Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mice, Inbred C57BLRespiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Anterior Temporal Lobectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Fetal Organ Maturity: Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.SmokeReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Bronchial DiseasesBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 188.8.131.52.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Orang-Outang, sive Homo Sylvestris
Upper lung lobes are involved somewhat more frequently than lower lobes. If untreated, many cases progress over a period of ... In lung tissue, they multiply and may disseminate through blood and lymphatics to other organs, including the skin, bone, ... In these cases, the large Blastomyces yeast cells translocate from the lungs and are trapped in capillary beds elsewhere in the ... a chronic illness that mimics tuberculosis or lung cancer, with symptoms of low-grade fever, a productive cough, night sweats, ...
Southern torrent salamander
The two and three lobes of the lungs *Left lung: superior and inferior ... Interlobar ducts connect lobes and interlobular ducts connect lobules. Examples of lobes. *The four main lobes of the ... In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, lung, liver, ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lobe_(anatomy)&oldid=902211381" ...
The underlying theory of plombage treatment was the belief that if the diseased lobe of the lung was physically forced to ... The inserted material would force the upper lobe of the lung to collapse. Images of Lucite-Ball Plombage (NEJM) thoracic ... used prior to the introduction of anti-tuberculosis drug therapy to treat cavitary tuberculosis of the upper lobe of the lung. ...
1950 in Michigan
George Elder (British Army officer)
There was atelectasis and an extra lobe in the left lung. This was the first attempt to revive an extinct subspecies, although ... On July 30, 2003, one clone was born alive, but died several minutes later due to physical defects in the lungs. ... before dying from lung defects. The biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. announced on October 8, 2000, that the ... it died several minutes later due to a lung defect. Multiple theories are given regarding the evolution and historical ...
The lungs are divided into different lobes. The right lung is larger in size than the left, because of the heart's being ... The right lung has three lobes - upper, middle, and lower (or superior, middle and inferior), and the left lung has two - upper ... Each lobe is further divided up into segments called bronchopulmonary segments. Each lung has a costal surface, which is ... The lungs are the largest organs in the lower respiratory tract. The lungs are suspended within the pleural cavity of the ...
Patients who aspirate while standing can have bilateral lower lung lobe infiltrates. The right upper lobe is a common area of ... Generally, the right middle and lower lung lobes are the most common sites affected, due to the larger caliber and more ... Complications may include lung abscess. Some include chemical pneumonitis as a subtype, which occurs from acidic but non- ... Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth ...
The left lung (left) and right lung (right). The lobes of the lungs can be seen, and the central root of the lung is also ... This sac also divides each lung into sections called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two. The lobes are ... Right lung. The right lung has both more lobes and segments than the left. It is divided into three lobes, an upper, ... Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung ...
The lung tissue lies within the same visceral pleura as the lobe in which it occurs. Males and females are equally affected ... In most cases this surgery is safe and effective; the child will grow up to have normal lung function. In a ... Extralobar sequestration (ELS) in which the mass is located outside the normal lung and has its own visceral pleura The blood ... Ideally, after the surgery, the sequestration steals less blood flow from the fetus, and the heart and lungs start growing more ...
CLE affects the upper lung lobes more than the lower lobes, and the left lung more often than the right lung. CLE is ... A focal lung pneumatosis, is a solitary volume of air in the lung that is larger than alveoli. A focal lung pneumatosis can be ... leaving the lung parenchyma in the surrounding (perilobular) region preserved. Usually the upper lobes of the lungs are ... Panlobular emphysema also called panacinar emphysema can involve the whole lung or mainly the lower lobes. This type of ...
It then divides into two lobar arteries, one for each lobe of the left lung. The right main pulmonary artery follows a longer ... The right and left main pulmonary arteries give off branches that roughly correspond to the lung lobes, and can in such cases ... interlobar artery - inferior and larger branch, supplies blood to the middle and inferior lobes of the lung. ... allowing blood to bypass the lungs. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. The ...
... left lung horizontal fissure of right lung azygos fissure of right lung Henle's fissure: the connective tissue between the ... Fissure of Sylvius: separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain from the temporal lobe. Wernicke's fissure: separates ... Clevenger's fissure: found in the inferior temporal lobe of the brain Collateral fissure: found in the inferior surface of the ... Hippocampal sulcus: a sulcus that extends from the brain's corpus callosum to the tip of the temporal lobe. Horizontal fissure ...
A serrula is present and well developed, occupying an extended area on the anterior lobe. Its posterior sternal sigilla is two ... Chelicerae: rastellum absent; book lung openings appear wider than other species of the genus, with their posterior rim more ... The specimens from Pinares (Concepción, Chile) from that same article, have a shorter outer spermathecal lobe than other ...
Classification of pneumonia
AP CXR showing pneumonia of the lingula of the left lung Right upper lobe pneumonia as marked by the circle. Left upper lobe ... A lobar pneumonia is an infection that only involves a single lobe, or section, of a lung. Lobar pneumonia is often due to ... necrotizing pneumonia includes pneumonias that cause substantial necrosis of lung cells, and sometimes even lung abscess. ... The resulting lung inflammation is not an infection but can contribute to one, since the material aspirated may contain ...
Differential diagnoses of depression
In one study of patients recovering from acute lung injury in intensive care, those patients who developed hypoglycemia while ... Lahmeyer HW (June 1982). "Frontal lobe meningioma and depression". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 43 (6): 254-5. PMID ... October 2008). "Intensive care unit hypoglycemia predicts depression during early recovery from acute lung injury*". Critical ...
