Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Local Lymph Node Assay: The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.Mice, Inbred C57BLMepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.United StatesNerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mice, Inbred BALB CCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.EnglandCarticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.
The history of the institution can be traced to 6 August 1835 when civil engineers met in Dublin; the result was the Civil ... Local Government; Mechanical and Manufacturing; Structures and Construction. Societies: Academic Society; An Roth; Geotechnical ... Divisions: Agriculture and Food; Biomedical; Chemical and Process; Civil; Computing; Electrical and Electronic; Energy and ... and resulted in The Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland (Charter Amendment) Act, 1969 leading to the redesignation of the ...
"Local and General". The Star (2530). 3 May 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 5 February 2016. "Supreme Court". The Star (2593). 17 July ... "Civil Sittings". The Star (2597). 21 July 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 23 March 2010. "Supreme Court". The Star (2598). 22 July 1876. ...
"Local Rule 83.3 Admission to the Bar" (PDF). Local Civil and Criminal Rules. United States District Court for the Southern ... or associate with a local attorney, unless ordered to do so by the court. See Civil Rule 83.5(c) and Criminal Rule 57.5(c). ... Local Civil Rules. United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. August 31, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2011. ... The new attorney, although licensed to practice in any local trial court in the state, must separately seek admission to the ...
"The Civil War Battle of Okolona, Mississippi - Sesquicentennial - Photographs by Newt Rayburn - February 22, 2014". The Local ... Troy is also the site of a Civil War Union Cemetery containing several unmarked graves. John Longest settled in Troy as an ...
Civil Georgia. November 11, 2008. Use of Administrative Resources for Election Campaign. Local Elections 2010. 2nd Report. ... Agriculture Minister Replaced.Civil Georgia. October 20, 2011. President Appoints Two New Members of CEC. Civil Georgia. ... Prior to the May 2010 local election in Georgia, Gorozia became embroiled in controversy over reports of his involvement in ... Civil Georgia. July 19, 2005. Samegrelo, Shida Kartli Governors Testify Before War Commission. ...
There is a local tradition that Hylton Castle is haunted by the spirit of Robert Skelton, known as the Cauld (a pronunciation ... Meadows & Waterson, p.43 1841 England Census: Class: HO107; Piece 299; Book: 2; Civil Parish: Monkwearmouth; County: Durham; ... The site passed to a local coal company in the early 20th century and was taken over by the state in 1950. One of the castle's ... In 1950, due to local pressure and the threat of demolition, the castle and chapel were taken into the care of the Ministry of ...
"Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 28 August 2016. "Local ... The two local pubs are 'The Cock Inn' and 'The Rose & Crown'. There are two open churches, All Saints (Church of England), and ...
... is a village and civil parish in the Waveney district of Suffolk in eastern England. One of the Saints, ... "Waveney District Council download - Village and town profiles 2014 , Business , Planning , Local development framework". www. ... "Civil Parish population 2011". Retrieved 20 September 2015. Council, Waveney District. " ... "Waveney District Council download - Village and town profiles 2014 , Business , Planning , Local development framework". www. ...
There are four Local Resilience Forums (LRF) in Wales, based on the areas of the four Welsh Police Areas: Dyfed Powys Local ... Emergency planning in Wales is carried out in line with the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 however as a result of devolution it ... North Wales Local Resilience Forum (North Wales LRF or NWLRF) South Wales Local Resilience Forum (South Wales LRF or SWLRF) ... The Local Resilience Forums are responsible for assessing risks, planning responses, and recovery from a range of incidents ...
"Civil Parish population 2011". Retrieved 29 October 2015. "Much Cowarne Conservation Project". Local Heritage Initiative. ... The civil parish includes the hamlet of Hope's Rough. The Domesday Book form of the name, cuure, suggests a meaning cow house, ... Much Cowarne is a village and civil parish in the English county of Herefordshire, located off the A417 about 16 miles from ... It is currently involved in producing a collection of stories and pictures about the village as part of a Local Heritage ...
It is part of the civil parish of Kirmington and Croxton. From the 2011 census the village became a civil parish in its own ... "Kirmington Local History Pack". North Lincolnshire Council. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013 ... "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 19 April 2016. Historic ...
List of civil parishes in England "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 2008-04-26. "Civil Parish ... "Buildings of local importance". [permanent dead link] "The United churches". Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Census ... East Dean and Friston is a civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England.The two villages in the parish are in a ... The latter contains Tudor monuments to the local family Selwyn and the grave of the composer Frank Bridge (1879-1941) John Eric ...
"Wolvey History". Wolvey Local History Group. Retrieved 10 September 2010. Media related to Wolvey at Wikimedia Commons. ... "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 24 December 2015. "Wolvey ... Wolvey Local History Group Salzman, L F (ed) (1951)'Parishes: Wolvey', in Victoria County History,A History of the County of ... History". Wolvey Local History Group. Retrieved 4 November 2016. "Wolvey Hall, Wolvey". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 10 ...
