Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Technology, Industry, and AgriculturePlants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Spirulina: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.United StatesRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Keratin-3: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-12 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-3 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.BrazilTriticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.EuropePleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The major agriculture is rubber. There are also Coconuts and Tapioca cultivations. The other agricultural products include ... The local parish is St. Gregorios Church which is situated at the center of the village. A Convent, Government Clinic, Co- ...
The agricultural sector is also a major source of income for the local economy. It is based on the cultivation of olive trees, ... The economy of Zacharo relies on tourism as well as on agriculture. The pleasant Mediterranean climate, long Zacharo beach, the ... Cultivation of the Zacharo tomato is all but extinct, as the cultivar does not grow well in greenhouses, has a short season, ... The municipality Zacharo was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities ...
Agricultural does not produce sufficient yields to meet local neesd. The region's economy remained stagnant and at subsistence ... The region's economy relied mostly on Shifting cultivation agriculture, supplemented by hunting, fishing and barter trade. ... Agricultural conditions vary throughout the region. In the highlands the soil is morainic, and the hill slopes are cut by the ... locals into successive steps or terraces only a few meters broad, thus preventing water run-off and allowing spring crops to ...
The production of grains is more than the local requirement. For agriculture both old and new techniques are equally in ... Being an agricultural land, large industries are rare in the area. Also most of the industrial institutions are agricultural- ... The black soil is suited for any kind of cultivation and there are adequate irrigation facilities. It is famous for its rich ... agricultural production. It is situated in the upper part of Narmada Valley, which is of much important for agriculture. ...
The district's production of grains is more than the local requirement. For agriculture both old and new techniques are equally ... Being an agricultural land, large industries are rare in the area. Also most of the industrial institutions are agricultural- ... The black soil is suited for any kind of cultivation and there are adequate irrigation facilities. The district is famous for ... Industries include agricultural equipment, iron items, and Tendukheda and Dangidhana are well known for these industries. Gur/ ...
Its agriculture consists mainly of non-irrigated cultivation of grains (barley and wheat), grapes, almonds and olives. A local ... agricultural cooperative produces olive oil and sends grapes to wineries for cava (Spanish wine). Raising of pigs, cattle, ... The economy of Verdú municipality is dominated by the town's pottery industry, and agriculture. Its pottery industry ...
Rice cultivation and consumption is also significant facet of the local diet and agricultural tradition. Inle Lake is suffering ... More important however is the development of floating garden agriculture, largely along the western side of the lake. This ... Local shops are flooded with consumer items, both local and foreign. The nearest airport is Heho Airport which is 35 km away. ... are a staple of the local diet. A popular local dish is htamin gyin - 'fermented' rice kneaded with fish and/or potato - served ...
... the local economy is characterized by agriculture. The main agricultural activities include tobacco and Sugar Maple cultivation ... "La municipalité de Saint-Esprit" (in French). Centre local de développement Montcalm. Retrieved 2009-09-28. Statistics Canada: ...
Locals have since sought alternative livelihoods outside of agriculture, with some settling into work driving heavy vehicles ... Ulipuram is a predominantly agricultural community with major crops including rice, nuts, sugar cane, and corn. Residences are ... However, after 1996 a decline in rainfall lead to intermittent droughts affecting cultivation. ... Paddy Turmeric Tapioca Corn Sugarcane Ground nut Banana tree Coconut Comen vegetables Sago factories Agriculture Cattle ...
Cultivation of sugarcane was officially encouraged to meet the great demand of it by both the local inhabitants and the ... He attributes it to the high productivity of Egyptian soil which allowed for increased agricultural growth. The urban ... This led to fruitful interaction between both sides in different fields of economic activity, particularly in agriculture and ... In 1224 the local al-Yamani dynasty gained control of Hadramaut from the Ayyubids who had held it loosely due to the troubled ...
Agriculture: Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools. Subsistence agriculture - agricultural ... LETS - Local Exchange Trading Systems. A parasitical society, subsisting on the produce of a separate host society Raiding ... Ranch agriculture - non-nomadic pastoralism with a defined territory. Distribution and exchange: Redistribution Reciprocity - ... and subsistence agriculture. "Subsistence" means supporting oneself at a minimum level; in a subsistence economy, economic ...
The forest reserves in Nungba offers the local populace to practice a Jhum (Shifting) cultivation. Primary agricultural product ... The rain bearing South West Monsoon brings shower from the month of April/May till August/September, a boon for agriculture. ... More than 70% engaged in Agricultural activities. While the remaining 30% are engaged in Govt. Sectors and other private ...
Agriculture is ranked on the top in the economical structure of the area since it provides income for majority of the local ... Agricultural land is mainly used to cultivate corn, potato, rye, beans, vegetables and fodder. Agricultural and livestock ... Land users care for both, the preservation and cultivation. The land is divided into portions, according to family property. A ... Local people are building up their income with tourism activities such as renting rooms, accompanied by characteristic local ...