The lungs are divided into different lobes. The right lung is larger in size than the left, because of the heart's being ... The right lung has three lobes - upper, middle, and lower (or superior, middle and inferior), and the left lung has two - upper ... Lung cancer. Main article: Lung cancer. Some of these cancers have environmental causes such as smoking. When a tobacco ... Each lobe is further divided up into segments called bronchopulmonary segments. Each lung has a costal surface, which is ...
Removal of just one lobe of the lung is specifically referred to as a lobectomy, and that of a segment of the lung as a wedge ... A rib or two is sometimes removed to allow the surgeon better access to the lung. There are two types of pneumonectomy: Simple ... Horn, L; Johnson DH (July 2008). "Evarts A. Graham and the first pneumonectomy for lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. ... After the operation, patients are often given an incentive spirometer to help exercise their remaining lung and to improve ...
Signal changes in the medial temporal lobes or hippocampi are frequently found on MRI. Its association with lung cancer and Hu ... Lymphoma in few cases of GABAa Ab syndrome Small-cell lung cancer in 50% of GABAb Ab syndrome. MRI were normal or nonspecific ... Associated turmors: lung, thymoma, breast, ovarian teratoma (64%) Immunotherapy with steroid, relapse rituximab and/or ... Vincent, Angela; Bien, Christian G. (2005-09-01). "Temporal lobe seizures, amnesia and autoantibodies - identifying a ...
This branch supplies the superior lobe of the right lung and is the most superior of all secondary bronchi. It arises above the ... "Pleural Cavities and Lungs: The Bronchi and Their Divisions" MedEd at Loyola Grossanatomy/dissector/practical/thorax/thorax10. ... The eparterial bronchus is the only secondary bronchus with a specific name apart from the name of its corresponding lobe. This ... is attributed to Swiss anatomist and anthropologist Christoph Theodor Aeby and is central to his model of the anatomical lung ...
William Henry Harrison
Effects of tightlacing on the body
The constriction of the corset, if too tight, prevents the lower lobes of the lungs from fully expanding when taking a breath. ... This puts extra strain on and causes additional work for the lower lobes of the lungs. David Kunzle, an art historian[dubious ... they are unable to adequately fight off pneumonia or bacillus tuberculosis which go to the lower lobes of the lungs first. ... Subtext: Recent MRI Scans have shown: Lungs, barely affected. Breathing was fine. Kidneys were fine. Now things do get affected ...
The silhouette sign is especially helpful in localizing lung lesions. (e.g., loss of right heart border in right middle lobe ... Fields (lung parenchyma), being evidence of alveolar flooding. *Failure, e.g. alveolar air space disease with prominent ... Fluid in space between the lung and the chest wall is termed a pleural effusion. There needs to be at least 75 mL of pleural ... If the right heart border is blurred, than the pathology is likely in the right middle lobe, though a cavum deformity can also ...
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
Calcium deposits in the alveoli begin in the lower lobes and spread over a period of years throughout the lungs. PAM is usually ... PAM is one of the rare lung diseases currently being studied by the Rare Lung Diseases Consortium (RLDC). Pulmonary Alveolar ... PAM may be confined to certain areas or show diffuse distribution through the lungs. Lung biopsy and autopsy specimens ... lung inflammation and fibrosis, elevated pressures in the lung blood vessels, and respiratory failure ensue, usually in middle ...
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some terrestrial species lack both lungs and gills and perform gas exchange through their skin. Even some species with lungs ... The earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian from lobe-finned fish which had jointed leg-like fins with digits. They could ... Because of this they have shorter lungs. Short lungs helps them to float easily. ... Species that lack lungs respire through gills. In most cases, these are external gills, visible as tufts on either side of the ...
The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function. A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on magnetic resonance imaging. ... Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing, difficulty in language comprehension ( ... Occipital lobe: Damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of vision. ...
... followed by inhaling fresh air into the lungs; a humpback whale's lungs can hold about 5,000 litres of air. Spout shapes differ ... The olfactory lobes are absent in toothed whales, suggesting that they have no sense of smell. Some whales, such as the bowhead ... The behaviour of Kogiids remains largely unknown, but, due to their small lungs, they are thought to hunt in the photic zone.[ ...
He concluded that people with some type of frontal lobe damage often "produced not only severe difficulties with expressive ... Singing training has been found to improve lung, speech clarity, and coordination of speech muscles, thus, accelerating ... is a language disorder caused by damage to Broca's area and surrounding regions in the left frontal lobe. Those with non- ... Universities are studying the effect of harmonica playing on patients with COPD in order to determine if it helps improve lung ...
... or fan-shaped fashion toward the periphery of the lung field. The process most often involves the lower lobe, but may affect ... any lobe or combination of lobes. Mycoplasma is found more often in younger than in older people. Older people are more often ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, U.S.A. What Causes Pneumonia?. ... rather than involving a whole lobe. As the disease progresses, however, the look can tend to lobar pneumonia. Absence of ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Gross pathology of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking. This close-up of the fixed, cut lung ... It seems to be particularly effective if emphysema predominantly involves the upper lobe, but the procedure increases the risks ... For those with very severe disease, surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume-reduction ... "Morbidity & Mortality: 2009 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases" (PDF). National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the rib cage that support breathing weaken, measures of lung function such as vital ... neurons throughout the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain die as well. The pathological hallmark of ALS is the ... with chewing and swallowing make eating very difficult and increases the risk of choking or of aspirating food into the lungs. ...