The population of the civil parish as taken at the Census 2011 was 2,902. It has been in existence since at least the 11th ... "Local History". Retrieved 5 January 2013. "Ordnance Survey Open Viewer". Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. ... Osbaldwick is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of the City of York in North Yorkshire, England. ... "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 19 February 2016. Osbaldwick ...
Local Media Group. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Staff writer (4 November 2009). "ACLU calls on Pawtucket to ... American Civil Liberties Union. Minkin, Tracey (April 2010). "The SexEd warrior-queen". Rhode Island Monthly. Rhode Island ... Local Media Group. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Admin (February 2010). "Center for Sexual Pleasure and Health ... Local Media Group. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Hurley, Tara (1 December 2009). "Pawtucket doesn't want " ...
Civil Registration. GENUKI. Retrieved 21 September 2012. New Local Government Areas. United Kingdom Government Legislation. The ... In 1974, local districts were created to manage local government as the result of the Local Government Act 1972. Under The ... Local industry has also included farming and fishing, and more recently tourism. The St Agnes district has a heritage of ... St Agnes (Cornish: Breanek) is a civil parish and a large village on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village ...
... is a village and civil parish in North Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 2 miles (3 km) south-west from Brigg, and ... Scawby is home to local Quiz team "Dobbin" who defeated The Eggheads in 2011.[citation needed] "Parish web site". Scrawby ... "Scawby Local History Pack". North Lincolnshire Council. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Historic England. "Neolithic Axe (63330)". ... "Civil parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 19 April 2016. "Scawby Hall ...
The NABDP holds workshops trying community leaders on how to best address the local needs of the society. Providing weak local ... Currently the United States infrastructure is rated D or worse by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). This may be ... Boex, Jamie; Yilmaz Serdar (December 2010). "An Analytical Framework for Assessing Decentralized Local Governance and the local ... One of the most difficult problems with building capacity on a local level is the lack of higher education in developing ...
"Civil Parish details". "list of local placenames". "Ecclesiastical parish details". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011 ... "The Local". Award for Jacob who kept asthma mum calm. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2010. "The Local". Sun shines on ... "The Local". Ben determined to do his bit for the troops. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2010. "The Local". Pupils ... "The Local". Operation Christmas Child. 19 November 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2010. "The Local". Pupils share gifts with needy ...
English Local Government. pp. 157-159 Statute, 15 Car. II, c.1. Parliamentary Papers, 1840, Vol 256 xxvii. The Turnpike Trust ... Modern tarmac was patented by British civil engineer Edgar Purnell Hooley, who noticed that spilled tar on the roadway kept the ... Starting in the early 18th century, the British Parliament began to pass a series of acts that gave the local justices powers ... So, generally, major roads are concrete and local roads are asphalt. Concrete roads are often covered with a thin layer of ...
"Civil Parish population 2011". Retrieved 16 December 2015. "Smith's Wood". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 ... It is a civil parish with a population of 10,476, according to the 2011 census. The A452 and M6 form its north and east ... It was officially designated a Local Nature Reserve in 2004 and is going to be enhanced as part of the regeneration project ... "Map of Smith's Wood". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013. (Smith's ...
"2016 Manifesto Section 3. Local Power & Civil Liberties". Retrieved 28 August 2017. "2016 Manifesto Section 3. Local Power & ... It has also criticised the tax freeze imposed on local councils by the Scottish government, and stated that local councils ... The party calls for greater powers for local government, and has criticised the centralising nature of the Scottish Parliament ... Candidates of the party have since stood in the 2016 Scottish parliamentary elections and the 2017 Scottish local elections. ...
"Birth certificate of Onofre Copruz". Philippines Civil Registration (Local). Retrieved 21 January 2015. "Former Education ...
Beckley is a village and civil parish in the Rother district of East Sussex, England. It is located on the B2088 minor road ... "Local History". Beckley History Society. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2008. Finn, Rosslyn. ... "Civil Parish population 2011". Retrieved 7 October 2015. "Wealden Iron Series 2". Wealden Iron Research Group. 2007. Retrieved ... The parish council is responsible for local amenities such as the provision of litter bins, bus shelters and allotments. They ...
"Civil rights fighter wins". Local News Plus. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014. "East Hills Labor Candidate Cameron Murphy ... He is best known for his role as the President of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties from 1999-2013 and was endorsed as the ... In 2013, Murphy was made an Honorary Life Member of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties. In 2014, he was made a Member of the ... Cameron Lionel Murphy AM (born 30 March 1973) is an Australianbarrister, civil libertarian and Australian Labor Party political ...