Agriculture and husbandry, still the foundation of the local economy, constitutes 11.64 percent of regional GDP, and employs ... Agricultural activities have historically been based on the cultivation of wheat (37 percent), grapes (17.2 percent) and olives ... In terms of agricultural productivity and income, since Spain's incorporation into the European Union (EU) the primary sector ... The economy of Castilla-La Mancha continues to be dominated by agriculture and the raising of livestock, but industry is ...
The apple was not a commercial variety in her lifetime; however, its cultivation was sustained by local orchardists, including ... That year the variety was included in the Department of Agriculture's list of fruits suitable for export. Soon after World War ... In 1890 it first appeared at the Castle Hill Agricultural and Horticultural Show as the "Smith seedling". By 1891, "Granny ... In 1876, following Maria and Thomas' death, local orchardist Edward Gallard bought part of the Smith Farm and developed the ' ...
... planted mixed species cultivation trials; and worked with local Aboriginal communities on developing native food enterprise. In ... During the 1980s Hardwick worked for NSW Agriculture. In 1988 he founded Wilderness Foods Ltd, a bushfood company which ... cooperation with the Essential Oils Unit, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Hardwick screened native essential oil plants for ...
... in addition to being subsistence agriculture responsible for the cultivation of corn. The Loriguense economy is based on ... The barrio of São Ginês (São Gens), a local ex-libris, is the location of the chapel of Nossa Senhora do Carmo, an ancient ... metallurgical industries, bread-making, commercial shops, restaurants and agricultural support services. While that textile ... São Gens, a Celtic saint, martyred in Arles na Gália, during the reign of Emperor Diocletian, and over time the locals began to ...
The main economy in this area is agriculture. The soil of the parish is fertile allowing the cultivation of various legumes and ... The local people began to get suspicious, and they were obliged to abandon their search and returned to their lands in North ... Primarily an agricultural community, the population is comparable in size to other parishes on the island, though this has ... The origin of the name Cedros comes from the local cedars (the Cedros-das-Ilhas or Cedros-do-Mato) found in the pasture-lands ...
The CMSA department of SERP works on ecological alternatives in agriculture which make best use of local resources and ... The poor are encouraged to adopt sustainable agriculture practices to reduce the costs of cultivations thus increasing net ... Other major causes of agricultural distress among the rural farmers in India such as displaced local knowledge, unsustainable ... education and other income generation needs like agriculture, dairy and other activities. As credit availability is linked to ...
... distribute agricultural implements, seeds, plants, &c. ; introduce local and other improvements ; and suggest and facilitate ... To convince them, moreover, of the immeasurable superiority of agriculture and innocent commerce, even in point of profit, over ... and sedulously to direct their attention to its cultivation on a system of free labour. ... and local peculiarities of Africa, for the benefit as well of natives, as of foreign residents and travellers ; to send out ...
Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. They sell their surplus produce, and ... Reliance on agricultural exports makes Cameroon vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[1] ... Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Inland ... Later Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.[17] The German ...
Agriculture in Poovanam is the main source of livelihood for most of its people. Agricultural Cultivation has been the major ... occupation of the local inhabitants of Poovanam as the land is ideal for growing crops like Rice and cultivation of Coconut ... The maximum portion of Poovanam land is used up for cultivation and agriculture. It is Cauvery Delta area. there are four ... The name Poovanam literally means "FlowerRocket (firework)" in Tamil, the local language. Poovanam is located at 10°13′N 79°10′ ...
The global surge in grain prices 2007/2008 was a major impulse for the agricultural sector. Wheat cultivation expanded, so did ... The incorporation of Indians into these Jesuit agricultural communes laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy that ... Bank deposits rose significantly in 2004, along with the percentage of local currency in total deposits. Local currency ... Paraguay's economy (GDP) grew 5,8% in 2008, fastest growing sector being agriculture with 10,5% growth Agriculture accounts for ...
... guarantees the cultivation of local protein feed crops, rather than imported soy; ensures greater equity between old and new EU ... Agricultural and Rural Convention 2020 and many more, that addresses issues related to agriculture and nutrition and with the ... Food portal Common Agriculture Policy Food sovereignty Agribusiness Agro-ecology Food security Slow Food Via Campesina " ... current situation of European agriculture and to promote the call of a new EU policy to ensure good food and good agriculture. ...
Employment in the district is focused on food processing, light industry, and agriculture. Nikiforovsky is an agricultural ... Approximately 70,336 hectares (60%) of the total area of the district is in cultivation for crops. In 2014, the top seven crops ... it was founded in the 19th century by a local landlord, AA Ushakov. Law #72-Z The count of urban-type settlements may include ... The black soil of the district supports agriculture, and there are deposits of limestone and other minerals in the area. The ...
The Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, or ADMARC, was formed in Malawi in 1971 as a Government-owned corporation or parastatal to promote the Malawian economy by increasing the volume and quality of agricultural exports, to develop new foreign markets for the consumption of Malawian agricultural produce and to supporting Malawi's farmers. It was the successor of a number of marketing boards of the colonial-era and early post-colonial times, whose functions were as much about controlling African smallholders and generating government revenues as in promoting agricultural development. At its foundation, ADMARC was given the power to finance the economic development of any public or private organization. In its first decade of operation, ADMARC was considered to be more business-like and less bureaucratic than similar African parastatal bodies, but from its ...
The Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), also known as the National Agricultural Research Center,[3] is a unit of the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service. It is located in unincorporated Prince George's County, Maryland,[4] with sections within the Beltsville census-designated place.[5][6] The BARC is named for Henry A. Wallace, former United States vice president and secretary of agriculture. BARC houses the Abraham Lincoln Building of the National Agricultural Library. Among its research programs are Air Quality; Animal Health; Crop Production; Crop Protection and Quarantine; Food Animal Production; Food Safety; Global Change; Human Nutrition; Integrated Farming Systems; Manure and Byproduct Utilization; Methyl Bromide Alternatives; Plant Biological and Molecular Processes; ...
The concept of precision agriculture first emerged in the United States in the early 1980s. In 1985, researchers at the University of Minnesota varied lime inputs in crop fields. It was also at this time that the practice of grid sampling appeared (applying a fixed grid of one sample per hectare). Towards the end of the 1980s, this technique was used to derive the first input recommendation maps for fertilizers and pH corrections. The use of yield sensors developed from new technologies, combined with the advent of GPS receivers, has been gaining ground ever since. Today, such systems cover several million hectares. In the American Midwest (US), it is associated not with sustainable agriculture but with mainstream farmers who are trying to maximize profits by spending money only in areas that require fertilizer. This practice allows the farmer to vary the rate of fertilizer across the field according to the need identified by GPS guided Grid or Zone Sampling. Fertilizer that ...
... references a growing understanding of the complex relationship between cities and agriculture. As a concept, it can help serve as a linkage between issues as open and diverse as sustainability, urbanization, urban agriculture, urban land use policies and agricultural change.[1][2]. The specific notion of metropolitan agriculture has recently been developed further by TransForum, a Dutch foundation that works on sustainable agriculture (by fostering multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge dissemination via pilot projects, publications, etc.). Metropolitan agriculture expresses a growing understanding of the multiple ways in which agriculture is linked with urban areas.[3]. Over several years, TransForum's work on a number of pilot projects centered on re-connecting agriculture and cities while attempting to develop more sustainable ...
The MIT Open Agriculture Initiative (OpenAg) was founded in 2015 by Caleb Harper as an initiative of the MIT Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The project aims to develop controlled-environment agriculture platforms called "Food Computers" that operate on a variety of scales, and which can be used for experimental, educational, or personal use. All of the hardware, software, and data will be open source, with the intention of creating a standardized open platform for agricultural research and experimentation. OpenAg advocates pursue transparency in the agricultural industry, and promote sustainable, local growing practices. Much of their focus is on enhancing urban agriculture and improving access to fresh, healthy foods. The Open Agriculture Initiative coined the term "Food Computer" to describe their main product. Originally developed ...
... constitutes over 10% of Mongolia's annual Gross domestic product and employs one-third of the labor force. However, the high altitude, extreme fluctuation in temperature, long winters, and low precipitation provides limited potential for agricultural development. The growing season is only 95 - 110 days. Because of Mongolia's harsh climate, it is unsuited to most cultivation. Only 1% of the arable land in Mongolia is cultivated with crops, amounting to 1,322,000 hectares (3,266,000 acres) in 1998. The agriculture sector therefore remains heavily focused on nomadic animal husbandry with 75% of the land allocated to pasture, and cropping only employing 3% of the population. Crops produced in Mongolia include corn, wheat, barley, and potatoes. Animals raised commercially in Mongolia include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, camels, and pigs. They are raised primarily for their meat, although goats are valued for their hair which can be used to ...
Agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped enable the Industrial Revolution. Historians cited enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding as the most important innovations.[5] Industrial agriculture arose along with the Industrial Revolution. By the early 19th century, agricultural techniques, implements, seed stocks, and cultivars had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages.[6] The industrialization phase involved a continuing process of mechanization. Horse-drawn machinery such as the McCormick reaper revolutionized harvesting, while inventions such as the cotton gin reduced the cost ...
... is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term", for example: Satisfy human food and fiber needs Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls Sustain the economic viability of farm operations Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole The phrase 'sustainable agriculture' was reportedly coined by the Australian agricultural scientist Gordon McClymont. Wes Jackson is credited with the first publication of the expression in his 1980 book New Roots ...
There is not a lot of data on the environmental and health costs that are caused by agriculture influence on other segments; the misuse of natural resources is one such example. These undesirable outcomes are labeled as externalities. Their costs are not part of market prices because they are non-market issues. Negative externalities occur because of market failures, where a contaminator is penalized for the damaged caused to the environment; these costs that are never paid are external costs. In the agriculture sector, these externalities have four aspects: the cost of them is ignored by the unlawful party; they happen within long intervals; susceptible populations with little to no political or decision altering power are negatively affected; the source of the external factor is not always deduced. This lack of concise information flow means that the economic cost of the externalities is debated in the agricultural industry. As a result of ...
