Focal InfectionFocal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Uterine Cervical Erosion: Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathy: A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia: Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Lymphoma, Primary Effusion: A rare neoplasm of large B-cells usually presenting as serious effusions without detectable tumor masses. The most common sites of involvement are the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. It is associated with HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 8, most often occurring in the setting of immunodeficiency.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Herpesvirus 7, Human: A species in the genus ROSEOLOVIRUS, of the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It was isolated from activated, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes taken from the blood of a healthy human.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
... papules and pustules related to local infection, and focal edema. In Blum & Ritter's study in West Germany (1990), they found ... This damage along with poor hygiene predisposes the area to local infection, and such infection can progress to scarring and ... Acne-like lesions and cysts may form at the site due to foreign body reactions, and infections may also occur due to poor ... Infections should be treated conservatively, and causative species should be identified through smear and culture for ...
... infection (fever, fatigue etc.) and focal neurologic brain tissue damage (hemiparesis, aphasia etc.). The most frequent ... Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local ... ear infection, dental abscess, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, ... The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical procedures. Brain abscess is ...
This was called the "focal infection theory", and it led some dentists to advocate dental extraction. In the 1930s, this theory ... bacteria from teeth which had necrotic pulps or which had received endodontic treatment could cause chronic or local infection ... Usually, some inflammation and/or infection is already present within or below the tooth. To cure the infection and save the ... There are risks to conducting no treatment such as pain, infection and the possibility of worsening dental infection such that ...
It usually develops from a perineal or genitourinary infection, but can arise following local trauma with secondary infection ... 7]. However focal hypoechoic lesions can occur, hemorrhage and necrosis are rare. At times, the sonographic appearance of ... The infection usually begins in the epididymal tail and spreads to the epididymal body and head. Approximately 20% to 40 % of ... At the initial stage of infection, the epididymis alone is involved. However if appropriate antituberculous treatment is not ...
... categorized the phenomena as progressive invasion of local tissues, and distinguished that from focal infection theory-which ... a focal infection is a localized infection, often asymptomatic, that causes disease elsewhere in the host, but focal infections ... Drawing influence from the medical popularity of focal infection theory, Cotton identified focal infections as the main causes ... "dental focal infection theory never died". In fact, severe endodontic disease resembles classic focal infection theory. In 1986 ...
Infection of macrophages in joints is associated with local inflammation during and after the acute phase of Chikungunya ( ... Focal recruitment of macrophages occurs after the onset of acute myocardial infarction. These macrophages function to remove ... Macrophages are better able to resist infection by HIV-1 than CD4+ T cells, although susceptibility to HIV infection differs ... Macrophages also play a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Like T cells, macrophages can be infected with ...
Experimentally, local anaesthetic injections and tying of the arteries is reported to trigger the development of tissue changes ... If the lesion is NS, there will be focal to absent immunoreactivity for p53, low immunoreactivity for MIB1 (Ki-67), and the ... Pressure from a dental prosthesis Allergy Bulimia Infection Ionizing radiation Differentiation between this and SCC would be ... Trauma e.g. during intubation, or surgical procedures Local anesthetic injection Smoking Alcohol Diabetes mellitus Vascular ...
In addition, needle sticks with concentrated virus or scratches from infected animals may result in local infection of the skin ... Encephalitis (alteration of mental status and focal neurologic deficits), myelitis (upper- and lower-motor neuron dysfunction, ... Human cowpox is a relatively severe localized infection. A survey of 54 cases reported three cases of generalized infection, ... Lesions alone are not diagnostic for Orthopoxvirus infection and may be mistaken for zoonotic Parapoxvirus infections or ...
The case of Kinley Galbreath at Children's of Alabama brought a call for donations by the local FOX affiliate after the girl, 5 ... The CDC MMWR report advised, "To prevent infections in general, persons should stay home if they are ill, wash their hands ... Common features included acute focal limb weakness and specific findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord ... We are working with healthcare professionals and state and local officials to investigate all of these cases. We are also in ...
In adults, infection is asymptomatic, which means that the patient is a carrier of the infection, but experiences no symptoms ... focal neurologic findings, like focal motor abnormalities and paralysis, irregular and abnormal reflexes develop in 20% of ... After the virus enters the body via a mosquito bite, the virus undergoes local replication at the skin site where virus entered ... Outdoor activities, especially in woodland areas, are associated with an increased risk of infection. Initial infection by the ...
Rarely, Frey's syndrome can result from causes other than surgery, including accidental trauma, local infections, sympathetic ... The symptoms of Frey's syndrome are redness and sweating on the cheek area adjacent to the ear (see focal hyperhidrosis). They ... An example of such, rare trauma or localized infection; can be seen in situations where a hair follicle has become ingrown and ... is causing trauma or localized infection near or over one of the branches of the auriculotemporal nerve. Diagnosis is made ...
