Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Veins which drain the liver.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
A dead body, usually a human body.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Excision of kidney.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The period following a surgical operation.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. The different clinical types based on symptoms correspond to the presence of a variety of mutations in several different proteins including transthyretin (PREALBUMIN); APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; and GELSOLIN.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.
Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Pathological processes involving the URETERS.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.
Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.
A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living. (
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.

The spouse as a kidney donor: ethically sound? (1/1772)

A shortage of cadaver donor organs requires transplant units to examine all possible alternatives. Transplantation from living donors accounts for only approximately 10% of kidney transplants in the UK. Recent studies have shown that the results of kidney transplantation between spouses are at least as good as those of well-matched cadaver organs, but very few transplants of this type have been performed in this country so far. As part of the assessment process, the proposed donor and recipient are required to provide written statements about the issues. We reproduce here the personal statements made by one of our patients and his wife: we believe that the statements support our contention that spousal transplantation is ethically justifiable and should be more widely available. We report our early experience in Bristol with seven kidney transplants from spousal donors and we encourage other renal units in this country and elsewhere to consider this method of improving the prospects of kidney transplantation for their patients.  (+info)

Immediate and early renal function after living donor transplantation. (2/1772)

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the immediate renal function after living donor transplantation, renal function was compared in eight renal allograft recipients and their living related kidney donors during the first 24 h after transplantation. METHODS: Substantial and comparable intraoperative volume loading with Ringer's acetate and mannitol was performed together with the administration of frusemide. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were estimated by the clearances of inulin and p-aminohippurane, respectively. Tubular reabsorptive function and injury were estimated from the clearance of lithium, the fractional excretion of sodium and the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. RESULTS: One hour after completion of surgery, GFR (54 +/- 7 ml/min) and ERPF (294 +/- 35 ml/min) were only 30% lower in the grafts than in the remaining donor kidneys, increasing to similar levels within 3 h. Only minor tubular dysfunction and injury were revealed in the grafted kidneys, and these tended to normalize within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: By the present transplantation procedure comprising short ischaemia time and substantial volume expansion combined with mannitol and frusemide administration, kidneys from living donors regain nearly normal function within a few hours after transplantation.  (+info)

Influence of intestinal bacterial decontamination using metronidazole and ciprofloxacin or ciprofloxacin alone on the development of acute graft-versus-host disease after marrow transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies: final results and long-term follow-up of an open-label prospective randomized trial. (3/1772)

In a single-center open-label prospective study, a total of 134 marrow transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to a bacterial decontamination medication using metronidazole and ciprofloxacin (n = 68) or ciprofloxacin alone (n = 66) during 5 weeks posttransplant. The development of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was defined as the primary study endpoint. According to the intention-to-treat, 17 patients (25%) randomized to the combined decontamination medication and 33 patients (50%) randomized to ciprofloxacin alone developed grades II to IV GVHD (P <.002). The higher frequency of grades II to IV acute GVHD in patients randomized to ciprofloxacin alone resulted from a more than twofold increased number of patients developing liver or intestinal involvement with acute GVHD compared with patients randomized to the combined decontamination medication (P <.003). The influence of the study medication on grades II to IV acute GVHD was significant only in recipients of transplants from genotypically HLA-identical sibling donors (n = 80), whereas in recipients of transplants from donors other than HLA-identical siblings (n = 54), grades II to IV acute GVHD frequencies between the study arms were not significantly different. The combined decontamination was associated with a significant reduction of culture growth of intestinal anaerobic bacteria during 5 weeks posttransplant (P <. 00001). In addition, the number of cultures with growth of anaerobic bacteria (P <.005) as well as the median concentrations of anaerobic bacteria in the posttransplant period (P <.0001) were higher in patients contracting grades II to IV acute GVHD. Neither chronic GVHD nor overall survival was significantly different between the two study arms. In patients with HLA-identical sibling donors who were treated in early disease stages, the 5-year survival estimate was slightly, but not significant, higher after the combined decontamination medication (60% +/- 11%) compared with ciprofloxacin alone (46% +/- 9%). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that antimicrobial chemotherapy targeted to intestinal anaerobic bacteria in marrow transplant recipients significantly reduces the severity of acute GVHD and supports the theory that the intestinal anaerobic bacterial microflora plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD after human marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Depletion of alloreactive T cells by a specific anti-interleukin-2 receptor p55 chain immunotoxin does not impair in vitro antileukemia and antiviral activity. (4/1772)

The success of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-disparate donors depends on the development of new strategies able, on one hand, to efficiently prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and, on the other hand, to protect leukemic patients from relapse and infections. Using an immunotoxin (IT) directed against the alpha chain (p55) of the human interleukin-2 receptor (RFT5-SMPT-dgA), we previously showed that it is possible to kill mature T cells activated against a specific HLA complex by a one-way mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). The present study was performed to investigate whether this protocol of allodepletion affects the capacity of residual T cells to display antileukemia and antiviral activity evaluated by limiting dilution assays (LDA), measuring the frequency of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors (CTLp) directed against autologous leukemic blasts (LB) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)- and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected target cells. Antileukemia activity was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 3 patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia who had developed a high frequency of LB-reactive CTLp after either autologous or allogeneic BMT. Results demonstrate that (1) depletion with RFT5-SMPT-dgA efficiently inhibited MLC; (2) fresh PBMC of patients yielded a high frequency of LB-reactive CTLp comparable to that of the mock-treated PBMC; and (3) effector cells obtained after allodepletion fully retained the capacity to lyse pretransplant LB. By contrast, the frequency of CTLp directed against patient's pretransplant BM remission cells was always undetectable. Data obtained in 4 healthy donors showed that specifically allodepleted T cells recognized and killed autologous CMV-infected fibroblasts and autologous EBV-B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. In conclusion, our data indicate that allodepletion using RFT5-SMPT-dgA efficiently removed alloreactive cells, while sparing in vitro antileukemic and antiviral cytotoxic responses.  (+info)

Hypothesis: is renal allograft rejection initiated by the response to injury sustained during the transplant process? (5/1772)

Allograft rejection can be caused by numerous factors such as damage to the donor kidney during surgical removal or implantation, injury sustained during the transport process between the donor and recipient, and suboptimal allograft perfusion during the intra- and post-operative period. In cadaveric allografts, damage can occur during cold storage, during the transit stage between donor and recipient, and hemodynamic instability due to the initial damage that caused its removal from the donor (such as brain death or trauma). We hypothesize that rejection requires recognition of this injury in addition to recognition of alloantigens. If indeed injury proves to be one factor in acute rejection episodes, then therapeutic efforts can be made to reduce injury during the transplantation process.  (+info)

Asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy in evaluation of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation. (6/1772)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy in the post-transplant monitoring of liver graft and native liver functions in recipients of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) from living donors. METHODS: We performed 36 asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphies on 13 patients who had undergone APOLT for noncirrhotic metabolic liver diseases or for small-for-size grafts. The portal vein of the native liver was separated in 12 patients. Anterior dynamic images including the heart and both livers were obtained for 16 min after intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA), and thereafter static SPECT images of both livers were obtained. Uptake rates from the blood to the graft and to the native liver were determined separately by Patlak plot graphical analysis. Relative uptake of GSA by the graft was calculated from transverse SPECT images. The relative volume of the graft liver was determined by CT. RESULTS: The relative uptake of GSA by the graft was higher or increased more rapidly than the relative volume of the graft in 8 of 11 patients with no severe complications concerning the graft. The relative uptake by severely damaged graft liver in 2 patients was much lower than the relative volume. The uptake rate of GSA by the graft was low in these 2 patients. The uptake rate by the native liver decreased when the portal vein was separated. CONCLUSION: The relative uptake of GSA was a better indicator of graft liver function than was anatomic volume. The uptake rate provided additional independent information of each liver. Asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy is useful for distinguishing and monitoring the graft and native liver functions in patients who had undergone APOLT.  (+info)

Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who receive T-cell-depleted HLA mismatched marrow allografts from unrelated donors have an increased incidence of primary graft failure but a similar overall transplant outcome. (7/1772)