Throughout its history, agriculture in Paraguay has been the mainstay of the economy. This trend has continued today and in the late 1980s the agricultural sector generally accounted for 48 percent of the nation's employment, 23 percent of GDP, and 98 percent of export earnings. The sector comprised a strong food and cash crop base, a large livestock subsector including cattle ranching and beef production, and a vibrant timber industry. Growth in agriculture was very rapid from the early 1970s to the early 1980s, a period when cotton and soybean prices soared and cropland under cultivation expanded as a result of agricultural colonization. Growth in agriculture slowed from an average of 7.5 percent annual growth in the 1970s to approximately 3.5 percent in the mid-to-late 1980s. Agricultural output was routinely affected by weather ...
... is extensive farming in upland areas, primarily rearing sheep, although historically cattle were often reared extensively in upland areas. Fell farming is the farming of fells, a fell being an area of uncultivated high ground used as common grazing. It is a term commonly used in Northern England, especially in the Lake District and the Pennine Dales. Elsewhere, the terms hill farming or pastoral farming are more commonly used. Cattle farming in the hills is usually restricted by a scarcity of winter fodder, and hill sheep, grazing at about two hectares per head, are often taken to lowland areas for fattening. Modern hill farming is often heavily dependent on state subsidy, for example in the United Kingdom it receives support from the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy. Improved, sown pasture and drained moorland can be stocked more heavily, at approximately one sheep per 0.25 hectares. Hill farming is a type of agricultural ...
Occupying a major part of the fertile Ararat plain, Armavir Province has a major contribution in the agricultural sector of the Republic of Armenia. The economy of the province is largely based on agriculture, including farming and cattle-breeding. Around 78% (970 km²) of the total area of the province are arable lands, out of which 40% (388 km²) are ploughed.[12] The main crops are grapes, apricot, peach, plum, grains, dry seeds and vegetables. Currently, the province has a contribution of 17.8% in the annual total agricultural product of Armenia. Armavir is among the leading provinces of Armenia in wine production in terms of grape cultivation and wine export (along with Ararat and Vayots Dzor). The Baghramyan and Arax poultry farms are located in the villages of Myasnikyan and Jrarbi respectively. Recently, fish farming has significantly developed in the province.[13] Starting 2004 Children of Armenia ...
Climate change has the potential to affect agriculture through changes in temperature, rainfall (timing and quantity), CO2, solar radiation and the interaction of these elements.[64] Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to increase as climate change takes hold.[114] Agriculture is among sectors most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; water supply for example, will be critical to sustain agricultural production and provide the increase in food output required to sustain the world's growing population. Fluctuations in the flow of rivers are likely to increase in the twenty-first century. Based on the experience of countries in the Nile river basin (Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan) and other developing countries, depletion of water resources during seasons crucial for agriculture can lead to a decline in yield by up to 50%.[115] Transformational approaches will be needed to manage natural resources in ...
Modern terminology categorizes local genotypes into four main variety groups. However, in traditional terminology these were ... It therefore can be hypothesized that local old olive trees, older than 500 years might represent an ancient gene pool. ... It is assumed that the cultivation of olive trees started in the East Mediterranean in the third millennia BCE. Throughout ... Agriculture crops in ancient agricultural fields in the Negev highland. Teva vaAretz (in Hebrew). ...
Cultivation is intensive, with vegetables and fruits grown and poultry raised for local consumption. The local fishing industry ... Greater reliance has been placed on local labour-management negotiations.. Resources, agriculture, and fisheries. Singapore has ... Only a tiny fraction of the land area is classified as agricultural, and production contributes a negligible amount to the ... The Development Bank of Singapore is the largest local bank in terms of assets. The Stock Exchange of Singapore is an important ...
The major agriculture is rubber. There are also Coconuts and Tapioca cultivations. The other agricultural products include ... The local parish is St. Gregorios Church which is situated at the center of the village. A Convent, Government Clinic, Co- ...
Rice cultivation and consumption is also significant facet of the local diet and agricultural tradition. Inle Lake is suffering ... More important however is the development of floating garden agriculture, largely along the western side of the lake. This ... Local shops are flooded with consumer items, both local and foreign. The nearest airport is Heho Airport which is 35 km away. ... are a staple of the local diet. A popular local dish is htamin gyin - fermented rice kneaded with fish and/or potato - served ...
The resulting soil salination has devastated local agricultural production, displacing countless sharecroppers and day ... This transition to shrimp cultivation was not inevitable; like the re-engineering of the coastal landscape, it was planned and ... Today, many outside development experts believe that agriculture in the region is no longer viable due to climate change. ... Members of landless peasant collectives have mobilised to stem the transition to shrimp cultivation and return to farming rice ...