Local intradermal injection of BTX-A is helpful in chronic focal painful neuropathies. The analgesic effects are not dependent ... Complications such as serious infection (meningitis), urinary retention, hormonal disturbance and intrathecal granuloma ... Opioids alone or opioids with adjunctive medication (either a local anesthetic or clonidine) or more recently ziconotide are ... In some forms of neuropathy, especially post-herpetic neuralgia, the topical application of local anesthetics such as lidocaine ...
Secondary events such as dental infection, injection of local anaesthetics with vasoconstrictors, such as epinephrine, and ... but closer inspection demonstrates focal loss of osteocytes and variable micro cracking (splitting along natural cleavage ... Fungal infections in the involved bone do not seem to be a problem, but viral infections have not been studied. Some viruses, ... So while ONJ is not primarily an infection, many cases have a secondary, very low-level of bacterial infection and chronic non- ...
... can be treated with local cryotherapy when the hookworm is still in the skin.[29] ... duodenale is found in more scattered focal environments, namely Europe and the Mediterranean. Most infected individuals are ... Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm.[1][5] Initially, itching and a rash ... Malaria co-infectionEdit. Co-infection with hookworm and Plasmodium falciparum is common in Africa.[52] Although exact numbers ...
Dentistry portal Barodontalgia Focal infection Intraoral dental sinus Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L ... although commonly the latter term is applied to an infection which has spread outside the local region around the causative ... Internal drainage is of more concern as growing infection makes space within the tissues surrounding the infection. Severe ... Also infection can spread down the tissue spaces to the mediastinum which has significant consequences on the vital organs such ...
... infection in the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Acute infection of postnatal pigs, ... Only focal accumulations of lymphocytes were seen in uteruses of gilts that were seropositive when their fetuses were infected ... The zona pellucida could protect the early embryo while local immunity is developing. Conversely, the virus may cause uterine ... During acute infection the virus is shed by various routes, including semen, and the isolation of PPV from semen of naturally ...
parasitic infections such as cerebral malaria infection, such as encephalitis or meningitis Stress can induce seizures in ... Focal seizure may become generalized. Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle ... Common drugs involved include: antidepressants, antipsychotics, cocaine, insulin, and the local anaesthetic lidocaine. ... Infection with the pork tapeworm, which can cause neurocysticercosis, is the cause of up to half of epilepsy cases in areas of ...
Similarly, the local policy for performing kidney biopsy assumes a critical role; if it is a policy to simply observe patients ... In children and younger adults, the history and association with respiratory infection can raise the suspicion of IgA ... Histologically, IgA nephropathy may show mesangial widening and focal and segmental inflammation. Diffuse mesangial ... after initial infection. With both aggressive and non-aggressive Berger's disease Loin pain can also occur. The gross hematuria ...
Infection from surgery was reduced by the introduction of sterile techniques and disinfectants. The invention and use of ... With the help of two friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he also convinced the locals to support the patients and invite them to ... and focal cryo-treatment of tissue Calf Augmentation: done by silicone implants or fat transfer to add bulk to calf muscles ... Plastic surgeons use microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Free flaps of ...
Infection from surgery was reduced by the introduction of sterile techniques and disinfectants. The invention and use of ... With the help of two friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he also convinced the locals to support the patients and invite them to ... and focal cryo-treatment of tissue ... infection and disease; and cancer or tumors. Reconstructive ... Plastic surgeons use microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Free flaps of ...
Named after him is Neumann's Method which is a manner to apply local anaesthesia of the middle ear and the mastoid process by a ... This offer - and the Conference delegates' refusal to accept it - is the focal point of Hans Habe's novel The Mission (1965). ... on the clinics and pathology of intracranial complications of infections of the middle ear, equilibrium, and otosclerosis. ...
... of the total new HIV infections.Available data indicate that there was a sharp increase in the number of new infections ... The group was requested to act as a focal point of HIV in the parliament. Health in Nepal Beine, David. 2003. Ensnared by AIDS ... a local NGO. At this meeting Rabindra Prasad Adhikari acknowledged that an effective response to HIV has to be a joint response ... Preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV infection among at-risk groups; Ensuring universal ...
Local anesthesia is not required, but treatment of the entire lip can be quite painful. Cure rates in excess of 96% have been ... Secondary infection and scarring can occur with laser ablation. In most cases, the scar is minimal, and responds well to ... Cryosurgery is the treatment of choice for focal areas of actinic cheilitis. Electrosurgery is an alternate treatment, but ... local anesthesia is required, making it less practical than cryosurgery. With both techniques, adjacent tissue damage can delay ...