Disparity for HLA in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT) increases the risk of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and may compromise transplant outcome. We have compared the outcome of matched and mismatched transplants from unrelated donors in 137 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Their disease status was complete remission (CR)-1, 24 patients; CR-2, 88 patients; CR-3, 18 patients; CR-4, 2 patients; and relapse, 5 patients. CAMPATH monoclonal antibodies were used for T-cell depletion and cyclosporin A was given to 134 children together with short-course methotrexate in 43, mainly when there was HLA disparity. Fifty-two donor/recipient pairs were HLA-mismatched, 41 at HLA-A and -B and 11 at HLA-DR and -DQ loci. Overall graft failure was increased in recipients of marrow mismatched at either HLA-A, -B, -DR, or -DQ (15.7% v 4.8%; P =.057) mainly because there was a higher proportion of children with primary graft failure (11. 8% v 1.2%; P =.012). The presence of an HLA-C locus mismatch did not independently increase the likelihood of graft failure. There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute GVHD >/= grade 2 between the matched and mismatched groups (P =.849). For patients in CR-2, the risk of relapse post-BMT was significantly lower if leukemic relapse occurred off-treatment (P =.005). The Kaplan-Meier overall and leukemia-free survival (LFS) estimates for recipients of matched and mismatched BMT, respectively, at 36 months were 49% versus 42% (P =.380) and 45% versus 40% (P =.654). Although HLA mismatching results in an increased occurrence of primary graft failure with T-cell-depleted allografts, it allows more donors to be identified rapidly for children with ALL without compromising overall transplant outcome.  (+info)

Cadaver versus living donor kidneys: impact of donor factors on antigen induction before transplantation. (8/1772)

BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that living-related donor (LRD) renal allografts have a higher overall graft survival than cadaver donor transplants. We tested the hypothesis that part of this is attributable to LRD kidneys being obtained under optimal conditions from healthy donors, whereas cadaveric kidneys may have experienced injury as a result of inflammatory events around the time of brain death. METHODS: We have performed a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of pretransplant donor biopsies from cadaveric (N = 65) and LRD (N = 29) kidneys to determine any differences that may predispose them to subsequent damage. Cryostat sections were stained with antibodies to leukocytes, adhesion molecules, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antigens, and the expression was assessed semiquantitatively. RESULTS: High levels of endothelial E-selectin and proximal tubular expression of HLA-DR antigens, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were detected in biopsies from cadaveric kidneys, whereas expression of these markers was markedly reduced in LRD kidneys. High levels of tubular antigen expression were significantly associated with traumatic death, prolonged ventilation, and episodes of infection in cadaver donors. Furthermore, the expression of pretransplant tubular antigens in cadaver donor kidneys was significantly associated with early acute rejection following transplantation, suggesting that such kidneys are predisposed to subsequent immune-mediated attack following transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: These results may explain, in part, the superior outcome of LRD allografts compared with cadaver renal allografts.  (+info)

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Donor selection is the process of evaluating and choosing potential organ, tissue, or stem cell donors based on various medical and non-medical criteria to ensure the safety and efficacy of the transplantation. The goal of donor selection is to identify a compatible donor with minimal risk of rejection and transmission of infectious diseases while also considering ethical and legal considerations.

Medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Age: Donors are typically required to be within a certain age range, depending on the type of organ or tissue being donated.
2. Blood type and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing: Compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood types and HLA markers is crucial to reduce the risk of rejection.
3. Medical history: Donors must undergo a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess their overall health and identify any potential risks or contraindications for donation.
4. Infectious disease screening: Donors are tested for various infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), among others, to ensure they do not transmit infections to the recipient.
5. Tissue typing: For organ transplants, tissue typing is performed to assess the compatibility of the donor's and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which play a significant role in the immune response and rejection risk.

Non-medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Consent: Donors must provide informed consent for organ or tissue donation, and their next of kin or legal representative may be involved in the decision-making process for deceased donors.
2. Legal considerations: There are specific laws and regulations governing organ and tissue donation that must be followed, such as age restrictions, geographical proximity between the donor and recipient, and cultural or religious beliefs.
3. Ethical considerations: Donor selection should adhere to ethical principles, such as fairness, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence, to ensure that the process is transparent, equitable, and free from coercion or exploitation.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Blood group incompatibility refers to a situation where the blood type of a donor and a recipient are not compatible, leading to an immune response and destruction of the donated red blood cells. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the donor's red blood cells as foreign due to the presence of incompatible antigens on their surface.

The most common type of blood group incompatibility occurs between individuals with different ABO blood types, such as when a person with type O blood receives type A, B, or AB blood. This can lead to agglutination and hemolysis of the donated red blood cells, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Another type of blood group incompatibility occurs between Rh-negative mothers and their Rh-positive fetuses. If a mother's immune system is exposed to her fetus's Rh-positive red blood cells during pregnancy or childbirth, she may develop antibodies against them. This can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus in the future.

To prevent these complications, it is essential to ensure that donated blood is compatible with the recipient's blood type before transfusion and that appropriate measures are taken during pregnancy and childbirth to prevent sensitization of Rh-negative mothers to Rh-positive red blood cells.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

Liver regeneration is the ability of the liver to restore its original mass and function after injury or surgical resection. This complex process involves the proliferation and differentiation of mature hepatocytes, as well as the activation and transdifferentiation of various types of stem and progenitor cells located in the liver. The mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration include a variety of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines, which act in a coordinated manner to ensure the restoration of normal liver architecture and function. Liver regeneration is essential for the survival of individuals who have undergone partial hepatectomy or who have suffered liver damage due to various causes, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or drug-induced liver injury.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Directed tissue donation is the process by which a person designates a specific individual as the recipient of their donated tissues, such as corneas, heart valves, or skin, after their death. This allows the donor to make a direct and meaningful impact on the life of someone they know or are related to who may be in need of a tissue transplant. It is important to note that the final determination of whether the tissues are suitable for transplantation will be made by medical professionals at the time of donation, taking into account various factors such as the donor's medical history and cause of death. Directed tissue donation can provide comfort and solace to both the donor and their loved ones, knowing that they have been able to help someone in need even after their passing.

Altruism is a term used in the medical and psychological fields to describe selfless behavior that is done with the intention of benefiting another person, often at the expense or risk of the person performing the act. Altruistic behaviors can include a wide range of actions, from small acts of kindness to more significant sacrifices, such as donating an organ to save the life of someone else.

Altruism is often motivated by feelings of empathy and compassion for others, and it can have positive effects on both the giver and the recipient. Research has shown that engaging in altruistic behaviors can improve mental health and well-being, reduce stress, and even increase lifespan.

While altruism is often viewed as a positive trait, there is some debate among psychologists and philosophers about whether true altruism exists, or if all acts of kindness are ultimately motivated by self-interest. Nonetheless, the concept of altruism remains an important one in medicine and psychology, as it helps to explain why people sometimes act in ways that put others' needs before their own.

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug that is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. It works by inhibiting the activity of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's immune response. By suppressing the activity of these cells, tacrolimus helps to reduce the risk of an immune response being mounted against the transplanted organ.

Tacrolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil, to provide a comprehensive approach to preventing organ rejection. It is available in various forms, including capsules, oral solution, and intravenous injection.

The drug was first approved for use in the United States in 1994 and has since become a widely used immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. Tacrolimus is also being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gift Giving" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the social practice of giving gifts to others, often as a sign of affection, celebration, or appreciation. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a term used in the medical field, particularly in transplant medicine. It refers to a situation where a transplanted organ, most commonly a kidney, fails to function normally immediately after the transplantation procedure. This failure to function occurs within the first week after the transplant and is usually associated with poor urine output and elevated levels of creatinine in the blood.

DGF can be caused by several factors, including pre-existing conditions in the recipient, such as diabetes or hypertension, poor quality of the donor organ, or complications during the surgery. It may also result from the immune system's reaction to the transplanted organ, known as rejection.

In many cases, DGF can be managed with medical interventions, such as administering medications to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow to the organ. However, in some instances, it may lead to more severe complications, including acute or chronic rejection of the transplanted organ, which could require additional treatments or even another transplant.