11,000 Civil Service. 45,000 local $52.404 billion. (2018) Mike Pompeo. Secretary of State ...
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... ... state and local representatives on national events which led to the passage of the act, local events which shaped Tampa Bays ... EEOC Tampa Field Office Director Georgia Marchbanks remarked, "The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is without question one of the most ... was enacted following some of the most difficult and violent days of the civil rights movement, and over the strong objections ...
Senior lecturer in History and Tompkins County Historian Carol Kammen explores the role of women during the Civil War in a ... Local Women Go To War: Civil War Nurses 1861-1865. Posted on February 13, 2014 By Cornell Association of Professors Emeriti ( ... The Civil War was fought on the battlefield, but it was also fought in many ways on the home front. Four local women stepped ... And today she will speak to us on a topic relevant to that-- local women go to war, Civil War nurses 1861 to 1865. Thank you, ...
Seaforth Civil commenced business in 1989 in Mackay in Central Queensland. The company is privately owned by brothers Don and ... Seaforth Civil provides high quality civil construction capabilites and our civil construction scope includes:. *. Sub ... Seaforth Civil commenced business in 1989 in Mackay in Central Queensland. The company is privately owned by brothers Don and ... Seaforth Civil provides earthworks and site preparation for a number of clients large and small in Mackay and Central ...
Civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks dies at 92; local highway was named in honor ... Her act of civil disobedience, which seems a simple gesture of defiance so many years later, was in fact a dangerous, even ... Toledo-area civil rights activists for the honor because many of the motorists who used the highway would not recognize a local ... Guidelines: Please keep your comments smart and civil. Dont attack other readers personally, and keep your language decent. ...
Unravel Local, Foreign Sponsors of Terror Group Now, Civil Society Tells FG. February 10, 2020 9:40 am. 2 ... Home Latest Unravel Local, Foreign Sponsors of Terror Group Now, Civil Society Tells FG ... A non-governmental organisation, Center for Law and Civil Culture (CLCC), has called on the President Muhammadu Buhari-led ... CLCC also commended the Nigerian army, police and the local vigilante in their unsavory efforts to protect the territorial ...
Civil contractor: Safety. Under 100,000 hours (TIE). *Civil contractor: Safety Over 100,000 hours. *General contractor: Safety ...
Local Syrians say Americans should care about civil war and its affects on the West. Posted 10:39 PM, April 14, 2018, by ... Shalabi says she is in support of the missile strikes but says the international response to the Syrian civil war has been weak ...
County Sheriffs Office for entering into an agreement with federal immigration authorities that would deputize local law ... the New York Civil Liberties Union admonished the Rensselaer ... ALBANY - In a letter sent Tuesday, the New York Civil Liberties ... The NYCLU will be closely monitoring implementation of this agreement to ensure that civil rights abuses including racial ... NYCLU Letter Criticizes Rensselaer Sheriffs Office for Deputizing Local Law Enforcement as ICE Officers. ...
Questionnaire for National Human Rights Institutions, UN Agencies, Local Governments, and Civil Society Organisations. The ... In your country or local context, which social groups are most at risk of marginalization due to the impacts of the COVID-19 ... Can you provide details about any measures taken by your national or local government to assist tenants or mortgage payers, to ... What measures have been taken by the national or local government to protect persons living in institutions such as prisons, ...
This paper addresses the types of framings used by local Finnish authorities when they argue about contracting out primary ... perspectives of local level politicians and civil servants in Finland. Zeitschrift:. BMC Health Services Research > Ausgabe 1/ ... perspectives of local level politicians and civil servants in Finland ... Most of the arguments were related to the benefits of the municipality rather than on what is best for the local people. The ...
This study contributes to a better understanding and assessment of the motivations of elected local government volunteers. It ... The Volunteer Functions Inventory is modified to better assess the motivations of elected local government volunteers. The ... The study provides evidence that local councillors who received greater amounts of functionally relevant benefits reported more ... The purpose of this study is to both understand the motives for volunteering in local government (a strong/structured context) ...
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The Tenaha case resulted in a class-action lawsuit when the American Civil Liberties Union sued local law enforcement on behalf ... Local business gift cards. Inspired: Good news. Timeless in Texas. Curious Texas. Newspaper Archives. Puzzles and games. Al Día ... Civil asset forfeiture battle pits bipartisan coalition against police unions - and the White House. Each year, police officers ... Civil asset forfeiture is the controversial practice that allows government agents to seize money or property from individuals ...
The state of Minnesota on Tuesday launched a civil rights investigation of the Minneapolis Police Department in hopes of ... Local business gift cards. Inspired: Good news. Timeless in Texas. Curious Texas. Newspaper Archives. Puzzles and games. Al Día ... Minneapolis police face civil rights probe over Floyd death Gov. Tim Walz and the Minnesota Department of Human Rights ... Local Journalism Matters. Stand with us in our mission to discover and uncover the story of North Texas ...