The most common form of the disease in adults is caused by injury exposing the bone to local infection. Staphylococcus aureus ... Non-suppurative osteomyelitis Diffuse sclerosing Focal sclerosing (condensing osteitis) Proliferative periostitis (periostitis ... Mixed infections are the rule rather than the exception. Systemic mycotic (fungal) infections may also cause osteomyelitis. The ... The cause is usually a bacterial infection and rarely a fungal infection. It may occur via spread from the blood or from ...
Central nervous system infection may lead to hydrocephalus, seizures and focal neurological deficit. Soil debris associated ... "Cryptococcus gattii VGIII Isolates Causing Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Southern California: Identification of the Local ... For people who have severe lung infections, or infections in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), the treatment ... For people who have asymptomatic infections or mild-to-moderate pulmonary infections, the treatment is usually fluconazole. ...
Weston Andrew Valleau Price (September 6, 1870 - January 23, 1948) was a dentist known primarily for his theories on the relationship between nutrition, dental health, and physical health. He founded the research institute National Dental Association, which became the research section of the American Dental Association, and was the NDA's chairman from 1914 to 1928. Price initially did dental research on the relationship between endodontic therapy and pulpless teeth and broader systemic disease, known as focal infection theory, a theory which resulted in many extractions of tonsils and teeth. Focal infection theory fell out of favor in the 1930s and was pushed to the margins of dentistry by the 1950s. By 1930, Price had shifted his interest to nutrition. In 1939, he published Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, detailing his global travels studying the diets and nutrition of various cultures. The book ...
In the mid-19th century, "the hospital was suggested ... by Elisha Goodnow, who, by his will, dated July 12, 1849, gave property to the city valued at $25,000, for establishment of a free city hospital in Wards Eleven or Twelve."[1] Architect Gridley James Fox Bryant designed the first hospital, built 1861-1864 on Harrison Avenue in the South End. It was renovated in 1875 and again in 1891-1892.[3] As of 1905, the hospital consisted of "[1] the hospital proper, on the area bounded by Harrison Avenue, East Concord Street, Albany Street and Massachusetts Avenue, containing 430,968 square feet, or 9.9 acres; [2] the South Department, 745 Massachusetts Avenue, containing 125,736 square feet, or 2.9 acres; [3] the ambulance station, boiler and dynamo house, coal-pocket and wharf, Albany street, containing 69,785 square feet, or 1.6 acres; [4] the convalescent home, Dorchester Avenue, Dorchester, containing 610,500 square feet, or 14 acres; and [5] the relief station, Haymarket Square, 8,507 square ...
Penicillin V is sometimes used in the treatment of odontogenic infections.. It is less active than benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) against Gram-negative bacteria.[9][10] Phenoxymethylpenicillin has a range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria that is similar to that of benzylpenicillin and a similar mode of action, but it is substantially less active than benzylpenicillin against Gram-negative bacteria.[9][10]. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is more acid-stable than benzylpenicillin, which allows it to be given orally.. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is usually used only for the treatment of mild to moderate infections, and not for severe or deep-seated infections since absorption can be unpredictable. Except for the treatment or prevention of infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (which is uniformly sensitive to penicillin), therapy should be guided by bacteriological ...
Weston Andrew Valleau Price (September 6, 1870 - January 23, 1948) was a dentist known primarily for his theories on the relationship between nutrition, dental health, and physical health. He founded the research institute National Dental Association, which became the research section of the American Dental Association, and was the NDA's chairman from 1914 to 1928. Price initially did dental research on the relationship between endodontic therapy and pulpless teeth and broader systemic disease, known as focal infection theory, a theory which resulted in many extractions of tonsils and teeth. Focal infection theory fell out of favor in the 1930s and was pushed to the margins of dentistry by the 1950s. By 1930, Price had shifted his interest to nutrition. In 1939, he published Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, detailing his global travels studying the diets and nutrition of various cultures. The book ...
... (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy electrons (emitted by the Auger effect) to damage cancer cells, rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy. Similar to other forms of radiation therapy, Auger therapy relies on radiation-induced damage to cancer cells (particularly DNA damage) to arrest cell division, stop tumor growth and metastasis and kill cancerous cells. It differs from other types of radiation therapy in that electrons emitted via the Auger effect (Auger electrons) are released in large numbers with low kinetic energy. Because of their low energy, these electrons damage cells over a very short range: less than the size of a single cell, on the order of nanometers. This very short-range delivery of energy permits highly targeted therapies, since the radiation-emitting nuclide is required to be inside the cell to cause damage to its nucleus. However, this is a technical ...
... is a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as acute bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare condition that usually presents with an intermittent UTI-type picture. It is defined as recurrent urinary tract infections in men originating from a chronic infection in the prostate. Symptoms may be completely absent until there is also bladder infection, and the most troublesome problem is usually recurrent cystitis. Chronic bacterial prostatitis occurs in less than 5% of patients with prostate-related non-BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Dr. Weidner, Professor of Medicine, Department of Urology, University of Gießen, has stated: "In studies of 656 men, we seldom found chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is truly a rare disease. ...