It's important to note that not all cases of DGF lead to long-term complications, and many patients with DGF can still go on to have successful transplants with proper management and care.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Acute liver failure is a sudden and severe loss of liver function that occurs within a few days or weeks. It can be caused by various factors such as drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis, or metabolic disorders. In acute liver failure, the liver cannot perform its vital functions, including protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

The symptoms of acute liver failure include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), coagulopathy (bleeding disorders), hepatic encephalopathy (neurological symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, and coma), and elevated levels of liver enzymes in the blood. Acute liver failure is a medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization and treatment, which may include medications, supportive care, and liver transplantation.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a term used to describe advanced and irreversible liver damage, usually caused by chronic liver conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, or alcoholic liver disease. At this stage, the liver can no longer function properly, leading to a range of serious complications.

The symptoms of ESLD may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
* Encephalopathy (confusion, drowsiness, or coma caused by the buildup of toxins in the brain)
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
* Infections
* Kidney failure

Treatment for ESLD typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to improve survival. However, due to the shortage of available donor livers, many people with ESLD are not eligible for transplantation. The prognosis for individuals with ESLD is generally poor, with a median survival time of less than one year.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

A portal system in medicine refers to a venous system in which veins from various tissues or organs (known as tributaries) drain into a common large vessel (known as the portal vein), which then carries the blood to a specific organ for filtration and processing before it is returned to the systemic circulation. The most well-known example of a portal system is the hepatic portal system, where veins from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and stomach merge into the portal vein and then transport blood to the liver for detoxification and nutrient processing. Other examples include the hypophyseal portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, and the renal portal system found in some animals.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Familial amyloid neuropathies are a group of inherited disorders characterized by the accumulation of abnormal deposits of amyloid proteins in various tissues and organs of the body. These abnormal deposits can cause damage to nerves, leading to a peripheral neuropathy that affects sensation, movement, and organ function.

There are several types of familial amyloid neuropathies, each caused by different genetic mutations. The most common type is known as transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis (TTR-HA), which is caused by mutations in the TTR gene. Other types include apolipoprotein A1-related hereditary amyloidosis (APOA1-HA) and gelsolin-related amyloidosis (AGel-HA).

Symptoms of familial amyloid neuropathies can vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Common symptoms include:

* Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
* Weakness or loss of muscle strength in the legs and arms
* Autonomic nervous system dysfunction, leading to problems with digestion, heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature regulation
* Carpal tunnel syndrome
* Eye abnormalities, such as vitreous opacities or retinal deposits
* Kidney disease

Familial amyloid neuropathies are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. Diagnosis is usually made through genetic testing and confirmation of the presence of amyloid deposits in tissue samples.

Treatment for familial amyloid neuropathies typically involves managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. This may include medications to control pain, physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and mobility, and devices such as braces or wheelchairs to assist with mobility. In some cases, liver transplantation may be recommended to remove the source of the mutated transthyretin protein.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Portal pressure, also known as portal hypertension, refers to an increase in the pressure within the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Normal portal pressure is usually between 5-10 mmHg.

Portal hypertension can occur as a result of various conditions that cause obstruction or narrowing of the portal vein, or increased resistance to blood flow within the liver. This can lead to the development of collateral vessels, which are abnormal blood vessels that form to bypass the blocked or narrowed vessel, and can result in complications such as variceal bleeding, ascites, and encephalopathy.

The measurement of portal pressure is often used in the diagnosis and management of patients with liver disease and portal hypertension.

Presumed consent, in the context of medical and transplantation law, refers to a policy or practice where it is assumed that an individual gives consent for organ donation after death, unless they have explicitly opted out or expressed their objection prior to their death. This means that if there is no clear evidence of the deceased person's wishes regarding organ donation, it is presumed that they would have wanted to donate their organs to help save lives. Presumed consent systems aim to increase the number of available organs for transplantation and reduce the need for potential recipients to wait on transplant lists. However, such policies can be controversial, as they rely on assumptions about a deceased person's wishes, which may not always align with their true intentions or beliefs.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Medical tourism is defined as the practice of traveling to another country to receive medical, dental, or surgical care while also taking advantage of vacation activities in that location. This may be due to lower costs, shorter wait times, or access to treatments not available in one's home country. Medical tourists may seek various forms of healthcare, including elective procedures, complex surgeries, and alternative therapies. It is important for individuals considering medical tourism to thoroughly research the quality and credentials of the healthcare providers and facilities they are considering, as well as understand any potential risks and legal implications associated with receiving care abroad.

Amyloid neuropathies are a group of peripheral nerve disorders caused by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid proteins in the nerves. Amyloid is a protein that can be produced in various diseases and can deposit in different organs, including nerves. When this occurs in the nerves, it can lead to damage and dysfunction, resulting in symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness in the affected limbs.

There are several types of amyloid neuropathies, with the two most common being:

1. Transthyretin (TTR)-related hereditary amyloidosis: This is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the TTR gene, which leads to the production of abnormal TTR protein that can form amyloid deposits in various organs, including nerves.
2. Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis: This is a disorder in which abnormal plasma cells produce excessive amounts of immunoglobulin light chains, which can form amyloid deposits in various organs, including nerves.

The diagnosis of amyloid neuropathies typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, nerve conduction studies, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of amyloid deposits. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or supportive care to manage symptoms.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Ureteral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the ureters, which are the thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain in the side or back, fever, and changes in urinary patterns. Here are some examples of ureteral diseases:

1. Ureteral stricture: A narrowing of the ureter that can be caused by scarring, inflammation, or tumors. This can lead to a backup of urine, which can cause kidney damage or infection.
2. Ureteral stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the ureters and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine.
3. Ureteral cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the ureters and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and bloody urine.
4. Ureteral reflux: A condition in which urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters, causing infection and kidney damage.
5. Ureteral trauma: Injury to the ureters can occur due to accidents, surgeries, or other medical procedures. This can lead to bleeding, scarring, or blockages in the ureters.

Treatment for ureteral diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures such as stenting or balloon dilation.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Plasmapheresis is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. The remaining blood cells are mixed with the new plasma and returned to the body. This process is also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). It's used to treat various medical conditions including certain autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and neurological disorders.

A portosystemic shunt is a surgical procedure that creates a connection between the portal vein (the blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver) and another systemic vein (a vein that carries blood away from the liver). This procedure is typically performed in animals, particularly dogs, to treat conditions such as portal hypertension or liver disease.

In a surgical portosystemic shunt, the surgeon creates a connection between the portal vein and a systemic vein, allowing blood from the digestive organs to bypass the liver. This can help to reduce the pressure in the portal vein and improve blood flow to the liver. The specific type of shunt created and the surgical approach used may vary depending on the individual patient's needs and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while a surgical portosystemic shunt can be an effective treatment for certain conditions, it is not without risks and potential complications. As with any surgical procedure, there is always a risk of infection, bleeding, or other complications. Additionally, the creation of a portosystemic shunt can have long-term effects on the liver and overall health of the patient. It is important for pet owners to carefully consider the risks and benefits of this procedure and to discuss any questions or concerns they may have with their veterinarian.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

A hepatic portoenterostomy, also known as Kasai procedure, is a surgical operation performed on infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia. This condition is characterized by the absence or abnormal formation of the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine, leading to obstruction and damage to the liver.

During a hepatic portoenterostomy, the surgeon creates an anastomosis (connection) between the portal vein, which brings blood to the liver, and a loop of intestine. This connection allows bile to flow directly from the liver into the intestine, bypassing the blocked or absent bile ducts. The goal of the procedure is to restore bile flow and prevent further damage to the liver.

The success of the procedure varies, but it can help improve the child's quality of life and delay or prevent the need for a liver transplant in some cases. However, many children with biliary atresia will eventually require a liver transplant as the disease progresses.

A portacaval shunt is a surgical procedure that creates an alternate pathway for blood flow between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. The portal vein carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. In certain medical conditions, such as severe liver disease or portal hypertension, the blood pressure in the portal vein becomes abnormally high, which can lead to serious complications like variceal bleeding.