Initially, there are ten segments in each lung, but during development with the left lung having just two lobes, two pairs of ... and therefore it has been supposed by some that there is no upper lobe to the left lung, but that the so-called upper lobe ... which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung-the superior, middle and inferior lobe. The azygos vein arches over ... to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung-the superior and the inferior lobe. ...
Human digestive system
Evolution of mammals
ಇಂಟೆಲಿಜೆನ್ಸ್ ಕ್ವೋಷೆಂಟ್ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Metastrongyloidea are characterized as 2-cm-long, slender, threadlike worms that reside in the lungs of the definitive host. ... Headaches are progressive and severe, a bitemporal character in the frontal or occipital lobe. ... "Land snail infection rates for the human parasitic nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lung worm) with notes on snail ...
The lobes consists of a dense outer cortex and an inner less dense medulla. The lobes are divided into smaller lobules 0.5-2mm ... lung. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) editor-in-chief, Susan ... The two lobes differ slightly in size and may be united or separated. Thymic tissue sometimes be found scattered on or around ... Histologically, each lobe of the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an ...
The flexible ribcage allows lung collapse, reducing nitrogen intake, and metabolism can decrease to conserve oxygen. ... The sperm whale's flukes (tail lobes) are triangular and very thick. Proportionally, they are larger than that of any other ... and air that passes through the phonic lips can circulate back to the lungs. The sperm whale, unlike other odontocetes, has ...
Various parts of the cerebrum process sensory input, such as smell in the olfactory lobe and sight in the optic lobe, and it is ... Their lungs are functional early, but the larvae do not make as much use of them as do tadpoles. Their gills are never covered ... It had four sturdy limbs, a neck, a tail with fins and a skull very similar to that of the lobe-finned fish, Eusthenopteron.[13 ... Top: Restoration of Eusthenopteron, a fully aquatic lobe-finned fish Bottom: Restoration of Tiktaalik, an advanced ...
Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage
"Exercise-induced haemorrhagic lesions in the dorsocaudal extremities of the caudal lobes of the lungs of young thoroughbred ... Imaging the lungs by taking a radiograph (x-ray) of the chest cannot be used to diagnose EIPH, as the lungs of affected and ... There are often distinct borders between healthy lung tissue and those parts of the lungs that have been affected by EIPH. ... A normal lung wash sample contains fewer than 10 red blood cells/μl of fluid. In the case of EIPH, the numbers will be several ...
위키백과:모든 언어의 위키백과마다 꼭 있어야 하는 문서 목록/확장판/생물학 및 의과학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
In the human female, the urethra is about 1.9 inches (4.8 cm) to 2 inches (5.1 cm) long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. The meatus is located below the clitoris. It is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, and its direction is obliquely downward and forward; it is slightly curved with the concavity directed forward. The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium cells. The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the urethral sphincter. Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. ...
Lobe-finned. Lobe-finned fishes, like this coelacanth, have fins that are borne on a fleshy, lobelike, scaly stalk ... which are the only fish to have retained the primitive lung present in the common ancestor of bony fish from which swim ... Lobe-finned fishes are a class of bony fishes called Sarcopterygii. They have fleshy, lobed, paired fins, which are joined to ... A) - Heterocercal means the vertebrae extend into the upper lobe of the tail, making it longer (as in sharks). It is the ...
Superior lobe. *Lingula of left lung. *Middle lobe of right lung. *Inferior lobe ... The only vertebrates to have lungs, but no trachea, are the lungfish and the Polypterus, in which the lungs arise directly from ... The trachea, also called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing ... Cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs. For the genus of moth, see Trachea (moth). For the cup- ...
Amoebic liver abscess
Endothelial dysfunction, or the loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for vascular diseases, and is often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Impaired endothelial function, causing hypertension and thrombosis, is often seen in patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, as well as in smokers. Endothelial dysfunction has also been shown to be predictive of future adverse cardiovascular events, and is also present in inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the main mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction is the diminishing of nitric oxide, often due to high levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, which interfere with the normal L-arginine-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis and so leads to hypertension. The most prevailing mechanism of endothelial dysfunction is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which can impair nitric oxide production and activity via ...
In lobe-finned fishes and the early fossil tetrapods, the bone homologous to the mandible of mammals is merely the largest of ... to pump water across the gills of fish or air into the lungs in the case of amphibians. Over evolutionary time the more ... Although the skulls of fossil lobe-finned fish resemble those of the early tetrapods, the same cannot be said of those of the ...
Lobes of the Lung
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Lobes of the Lung in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Right upper lobe. of lung. Right middle lobe Right lower lobe Left upper lobe Left lower lobe LifeART Collection Images ... Lobes of the Lung. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Lobes of the Lung in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw ... Lobes of the Lung. Surface anatomy of lungs with lobes indicated by differing colors.. Trachea (windpipe). ...
Lung Middle Lobe Diagram & Function | Body Maps
The left lung has a superior and inferior lobe, while the right lung has superior, middle, and inferior lobes. Thin walls of ... Only the right lung has a middle lobe. ... Middle Lobe Lung. Middle Lobe Lung. Medically reviewed by ... The lung consists of five lobes. The left lung has a superior and inferior lobe, while the right lung has superior, middle, and ... Only the right lung has a middle lobe. As the name implies, this lobe is located between the upper and lower (also called the ...