Wages for agricultural workers tend to be low and employment outside of agriculture is limited. Many skilled and educated ... What were the main consequences for the local economy?. Agriculture was hardest hit, with 784,320 hectares taken from ... Many areas previously considered to be at risk are in fact safe for habitation and cultivation. Current delineations are far ... as well as indirect losses due to removing agricultural lands and forests from use and the closing of agriculture and ...
Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. They sell their surplus produce, and ... Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Inland ... Reliance on agricultural exports makes Cameroon vulnerable to shifts in their prices. ... The government recognizes the authority of traditional chiefs, fons, and lamibe to govern at the local level and to resolve ...
Carver brought Tuskegee to the countryside by creating the Agriculture Movable School, a wagon that traveled to local farms ... An agricultural education Carver applied to study at the Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts, but he was ... When he arrived in Alabama much of the states soil had been exhausted and eroded by extensive single-crop cotton cultivation. ... The following year he left Simpson to pursue studies in agriculture at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts ...
Annual % growth: Annual growth rate for agricultural value added based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on ... Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and ... Current LCU: Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation ... Constant LCU: Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation ...
Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. They sell their surplus produce, and ... Reliance on agricultural exports makes Cameroon vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[1] ... Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Inland ... Later Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.[17] The German ...
Sugar and coffee cultivation are a serious deal in Kenya; last year the country produced 620,000 tonnes of sugar and 50,000 ... Our special reports profile a wide range of sectors and industries including Energy, Oil and Gas, Aviation, Agriculture to name ... and providing employment to local Kenyans. "Producing a tonne of logs means creating 12 days of labour for a Kenyan and cutting ... Traditionally these agricultural byproducts, along with those from coffee, go into landfills or are used as fertiliser. Located ...
... and preservation of agricultural practices. Farm-gate surveys were conducted among 324 cotton farmers in Western Burkina Faso. ... To gain insight into farmers preferences towards attributes in cotton cultivation, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was ... FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country Fact Sheet on Food and Agriculture Policy Trends Country ... The students were selected based on their previous survey experiences and their knowledge of local languages (Moore, Bobo, ...
... in particular the local dairy, poultry and livestock farming organization. In 1975, only part of the area was under cultivation ... The 1989 Act requires that treated wastewater use in agriculture be authorized by the Ministry of Agriculture, after ... In agricultural use of treated effluent, at least twenty different food crops are being irrigated as well as at least eleven ... 9.1.4 Monterey wastewater reclamation study for agriculture. The Monterey Wastewater Reclamation Study for Agriculture (MWRSA) ...
LOCAL ADMINISTRATION No information :. REFERENCES *Eames, J.C., Robson, C.R., Wolstencroft, J.A., Cu, N. and La, T.V. (1988). ... Whilst much of the park is not accessible for their slash-and-burn agriculture, extensive areas have been cleared for ... Resettlement of these people is now underway, and shifting cultivation has now been abandoned, although some return to tend ... existing fields (Eames et al., 1988). Demand from neighbouring agricultural communities for firewood is high and apparently ...
Around 500 senior national and local government policy makers, NGOs and CBOs, research and training institutions, academic ... The capacity of available resources and technologies to satisfy growing demand for food and other agricultural commodities ... production on land already in use and by avoiding further encroachment on land that is only marginally suitable for cultivation ... Sustainable Urban Agriculture and Infrastructure Investment Forum is organized by WCSDA and the Peoples Government of Shaanxi ...
In addition to the small-scale cultivation of the Indians, there was the semi-feudal agriculture of the coastal haciendas. The ... Once assured transport for these products, its communication with the local community only interests it secondarily." (31) ... Still, the economy remained overwhelmingly agricultural. ...
This may pose a concern for agriculture, since sludge is often used as agricultural fertilizer. Contaminated sludge would be ... EPA and CDC Mislead Local and State Officials and the Public on Safety of Mosquito Pesticides Used for Zika Virus (27,171) ... unable to sustain the necessary microbes needed for healthy soil and crop cultivation. Silver particles may also leach from ... EPA and CDC Mislead Local and State Officials and the Public on Safety of Mosquito Pesticides Used for Zika Virus (27,171) ...
The local irrigation offices of the Ministry of Agriculture (ATDR) retained the authority to allocate water (up to the ... Irrigation has induced the occurrence of intensive commercialised agricultural cultivation with high productivity. The ... thesis (5-6). Women play a crucial role in the agricultural labour process, both in irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture. ... understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying ...
next steps towards a local food system There is already a strong impetus within Northampton to expand local food cultivation ... The Sunol Agriculture Park also owns wildlands that it stewards alongside its agricultural practices. The wildlands are a ... Guidance for Local and Regional Planners in Understanding Local Farm Capacity in Comparison to Local Food Needs. Blum-Evitts ... If only existing agricultural lands were considered for the purposes of food cultivation, then just a portion of the towns ...