In a surgical portacaval shunt procedure, a surgeon creates a connection between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, allowing a portion of the blood from the portal vein to bypass the liver and flow directly into the systemic circulation. This helps reduce the pressure in the portal vein and prevent complications associated with portal hypertension.

There are different types of portacaval shunts, including:

1. Direct portacaval shunt: In this procedure, the surgeon directly connects the portal vein to the inferior vena cava.
2. Side-to-side portacaval shunt: Here, the surgeon creates an anastomosis (connection) between a side branch of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava.
3. H-type shunt: This involves creating two separate connections between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, forming an "H" shape.

It is important to note that while portacaval shunts can be effective in managing complications of portal hypertension, they may also have potential risks and side effects, such as worsening liver function, encephalopathy, or heart failure. Therefore, the decision to perform a portacaval shunt should be made carefully, considering the individual patient's medical condition and overall health.

Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs) are residential facilities that provide housing, personal care services, and health care services to individuals who require assistance with activities of daily living (such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and toileting) but do not need the level of care provided in a nursing home.

ALFs are designed to promote independence and autonomy while ensuring that residents receive the support they need to maintain their health and safety. The specific services offered by ALFs may vary, but typically include:

* Meals and dining services
* Housekeeping and laundry services
* Medication management
* Personal care assistance (such as help with bathing, dressing, grooming, and toileting)
* Social activities and programming
* Transportation to medical appointments and other outings

In addition, some ALFs may offer additional services such as memory care for residents with dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that the specific regulations governing ALFs can vary by state, so it is essential to research the licensing and regulatory requirements in your area before selecting a facility.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

An anastomotic leak is a medical condition that occurs after a surgical procedure where two hollow organs or vessels are connected (anastomosed). It refers to the failure of the connection, resulting in a communication between the inside of the connected structures and the outside, which can lead to the escape of fluids, such as digestive contents or blood, into the surrounding tissues.

Anastomotic leaks can occur in various parts of the body where anastomoses are performed, including the gastrointestinal tract, vasculature, and respiratory system. The leakage can cause localized or systemic infection, inflammation, sepsis, organ failure, or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The risk of anastomotic leaks depends on several factors, such as the patient's overall health, the type and location of the surgery, the quality of the surgical technique, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions that may affect wound healing. Treatment options for anastomotic leaks vary depending on the severity and location of the leak, ranging from conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest to surgical intervention, such as drainage, revision of the anastomosis, or resection of the affected segment.