... (SBP) is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum causing peritonitis, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection. It occurs almost exclusively in people with portal hypertension (increased pressure over the portal vein), usually as a result of cirrhosis of the liver. It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis (aspiration of fluid with a needle) from the abdominal cavity. If the fluid contains bacteria or large numbers of neutrophil granulocytes (>250 cells/µL) (a type of white blood cells), infection is confirmed and antibiotics are required to avoid complications. In addition to antibiotics, infusions of albumin are usually administered. Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, and general malaise. Affected individuals may complain of ...
... has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by interfering with their ability to form cell walls, so the bacteria break up and die. Imipenem is rapidly degraded by the renal enzyme dehydropeptidase if administered alone (making it less effective); the metabolites can cause kidney damage.[11] Imipenem is a broad-spectrum betalactam antibiotic used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I, it is given in combination with cilastatin, a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. Imipenem/cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell wall integrity and synthesis. It has activity against many aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. ...
... or Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-2 (LAD2) is a type of leukocyte adhesion deficiency attributable to the absence of neutrophil sialyl-LewisX, a ligand of P- and E-selectin on vascular endothelium. It is associated with SLC35C1. This disorder was discovered in two unrelated Israeli boys 3 and 5 years of age, each the offspring of consanguineous parents. Both had severe mental retardation, short stature, a distinctive facial appearance, and the Bombay (hh) blood phenotype, and both were secretor- and Lewis-negative. They both had had recurrent severe bacterial infections similar to those seen in patients with LAD1, including pneumonia, peridontitis, otitis media, and localized cellulitis. Similar to that in patients with LAD1, their infections were accompanied by pronounced leukocytosis (30,000 to 150,000/mm3) but an absence of pus formation at sites of recurrent cellulitis. In vitro studies revealed a pronounced defect ...
... is a serious bacterial infection of the prostate gland. This infection is a medical emergency. It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Men with acute prostatitis often have chills, fever, pain in the lower back, perineum, or genital area, urinary frequency and urgency often at night, burning or painful urination, body aches, and a demonstrable infection of the urinary tract, as evidenced by white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. Acute prostatitis may be a complication of prostate biopsy. Often, the prostate gland is very tender to palpation through the rectum. Acute prostatitis is relatively easy to diagnose due to its symptoms that suggest infection. The organism may be found in blood or urine, and sometimes in both. Common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, ...
... refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E. coli. It is important to recognize that this class is defined morphologically (by the presence of a bacterial outer membrane), and not histologically (by a pink appearance when stained), though the two usually coincide. One reason for this division is that the outer membrane is of major clinical significance: it can play a role in the reduced effectiveness of certain antibiotics, and it is the source of endotoxin. The gram status of some organisms is complex or disputed: Mycoplasma are sometimes considered gram-negative, but because of its lack of a cell wall and unusual membrane composition, it is sometimes considered separately from other gram-negative bacteria. Gardnerella is often considered gram-negative, but it is classified in MeSH as both gram-positive and gram-negative. It has some traits of gram-positive bacteria, but has a gram-negative appearance. It has been described as a ...
A superinfection is a second infection superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment being used against the first infection. Examples of this in bacteriology are the overgrowth of endogenous Clostridium difficile which occurs following treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and pneumonia or septicemia from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some immuno-compromised patients. In virology, the definition is slightly different. Superinfection is the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time. Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original ...
... (Absonal) is an antiseptic/disinfectant. Weibel, MA; Cortat M; Lebek G; LeCotonnec JY; Kitler ME; Barcherini G (1 April 1987). "An approach of the in vivo antibacterial activity of benzoxonium chloride and comparison with other buccopharyngeal disinfectants". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 37 (4): 467-71. PMID 3606702 ...
... which cause a local infection in the gut. Although designed to mimic wild-type rotavirus infection, the reassortant vaccine ... Historically, in 2% to 12% of intussusception cases a focal lead point, such as a Meckels diverticulum, can be identified.9 ... In contrast, wild-type rotavirus infection most commonly affects older infants and children (ages 4-23 months).18,,19 It is ... 1998) Lack of apparent association between intussusception and wild or vaccine rotavirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17:924 ...