The studies also show that the processing of local agricultural products and commercially harvested products offers income- ... at the same time achieve a more ecologically sustainable cultivation of the land. In this context, secured land use rights, ... Topic: Security, Agriculture, Natural Resources, Food Security * Political Geography: Global Focus 28. What the World Health ... The main challenges of the value chain approach are insufficient access to agricultural inputs, markets and agricultural ...
As the population grew and agriculture expanded, local conflicts occurred - for example, between agriculture and the need for ... Increased efficiency in agriculture. Food was produced in sufficient quantities; former agricultural land became available for ... Shifting cultivation - burning the forests and planting a few crops in the ashes - came to be used extensively as an ... Although there was never a lack of wood or forests on a national scale, difficulties in transportation created serious local ...
At the time of colonization in the 17th century, European settlers learned tobacco cultivation from the local indigenous ... Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Once the heart of Virginias economy, agriculture, forestry, and fishing now constitute ... The increase in agricultural mechanization and productivity, with an attendant decrease in acreage and number of farms, has ... Local government includes 95 counties, hundreds of towns, and several dozen chartered cities. The counties and towns are ...
Agricultural workers, who travel from different districts of the north to work during boro cultivation across the country, are ... In this case, the ministries of agriculture, health, transport and home affairs will have to work jointly with the local ... In this case too, the ministries concerned must work closely with local administrations to ensure safe travel for agricultural ... At the local level, administrations, public representatives, volunteers and NGOs can work together to create and update the ...
This book analyzes the agricultural and pastoral infrastructure of the Mature and Late Harappan cultures (ca. 2500-1700 BC) of ... Reddy reveals that simply recovering crop seeds from archaeological contexts does not confirm local crop cultivation, and she ... This book analyzes the agricultural and pastoral infrastructure of the Mature and Late Harappan cultures (ca. 2500-1700 BC) of ... New directions are provided for discerning archaeologically how pastoralism and agriculture may be integrated in complex ...
Optimal plans of crop cultivation reconfiguration were generated for sustaining local development under economic, ecological ... method was developed for supporting the optimal use of land and water resources in agriculture. MOFRP improved existing methods ... priorities and parameters that were largely neglected in previous agricultural decision making. This method was applied to ... through taking ecological services of crop cultivation into account. It was also capable of reflecting fuzziness in preferences ...
  • Shifting cultivation - burning the forests and planting a few crops in the ashes - came to be used extensively as an agricultural method in the less fertile parts of Sweden. (fao.org)
  • Although there was never a lack of wood or forests on a national scale, difficulties in transportation created serious local wood shortages. (fao.org)
  • Recognizing rights of indigenous peoples and local communities to forests creates incentives for long-term investments in forest restoration and management, enables communities to share in benefits generated from restoration activities, and provides the basis for forest-based enterprises and rural economic growth. (burmalibrary.org)
  • In addition to the cultivation of vegetables for consumption and sale, home gardens are often sites where certain selected and valued plants collected from nearby forests are grown. (cityfarmer.org)
  • Many of the mountainous areas have been dominated by forests until recent decades, but they are rapidly being transformed to agriculture as a conse-quence of logging and the movement of expanding human populations into land available for farming. (gerrymarten.com)
  • Can large human populations and intensive agriculture be sustained in hilly or mountainous areas that have had forests until recently? (gerrymarten.com)
  • Without programs that help to implement sustainable land management, like AfSIS and the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), African nations risk losing both their forests and iconic animal species. (columbia.edu)
  • evaluation of local populations and introduction into organic cultivation. (nagref-cha.gr)
  • Field surveys and results reported in the literature suggest that agroecosystems are more resilient when inserted in a complex landscape matrix, featuring adapted local germplasm deployed in diversified cropping systems managed with organic matter rich soils and water conservation-harvesting techniques. (springer.com)
  • For example, in the U.S., there were only a few thousand acres of land with organic cultivation, very few outlets for organically grown food, and the foods were much more expensive than those produced by standard agricultural methods. (itmonline.org)
  • The rapid growth of this agricultural industry led to some problems with labeling of products as organic, so new standards have been imposed, and people interested in organic products have increased their demands for purity and certification of purity as well. (itmonline.org)
  • Results showed that 92 % of the organic tea smallholders cultivated plots on former tea plantation land with an average size of 0.4 ha and a given agricultural structure. (orgprints.org)
  • The dissemination of biogas plants in the project area gave the incentive to carry out investigations regarding the use of bioslurry for organic tea cultivation. (orgprints.org)
  • Agriculture, which is still the primary livelihood for three-quarters of humanity, and which is as much a cultural activity as an economic one, is also threatened by 'trade liberalization,' driven both by the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the IMF, and by the WTO's Agreement on Agriculture. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • Mountain and high Himalaya has difficult sloping land and topography where people depend only on agriculture for their livelihood [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Today, many outside development experts believe that agriculture in the region is no longer viable due to climate change. (com.pk)