Saving Lives'". TEN News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2013. We Should Talk About What ... One of the founding donors of New South Wales' (NSW) Rh Program he regularly donated until, on 11 May 2018, he made his 1,173rd ... Harrison was one of the founding donors in NSW's Rh Program, one of the first in the world in 1969, and he continuously donated ... James Christopher Harrison OAM (born 27 December 1936), also known as the Man with the Golden Arm, is a blood plasma donor from ...
"Gregg Allman Has Liver Transplant". Retrieved December 27, 2006. Liver transplant for George Best. BBC News ... whether the organ came from a living or deceased donor and overall health of the recipient. Median survival rates can be quite ... "World's first organ donor dies at 79". December 29, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2010. National Kidney Foundation ... "Information about liver transplant from Chris Klug's website". Archived from the original on September 30, 2011 ...
Some donors have attempted to preserve their intent either by "giving while living" or by establishing a date or timeframe in ... Donor intent is most often expressed in gift restrictions, terms, or agreements between a donor and donee, but it may also be ... Donor intent has been defended as a moral obligation between giver and recipient. Defenders of donor intent argue that on a ... Fidelity to donor intent is sometimes distinguished from grant compliance, and "donor intent" refers to the actions of a ...
"Every filmmaker lives for this moment". 27 April 2012. "So what's a sperm?". Archived from the original on 3 April ... Vicky Donor at IMDb Vicky Donor at Rotten Tomatoes Vicky Donor at Box Office Mojo (Webarchive template wayback links, All ... Vicky Donor's "drinking mom" is a hit among fans "'Vicky Donor' is great fun". HindustanTimes. Archived from the original on 22 ... "Vicky Donor is born". Tehelka. Vol. 9, no. 19. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013. "John Abraham is looking for a Donor". ...
Bone marrow and PBSCs come from living adult donors. Bone marrow is extracted from the donor's pelvic bones while the donor is ... If the NMDP finds a match with an adult donor, they notify the donor. After educating the potential donor about the donation ... Gift of Life is accredited by the World Marrow Donor Association. DKMS US, in New York City is part of the larger DKMS donor ... The NMDP contracts with seven donor centers (where donors are recruited) outside of the United States. These are located in The ...
"World Blood Donor Day 2022: Donating blood is an act of solidarity. Join the effort and save lives". Archived from ... Join the effort and save lives'. This year, the global event on blood donor day is going to be hosted by Mexico on June 14, ... Many anonymous blood donors save lives every day through their blood donations.[citation needed] List of blood donation ... It emphasizes thanking of blood donors who save lives every day through their blood donations and inspires more people all over ...
Johnson, E. and Goldstein, D. Do defaults save lives?. Science Magazine, 21 November 2003. (Articles with short description, ... The tables document the effective organ donor designation rate and deceased donors per million in the United States and abroad ... "National Donor Designation Report Card, April 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-01-26. "IRODaT - International Registry on Organ ...
Registering as an online organ donor has the potential of saving as many as eight lives, as well as improving the lives of ... The online donor registry presents a way to benefit lives. While the online aspect of the registry makes organ donation easier ... Be a Donor O'Flanagan, Rob. "Organ donors can now register online in Ontario". News. Guelph Mercury. Retrieved 9 July 2011. ... "Organ Donor Registry: How to Register". BC Transplant. Retrieved 18 July 2011. BC Transplant. "Organ Donor Registry: Background ...
Recipient Outcomes for Expanded Criteria Living Kidney Donors: The Disconnect Between Current Evidence and Practice. American ... Expanded Criteria Donor (ECD) is normally associated with kidney donors. They are also referred to as donors with "medical ... and legal framework for complex living kidney donors. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 1148-1153. Iordanous, Y. et al. ... Of the 9319 living kidney donations reported in the American Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) / United ...
"Donors". The Foundation for Maine's Community Colleges. 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2016. "Norlands Living History Center - ... She also volunteered weekly at the Maine State Museum in Augusta and supported the Norlands Living History Center in Livermore ... In 2008 the Norlands Living History Center inaugurated the Thelma Swain Award for Youth Leadership in Fundraising in her honor ... Bouchard, Kelley (September 24, 2010). "Donors investing in students; Private money is pouring in to help community colleges ...
Live Aid: The Greatest Show on Earth. Sidgwick & Jackson. 1985. p. 118. "Brain Donors". Lost Reel Review. Archived ... Perhaps his best-known film in America is Brain Donors, the 1992 update of the Marx Brothers film A Night at the Opera, ... Dressed as bobbies, Smith and Jones introduced Queen on stage at Live Aid in July 1985, with Smith removing his helmet before ... Grimshaw 1989 Wilt as Inspector Flint 1991 Father Christmas as Father Christmas 1992 Brain Donors (aka Lame Ducks) as Rocco ...
The Halachic Organ Donor Society, also known as the HOD Society, was started in December 2001. Its mission is to save lives by ... "Beating the Organ Donor Taboo". Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 16 January 2015. "Rabbis". HODS. Retrieved 16 January 2015. ... recognizes the legitimate debate in Orthodox Jewish law surrounding brain stem death and offers a unique organ donor card that ...
... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Arsenate reductase (donor) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donor with other ...
"Our Donors Save Lives". Retrieved 2020-07-02. Center, Miller-Keystone Blood. "Miller-Keystone Blood Center". Miller-Keystone ... "Inova Blood Donor Services - Save a Life Today. Give Blood". Inova Blood Donor Services. Retrieved 2020-07-26. "Cascade ... "Blood Donation Saves Lives". Stanford Blood Center. Retrieved 2020-07-02. "UCLA Blood & Platelet Center - Los Angeles, CA". ... "Donate blood, Save lives , Memorial Blood Centers". Retrieved 2020-07-02. "The Community Blood Center , Connecting ...
"The ANC's dubious donors". 8 May 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "Nomvula Mokonyane's Watergate". ... "Living Mandela's Legacy - University of Iowa". Retrieved 15 July 2018. amaBhungane. "AmaBhungane: Nomvula ... Living people, 20th-century South African scientists, 20th-century South African women scientists, 21st-century South African ...
"Kokrokoo Foundation rewards donors". Graphic Online. Retrieved 2021-04-29. (Articles with short description, Short description ... is different from Wikidata, Articles with hCards, Ghanaian journalists, Living people, 1970 births). ...
"Expanding pool of organ donors". The New Paper. 16 October 1999. "They owe their lives to him". The Straits Times. 14 October ... "They paid for their crimes with their lives". New Paper. 31 August 1996. "A tribute to SI Boo Tiang Huat". Police Life. ...
"Harvey Live Updates: In Crosby, Texas, Blasts at a Chemical Plant and More Are Feared". The New York Times. August 31, 2017. ... Because of an anonymous donor willing to match $2 for every $1 raised up to a total of $100,000, Peter Huntsman also agreed to ... Janet Patton (September 1, 2017). "Harvey equine relief tops $150,000; supply list available for donors". Lexington Herald ... News Southern Living. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. "The Red Cross Won't Save ...
"Harvey Live Updates: In Crosby, Texas, Blasts at a Chemical Plant and More Are Feared". The New York Times. August 31, 2017. ... Because of an anonymous donor willing to match $2 for every $1 raised up to a total of $100,000, Peter Huntsman also agreed to ... Janet Patton (September 1, 2017). "Harvey equine relief tops $150,000; supply list available for donors". Lexington Herald ... Yahoo News Southern Living. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. "The Red Cross Won't ...
... living donors and deceased donors. In Australia the most common living donations not including blood donations are kidneys and ... One deceased donor is able to save up to ten lives by donating the following: Organs: Kidneys, pancreas, liver, lungs, heart ... The tissues and organs that are able to be donated by a living donor are: Bone marrow Kidney Part of the liver Lung (this ... Australian donor rates are on the rise. Between 2009 and 2013, donor numbers increased by 29%. In 2009 there were 11.4 donors ...
"Donor Tracking". "Rizzo bag man strikes deal in Macomb corruption scandal". Detroit News. "Banks earns victory; GOP splits key ... "2014 live Michigan election". November 4, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2018. "Election Summary Report Primary Election ... Suggested contributions ranged from $41 for a ticket to $2,000 for a sponsor-level donor. Banks's attempt to return to the ... "Where the money falls in Michigan's most crowded state House primaries". M Live. July 27, 2016. "Early Numbers: The Top ...
Boston Globe: "Norman Leventhal at 97; enhancer of lives and landmarks" By Bryan Marquard April 5, 2015 "Alan Leventhal". Donor ... Living people, 21st-century American diplomats, 21st-century American Jews, Ambassadors of the United States to Denmark, ...
Jay Bergman is an American businessman and political donor. Jay Bergman was born in and has lived his entire life in Joliet, ... "Donor Lookup". OpenSecrets. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with ... Bergman is known as a generous donor to many charitable causes, usually preferring to make significant contributions without ... hCards, Living people, Year of birth missing (living people)). ...
Ballantyne, Aileen (25 March 1990). "Transplant Jury to Vet Live Donors". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2 January 2022. ... "A Member of Parliament should always live in his constituency." In 2010, Choy and Clark still recommend the use of generic he " ...
"Zoning bars Greeks from off-campus living - News". Archived from the original on 2007-10-07. Retrieved 2007-09-06. "Fundraise ... ". "Donors wanted for blood drive - News". Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2007-09-06. "Archived copy" (PDF ...
Students live on campus in one of several houses. Up to four students share each of the current 36 student dorm rooms. Students ... Organisations and private donors provide scholarships. To receive a place at BU, prospective students must sit an entrance exam ... "Transforming Lives With Scholarship Programs". Give To Learn To Grow. Retrieved 20 May 2023. "DP World Berbera's Community ...
"Living Donor Liver Transplant , Baltimore". "Liver Donors FAQ: The Donation Surgery". " ... In living donor liver transplantation between adults, a cholecystectomy is performed in the donor because the gallbladder ... Gut Liver. 2022 May 15;16(3):465-473. doi: 10.5009/gnl210009. PMID: 35502586; PMCID: PMC9099388 Gurusamy KS, Rossi M, Davidson ... The common bile duct drains the liver and pancreas, and a blockage there can lead to inflammation and infection in both the ...