Lung mass, right upper lobe - CT scan: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
suspicious opacities in right upper lobe - Lung Cancer - MedHelp
... and found out that he has suspicious opacities in right upper lobe when he had an xray. were worried because we really need ... suspicious opacities in right upper lobe mmpoquiz hi to all, my husband had a medical for his new job, and found out that he ... hi to all, my husband had a medical for his new job, and found out that he has suspicious opacities in right upper lobe when he ... Create an account to receive updates on: suspicious opacities in right upper lobe ...
Lung nodule, right middle lobe - chest x-ray: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
Left cranial lung lobe torsion in a Pug
Treatment involves surgical resection of the affected lung lobe as reduction of the torsion, and attempts to save the lobe are ... Lung lobe torsion is a rare, life threatening condition that has been reported in dogs, cats, and humans. It involves the ... However, over the past two decades there has been an increasing incidence of spontaneous torsion of lung lobes in small breeds ... torsion of the lung lobe along its long axis, resulting in occlusion of the bronchovascular pedicel at the hilus. Historically ...
Lobe left lung removed no chemo or radiation? | Cancer Survivors Network
RE: Lobe left lung removed no chemo or radiation?. Hi, I too had the upper lobe of my left lung removed in 1987, and had ... RE: Lobe left lung removed no chemo or radiation?. Hi, I too had the upper lobe of my left lung removed in 1987, and had ... Lobe left lung removed no chemo or radiation?. Hi Nancy,. I also hadnsclc stage 1 and had my upper left lobe on my left lung ... RE: Lobe left lung removed no chemo or radiation?. Where non-small cell lung cancer is caught at stage 1 with no node ...
Lung Cancer lower right lobe of lung-Thorocotomy | Cancer Survivors Network
Welcome to the ACS lung. Welcome to the ACS lung cancer board! My stage 4 adenocarcinoma of the lung was diagnosed in Oct of ... My largest nodules are in my lower right lobe. May I ask what type of lung cancer it was you were diagnosed with and if you had ... I had a thorocotomy in November of 2012,with the lower lobe of my right lung removed. I was in ICU for 12 days. The surgery ... I had mets to the opposite lung, lymph nodes and a malignant pleural effusion. At that time I was told I might live another 10 ...
Robot-Assisted Left Upper Lobe Lung Volume Reduction Surgery With Intraoperative Firefly Perfusion Assessment | CTSNet
Robot-Assisted Left Upper Lobe Lung Volume Reduction Surgery With Intraoperative Firefly Perfusion Assessment. Wednesday, March ... Shanahan B, Egan M, Murphy D, Redmond K. Robot-Assisted Left Upper Lobe Lung Volume Reduction Surgery With Intraoperative ... The authors demonstrate a robot-assisted lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), performed for a 71-year-old man who was an ex- ... Left Lower Lobe Bronchiectasis After Rare Abnormal Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in a Hydrocephalic Child ...
A Dose Ranging Study of the Aeris Polymeric Lung Volume Reduction (PLVR) System in Patients With Advanced Upper Lobe...
Multiple Ground-Glass Opacities with Different Growth Rates in the Same Lobe of the Lung during the Follow-Up after the...
In November 2008, chest CT revealed two ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the right lower lobe. In October 2009, both of these ... Right lower lobe S6 segmentectomy was performed on September 6, 2011, and histopathological examination revealed eight ... underwent right middle lobectomy for adenocarcinoma of the lung, pT1aN0M0, in November 2007. ... Multiple Ground-Glass Opacities with Different Growth Rates in the Same Lobe of the Lung during the Follow-Up after the ...
Lung cancer - left lower lobe (retrocardiac) | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org
This includes the retrocardiac space - when shown or indicated this tumour (lung cancer) is very visible, but easily overlooked ... Lung cancer - left lower lobe (retrocardiac). Case contributed by Dr Ian Bickle ◉ ... This includes the retrocardiac space - when shown or indicated this tumour (lung cancer) is very visible, but easily overlooked ...
Outstanding Anatomy Lung Lobes Photo - Human Anatomy Images - fullthreadahead.com
Segments Of The Lung Lobes And Segments Of Lung Anatomy Cards Lobes Of The Lung Lungs Definition Location Anatomy Function ... Lung Lobes Diagram Human Anatomy Diagram Lung Lobe The Inner Body PLEURA LUNG Prof Saeed Abuel Makarem Ppt Video Online ... Figure it out this Anatomy Lung Lobes as a solution for a great key for your daily necessities.. This Anatomy Lung Lobes is a ... Welcome take this Anatomy Lung Lobes as an/a sampling of our diversity of ideas. You can practice Anatomy Lung Lobes to post it ...
Human Lung: Left Lower Lobe (Normal) tissue lysate, Cytoplasmic Fraction | GeneTex
The human lung left lower lobe tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70˚C. For ... the isolated lung left lower lobe tissue cytoplasmic protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by ... visualization with coomassie blue staining., Human Lung: Left Lower Lobe (Normal) tissue lysate, Cytoplasmic Fraction, GTX28691 ... Human lung left lower lobe tissue cytoplasmic protein lysate was prepared by isolating the cytoplasmic protein from whole ...
Golden S-sign (lung lobe collapse) | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
lung cancer staging *lung cancer staging. *IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition (current) ... Golden S-sign (lung lobe collapse). Dr Ian Bickle ◉ and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard ◉ ◈ et al. ... lung cancer * non-small-cell lung cancer * adenocarcinoma *pre-invasive tumors * adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) ... Although typically seen with right upper lobe collapse, the S-sign can also be seen with the collapse of other lobes. It is ...