  • If droughts become more common, widespread, and persistent, many subhumid and semi-arid regions will have difficulty sustaining viable agricultural systems. (grida.no)
  • Mushrooms are a valuable source of food and their cultivation can be a viable small-scale business, but investing in a mushroom growing scheme can be risky so a feasibility study looking at potential markets and supply chains should be done before starting. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • These events among others reflect renewed interest in the agriculture sector and the sector's growth by 3.01 per cent in the second quarter of 2017 contributed significantly to the 0.55 per cent growth in the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which made Nigeria exit its worst recession in 29 years. (lexology.com)
  • For example, in the conquest of space, men walk on the moon, in the civil and military aeronautics there are high-performance airplanes, in medicine, it is now possible to transplant organs and mechanization has increased agricultural yield. (omicsonline.org)
  • Prolonged drought-lasting a season or longer over a widespread area-is the most serious climatic hazard affecting African agriculture, water supplies, and ecosystems. (grida.no)
  • Greenery and sustainable land-use planning.Developing Concept master plans for various landscape projects suiting the local climatic conditions. (powershow.com)
  • Traditional farming systems are repositories of a wealth of principles and measures that can help modern agricultural systems become more resilient to climatic extremes. (springer.com)
  • Around 500 senior national and local government policy makers, NGOs and CBOs, research and training institutions, academic institutions, the private sector and international organizations from China and other countries are expected to participate. (prnewswire.com)
  • Sustainable Urban Agriculture and Infrastructure Investment Forum is organized by WCSDA and the People's Government of Shaanxi Province to provide an opportunity for private sector companies and investors to discuss potential investment opportunities in China and other countries. (prnewswire.com)
  • FLORENCE, May 20 2013 (IPS) - As the global agricultural sector is faced with ever-greater challenges, the question of how to reform and improve the sector is a controversial and difficult one. (ipsnews.net)
  • The study highlights the role of President H.H. Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, in the agricultural sector in the United Arab Emirates, as a main pillar in comprehensive development. (uaeinteract.com)
  • Finally, although the agricultural sector currently produces more than enough calories to feed humanity, one billion people remain hungry and an additional one billion have micronutrient deficiencies (Welch and Graham 1999). (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • These nuances make African agriculture a particularly important sector within the climate change debate. (grida.no)
  • While the grain acreage was extended by some 50 percent to 15 million hectares, state-of-the-art agricultural machinery and equipment and higher utilisation of mineral fertilizers almost doubled the value added in the agricultural sector between 2001 and 2009. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study was supported by the German-Kazakh Agriculture Policy Dialogue and the Analytical Center of Economic Policy in the Agricultural Sector (ACEPAS) in Astana. (innovations-report.com)
  • The longer the conflict endures, the more costly it will be for the agricultural sector to recover. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • Although there are signs that the sector has at least adapted, in some areas the lack of fertilizers and cheap fuel has had such a detrimental impact that it will require years for the country's agriculture to recover. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • The impact of the Syrian crisis on agriculture is particularly important because the sector is the main source of income for a large proportion of the population. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • The shrinking role of the agricultural sector will take a toll on key health and nutrition indicators as more people are fed less because of diminishing food stocks. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • However, its hunger and malnutrition levels are still extremely high, and great inefficiencies remain within the agricultural sector, which employs about half of the population, including 70% in rural areas. (nbr.org)
  • How has India's agricultural sector changed since this period? (nbr.org)
  • Perhaps surprising to many outside of India is that there is a great shortage of labor within India's agricultural sector. (nbr.org)
  • Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can generate local employment to alleviate poverty, expand the agriculture sector, and help the nutrition and healthcare sector in the country,†she added. (philstar.com)
  • From the foregoing, it is clear that Nigeria's agriculture sector holds the potential for more growth and presents a veritable opportunity for investors to take positions as the economy rebounds alongside an attitudinal adjustment among Nigerians as to the potentials of the sector. (lexology.com)
  • There are a number of funding options now available to the agriculture sector. (lexology.com)
  • Exploring how archaeological, historical and anthropological studies can contribute to cross-sector debates about agricultural sustainability and how the role of increasingly 'little-used' crops is understudied. (britishmuseum.org)
  • To produce the "Lean Briqs" briquettes, Lean Energy Solutions combines sugar cane and coffee waste with agricultural byproducts such as sawdust, coal ash and water. (africanbusinessmagazine.com)
  • The challenges created with the growth of cities can be better handled by giving proper attention to the potentials of urban agriculture, which contributes to urban greening, heat reduction, waste management, storage of water and maintaining flood plains free from construction in peri-urban areas. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this study, a multi-objective fuzzy-robust programming (MOFRP) method was developed for supporting the optimal use of land and water resources in agriculture. (mdpi.com)
  • Decision making in water allocation process to irrigated agriculture is a complex job due to the increasing demand of competing sectors and the uneven distribution of usable water resources both in time and in space. (diplomarbeiten24.de)