"Donor-To-Donor Kidney Chains Personify American Selflessness, Save Lives". Forbes. Marsh, Abigail (March 14, 2019). "Less ... She was appointed to the advisory board for Donor to Donor, an organization that promotes living kidney donation. Marsh has ... "Abigail Marsh". Donor to Donor. Archived from the original on 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2020-04-16. Strub, Chris. " ... In 2019, Marsh researched altruism in kidney donors and stem cell donors using behavioral investigations and brain imaging, as ...
Association of Independent Living Groups - Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "IRDF Donor Recognition". Retrieved 28 April ... The Women's Independent Living Group (WILG) is one of five independent living groups at the Massachusetts Institute of ... Association of Independent Living Groups. "Prominent FSILG Alumni/ae". Association of Independent Living Groups. Retrieved 28 ... While 355 Massachusetts Avenue was being renovated, both the women's living group and the fraternity shared the living space in ...
"Organ Donor Card". Retrieved 10 October 2020. "'One consent saves 9 lives'". The Times of India. Retrieved ... sensitises police and hospital staff on issues related to donation and from time to time honours organ donor families. Donor ... Donor cards express one's desire to donate organs after death and have been used by MOHAN Foundation to create awareness and ... There are 23 organs in the human body and one can donate kidney, heart, liver, lungs, pancreas and the small bowel as well as ...
The history of liver surgery is interesting. Battle surgeons had debrided damaged parts of livers from open wounds since ... Robotic Donor Hepatectomy: A Major Breakthrough in Living Donor Liver Transplantation * Report of First US Living Donor Liver ... Right-liver living donor transplantation for decompensated end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2002. 8:340-6. ... Donor safety in living donor liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2000. 6:250-1. ...
... and save two lives with one donor organ. ... that performs split liver transplantation, which can help ... Split Liver Transplant Saves Two Lives with One Donor Liver. By Larissa Biggers ... Can all donor livers be used for split liver transplants?. No, not all donor livers can be split. Typically, splittable livers ... A donor liver is offered to the highest-priority recipient on the national waitlist. If the donor is an adult or a large ...
89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%). Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were ... excluded as donors (31% of the cases). Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9), vascular anatomical variants (n = 4), incidental ... Computed tomography (CT) has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was ... CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of ...
During a living donor kidney transplant, the kidney is removed from the donor (a nephrectomy) and transplanted into the ... Youll be given a living donor nurse coordinator.. Theyll talk with you and organise some tests to see if youre able to ... We perform all living kidney donor surgery for the 2 kidney transplant centres in London. ... Well ask you to sign a form to consent to this information being released to our living donor team. ...
Ty elected to be the living donor to his mother when she needed a kidney transplant and had no qualms about it. "For him to do ... The Theresa Lackey Living Donor Scholarship is just one of the many academic scholarships GTF offers each year. To learn more ... Karen and her family decided to sponsor a GTF Academic Scholarship to help living donors pursue their degrees. The scholarship ... and Theresa officially became a living donor.. Karen racked her brain trying to come up with ways to repay the favor to her ...
... a team of living donors, friends and family took their first steps on a journey to the top of the world. ... Living Donor Adventures seeks to raise awareness about living donation-and offer a way for living donors to connect and build ... like kidney and liver donor Tom ODriscoll, the Mt. Kilimanjaro adventure became their first opportunity to meet fellow living ... Kilimanjaro climber and living donor Kari Kirkland says her decision was made when she saw a Facebook post from a friend in ...
Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation Meng Sha1, Chuan Shen1, Ying Tong. , and Qiang ... Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation. ... Postoperative cryptococcal antigen titer change and antifungal treatment regimen for transplant donor in cluster of donor- ...
"I want to live my life in the best way I can to honour him and his family and their incredible gift to me." ... VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE. 6 months. YouTube sets this cookie to measure bandwidth, determining whether the user gets the new or old ..., a live chat functionality, sets this cookie. For improved service, this cookie helps remember users so that previous ... His donor was a 26-year-old who sadly died in a motorcycle accident. ...
"Our record-breaking year was a result of the passion and the energy of our community - our donor families, recipients, ... CORE announces nearly 15 percent increase in donors - PITTSBURGH, Jan. 9, 2017 - The Center for Organ Recovery & Education ( ... For every person who donates their organs, tissue and corneas, up to 75 lives can be saved or dramatically improved. ... The increase directly led to 663 lives saved or enhanced through transplants, an 11 percent increase over the previous year. ...
... together with Ministry of Health and in collaboration with World Health Organization in Jordan marked the World Blood Donor Day ... Jordan , News , World Blood Donor Day 2015 "Thank you for saving lives" ... WHO has set a goal for all countries to obtain all their blood supplies from voluntary unpaid donors by 2020. In order to ... WHO highlights the fact that transfusion of blood and blood products helps save millions of lives every year. It can help ...
Registering to be a donor might be the greatest gift you ever give. If youd hope a live-saving transplant would be available ... of Ontarians have registered their consent to be a donor. Its really surprising, and its not good enough. Especially for the ... Help Be A Donor! Register Today! 1 Organ Donor Can Save Up To 8 Lives! reach their goal. Register to Become a Donor. ... Be A Donor! Register Today! 1 Organ Donor Can Save Up To 8 Lives!. Organization , Mississauga ...
Mayo Clinic living donor Mike Peshut is one of 22 kidney donors who reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro today on World ... The Mount Kilimanjaro climb is a public way to show that living organ donation doesnt limit the donor. ... Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast: Living donor climbs Mount Kilimanjaro on World Kidney Day. By ... Peshut tried to be a direct donor, but he was not a match for his wife. Through paired-organ donation, he became part of a six- ...
... recently danced with a stranger who had previously saved their lives. ... Nine-year-old twin sisters dance with bone marrow donor who changed their lives: Thank you. Published September 23, 2016 8: ... Their lives have been forever changed.. Before, they were not allowed to play outside. They could not use scissors or any other ... Their playground was the family's living room.. They were very sheltered, their mom says. They weren't allowed in ...
Labour destroyed documents that could have revealed where Angela Rayner claimed to be living when she applied to be a ... Nearly $40 million of the $52.4 million in donor money was spent on law firms working on cases that had nothing to do with ... The idea that Trump could legally raise hundreds of millions more from small donors in the coming few days makes the chances of ... Trump is fundraising to keep NY AGs filthy hands off Trump Tower - but using donor cash this way may be illegal. ...
Place a bid on Rare Opportunity for Donor Thank You Gift: 2013 Brand Napa Cabernet Sauvignon to help support the Del Mar - ... Live Event Items. Further bidding will take place for this item during a live auction after online bidding is closed. ... Rare Opportunity for Donor Thank You Gift: 2013 Brand Napa Cabernet Sauvignon. Item Number. 515. Estimated Value $300 USD Sold ... You can win items at the live event even if you cant attend! When you are the leader at the close of online bidding and your ...
HeartLights. Mallory Realty Company in memory of Richard and Georgia Mallory; Rod and Anne Duraski in memory of Gertrude Turner; Glenda Waller in memory of John G. Allen, Gladys Allen and Toney Allen; Eve and John McKibben in memory of Sara and Claude McKibben, Laura and Robert Tillman, Corey Allen McKibben, and Yvonne S. McKibben; Jean M. Crocker in memory of Eugene Crocker; Bernard and Judy Bledsoe in memory of Steve Bledsoe.. LoveLights. In memory of: Polly Jackson in memory of Wesley Jackson; Ed and Georgina McCarthy in memory of Mary Burnette; David, Carol, Daniel, Jacob, and Joshua Stanley in memory of Eugene Crocker; Kathy Morris in memory of Sally Morris; Dr. and Mrs. Werner Linz in memory of Col. and Mrs. James W. Boddie, Mr. and Mrs. Leopold Linz, and Dr. Gerhard Linz; Annie and Oliver Greene in memory of Mrs. Ella Mae Tarver, Mrs. Lula Greene, Mrs. Ida Florine Jones, Mr. Cato Greene, and Rev. Henry William Tarver; Pamela Talley in memory of Lawrence R. McConnell, Ruth D. McConnell, ...
... world blood donor day - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Save Lives.. June 14 is World Blood Donor Day. The nations blood supply needs your help. Donating blood is a simple, safe way ... Tags #prepyourhealth, American Red Cross, blood donation, blood supply, world blood donor day ... to get involved and help save lives in your community. Why donate? Think of the nations blood supply like the gasoline in a ...
Donate Life Virginia is teaming up with NASCAR driver Joey Gase to honor living kidney donor Christopher Woody, Sr. on Gases # ... This is the first time a living donor has been featured on the Donate Life Virginia car. In previous years, deceased donors ... "It is an honor to be able to make history and be the first African American living donor to featured on Joey Gases car for ... Donate Life Virginia serves to save and heal lives by working to increase the number of organ, eye and tissue donors in the ...
Saving Lives". TEN News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2013. We Should Talk About What ... One of the founding donors of New South Wales (NSW) Rh Program he regularly donated until, on 11 May 2018, he made his 1,173rd ... Harrison was one of the founding donors in NSWs Rh Program, one of the first in the world in 1969, and he continuously donated ... James Christopher Harrison OAM (born 27 December 1936), also known as the Man with the Golden Arm, is a blood plasma donor from ...
FTSE 100 Live: The latest updates from the City of London Monday 27 June 2016 3:29 pm ... EU Referendum: Ukip donor Arron Banks "apologises" after celebs hit out at Leave.EU for taking comments out of context to boost ... The Ukip donor sort-of apologised to Superdrug founder and Brexiteer Peter Goldstein after the firm was brought into ... Banks, who switched from Tory to Ukip donor in 2014 handing the right-wing party £1m, apologised to NASA, but sounded upset ...