... focal; 2, intermediate; and 3, diffuse) for a total maximum score of 24. (C) H&E stain of ear tissue 24 h postchallenge, the ... Ten Weeks of Infection with a Tissue-Invasive Helminth Protects against Local Immune Complex-Mediated Inflammation, but Not ... Ten Weeks of Infection with a Tissue-Invasive Helminth Protects against Local Immune Complex-Mediated Inflammation, but Not ... Ten Weeks of Infection with a Tissue-Invasive Helminth Protects against Local Immune Complex-Mediated Inflammation, but Not ...
systemic or local infection of the spine (osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis). *suspected alternative underlying disease ( ... focal tenderness on VCF level. Exclusion Criteria:. *severe cardio-pulmonary condition. *untreatable coagulopathy ... Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... Subsidence of the affected vertebral bodies and local kyphosis [ Time Frame: 12 ]. X-ray images of the entire spine, lateral ...
systemic or local infection of the spine (osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis). *suspected alternative underlying disease ( ... focal tenderness on VCF level. Exclusion Criteria:. *severe cardio-pulmonary condition. *untreatable coagulopathy ... Subsidence of the affected vertebral bodies and local kyphosis [ Time Frame: 12 ]. X-ray images of the entire spine, lateral ...
when a local infection spreads to another site in the body. focal infection. ... infection where pathogens are limited to a small area of the body (boils, abscenses). local infection ... an infection throughout the body (HIV, measles) systemic infection. ... wounds can become infected with skin flora and it is important to be able to distinguish between organisms causing infection ...
Local infection (in the area where an LP would be performed) *The febrile child with purpura where meningococcal infection is ... CT Scans if focal neurological signs *CT Scans are not helpful in most children with meningitis. ... All children should have some form of local anaesthetic for lumbar puncture. *Use topical anaesthetic cream (AnGEL) except ...
What is Adenovirus infection? Meaning of Adenovirus infection medical term. What does Adenovirus infection mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adenovirus infection in the Medical Dictionary? Adenovirus infection explanation free. ... inapparent infection. An infection that is asymptomatic or is not detected. local infection. An infection that has not spread ... focal infection. Infection occurring near a focus, such as the cavity of a tooth. ...
... circumflexum infection risk (local infection risk × host age, p = 0.033, ΔAIC =+2.55). The frequency of supertype 6 increased ... of the focal individuals nest-box. The analysis was carried out using GIS software (MapInfo Professional v. 7.8, Stamford, CT ... relictum infection increased significantly with age and local infection risk, but did not vary between the sexes or the year of ... infection status and local risk of P. circumflexum infection) and their interaction. Third, we assessed whether the frequency ...
Superficial local mucosal infection, capable of focal invasion and dissemination. Seen most frequently in association with ... local and systemic immunological suppression. Clinical appearance is important for diagnosis. ... An oral infection, resulting from yeasts of the genus , mostly . ... Superficial local mucosal infection, capable of focal invasion ... they are capable of local infection of mucous membranes (oropharyngeal candidiasis, oesophagitis, vulvovaginitis), focal ...
... focal infection explanation free. What is focal infection? Meaning of focal infection medical term. What does focal infection ... Looking for online definition of focal infection in the Medical Dictionary? ... primary infection, mixed infection, Secondary infection. fo·cal in·fec·tion. an old term that distinguishes local infections ( ... focal) from generalized infections (sepsis).. focal infection. n.. A bacterial infection localized in a specific part of the ...
Exclusion criteria were severe cardiopulmonary morbidity, untreatable coagulopathy, systemic or local spine infection, ... Inclusion criteria were age 50 years or more, 1-3 vertebral compression fractures, T5-L5 focal back pain at the level of ... Periosteal infiltration using local anaesthetic might have a treatment effect and this could perhaps partially explain the ... All participants received local infiltration with 1% lidocaine (lignocaine) into each pedicle followed by 0.25% bupivacaine. ...
Since the first local infection was reported in 1997, HFRS cases have occurred in all 18 districts of Beijing, with a fairly ... The dynamic change in spatial distribution confirmed the focal nature of the rodent-borne disease. The seasonality is one of ... Various rodent species are natural hosts and serve as sources of infection (1). Humans usually acquire hantavirus infection by ... Although HFRS infection has long been recognized in many places throughout mainland China, HFRS was first reported in ...
... and cohort dengue cases indicated focal transmission and infection outside the local area. We demonstrate the feasibility of ... Five (42%) post-enrollment infections were asymptomatic, and DENV-2 was identified in 9 (75%) infections. Phylogenetic analysis ... Post-enrollment and pre-enrollment DENV infections were confirmed in 12 (2.7%) and 19 (4.3%) contacts, respectively. ... thus limiting our understanding of immunologic and viral factors that modulate infection outcome. In the 2006 and 2007 dengue ...
Consider local endemic infections *Look for focal organ involvement that can provide clues to the diagnosis ... Evaluation of localised adenopathy not due to a local draining infection (pharynx, skin, limb), STI, or obvious KS ... Genotyping shows the infections are new, and not recrudescence of previous infection ... Progression of focal neurologic findings over days to weeks suggestive *Clinical response to empiric therapy is usually evident ...