... detained for several days in a county detention facility cell is seeking an attorney and may be considering filing a civil ... Coronavirus Pandemic Voices for Justice Local Listen: NBC 7s Podcasts NBC 7 Community NBC 7 Responds Down to Earth With Dagmar ... Student "Forgotten" in DEA Custody Mulls Civil Suit: Source Sources say student detainee nearly died of kidney failure after ... Military Politically Speaking Local Business Spotlight SportsWrap California U.S. & World NBCLX Weather Investigations Videos ...
History books seldom tell the story, but local dissent during the Civil War was part of a significant Northern campaign to ... Most Read • Local. * Teenager dives in to rescue boy sucked into Bethlehem Township drain pipe during Tropical Storm Isaias ... It was the Civil War.. Seven score years ago, as the Rebel army marched for Gettysburg, Democrats in this region were doing all ... Throughout the Civil War, it railed against Lincoln and his policies.. "There are but two parties in this county and state, the ...
... s Blog About Local, National and International Crime and Criminal Justice ... The American Civil Liberties Union is asking for a federal investigation into conditions at the Richmond City Jail. ACLU of ... Get D.C. Area Alerts , E-Mail Us , Twitter , RSS , Whos Who? , More Crime Coverage , More Local News ...
These special local regulations are necessary to provide for the safety of life... ... The Coast Guard proposes to establish special local regulations during the swim segment of the ``TriRock Triathlon Series, a ... Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988, ... Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor, Annapolis, MD. A Proposed Rule by the Coast Guard ...
The Coast Guard is revising the list of special local regulations established for recurring marine events at various locations ... Civil Justice Reform. This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice ... c) Special local regulations. (1) The Coast Guard Patrol Commander may forbid and control the movement of all vessels in the ... The new special local regulations are listed in the following table, including reference by section as printed in the Table to ...
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CALIFORNIA , LOCAL. *. LAUSD Enrollment Jumps 2.3% LOUIS SAHAGUN and MARGARET RAMIREZ, TIMES STAFF WRITERS. ... Spanish Civil War. *. Rabbi Mourns Loss of Wife Killed in Hit-and-Run SOLOMON MOORE, TIMES STAFF WRITER. ...
Civil Asset Forfeiture Takes Another Hit Featuring Adam Bates. January 11, 2016. ... How Do Local Police Use Data about You? Featuring Adam Bates. September 29, 2016. ... Stingrays trick your cellphone into connecting with local police, all without your knowledge. Its warrantless surveillance at ...
  • ALBANY - In a letter sent Tuesday, the New York Civil Liberties Union admonished the Rensselaer County Sheriff's Office for entering into an agreement with federal immigration authorities that would deputize local law enforcement officers to work on behalf of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). (
  • They denounced the president's restrictions on civil liberties. (
  • The ACLU works to expand the right to privacy, increase the control individuals have over their personal information, and ensure civil liberties are enhanced rather than compromised by technological innovation. (
  • The ACLU Speech, Privacy, and Technology Project fights in the courts, lobbies on Capitol Hill, and works with technology companies to ensure that civil liberties are protected as technology advances. (
  • Americans should not have to choose between using new technologies and protecting their civil liberties. (
  • During his more than 50 years on the federal bench, he handed down rulings that have safeguarded some of our most important and cherished civil liberties, stopping illegal government wiretaps and secret deportation hearings, as well as ending the racial segregation of Pontiac schools. (
  • Recent events in Providence, RI demonstrate both how a sustained grassroots campaign can create opportunities for civil rights and civil liberties, and also how quickly those opportunities can be derailed by institutional actors. (
  • After three years of sustained community mobilization and advocacy, the Providence City Council in Rhode Island voted this Thursday to unanimously approve among the most visionary set of policing reforms proposed around the country to protect civil rights and civil liberties, including digital liberties. (
  • He points to Cuba and the Soviet Union to illustrate how civil liberties abroad have been betrayed. (
  • However, Dugger answers this question with a disappointing backhanded slap to the American left, by stating that the American public should find out if Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega is "just another dictator" before, "once again, the American left betrays the cause of civil liberties abroad. (
  • TAMPA, Fla. - Several government agencies will join forces on July 2 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) announced today. (
  • The law, described in 1964 as "an idea whose time has come," was enacted following some of the most difficult and violent days of the civil rights movement, and over the strong objections of some of the significant political figures of the day. (
  • EEOC Tampa Field Office Director Georgia Marchbanks remarked, "The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is without question one of the most significant pieces of legislation ever enacted. (
  • The movement culminated in the 1964 federal Civil Rights Act, which banned racial discrimination in public accommodations. (
  • Their efforts, and the horrific violence inflicted on them, helped push many non-southerners and the federal government into action, culminating in the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act-measures that destroyed legalized segregation and disfranchisement. (