Palavras-chave : Living Donor Liver Transplant; potential donor; motivation; psychosocial aspects. · resumo em Português , ... Motivations of potential donors to living donor liver. Bol. - Acad. Paul. Psicol. [online]. 2015, vol.35, n.89, pp. 371-381. ... This article aims to evaluate the motivation of donors to Living Liver Transplant (LDLT) related to the numerous dimensions ... Potential donors were a majority of male (52.8%), married (68.2%), with upon Elementary education (36.4%), professionally ...
163.544 cr were declared by the BJP from 1,519 donors ... Scotland Women vs USA Women Live Score: Match 3 of Womens ODI ... BJP got highest corporate donations from Guj donors between 2017-21: ADR report. ByAnish Yande ... Meanwhile, the Congress received ₹10.464 crore from 47 corporate donors across the five years, receiving the highest donations ... 163.544 cr were declared by the BJP from 1,519 donors. BJP received the highest donations in the FY 2018-19 of ₹46.222 cr from ...
Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Study-III (REDS-III) research program is dedicated to enhancing the safety and availability of ... Live Chat with us, Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. EST. ... "Some donors will eventually be turned away due to a low hemoglobin level, said Glynn. "However, other blood donors can give ... paying special attention to the recruitment of racial-ethnic minority donors and frequent blood donors. The study also ...
Mad Cow blood donor ban lifted by the FDA. ... Low-Titer O Whole Blood Saves Lives on the Battlefield. Low- ... Armed Services Blood Program , Can I Donate , Be A Donor A decades-old blood donor ban was recently lifted by the Food and Drug ... Mad Cow Blood Donor Ban Lifted Welcome back, blood donors! The Food and Drug Administration has recently updated its ... Saving Lives: U.S. Naval Academy Hosts Successful ASBP Blood Drive. In April, the Armed Services Blood Program held a two-day ...
Liberating Lives P.O. Box 40693 North Charleston, SC 29423. Email: [email protected] , Phone: 404-502-2344 , Tax ... The Liberating Lives, Inc.. Residential Training Academy.. Thank you for your generosity!. ...
Organ donors*Saving lives together*. Data & trends >. *. Why be an organ donor?. Currently, more than 100,000 men, women and ... When Pride lives on and leaves a lasting legacy. Lifeline of Ohios LGBTQ+ outreach leads to increase in donor registrations ... people living with HIV can donate organs to other people on the transplant list who are also living with HIV** ... Saving lives together*. Data & trends >. *. There are an average of 127 organ transplants every day.. Were working to increase ...
... at the time of donation than similarly aged donors with normal blood pressure; however, 6 months following their surgery, ... hypertensive and non-hypertensive donors both maintained excellent blood pressure control and had similarly robust compensatory ... Kidney donors with hypertension had slightly fewer nephrons (the kidneys filtering units) ... The study included 51 living kidney donors. Ten donors, all of whom were older than 50 years of age, had hypertension at the ...
Starzl, TE and Marcos, A (2007) Live donor organ transplantation: then and now. In: Living Donor Organ Transplantation. Informa ...
... but experts say Australia is a long way behind where it needs to be in finding donors for the treatment and are calling for ... Could you be the cure? Donor registry pleas for more ethnic diversity to help save lives. ... Donor model outdated. People aged 18-35 can register to be a stem cell donor when they give blood through the Australian Red ... We need to repair Australias donor pool to bring it in line with the kinds of donor pools we see and depend on overseas. ...
  • [ 2 ] The second, and probably brightest landmark of this period, was the first whole-liver transplantation by Thomas Starzl in 1963. (
  • According to Debra Sudan, MD , a liver transplant surgeon at Duke Health, Duke is one of the few transplant centers in the U.S. that performs split liver transplantation. (
  • Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. (
  • Since the first report of successful living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in 1990 [ 1 ], LDLT has become a valuable treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease who cannot receive deceased donor livers. (
  • Particularly in children who need a small sized graft, the use of liver transplantation is limited due to shortage of deceased donor organs. (
  • CORE works closely with donor families and designated health care professionals to coordinate the surgical recovery of organs, tissues and corneas for transplantation. (
  • In: Living Donor Organ Transplantation. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who donate part of their liver for transplantation have few complications, whether in the short or long term, and can lead normal healthy lives, a new single-center study suggests. (
  • With liver transplant being the only definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease and not enough deceased donors available, living donor liver transplantation has become increasingly important. (
  • Dr. John Seal, an abdominal transplantation and hepatobiliary surgeon at Ochsner Multi-Organ Transplant Institute in New Orleans, Louisiana, told Reuters Health by email, "This single-center study corroborates with greater detail the findings of the A2ALL study demonstrating, most importantly, the overall safety of living donation for liver transplantation. (
  • Dr. Seal noted that these results are consistent with other reports and are an important contribution to current knowledge about the safety of living-donor liver transplantation. (
  • We aimed to evaluate the impact of access to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in waitlisted patients at highest risk of dropout. (
  • He agreed with the previous speaker, in relation to the transplantation of organs from non-heartbeating donors, that it was essential to ensure that the cessation of vital functions was truly irreversible and certified by valid criteria. (
  • The Transplantation Society had developed a professional consensus on the assessment and care of living organ donors. (
  • Although previous recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through transplantation of human tissue and organs have markedly reduced the risk for this type of transmission, a case of HIV transmission from a screened, antibody-negative donor to several recipients raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • Liver transplantation is the 2nd most common type of solid organ transplantation. (
  • These criteria plus the absence of extrahepatic and major vessel involvement satisfy the Milan criteria, used to assess suitability of liver transplantation for patients who have cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • For patients with liver metastases, transplantation is indicated only for neuroendocrine tumors without extrahepatic growth after removal of the primary tumor. (
  • Annually, more than 500 transplants in the US come from living donors, who can live without their right lobe (in adult-to-adult transplantation) or the lateral segment of their left lobe (in adult-to-child transplantation). (
  • Advantages of living donation for the recipient include shorter waiting times and shorter cold ischemic times for explanted organs, largely because transplantation can be scheduled to optimize the patient's condition. (
  • Disadvantages to the donor include mortality risk of 1/600 to 700 (compared with 1/3300 in living-donor kidney transplantation) and complications (eg, bile leakage, bleeding) in up to one fourth. (
  • Richard Franka] It's true that donor-derived disease transmission following organ transplantation has been reported for many different pathogens, essentially since the beginning of wider use of organ and tissue transplantation. (
  • Richard Franka] Common among the majority of transplant-associated infectious diseases are initial organ donor misdiagnosis or omission of particular infectious diseases from differential diagnosis, inadequate donor screening, and the inability to rapidly test donors for potential infectious diseases, given the short time between organ removal and transplantation. (
  • A split liver transplant could help reduce these numbers by shortening recipients' time on the waitlist, increasing the number of available livers, and saving two lives with one donor organ. (
  • In a split liver transplant -- also called a partial graft -- a liver from a deceased adult donor is divided between two recipients. (
  • Since there are fewer pediatric donors than the number of pediatric recipients listed for a liver transplant, mortality for children on the waitlist in the U.S. is high -- at least 8 to 10% of these children die. (
  • In 121 recipients one donor was evaluated by means of CT, in 19 recipients two donors, in 1 recipient three donors, and in 2 recipients four donors, respectively. (
  • If you're incompatible with your chosen recipient, you can choose to pair with 1 or more incompatible donors and recipients. (
  • None of the donors know the person who receives their kidney and recipients will not know the person who donates their kidney. (
  • Our record-breaking year was a result of the passion and the energy of our community - our donor families, recipients, volunteers, our board, staff and friends. (
  • Yet giving to a blood bank is not always a slam dunk-some people get turned away because of strict rules meant for the safety of donors and recipients alike. (
  • As kidney specialists strive to provide the best care for transplant recipients, they must also make every effort to ensure that living donation is as safe as possible for those who want to donate. (
  • We aimed to study the clinical and pathological characteristics of liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. (
  • Overall, left lateral segments are typically used for pediatric recipients, confer a lower risk to the donor overall, and should probably be considered separately with respect to understanding the risks associated with living donation. (
  • Some centers administer additional pretransplant steroids to recipients of living donor kidneys. (
  • A 1991 investigation determined that several recipients had been infected with HIV by an organ/tissue donor who had tested negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation (4). (
  • A few livers come from deceased, non-heart-beating donors (called donation-after-cardiac-death [DCD] donors), but in such cases, bile duct complications develop in up to one third of recipients because the liver had been damaged by ischemia before donation. (
  • Both cornea recipients received post-exposure prophylaxis immediately after it was confirmed that the cornea they received was from a donor suspected of dying from rabies. (
  • However, kidneys from non-A 1 (eg, A 2 ) subtype donors, which express less A antigen, can be safely transplanted into group B recipients. (
  • Duke is one of the few centers in the U.S. to offer split liver transplants. (
  • The record year is a result of several factors, including solid, trusting relationships with donor hospitals and physicians, strong collaborations with local and regional transplant centers, and a state-of-the-art surgical facility at CORE's headquarters. (