For focal or early stage KS, HIV-infected adults have been effectively treated with ART alone.59 Local intralesional ... Human herpesvirus 8 infection in children and adults in a population-based study in rural Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(5):625 ... Primary infection with HHV-8 in young, immunocompetent children may be asymptomatic or may present as a self-limited ... Human herpesvirus 8 infection among adolescents in the REACH cohort. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(9):937-942. Available ...
... papules and pustules related to local infection, and focal edema. In Blum & Ritters study in West Germany (1990), they found ... This damage along with poor hygiene predisposes the area to local infection, and such infection can progress to scarring and ... Acne-like lesions and cysts may form at the site due to foreign body reactions, and infections may also occur due to poor ... Infections should be treated conservatively, and causative species should be identified through smear and culture for ...
local vasculitis-cranial nerve palsies or other focal lesions. local cerebral infarct-may cause seizures, may lead to epilepsy ... local infection at LP site. coagulopathy. thrombocytopenia-PLT must be at least 100. CR instability, pt intubated, shock. signs ... red-non-blanching rash, bulging fontanelle, focal neurological signs, neck stiffness, focal seizures, status epilepticus, temp ... prolonger fever-more than 1wk in young children an 2-3wks in adolescent, with no apparent infection site ...
Spinal epidural abscesses can originate from bloodstream infections, local spread from another infection (e.g., psoas muscle ... if a patient presents with back pain and fever or with focal neurological findings or with local severe point tenderness of the ... Certainly, a focal neurologic finding (e.g., left leg weakness on examination) may be evidence of a SEA or other serious ... Local point percussion tenderness might raise the initial suspicion. A severe, circumscribed tenderness is a frequent early ...
Occasionally, a pregnant woman can pass the infection to her unborn baby (T. b. gambiense). In theory, the infection can also ... Cattle have been implicated in the spread of the disease to new areas and in local outbreaks. A wild animal reservoir is ... T. b. rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness) is found in focal areas of eastern and southeastern Africa. Since 2015, less ... Infection of international travelers is rare, but it occasionally occurs and most cases of sleeping sickness imported into the ...
This was called the "focal infection theory", and it led some dentists to advocate dental extraction. In the 1930s, this theory ... bacteria from teeth which had necrotic pulps or which had received endodontic treatment could cause chronic or local infection ... Usually, some inflammation and/or infection is already present within or below the tooth. To cure the infection and save the ... There are risks to conducting no treatment such as pain, infection and the possibility of worsening dental infection such that ...
3. Recognize systemic and local signs that suggest a necrotizing SSTI. 4. Diagnose an infection associated with a cardiac ... 1. Prescribe effective antibiotic therapy for superficial focal, superficial spreading, and deep necrotizing SSTIs. 2. ... The goal of this program is to improve the management of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and infections associated with ... Skin and Soft Tissue Infections/Infections Associated with Devices. ...
... beta-lactam antibiotics are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections without focal ... When antimicrobials are indicated, choice of agents depends on local resistance and susceptibility patterns. In settings where ... Evidence of systemic infection, such as fever, tachycardia, and hypotension, is an indication for inpatient management. Urgent ... Standard infection-control precautions, including proper and frequent handwashing, are a mainstay of MRSA prevention. ...
WHO has also supported NPHCDA in setting up virtual trainings on infection prevention control measures for local health care ... WHO Nigeria focal point for Routine Immunization. ... as well as fear of COVID-19 infection and transport issues ... of low turnout from both health workers and caregivers who were scared to come to health facilities for fear of infection," she ... African countries to take innovate approaches to maintain routine immunization services and to implement strong infection ...
... all of this is really dealing with the theory of local infection. Focal infection means that you can have an infection ... Meinig: Well, the reason that this is a focal infection is because the infection came from the tooth and traveled from the ... And when he heard about all of this focal infection work by Billings he realized that maybe this root fill that he did that ... Laura Lee: So whats the theory with the focal infection? Why is it theres the connection with the infected tooth and that ...
... the National IHR Focal Point of Chile notified PAHO/WHO of a confirmed case of sexual transmission of Zika virus; this is the ... As most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic:. *Men and women living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known ... Infection by Zika virus was confirmed for both cases IgM and IgG positive for Zika virus (Person A) and IgM and IgG positive ... Sporadic cases of infection acquired following sexual activity have already been reported in the past. These cases of sexual ...