2008 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 162.3 : Malignant neoplasm of upper lobe bronchus or lung
Short description: MAL NEO UPPER LOBE LUNG.. *ICD-9-CM 162.3 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM C34.10 Malignant neoplasm of upper lobe, unspecified bronchus or lung ... Malignant neoplasm of upper lobe bronchus or lung. * ... Cancer of the lung, left upper lobe. *Cancer of the lung, right ... Malignant neoplasm of trachea bronchus and lung 162- ... Lung cancer, R upper lobe. *Primary malignant neoplasm of ...
Lung: lobe torsion in dogs | Vetlexicon Canis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary Intelligence
... lobe torsion in dogs including diagnosis and symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, prognosis and more. All information ... Lung lobe twists around bronchovascular pedicle.. *Right middle lobe most commonly cited but recent studies have shown an ... Mechanisms unknown but deep interlobar fissures of dog lung enable freedom of movement of the lung lobe. ... With chronicity, air within the lung is absorbed. Fluid accumulation results in consolidation of the lung lobe. ...
A Study on Morphological Variations of Fissures and Lobes of Human Lungs with its Clinical Significance | Journal of...
The accessory fissures were more common in lower lobe of right lung whereas in left lungs it was more common in upper lobe. ... of the right lungs. In addition, 22.58% of right lungs and 23.68% of left lungs showed presence of accessory fissure and lobes ... Keywords: Anatomy, Bronchi, Lung Abstract. Background: Fissures of lungs facilitate the movement of lobes which helps in ... A Study on Morphological Variations of Fissures and Lobes of Human Lungs with its Clinical Significance * Dil Islam Mansur ...
Sabinet | Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage from the upper lobe of the left lung
This paper reports a 31-month-old child with isolated partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage from the upper lobe of the ... left lung into a left ascending superior vena cava (vertical vein) with normal drainage of the other pulmonary veins. ... oa South African Medical Journal - Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage from the upper lobe of the left lung * Navigate ... Keyword(s) : Case report, Left lung, Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, Radiology and Upper lobe ...
Lung lobe: abscess removal - closure 04 illustration | rabbits | Vetlexicon Lapis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary...
2018/2019 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code C34.2: Malignant neoplasm of middle lobe, bronchus or lung
C34.10 Malignant neoplasm of upper lobe, unspecified bronchus or lung C34.11 Malignant neoplasm of upper lobe, right bronchus ... C34.30 Malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, unspecified bronchus or lung C34.31 Malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, right bronchus ... Malignant neoplasm of middle lobe, bronchus or lung. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code *C34.2 is a billable/specific ... C34.32 Malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, left bronchus or lung C34.8 Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of bronchus and ...
Clinical Cases and Images: Lung Cancer Presenting with Right Middle Lobe (RML) Mass
Lung windows show signs of COPD. There is subpleural scarring in the left lung base and lingula. Except for the pleural based ... And, of course, in every smoker with lung symptoms, lung cancer is among the differentials.. What laboratory tests would you ... RML mass, likely due to lung cancer. Biopsy to be done.. Related reading:. Selling cigarettes in Thailand. KidneyNotes.com. Sir ... CXR - and there was the surprise - a RML lung mass.. You know that the first questions is "Is that new?", so we checked the ...
3D-CT lung volumetry using multidetector row computed tomography: pulmonary function of each anatomic lobe. - Semantic Scholar
... right lower lobe and left lower lobe) and the other lobes (right upper lobe, right middle lobe, and left upper lobe) were ... right upper lobe, right middle lobe, right lower lobe, left upper lobe, and left lower lobe. For each lobe, total lobar volume ... On a 3D-CT image, the entire lung was semiautomatically separated into 5 anatomic lobes: ... The NLV values of the lower lobes were significantly correlated with DLCO (P,0.001), although the NLV values of the other lobes ...
Inferior Lobe Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps
Each lung is divided into lobes; the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes, while the left lung ... The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. ... consists of only the superior and inferior lobes. ... inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes; the right lung consists of the superior, middle ... Note that both lungs contain an inferior lobe, and it is roughly a similar size to the superior lobe within each lung. An ...
Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Board Index: lower lobe pulmonary nodule
What they were looking for they did not find, but instead they found a 6mm lung nodule in the right lower lobe of my lung. Ive ... Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Board Index. Board Index > Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD , 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K ... My abdomen showed no abnormalities but a 3mm lung nodule was discovered in my lower lobe. The ER doctor suggested that I follow ... HealthBoards , Board Index , Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD , L > lower lobe pulmonary nodule ...
Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Board Index: Nodules, granuloma, azygous lobe
Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Board Index. Board Index > Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD , 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K ... Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD Message Board HealthBoards , Board Index , Lung & Respiratory Disorders / COPD , P > pain ... The report says that the pulmonary parenchyma in the right lung base shows hypoventilation of the lung bases, a 7.7 mm nodule ... They did see two nodes in my right lung and ordered a chest ct. I just picked up the results from that. ...
What are the causes of frontal lobe headaches? | Reference.com
... tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe area, as listed by ... What can cause a hole in the lung?. * Q: What do hospitals do with amputated limbs?. ... What causes frontal lobe headaches?. A: Eye strain, tension and sinus problems can cause pain in the frontal lobe, according to ... Frontal sinusitis, tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe ...
Lung lobe torsion in seven Juvenile dogs<...
The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial ... The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial ... The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial ... The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial ...