  • The president, who would eventually sign the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, sent political advisers to persuade Hamer not to make her appeal to the credentials committee. (
  • Tonight, I recognize a civil rights hero whose work is no small part of the reason I and many other African American members of Congress are able to stand before you today," said Democratic Rep. Bennie G. Thompson, who worked on Hamer's unsuccessful 1964 congressional campaign and now represents Mississippi's 2nd District. (
  • The forum-which also takes place during Black History Month and during the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964-is the third in a nationwide series spearheaded by AHF. (
  • Cemetery Manager Julio Amarillas and Lead Worker Tony Gallegos, from left, remove a tarp on Monday, July 8, 2019 that was covering a Civil War monument that was defaced over the weekend at Santa Ana Cemetery in Santa Ana, CA. The monument honors some of the founding fathers of Orange County who fought for the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. (
  • An inscription on a monument, pictured on Monday, July 8, 2019, for the Confederate States of America was defaced over the weekend at Santa Ana Cemetery in Santa Ana, CA. The monument honors some of the founding fathers of Orange County who fought for the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. (
  • Mr. Jones said he decided against the names of Toledo-area civil rights activists for the honor because many of the motorists who used the highway would not recognize a local name. (
  • Using a voluminous array of sources as well as his own memories, Marshall weaves together an astonishing account of student protestors and local activists who risked their lives for equality, standing between southern resistance and federal inaction. (
  • WASHINGTON (NNPA) - If Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. were alive and dreaming today, his 'I Have a Dream' speech might be broadened to include technology equality along with racial parity, according to some civil rights activists. (
  • On June 29, 2016, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (the "Commission") issued an interim final rule amending the civil monetary penalties within its jurisdiction to adjust for inflation. (
  • The Act requires each federal agency to adjust for inflation each civil monetary penalty within the agency's jurisdiction by July 1, 2016 and to continue to update each penalty annually every January 15th. (
  • Kimberley Smuts 11th November 2016 The lack of awareness among smaller, and so-called emerging building contractors in the civil engineering and construction industry about protecting their interests through proper contract documentation is alarming, says the Joint Building Contracts Committee (JBCC). (
  • Civil servants in the North are to introduce a pay rise for health service workers that was left unimplemented due to the Stormont powersharing crisis. (
  • Senior civil servants, who have been in charge of running the region's rudderless public services since the implosion of powersharing, have now taken the step of implementing the policy. (
  • It is an exercise geared towards motivating the civil servants to be at their best at all time. (
  • The latest local news, weather and investigative stories impacting the community. (
  • On February 14, Santa Cruzans for Responsible Planning (SCRAP), a local grassroots organization backed by former Santa Cruz Mayors, held a news conference at the entrance to the Santa Cruz City Wharf. (
  • This study contributes to filling this cap by exploring the frames used by Finnish local authorities as they talk about contracting out of primary health care and elderly care services. (
  • Shalabi says she is in support of the missile strikes but says the international response to the Syrian civil war has been weak. (
  • A new paper published by the Brookings Doha Center, The Challenge of Syrian Unity: Reassuring Local Communities and Framing National Consensus , explores the interests and concerns of key Syrian constituencies as they struggle to devise a formula for maintaining Syrian unity as part of a political solution to the crisis. (
  • Last month, Deputy U.S. Secretary of State Tony Blinken announced Washington was giving another $100 million to the moderate Syrian opposition, some of which will go to local governments inside Syria. (
  • In Student Activism and Civil Rights in Mississippi, James P. Marshall, a former civil rights activist, tells the complete story of the quest for civil rights in Mississippi. (
  • Civil Rights leader remains an activist for social justice The Advocate Advocate photo by JOHN McCUSKER -- Ron Moore was active in the Civil Rights movement in Plaquemine in the 1960s, was arrested in the days leading up to Martin Luther King's. (
  • Activist Bassam al-Kuwaiti argues there's a danger of Western donors dictating how local groups operate, and says funds and aid are too often misallocated by the donors. (
  • Reverend Al Sharpton will be keynote speaker followed, by a program featuring a town panel discussion with several respected local community, political, health, religious and HIV/AIDS leaders. (
  • To paraphrase President Lyndon B. Johnson, no memorial, oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor their memory than upholding and celebrating the civil rights bill for which they fought so long. (
  • The Civil War was fought on the battlefield, but it was also fought in many ways on the home front. (
  • The 9-foot, 7-ton granite memorial was installed at the Santa Ana Cemetery in 2004 to commemorate some of the county's founding fathers, including those who had fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War. (
  • The monument honors some of the founding fathers or Orange County who fought for the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. (
  • Madela was a well-known Civil Rights leader who fought to ensure that all people were to be treated fairly and given the same rights. (