  • Although Candida are considered normal flora in GI and GU tracts in humans, they are capable of local infection of mucous membranes (oropharyngeal candidiasis, oesophagitis, vulvovaginitis), focal invasion (endophthalmitis, meningitis, endocarditis), and dissemination (candidaemia). (bmj.com)
  • prophylaxis with rifampicin to eradicate NP carriage given to all household contacts for meningococcal meningitis and H.influenzae infection. (brainscape.com)
  • meningitis related to histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis, fungal infections. (coursera.org)
  • Organisms that are most frequently associated with brain abscess in patients with AIDS are poliovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, though in infection with the latter organism, symptoms of meningitis generally predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meningitis is an inflammatory response to infections of the meninges and CSF,caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms such as protozoa and rickettsia. (authorstream.com)
  • However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp -host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gritsenko and coworkers analyzed the charts of 474 patients who underwent removal of an infected hip or knee prosthesis under neuraxial anesthesia and found in 0.6% of the cases clinical signs of central neuraxial infections (meningitis or epidural abscess) and three other anesthesia-related complications, including a psoas abscess beside an epidural hematoma and back pain. (nysora.com)
  • In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections. (hindawi.com)
  • Although invasive infection (including shock, renal and liver involvement, and soft-tissue necrosis, but not meningitis) caused by Japanese strains of S. dysgalactiae has been reported , S. dysgalactiae usually carries a low pathogenic potential [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Infections may range from asymptomatic carriage to severe shock-like syndromes with or without meningitis. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Other forms include: occult bacteremia (typically in the setting of an upper respiratory infection), meningitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, pericarditis, endopthalmitis and chronic meningococcemia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In other CNS infections, including cerebral malaria, high opening pressures are often found, but herniation is rare. (bmj.com)
  • Two weeks after periodontitis initiation, focal cerebral ischemia was produced by reversible occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Relevant literature regarding cerebral herniation and lumbar puncture are appraised with the aim to formulate a rational approach in the management of children with suspected CNS infection. (hkjpaed.org)
  • 5) What is the risk of cerebral herniation in CNS infection and its relationship to lumbar puncture? (hkjpaed.org)
  • Adapted from national association for % of cases, an upper respiratory tract infections (utis) are common in the. (wellchild.org)
  • Other signs and symptoms include scale buildup, cyst and scar formation, papules and pustules related to local infection, and focal edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a follow-up from 4 to 36 months(median time12 months), 3 patients developed fat deliquescence, 16 patients showed wound edema and excess fluid and no one had incision infection or hematoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One month after the operation, patient developed the following symptoms: swelling right knee, impaired mobility (range of knee flexion was 15), increase of local skin temperature, sinus formation at the incision, mild pitting edema on front skin of the upper right shank, no show of fever or chill, and decrease of the periprosthetic bone mineral density at the tibial plateau indicated by the X-ray. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In some instances an antibiotic can upset the normal flora of the body, thus compromising the body's natural resistance and making it more susceptible to a second infection ( superinfection ) by a microorganism resistant to the antibiotic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has been estimated that 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions are related with dental infections. (whatclinic.com)
  • Post-operative management of local infection after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty with antibiotic bone cement implanting: Nursing. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Revision operation (thorough debridement + removal of the prosthesis + antibiotic bone-cement implanting + local or systematical application of antibiotics + joint replacement) is the golden rule of treating joint infection. (alliedacademies.org)
  • After hospitalized, patient's erythrocyte sedimentation was 125 mm/h and C reactive protein 171.49 mg/L. Joint puncture, bacterial culture and drug-sensitivity test were performed before the surgery, and on Mach 29, 2015, focal debridement of the infected joint + removal of the prosthesis + antibiotic bone cement implanting + focal tube insertion occludes perfusion washing. (alliedacademies.org)
  • With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Symoxyl should be used in accordance with local official antibiotic prescribing guidelines and local susceptibility data. (pianolarge.ml)
  • The famous triad of fever, headache and focal neurologic findings are highly suggestive of brain abscess. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms are caused by a combination of increased intracranial pressure due to a space-occupying lesion (headache, vomiting, confusion, coma), infection (fever, fatigue etc.) and focal neurologic brain tissue damage (hemiparesis, aphasia etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Travelers who have fever or other symptoms compatible with Ebola are also promptly referred to CDC on-site for further evaluation and subsequently for medical evaluation and care at a local hospital if needed. (cdc.gov)
  • In the hands and fingers, as these infections in pfizer uk viagra term neonates, toddlers, and preschool age functional inflammatory/infective cause colic constipation gastroenteritis urinary tract infection is usually accompanied by urspr ngliche verwendung von viagra fever that may produce stridor. (org.sa)
  • Although a history of fever and a petechial rash should prompt early consideration of meningococcus as a cause, less than 15% of all children presenting with this combination are found to actually have N. meningitidis infection. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Systemic symptoms of infection (i.e., fever, shaking chills, palpitations, lightheadedness, mental status change) and no other identifiable cause may be present. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Systemic signs of infection, including tachycardia, fever, mental status change, and hypotension, may be present in any complicated UTI syndrome, but these findings are not specific to UTI. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Endodontic therapy, also known as endodontic treatment or root canal therapy, is a treatment sequence for the infected pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and the protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex situation requires well-tailored therapeutic approaches that can effectively tackle immune cell invasion in the brain but avoid increasing poststroke infections. (hindawi.com)