IJARS - Lungs, Fissures, Lobes, Variations
... of left lungs, where as it was found to be absent in more in left lungs proportionate to right lungs (5.55% of left lungs and ... Among the left lung specimens studied, incomplete oblique fissure was seen in 29 lungs & absence of oblique fissure in two lung ... of principal bronchi where deep complete fissures remain dividing the right lung into 3 lobes and left lung into 2 lobes. These ... Result: Among the right lung specimens examined, one lung showed absence of oblique fissure & 22 right lungs had no horizontal ...
Organs Lung Lobes Alveoli | AO Scanner
R Inferior Lobe. The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes, the right lung consists of ... L Inferior Lobe. The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes, the right lung consists of ... R Middle Lobe. The lung consists of five lobes. The left lung has a superior and inferior lobe, while the right lung has ... L Superior Lobe. The left upper lobe (LUL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left lower lobe by ...
AnatomyTracheaBronchiDiaphragmInferior lobesFissureRespiratoryThoracicCarbon dioxideAnatomicalDiagnosisBronchusHuman lungsLingulaSuperior lobeMedialLeft lobeOrgansAbscessFissures and lobesPleuraApicalAtelectasisBronchopulmonary segmentsFrontalOpacitiesPrimaryBilateralUpper lobe opacificationLymph nodesDividesTumourParenchyma
- Surface anatomy of lungs with lobes indicated by differing colors. (smartdraw.com)
- Welcome take this Anatomy Lung Lobes as an/a sampling of our diversity of ideas. (fullthreadahead.com)
- You can practice Anatomy Lung Lobes to post it anywhere you desire or even inspire yourself for more ideas. (fullthreadahead.com)
- To be able to use yourself the Anatomy Lung Lobes please take your a minute to analyze what you could do with this Anatomy Lung Lobes. (fullthreadahead.com)
- Figure it out this Anatomy Lung Lobes as a solution for a great key for your daily necessities. (fullthreadahead.com)
- This Anatomy Lung Lobes is a bit of a selection of thoughts that will improve your talent. (fullthreadahead.com)
- This study was consisted of sixty nine human lungs with irrespective of sex which were available in the department of anatomy of various medical colleges. (nepjol.info)
- Other than the normal anatomy, different variations in the fissural patterns are observed in the form of incomplete fissures where there is fusion of lung parenchyma between the lobes & absent fissures or accessory fissures of varying depth, delimiting anomalous lobes corresponding to normal bronchopulmonary segments (3) . (ijars.net)
- In anatomy , a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain , lung , liver , or kidney ) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level. (wikipedia.org)
- In human anatomy, an azygos lobe is a congenital variation of the upper lobe of the right lung.It is seen in 1% of the population. (wikipedia.org)
- Imaging of the azygos lobe: normal anatomy and variations" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. (cancer.gov)
- The right upper lobe of the lung is located in the right superior corner of the thoracic cavity lateral to the trachea and esophagus. (aoscan.com)
- On its medial end, the right upper lobe is concave and has several prominent notches that accommodate the trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels of the mediastinum. (aoscan.com)
- The bronchi are two pieces of the trachea that split off between the two lungs. (prezi.com)
- The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles , and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone . (wikipedia.org)
- Two main branches of the trachea leading into the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- The trachea divides behind the sternum (breastbone) to form a left and right branch, called bronchi (pronounced BRONG-key), each entering a lung. (encyclopedia.com)
- A bronchoscopy is a test used to look inside the trachea (windpipe), bronchi (large airways of the lungs) and lungs using an endoscope . (cancer.ca)
- The trachea and major bronchi of the human lungs. (britannica.com)
- Below the larynx and in front of the esophagus, the trachea is a rigid tube conducting air to the lungs. (brighthub.com)
- g) E14.5 WT lung and (h) CKO lung which shows partial right isomerization, astereotypic branching and a grape like structure, and absence of trachea. (nih.gov)
- For almost two thousand years it was thought that the lungs were generally similar in structure to the liver, spleen, and pancreas, the only important difference being that air could enter the lungs through the trachea to mix physically with blood, cooling it by passing into the blood vessels. (encyclopedia.com)
- Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. (cancer.gov)
- It then travels down the throat through the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) and goes into the lungs through tubes called mainstem bronchi. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Each lobe receives air from its own branch of the bronchial tree, called lobar (or secondary) bronchi. (healthline.com)
- Within the lungs, these bronchi are divided into smaller tubes. (healthline.com)
- Air enters the root of the right lung through the right primary bronchus, which divides into three secondary bronchi. (aoscan.com)
- Of these three secondary bronchi, the right superior lobar bronchus extends superiorly to provide air to the right upper lobe. (aoscan.com)
- Inside the right upper lobe, the right superior lobar bronchus divides into three tertiary bronchi, which provide air to the three bronchopulmonary segments: apical, anterior, and posterior. (aoscan.com)
- After entering the lungs, the right bronchus divides into three lobar bronchi , while the left bronchus divides into two lobar bronchi - one for each of the lung lobes. (therespiratorysystem.com)
- There are 10 tertiary bronchi in the right lung and 9 in the left, so each of the lung segments is supplied by one of these bronchial branches . (therespiratorysystem.com)
- The lobar collapse from cicatrization may be either obstructive if the bronchi are involved or nonobstructive because of the fibrotic process in the lung parenchyma. (medscape.com)
- As the primary bronchi enter the lungs, they split off into secondary bronchi, and so on until they spread out in-between both lobes. (prezi.com)
- Branching, air-conducting subdivisions of the bronchi in the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Inside the lungs, the bronchi subdivide repeatedly into smaller airways. (encyclopedia.com)
- Bronchi are tubes that conduct air to the part of the lungs where gas exchange occurs. (brighthub.com)