  • A non-governmental organisation, Center for Law and Civil Culture (CLCC), has called on the President Muhammadu Buhari-led federal government to immediately unravel the local and foreign sponsors of the terrorist groups in Nigeria in order to face justice for the killings of innocent citizens across the country. (
  • What measures have been taken by the national or local government to protect persons living in institutions such as prisons, shelters for homeless, women or children, persons with disabilities, older persons, or collective accommodation for refugees, asylum seekers or migrant workers, including staff working in these institutions from the COVID-19? (
  • The purpose of this study is to both understand the motives for volunteering in local government (a strong/structured context) and determine how such motivation and other demographics interact with organisational contexts to influence volunteering outcomes. (
  • The Volunteer Functions Inventory is modified to better assess the motivations of elected local government volunteers. (
  • The study provides evidence that local councillors who received greater amounts of functionally relevant benefits reported more satisfaction and a stronger intention to continue volunteering in local government. (
  • This study contributes to a better understanding and assessment of the motivations of elected local government volunteers. (
  • Local government in Georgia (Georgian: ადგილობრივი თვითმმართველობა, adgilobrivi t'vit'mmart'veloba) is administered at the level of the subdivisions of Georgia, which are known as the units of self-government or municipalities (მუნიციპალიტეტი, munits'ipaliteti). (
  • The self-government in Georgia is organized according to the Constitution of Georgia, the European Charter of Local Self-Government (ratified by Georgia in 2004), and the Organic Law of Georgia on Local Self-Government, the latest version of which was adopted in 2014. (
  • The bodies of local self-government have no jurisdiction over the free industrial zones. (
  • A total of five elections of local self-government have been held in post-Soviet Georgia, first on 25 June 1998. (
  • Administrative divisions of Georgia (country) Municipalities of Georgia (country) ადგილობრივი თვითმმართველობის კოდექსი [Code of Local Self-Government], Organic law No. 1958-IIს of 5 February 2014 (in Georgian). (
  • CAIR-Chicago encourages Muslims to engage their local and federal government representatives, as the members of this community have done. (
  • The English Civil War (1642-1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (" Roundheads ") and Royalists (" Cavaliers ") over, principally, the manner of England's government. (
  • Dugger expresses a legitimate concern that the recent suspension of civil rights in Nicaragua by the Sandinista government may become permanent in the face of attacks by the contra army that is attempting to overthrow it. (
  • The U.S. Government was reviewed on March 13-14, 2014 in Geneva, on its compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, or the Covenant) . (
  • The USHRN is working to promote full implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, or the Covenant) by educating the public about U.S. Government obligations under the treaty and by engaging our membership in the effective use of the treaty to promote human rights at home. (
  • This means civil society also has the opportunity to use the same grading system provided by the UN to report on the Government. (
  • Kwara Governor, AbdulRahman AbdulRazaq, has ordered the state Civil Service Commission to carry out the promotion exercise for government workers, including serving deputy directors. (
  • A statement by governor's Chief Press Secretary, Rafiu Ajakaye said the Commission has ben ordered to organise promotion examinations for all categories of state government workers from Grade Level 07 to 16 and substantive deputy directors in the state civil service. (
  • A San Diego college student detained for several days in a county detention facility cell is seeking an attorney and may be considering filing a civil lawsuit sources tell NBCSanDiego. (
  • Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette sent a letter on April 16 to VanEnkevort Tug and Barge, Inc. stating the potential for a civil lawsuit for dragging an anchor across state bottomlands and submerging electric and petroleum pipelines in the Strait of Mackinac. (
  • The civil lawsuit only applies to state civil violations and not any federal law claims, criminal culpability or liability of anyone who may be responsible for the anchor's deployment or maintenance. (
  • The Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate housing, Mr. Balakrishnan Rajagopal, invites National Human Rights Institutions, civil society organisations, networks, UN agencies and inter-governmental entities, local governments, and others with relevant information to share contributions and inputs for his first report to the UN General Assembly. (
  • It addresses practical recommendations for sustaining civil society, while acknowledging the potential and contribution of volunteers with various demographic characteristics. (
  • USHRN ICCPR Taskforce follow-up letter to the U.S. Department of State with suggestions for improved consultations with civil society and a request for a meeting to discuss implementation of the concluding observations. (
  • Civil society is an important complement to the bilateral and multilateral support under Norway's Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI). (
  • This report sums up results achieved by the 42 civil society actors who received support from NICFI through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation in the period 2013-2015. (
  • The Nazarbaev regime has continued to use its economic power, political control, and electoral mandate to pressure nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to "cooperate" to establish a pliant civil society. (