  • 2) Science: (microbiology) invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be clinically unapparent or result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen antibody response ( immune response ). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Standard infection-control precautions, including proper and frequent handwashing, are a mainstay of MRSA prevention. (aafp.org)
  • During World Vaccination Week at the end of April, Dr Matshidiso Moeti, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Director for Africa, reiterated the importance of continuing to "protect communities from vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks during this unprecedented time," urging African countries to take innovate approaches to maintain routine immunization services and to implement strong infection prevention control practices in all health facilities. (who.int)
  • Because of the difficulty in treating many of these infections, attempts at reversing the immunologic deficit and strategies for infection prevention are of the utmost importance. (nih.gov)
  • n the prevention of excitation of the free nerve endings by literally flooding the immediate area with a local anesthetic solution. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • The exact mechanism by which HHV-8 infection leads to neoplastic disease has not been fully elucidated, but seroconversion to HHV-8 antibody positivity virtually always precedes development of the tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Imaging of the spine is an important aspect of the diagnosis and management of a patient with potential spinal infection. (appliedradiology.com)
  • MRI may be the imaging modality of choice for infections involving the spine, pelvis, or limbs because of its ability to provide fine details of the osseous changes and soft tissue extension in these areas. (medscape.com)
  • Periodontal diseases are silent infections that often go undiagnosed until irreparable damage occurs to the teeth and oral structures. (intechopen.com)
  • We further show that correctly interpreting these associations depends crucially on understanding the spatial variation in risk of infection and the fitness effects of infection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The risk of infection does not begin to increase until the neutrophil count decreases to levels below 1,000/mL of blood ( Fig. 157.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Now that several years have passed since the introduction of the WNv in North America, longitudinal data from testing of mosquitoes and host species (including records of human and equine illness) reported through systematic surveillance are available for development of models of the risk of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Population growth, widespread international travel and trade, political instability and climate change have caused rapid changes in human populations, wildlife and agriculture, in turn increasing the risk of infection transmission within and between countries and from animal species. (mja.com.au)
  • The orthopaedics department of the third affiliated hospital of Southern Medical University performed 75 UKA from January 2014 to January 2016, with only one infection case. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 2016. "Introduction of rubella-containing-vaccine to Madagascar: implications for roll-out and local elimination. (harvard.edu)
  • Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present analysis focused on the possibility that exposure to malaria infection may have limited the resolution of hepatosplenomegaly in a cohort of Kenyan schoolchildren. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The source of S. mansoni infection, a river, was molluscicided regularly over the following three years to limit S. mansoni re-infection, whereas malaria exposure was uninterrupted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regression of hepatomegaly was also affected by location, being minimal in an area with relatively low S. mansoni exposure but high exposure to malaria, and maximal in an area with relatively low exposure to both infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The outcome of treating cases of hepatosplenomegaly with praziquantel in this cohort of Kenyan children depended strongly on their level of exposure to malaria infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest that exposure to malaria infection may be a significant factor affecting the outcome of praziquantel treatment to reduce the level of hepatosplenic morbidity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatosplenomegaly is a widespread but neglected condition affecting many communities in sub-Saharan Africa where both Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are endemic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One prevailing suggestion has been that hepatosplenomegaly amongst younger children is attributable to malaria infection, whereas older children have acquired some level of immunity to malaria and hence if they do have hepatosplenomegaly it is likely to be attributable to schistosomiasis [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given that malaria and schistosome infections are often endemic in the same communities, and are both targets of large-scale but independent, intervention programmes, it is important to understand how continued exposure to one parasite may affect the outcome of intervention against the other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Sp ) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider. (cdc.gov)
  • A global spatial statistic was used to detect area-wide trends of clustering for human infection at the household level. (ajtmh.org)
  • Local spatial statistics were then applied to detect specific household clusters of infection, and, as a focal spatial statistic, to evaluate clustering of infection around a putative transmission site. (ajtmh.org)
  • Spatial patterns of human water contact and Schistosoma mansoni transmission and infection in four rural areas in Machakos District, Kenya. (ajtmh.org)
  • As countries plan RCV introductions, an understanding of the existing burden, spatial patterns of vaccine coverage, and the impact of patterns of local extinction and reintroduction for rubella will be critical to developing effective programmes. (harvard.edu)
  • We additionally evaluate the drivers of spatial heterogeneity in age of infection to identify focal locations where vaccine surveillance should be strengthened and where challenges to successful vaccination introduction are expected. (harvard.edu)
  • We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis with full-length DENV genomic sequence from contacts, index cases, and cohort dengue cases indicated focal transmission and infection outside the local area. (ajtmh.org)