  • The ministries of agriculture and water are the main technical partners with whom we have dialogue. (farmlandgrab.org)
  • Two existing 5,000-gallon water tanks would be replaced by two 50,000-gallon water tanks and one 200,000-gallon water tank for the cultivation operation and one 200,000-gallon water tank for fire protection. (lompocrecord.com)
  • Nigeria used to be a major player in the global agricultural market in the past, as the world's largest producer of groundnuts and palm oil in the 1960s, and the second largest exporter of cocoa. (lexology.com)
  • In keeping with CDA's core mission to continuously strengthen and advance Colorado agriculture, a key objective of the CHAMP initiative will be to define a well structured and defined supply chain for hemp in order to establish a strong market for the state's farming communities. (colorado.gov)
  • This chapter presents a case study on Massachusetts efforts to strengthen the local food system and improve food access and a case study on recent legislative support for food hubs. (ncsl.org)
  • Gathering prominent national and international decision makers, experts and key representatives of indigenous peoples, local communities, governments, and civil society organizations, this Dialogue built a common understanding of the links among forest tenure, restoration and green growth, and share lessons from local experience on ways to strengthen these links. (burmalibrary.org)
  • A financial services and technology institution dedicated to helping poor people around the world has introduced new initiatives to improve healthcare delivery in Ghana and strengthen rural agriculture in Uganda. (voanews.com)
  • Dr. Babu argues that the foremost challenge is improving productivity within the agriculture system and recommends that India adopt new technologies in agricultural mechanization, increase food processing, develop better supply chains, and increase investment in agriculture research, among other solutions. (nbr.org)
  • Today, there is tremendous opportunity for developing joint ventures between India and the United States in mechanizing agriculture. (nbr.org)
  • As India looks to increase its agricultural output, there is great need-and a growing market-for sophisticated mechanized tools and equipment from the United States. (nbr.org)
  • India needs this agricultural technology and is now increasingly capable of paying for it, which should be an interesting proposition for U.S. industry. (nbr.org)
  • The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, with its aim to guarantee the "right to work," increased the safety net within rural India, which has had the effect of taking away some low-end labor from agriculture and thus has increased the need for machinery. (nbr.org)
  • They also explored the efforts exerted by the Organization in Arab countries in the context of agricultural activities, especially in the UAE. (uaeinteract.com)
  • Global trade rules, as enshrined in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture (AOA) and in the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) agreement, are primarily rules of robbery, camouflaged by arithmetic and legalese. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • Results show that the probability of an area of becoming agriculture increases with population pressure, in the vicinity of existing cultivation plots, and proximity to the center of human settlements. (scirp.org)
  • In this NBR interview, Suresh Babu (International Food Policy Research Institute) examines the dynamics facing Indian agriculture as the country seeks to meet its food security needs while moving more of its workforce to the industrial and services sectors. (nbr.org)
  • In cellular automata (CA), for instance, each cell in a spatial array exists in one of a finite set of states (e.g. a type of land cover or land use), and future states (e.g. the transition from one type of land use/land cover to another) depend on transition rules based on a local spatio-temporal neighborhood. (scirp.org)
  • Given the momentous outcomes of this transition it comes as little surprise that the origin and spread of domesticates and the emergence of agriculture remain topics of enduring interest to both the scholarly community and the general public. (pnas.org)
  • Benefits of urban agriculture can range from an individual and community's increase in physical activity while gardening, relationship building with others in the community and increased access to healthy food. (ncsl.org)
  • LED lighting for urban agriculture in the forthcoming decades will not be just an advanced form of current urban agriculture. (springer.com)
  • Consideration should be given now to future urban agriculture based on those two fields. (springer.com)
  • Readers of this book will understand the principle, concept, design, operation, social roles, pros and cons, costs and benefits of LED lighting for urban agriculture, and its possibilities and challenges for solving local as well as global agricultural, environmental, and social issues. (springer.com)
  • India's Green Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s introduced significant reforms that were intended to drastically increase the country's agricultural output. (nbr.org)
  • UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FAISALABAD (Pakistan) 01/01/12 Présentation : Impact assessment of the transgenic sugarcane over expressing antifungal proteins on endophytic and rhizospheric microorganisms. (pearltrees.com)
  • The model integrates multiple logistic regression and cellular automata to simulate agricultural expansion at a resolution consistent with small scale agriculture and deal with inherently spatial processes. (scirp.org)
  • The main activity in the area is agriculture. (kiva.org)
  • As forest restoration initiatives scale up around the world - an area the size of France has been restored in the last three years - it is especially important to highlight the challenges and opportunities of advancing forest restoration in a socially inclusive manner, respecting and promoting tenure rights and ensuring that local communities join in the design and benefits of restoration initiatives. (burmalibrary.org)
  • The research recommends among others things the provision of good storage facility, massive road rehabilitation, provision of modern public transport, empowering agricultural agency to complement the existing effort and extension of rail services towards enhancing transportation of agricultural produce in Ijebu North Local Government area. (omicsonline.org)