  • There wasn't a main organizing hand behind the councils' emergence, says Mohammed, who works with the Local Administration Councils Unit, a civil society group that helps advise the councils. (
  • FILE - This image taken in Wednesday, Sept. 30, 2015 posted on the Twitter account of Syria Civil Defence, also known as the White Helmets, a volunteer search and rescue group, shows the aftermath of an airstrike in Talbiseh, Syria. (
  • As part of its campaign, AHF has teamed with local Louisiana partners Greater King David Baptist Church, Pastor John E. Montgomery and Promise Land Baptist Church, Pastor Perry Wrights Jr., to host an 'AIDS is a Civil Rights Issue' town hall discussion at Greater King David Baptist Church from 6:00pm to 9:00pm on Friday evening, February 28th. (
  • The largest pro-regime party, Otan, further strengthened its hold when two smaller parties, Asar (founded by the president's eldest daughter, Dariga Nazarbaeva) and the Civil Party of Kazakhstan, merged with Otan to create a more "consolidated" party system. (
  • The interviewees saw contracting with the private sector mostly as a means to improve the performance of public providers, to improve service quality and efficiency and to boost the local economy. (
  • Civil War service men from Dakota County served in various regiments. (
  • This marks the first time a surgeon's pit at a Civil War battlefield was excavated, a statement from the National Park Service said. (
  • thanks Dr. King and all the civil rights leaders for their service. (
  • Under the proposed Public Service and Other Legislation (Civil Liability) Amendment Bill an officer who is engaging in an official capacity will be protected from being sued with the liability instead being transferred to the state. (
  • The Call to Personal Military and Civil Service. (
  • Consequently, the Civil Service Commission is to activate the process which takes full cognisance of COVID-19 protocols and the need for everyone to stay safe. (
  • This exercise, for which the governor has approved funding, is part of the effort to restore the glory and pride of the civil service. (
  • The Muslim community of a local suburb was outraged at their village's decision to enact "No Parking" signs in a residential area near the mosque they attend. (
  • Local elected officials who defy the state could face a $5,000 fine and removal from office if he or she tries to enact any sort of municipal gun regulation. (
  • Western officials view the councils' emergence as a civic breakthrough, one they hope may help to nudge the ideological direction of the rebellion, tempering its sectarianism and curtailing the power of radical Islamists by building up a groundswell of popular support for secular, accountable local governance. (
  • It talks about his many contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. (
  • The U.S.-Russian agreement being discussed would focus on three elements, officials said: "deconfliction" between the U.S. and Russian militaries, reducing violence in the civil war and reinvigorating U.N.-led peace talks. (
  • The NYCLU will be closely monitoring implementation of this agreement to ensure that civil rights abuses including racial profiling, which have accompanied such programs in other states, do not occur in Rensselaer County. (
  • In 1960, students supporting civil rights moved into Mississippi and challenged this repressive racial order by encouraging African Americans to reassert the rights guaranteed them under the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. (
  • Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies that had been learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568. (
  • Wilson W. Brown, a Civil War veteran who took part in Andrews' Raid, plan to talk with the Veterans Administration about displaying his Congressional Medals of Honor and other artifacts at the new VA clinic in South Toledo. (
  • The State has urged the Court of Appeal to overturn its decision permitting a retrial of part of Ian Bailey's civil action over the conduct of the Garda investigation into the murder of Sophie Toscan du Plantier. (
  • David Ettridge has launched civil action against Mr Abbott, who is accused of acting unlawfully in 1998 when he assisted litigation against Mr Ettridge's former party. (
  • THE Queensland Police Union has welcomed proposed legislative changes granting officers immunity from civil action initiated by members of the public. (
  • Far from being limited to the individuals that were spied on, protesters included former mayors, the ACLU, artists, peaceniks, high school students, UCSC Students Against War members that were recently spied on by the Pentagon, and a local man who fled fascist Czechoslovakia. (
  • Mr. Rajagopal will analyse to what extent emergency measures implemented may have had (unintended) discriminatory outcomes and map out emerging good practices to counter them by local and national governments. (
  • It's Paraguay's turn to take a closer look at the practices of their local Internet companies, and how they treat their customer's private information. (
  • Damon J. Keith, the federal judge whose rulings in a string of high-profile cases over three decades catapulted him to the status of national civil rights icon, died April 28 at the age of 96 at his Detroit home. (
  • CLCC also commended the Nigerian army, police and the local vigilante in their unsavory efforts to protect the territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Nigeria at this 'critical time in our history', calling on Nigerians to continue to pray for our men and women who sacrifice their lives to fight in the battle field. (
  • About N98 billion would be expended by a Nigerian firm, Mudiame International Limited to strengthen local content and human capacity development in Nigeria’s oil and gas sector, its Managing Director, Sunny Eromosele, has said. (
