ). In this paper, walking on the flat surface will be referred to as simple locomotion and on the crosspieces of the ladder as complex locomotion. (
  • Chance SS, Gaunet F, Beall AC, Loomis JM (1998) Locomotion mode affects the updating of objects encountered during travel: the contribution of vestibular and proprioceptive inputs to path integration. (
  • Christensen R, Hollerbach JM, Xu Y, Meek S (1998) Inertial force feedback for a locomotion interface. (
  • Herbivores, with roughage diets and bulky abdominal viscera, have relatively limited trunk flexion, but their limbs are freed to be devoted entirely to locomotion. (
  • Hindlimbs (pelvic limbs) are the 'motors' of locomotion. (
  • There are a handful of cases where thumbstick locomotion works well ( Onward , Arizona Sunshine , and Resident Evil VII come to mind) but you usually move slowly in those games. (
  • Most studies of animal locomotion have been on level terrain. (
  • All of these are different modes of animal locomotion. (
  • The papers presented at the workshop, and the contributions to the present volume, can be roughly divided into those pertaining to swimming on the scale of marine organisms, swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds numbers, animal flight, and sliding and other related examples of locomotion. (
  • Although much research in the past has focused on adhesion, the evolution of friction-enhancing structures in animals and the functional integration of this trait with other morphological features may provide great new insights into the way we think about whole-animal performance and locomotion in general. (
  • Muybridge's animal locomotion studies were a great success and he traveled around showing the horse and other creatures in motion through his "zoopaxiscope" that brought the series of frozen images to life in a sort of early stop motion movie projector. (
  • Many gastropods, such as snails and slugs, crawl using adhesive locomotion, a technique that allows the organisms to climb walls and walk across ceilings. (
  • The primary application of the present research is to enable a mechanical crawler to climb walls and walk across ceilings using adhesive locomotion. (
  • Adhesive locomotion of a mechanical crawler is modeled in order to find the criteria for an optimal slime simulant. (
  • Jim Brown, animator at Pixar Animation Studios, explores how character and anatomy affect locomotion. (
  • Turner R.E.L. (1997) Phase Setting and Locomotion. (
  • The Fourth International Conference on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST IV) was held 9 to 13 January 1997 in Cuernavaca, Mexico. (
  • They also developed a computer model that allowed them to calculate the physical forces acting on Orobates during different kinds of locomotion. (
  • Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. (
  • It describes on the one hand how the fundamental properties of muscle tissue affect the mechanics of locomotion, and on the other, how the mechanics of locomotion modify the mechanism of muscle operation under different conditions. (
  • The evolution of advanced locomotion on land-that is, locomotion that is more erect, balanced and mechanically power-saving than is assumed of anamniote early tetrapods-has previously been linked to the terrestrialization and diversification of amniote lineages 7 . (
  • Stocker, R. "Reverse and Flick: Hybrid Locomotion in Bacteria. (
  • Controlled locomotion was best achieved at 10-20 Hz frequencies of MLR stimulation. (
  • Locomotion gaits for the three configurations are defined and created using Phase Automata, a generalization of gait tables. (
  • However, these muscles do influence our ability to produce forward propulsion from one stride into the next, highlighting their role in bipedal locomotion. (
  • Human feet have evolved to facilitate bipedal locomotion, losing an opposable digit that grasped branches in favor of a longitudinal arch (LA) that stiffens the foot and aids bipedal gait. (
  • The article focuses on the use of locomotion scoring in the U.S. which Mike Hutjens, extension dairy nutritionist at the University of Illinois, regard it as an efficient way of managing lameness in cows. (
  • They can learn muscle-actuated locomotion and are able to acquire some astonishing motor skills guided by sensory perception. (
  • Locomotion on land raises different problems than that on water, with reduced friction being replaced by the effects of gravity. (
  • Spaceflights are the more direct way to assess the effect of gravity on locomotion, but studying locomotion in actual hypogravity is demanding and expensive [ 6 ]. (
  • The Extract Locomotion CHOP removes the root translation and orientation from an animation clip, and places it in a separate set of channels. (
  • With Sprint Vector, we've taken one of the biggest challenges in VR right now-realistic motion-and created a smooth, intelligent locomotion system that not only feels comfortable but can also read the player's intentions. (
  • We've never tried ArmSwinger locomotion to travel at the speeds you'll reach in Spring Vector , though. (
  • Optional name of a transform in the hierarchy, which is used to extract an overall rotation using the vector from the Locomotion Node to this transform. (
  • These cytoplasmic IFs regulate cell locomotion by modulating the localisation and activity of signalling molecules and influencing the stability of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion complexes. (
  • Findings made specifically using Drosophila (fruit fly) models and preparations have contributed to further understanding of the key role of genes in locomotion. (
  • Understanding locomotion characteristics is critical for those working in the area of gait biomechanics and neurophysiology of pattern generation networks and of exercise countermeasures for astronauts. (
  • Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that is associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. (
  • Because the gravitational forces on asteroids like Ryugu are very small, locomotion methods based on traction are not useful. (
  • In this form of locomotion, the environment provides the transportation. (
  • f, Mean transient DF/F (mean of significant transients, excluding baseline periods) during locomotion and rest on days 1 and 2 for the axon shown in a-d. g, Histograms of calcium transient duration times across all putative single axons imaged in dorsal striatum from SNc (n = 3556 transients, 5 mice top) and VTA (n = 5140 transients, 5 mice bottom). (