- The left and right primary bronchi divide into secondary bronchi, supplying each lobe. (brighthub.com)
- The secondary bronchi divide into tertiary or segmental bronchi which conducts air to portions of the lungs called bronchopulmonary segments. (brighthub.com)
- e) In wild type lungs, PITX3 expression is present in the differentiated PSMCs adjacent to the bronchi. (nih.gov)
- f) In CKO lungs, PITX3 expression is no longer found as a continuous layer around the bronchi likely reflecting a defect in the formation of the PSMC. (nih.gov)
- The bronchi are sometimes also involved in lung cancer . (cancer.gov)
- In the lungs, the mainstem bronchi divide into smaller bronchi and then into even smaller tubes called bronchioles. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Lungs are sacks of tissue located just below the rib cage and above the diaphragm. (livescience.com)
- The diaphragm and rib cage essentially pump the lungs. (livescience.com)
- Your diaphragm is just below your lungs. (drugs.com)
- As your diaphragm moves down, your lungs expand. (drugs.com)
- During exercise, your abdominal muscles push your diaphragm against your lungs more often. (drugs.com)
- The left lung has a superior and inferior lobe, while the right lung has superior, middle, and inferior lobes. (healthline.com)
- As the name implies, this lobe is located between the upper and lower (also called the superior and inferior) lobes. (healthline.com)
- the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes, while the left lung consists of only the superior and inferior lobes. (healthline.com)
- In addition, the right lung is divided into superior, middle & inferior lobes by an oblique fissure (1) . (ijars.net)
- Each lung is divided into lobes, the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes, while the left lung consists of only the superior and inferior lobes. (aoscan.com)
- An oblique fissure divides the superior and inferior lobes of the lung, in the right lung a horizontal fissure also separates the middle lobe. (aoscan.com)
- the superior , - middle , - and inferior lobes. (prezi.com)
- The one that separates the superior lobe from the middle lobe is called the horizontal fissure while the right oblique fissure separates the middle and inferior lobes. (prezi.com)
- Effect of fissure integrity on lung volume reduction using a polymer sealant in advanced emphysema. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 35.48% of left lungs had incomplete oblique fissure compared to 28.95% of the right lungs. (nepjol.info)
- In addition, 22.58% of right lungs and 23.68% of left lungs showed presence of accessory fissure and lobes. (nepjol.info)
- in the right lung a horizontal fissure also separates the middle lobe. (healthline.com)
- Small spiculated nodule present in the right upper lobe adjacent to the minor fissure. (healthboards.com)
- Among the right lung specimens examined, one lung showed absence of oblique fissure & 22 right lungs had no horizontal fissure. (ijars.net)
- None of the right lung specimens showed any accessory fissure. (ijars.net)
- Among the left lung specimens studied, incomplete oblique fissure was seen in 29 lungs & absence of oblique fissure in two lung specimens. (ijars.net)
- The oblique fissure cuts the vertebral border of both lungs at the level of 4th or 5th thoracic spine. (ijars.net)
- Horizontal fissure, seen only in the right lung begins laterally at the oblique fissure & runs almost transversely across the costal surface to the anterior margin & around the margin back to the hilum (2) . (ijars.net)
- It is separated from the left lower lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments, two of which represent the lingula. (aoscan.com)
- The left lung consists of two lobes and one fissure. (prezi.com)
- azygos lobe ( lobe of azygos vein ) a small anomalous lobe situated at the apex of the right lung, produced when the azygos vein arches over the upper part of the lung instead of at the hilus and presses deeply into the lung tissue to form a fissure that isolates a medial part of the lung. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Each lung is divided into lobes separated from one another by a tissue fissure . (britannica.com)
- Abnormalities found on physical examination are often respiratory signs such as dyspnea, coughing, and dull heart and lung sounds on ausculation. (cornell.edu)
- Lower lobe damage proves that there are respiratory issues. (healthboards.com)
- Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of lung lobe torsion when evaluating young dogs with clinical signs related to the respiratory system, including those with vague signs, to avoid undue delays in treatment. (elsevier.com)
- The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails . (wikipedia.org)
- The human respiratory system consists of the respiratory tract and the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- The respiratory tract cleans, warms, and moistens air during its trip to the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition to respiratory activities, the lungs perform other bodily functions. (britannica.com)
- Healed lung tissue becomes a fibrous scar unable to perform respiratory duties. (britannica.com)
- Your lungs are part of the respiratory system. (drugs.com)
- Respiratory infections and colds may become serious for a person who has a lung condition. (drugs.com)
- Cardiopulmonary changes induced during one-lung ventilation in anesthetized dogs with a closed thoracic cavity," American Journal of Veterinary Research , vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 973-977, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- Automated lung volumetry from routine thoracic CT scans: how reliable is the result? (semanticscholar.org)
- The lungs are the essential organs of respiration which are situated within the thoracic cavity on either side of the heart & other mediastinal contents. (ijars.net)
- The left lung is a little smaller than the right lung because it has to make space for the heart (the cardiac notch) in the left side of the thoracic cavity. (therespiratorysystem.com)
- Dome-shaped sheet of muscle located below the lungs separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities that contracts and expands to force air in and out of the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Membranous sac that envelops each lung and lines the thoracic cavity. (encyclopedia.com)
- One layer of the pleura attaches to the wall of the thoracic cavity and the other layer encloses the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each lobe of the lung has the same physiologic function, bringing oxygen into the bloodstream and removing carbon dioxide. (healthline.com)
- Tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the lungs and the bloodstream. (encyclopedia.com)
- This process - external respiration - causes the blood to leave the lungs laden with oxygen and cleared of carbon dioxide. (encyclopedia.com)
- The function of the lungs is to provide an enormous surface for gas exchange, with oxygen entering the body and carbon dioxide leaving it. (encyclopedia.com)
- The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- When you breathe out (exhale), your lungs remove waste gas (carbon dioxide) from your body. (drugs.com)
- Keeping in mind the above clinical importance, a cadaveric study focussed on anatomical variations of fissures & lobes was done in 82 human cadaveric lungs, over a period of one year. (ijars.net)
- Hence, awareness of anatomical variations of lungs with respect to its lobes & fissures is of great significance. (ijars.net)
- Fig 1.0 - Anatomical position of the lungs. (lopictus.pw)
- 1985) Diagnosis and Management of Synchronous Lung Cancers. (scirp.org)
- Frontal sinusitis, tension headaches and migraines are some of the most common causes of headaches affecting the frontal lobe area, as listed by Right Diagnosis. (reference.com)
- Right middle lobe syndrome is essentially a radiographic diagnosis, and physical findings widely vary. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Gudbjartsson T, Gudmundsson G. Middle lobe syndrome: a review of clinicopathological features, diagnosis and treatment. (medscape.com)
- To code a diagnosis of this type, you must use one of the three child codes of C34.3 that describes the diagnosis 'malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, bronchus or lung' in more detail. (icd.codes)
- C34.30 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, unspecified bronchus or lung. (icd.codes)
- Asthma , also called reactive airway disease before a diagnosis of asthma, is a lung disease where the air passageways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it hard to breath. (livescience.com)
- It is created by a central mass obstructing the upper lobe bronchus and should raise suspicion of a primary bronchogenic carcinoma . (radiopaedia.org)
- Protruding just inferior to the right upper lobe is the root of the right lung, which contains the primary bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves entering the lung. (aoscan.com)
- The left upper lobe bronchus arises from the superolateral wall of the left main bronchus to traverse the left hilum into the LUL. (aoscan.com)
- One mainstem bronchus leads to the right lung and one to the left lung. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Being a vital organ of respiration, the human lungs are divided by fissures into lobes, which facilitate movements of lobes in relation to one another. (ijars.net)
- Hence, this case series was carried out to gain further insight into the fissural pattern of human lungs. (ijars.net)
- The two human lungs are divided into multiple smaller sections by fissures. (therespiratorysystem.com)
- There is subpleural scarring in the left lung base and lingula. (clinicalcases.org)
- Although the left lung has only two lobes, there is an evident projection from the upper lobe, referred to as lingula which has two segments . (therespiratorysystem.com)
- The lingula serves as the equivalent to the right lung's middle lobe in the left lung . (therespiratorysystem.com)
- Infiltrate in the lingula of the left lung. (hindawi.com)
Fissures and lobes3
- Hence, the present study was aimed to study the morphological variations in fissures and lobes. (nepjol.info)
- All lung specimens were carefully observed and recorded for the presence of any variations in fissures and lobes. (nepjol.info)
- The present study showed the wide range of variations in fissures and lobes of lungs. (nepjol.info)
- A sac, called the pleura, surrounds and protects the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each lung half has its own pleura sack. (livescience.com)
- The lungs are enveloped in a membrane called the pleura. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Some conditions can be treated with a procedure that doesn't remove your lung or the pleura. (mskcc.org)
- The term atelectasis , which is defined as diminished lung volume, is derived from the Greek words ateles and ektasis, which mean incomplete expansion (see the image below). (medscape.com)
- Atelectasis may affect all or part of a lung, and it is one of the most common radiographic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
- Gross anatomic specimen showing airless lungs, or atelectasis. (medscape.com)
- The uniform elasticity of a normal lung preserves the shape, even after atelectasis is present. (medscape.com)
- Since these fissures delimit the lobes & thus are needed for locating bronchopulmonary segments, knowledge of their position is necessary both anatomically as well as clinically for planning lobectomies & surgical resections & also in the interpretation of radiological images. (ijars.net)
- The lobes are further divided into bronchopulmonary segments and lobules . (wikipedia.org)
- What are the causes of frontal lobe headaches? (reference.com)
- Eye strain, tension and sinus problems can cause pain in the frontal lobe, according to MajorDiseases.com. (reference.com)
- Benign Hemangioma/Meningioma causing frontal lobe compression. (medhelp.org)
- It appears to me that the left frontal lobe is being compromised (mashed down) by the lesion. (medhelp.org)
- frontal lobe the anterior portion of the gray matter of each cerebral hemisphere . (thefreedictionary.com)
- parietal lobe the upper central portion of the gray matter of each cerebral hemisphere , between the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe and above the temporal lobe . (thefreedictionary.com)
- hi to all, my husband had a medical for his new job, and found out that he has suspicious opacities in right upper lobe when he had an xray. (medhelp.org)
- fibrohazed opacities are noted in upper lobes. (steadyhealth.com)
- Findings:redemonstrate are ill-defined opacities in the left upper lobe which appear stable versus slightly increase. (steadyhealth.com)
- What is suspicious opacities on left upper lobe? (healthtap.com)
Upper lobe opacification1
- This system facilitates CO 2 insufflation (the less emphysematous lung with less air trapping tends to preferentially deflate first), 8 mm port hopping with a 30 degree tridimensional robotic camera, and closed robotic stapling of the lung parenchyma using a 12 mm port, with minimal disruption to the intercostal space and intercostal nerve. (ctsnet.org)