  • He explained the money would be spent over a 10-year period by the Nigerian-based testing, calibration and inspection company, to help bridge the gap in local content, especially technological know-how in the country’s oil, gas and manufacturing sectors. (
  • He thus asked the Nigerian Content Development Monitoring Board (NCDMB) to focus on investing in technology, human capacity and general development of local content rather than bothering about investment in refinery. (
  • The Nigerian Civil War broke out on 6 July 1967. (
  • The events that began on that bus in the winter of 1955 captivated the nation and transformed a 26-year-old preacher named Martin Luther King, Jr., into a major civil rights leader. (
  • Twin Cities Daily Planet Local civil rights leader Matthew Little passes Twin Cities Daily Planet He was widely renowned and will be well remembered as a Civil Rights Era icon who held a soul-deep commitment to empowering the African American. (
  • (blog) Franklin McCain, civil rights leader who helped spark sit-ins, dies at 73 (blog) Franklin McCain, the African-American civil rights leader who helped launch sit-in protests against whites-only policies at lunch. (
  • This article is about Franklin McCain, who was civil rights leader who helped start sit-ins. (
  • The lunchtime commemoration, which begins at 12:00 noon on July 2, will feature presentations and commentaries by national, state and local representatives on national events which led to the passage of the act, local events which shaped Tampa Bay's history, and the promise of the future. (
  • MINNEAPOLIS (AP) - The state of Minnesota on Tuesday launched a civil rights investigation of the Minneapolis Police Department in hopes of forcing widespread changes following the death of George Floyd, a black man who died after a white officer pressed his knee into Floyd's neck for minutes, even after he stopped moving. (
  • University of Dayton civil engineering students will now learn about intersection design and safety with state-of-the-art equipment generously donated by Path Master, a Twinsburg, Ohio-based traffic management equipment supplier. (
  • We have seen that the near-fatal shooting of Jimmy Travis on February 28, 1963, drew voter registration workers from all of the civil rights groups in the state to Greenwood in early March in order to launch a frontal attack. (
  • His impact on Detroit and his fight for equality under the law is visible from the Keith Center for Civil Rights at Wayne State University to his chambers in the federal building on Lafayette Boulevard to the Wright Museum of African American History, which Keith rescued from closure several years ago. (
  • The United States and Russia are nearing an agreement on Syria for how they hope to resolve the Arab country's civil war once the Islamic State group is defeated, officials said Thursday. (
  • Across parts of Syria, 416 local councils are now functioning in towns and villages and are under the control of neither the Assad regime or Islamic State extremists. (
  • The two Kentuckians' leadership in an opening salvo of this debate strongly suggests that faith communities in the Bluegrass State may offer keys to understanding the relationship of American religion to the civil rights struggle. (
  • A third element of the deal would reaffirm support for the United Nations effort being run out of Geneva to seek a political transition in Syria and resolve the civil war. (
  • Purdue Pharma LP is in discussions with the U.S. Justice Department to resolve criminal and civil probes related to its prescription painkiller OxyContin, according to people familiar with the matter. (
  • In your country or local context, which social groups are most at risk of marginalization due to the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the right to housing? (
  • Eromosele, noted that the lack of infrastructure and technology to develop local content in the country remained one of the most critical challenges undermining efforts aimed at boosting indigenous participation in the oil and gas sector. (
  • NGOs engaged in advocacy for civil rights and political reforms remain dependent on foreign donors and find their activities under continuing surveillance through financial audits and other forms of control. (
  • My objective is to trace the development of student support of the civil rights movement in Mississippi from 1960 to 1965, along with the growth of protest, parallel politics, and the resultant parallel political organizations. (
  • Last week, Browning spoke on a panel as part of a symposium titled, "The Future of Civil Rights: Moving Towards First Class Economic, Political and Digital Citizenship. (
  • This important treaty outlines some broad and fundamental civil and political rights that we should all enjoy, including the rights to self-determination, to life, to found a family, to participate in the electoral process, and to due process and a fair trial. (
  • He said, “The focus of the NCDMB is to build on human capacity development such that they will be able to prepare ahead of future projects and grow local content in Nigeria, identify areas of deficiencies and play a major role by ensuring that the gap is bridged. (
  • The operators come with the intention to repatriate their money back to their countries, so what Nigeria needs to do is to continue to support local content,†Eromosele added. (
  • Researchers in the environmental engineering department are examining the use of advanced water treatment options to remove cyanotoxins that have the potential to contaminate local drinking water sources as a result of harmful algal blooms (HABs). (
  • Four local women stepped beyond the domestic sphere to become nurses during that war taking their skills into hospitals and battlefields at a time when most people thought war was "no place for a woman. (
  • Real-time updates and all local stories you want right in the palm of your hand. (
  • Consulting local rules ultimately saves time and expense. (