  • To uncover some of these factors, the RBC-Omics Study enrolled 13,403 donors at four U.S. blood centers, paying special attention to the recruitment of racial-ethnic minority donors and frequent blood donors. (
  • The questionnaire is used by most U.S. blood centers to screen potential blood donors. (
  • There is a need for greater transparency and sharing of best practices between living-donor-liver-transplant centers so all can benefit from improved safety for living donors. (
  • CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. (
  • Since the safety of volunteer living donors in LDLT has always been considered paramount, evaluation of potential candidates plays a crucial role to confirm suitability and to identify possible contraindications. (
  • This article aims to evaluate the motivation of donors to Living Liver Transplant (LDLT) related to the numerous dimensions which the potential donor is subjected, such as social environment, relationship to recipient, personal attitudes and benefits they recognize in submitting to such procedure. (
  • As experience with liver resections increased dramatically while the supply of cadaveric liver grafts became increasingly inadequate to meet the needs for liver transplants, the concept of resecting a healthy person's liver to use for support of another person's life was raised. (
  • Can all donor livers be used for split liver transplants? (
  • Could split liver transplants help reverse this trend? (
  • Could increasing the number of split liver transplants save more lives? (
  • In 2015, Italy passed a law requiring that all livers from deceased donors must be offered first for split transplants. (
  • Although split liver transplants are relatively rare, we do several at Duke each year. (
  • This increases the number of people who receive transplants from available donor livers. (
  • The increase directly led to 663 lives saved or enhanced through transplants, an 11 percent increase over the previous year. (
  • Most people can live a normal life with only 1 of their 2 kidneys. (
  • Some choose to donate one of their kidneys and this is called living kidney donation . (
  • or removal of kidneys from involuntary donors in vulnerable population groups. (
  • Donation of kidneys by live donors entailed risks. (
  • Serious health effects (such as irreparable damage to the liver or kidneys, or birth defects) are not used as a basis for establishing MRLs. (
  • However, the enthusiasm fell sharply after a donor death in 2001, which changed the climate for living donation. (
  • If you're having a paired or pooled donation, all the donor operations are usually scheduled at the same time on the same day. (
  • Their goal: to share their stories and promote the lifesaving gift of living donation. (
  • With nearly 90,000 people on the waiting list for a kidney and more than 10,000 on the waiting list for a liver in the U.S., Living Donor Adventures seeks to raise awareness about living donation-and offer a way for living donors to connect and build community. (
  • Learn more about living donation and Living Donor Adventures team . (
  • In paired donation, two or more organ-recipient pairs trade donors so that each recipient gets an organ that is compatible with his or her blood type. (
  • The Mount Kilimanjaro climb is a public way to show that living organ donation doesn't limit the donor. (
  • Learn more about living donation. (
  • One of the founding donors of New South Wales' (NSW) Rh Program he regularly donated until, on 11 May 2018, he made his 1,173rd donation - his last, as Australian policy prohibits blood donations from those past age 81. (
  • Riggs said that "standard procedures are in place to assure that donors are healthy at the time of donation and serve as an effective safeguard against collecting blood or blood components from a donor after the onset of clinical symptoms of vCJD. (
  • Living kidney donation is an altruistic act that greatly improves quality of life and lengthens survival for patients with kidney failure. (
  • Ten donors, all of whom were older than 50 years of age, had hypertension at the time of donation. (
  • Older donors with hypertension had slightly fewer functioning nephrons at the time of donation than similarly aged donors with normal blood pressure. (
  • however, we do believe that regular post-donation medical follow-up, with an emphasis on continued good blood pressure control, is important for hypertensive kidney donors," said Dr. Tan. (
  • But Ms Smith said some of the restrictions on blood did not apply to stem cell donation and called for Australia to adopt the international model of allowing donors to register online and conduct a home cheek swab for tissue testing. (
  • Living liver donation is one of the most selfless acts a person can perform. (
  • This single-center study documenting the safety of liver donation in United States adds information that clinicians can share with their potential donors and patients," said senior author Dr. Srinath Chinnakotla of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. (
  • Hepatologists should be more aggressive in promoting living liver donation. (
  • In 36-item Short-Form Health Surveys (SF-36) the donors completed an average of almost five years after their donation, they reported above-average quality of life compared with the population of the United States. (
  • In a liver-donation survey they completed between one and 15 years after donation, they reported their most frequent problems to be incisional discomfort and fatty meal intolerance. (
  • While it is important to acknowledge the possibility of adverse events, as a transplant community we must calibrate our understanding of the risks associated with living donation based on institutional and multi-center reports like this," added Dr. Seal, who was not involved in the study. (
  • and recall of stored tissues from donors found after donation to have been infected. (
  • Amman, 14 June 2015 - The National Blood Bank with the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization in Jordan, marked World Blood Donor Day 2015 under the slogan "Give freely, give often. (
  • June 14 is World Blood Donor Day. (
  • No, not all donor livers can be split. (
  • Typically, splittable livers are from younger donors, have normal vascular anatomy, and do not have much fat within the liver. (
  • It's only one example, noted Dr. Sudan, but it does suggest that splitting livers can save lives. (
  • Nearly all donated livers come from size- and ABO-matched brain-dead (deceased), heart-beating donors. (
  • The right lobe can be transplanted into most adults, and the left lobe can be transplanted into a child, since it is approximately the same size as a liver in a baby or a small child. (
  • When we receive an organ from a large donor that is allocated for a child, we try to split it and share the right lobe with an adult whenever possible. (
  • Of right-lobe donors, 41% had post-operative complications, compared to 18% of left-lobe donors (P=0.003). (
  • Most common underlying diseases were biliary atresia in children (n = 69), liver cirrhosis (n = 19), and hepatocellular carcinoma respectively hepatoblastoma (n = 22). (
  • We reviewed the data for 26 patients who had tumor recurrence after deceased donor liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2005 to December 2015. (
  • Liver transplant (LT) has become the treatment of choice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis who meet the Milan criteria (MC) [ 1 ] . (
  • With a better understanding of hepatic anatomy and the segmental structure of the liver, surgeons started performing partial liver resections. (
  • Cirrhosis is defined histologically as a diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and conversion of the normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. (
  • Common signs and symptoms may stem from decreased hepatic synthetic function (eg, coagulopathy), portal hypertension (eg, variceal bleeding), or decreased detoxification capabilities of the liver (eg, hepatic encephalopathy). (
  • A decades-old blood donor ban was recently lifted by the Food and Drug Administration , potentially increasing the nation's blood supply by hundreds of thousands of donors each year. (
  • After hearing more about Karen's story and realizing she could help, Theresa made the selfless decision to be Karen's donor. (
  • Stories of hope exist because of the selfless gift of organ donors. (
  • What a selfless act to save two lives an ocean away. (
  • [ 8 ] Before this first procedure, the physicians involved published a manuscript describing the protocol for donor and recipient selection, risks and benefits, and the use of the donor advocacy panel. (
  • WHO has set a goal for all countries to obtain all their blood supplies from voluntary unpaid donors by 2020. (
  • PITTSBURGH , Jan. 9, 2017 - The Center for Organ Recovery & Education (CORE), a federally designated not-for-profit organ procurement organization (OPO) serving Pennsylvania, West Virginia and parts of New York, achieved a significant milestone in 2016 with a nearly 15 percent increase in donors (237) over the previous year. (
  • Now, with lifting of the ban, the Armed Services Blood Program wants to see an increase in donors with "thousands of military members and their families who had been excluded from being able to donate blood because of geographical travel or military assignment now being eligible to donate," said U.S. Navy Capt. Leslie Riggs, division chief of the ASBP. (
  • The progression of liver injury to cirrhosis may occur over several weeks to years. (
  • Specific medical therapies may be applied to many liver diseases in an effort to diminish symptoms and to prevent or forestall the development of cirrhosis. (
  • Availability of living donor optimizes timing of liver transplant in high-risk waitlisted cirrhosis patients. (
  • formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis) is an autoimmune liver disorder characterized by the progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, leading. (
  • [ 8 ] Many of the failures resulted from the underappreciated importance of donor graft size to recipient size. (
  • Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9), vascular anatomical variants (n = 4), incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1) and small (n = 5) or large for size (n = 5) graft volume. (
  • and (3) to determine the size of the whole liver and calculate the graft and remnant liver volumes. (
  • [ 4 ] and the fact that a child needs only a small allograft, so an adult donor would not need to undergo major hepatectomy. (
  • For every person who donates their organs, tissue and corneas, up to 75 lives can be saved or dramatically improved. (
  • Donate Life Virginia will also feature the names of registered organ, eye and tissue donors in Virginia on the hood of Joey's race car in handprints as part of "Handprints of Hope. (
  • Sign up to become a registered organ, eye and tissue donor. (
  • Donate Life Virginia serves to save and heal lives by working to increase the number of organ, eye and tissue donors in the commonwealth. (
  • Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. (
  • eg, bone, bone marrow, and skin grafts) Genetically identical (syngeneic [between monozygotic twins]) donor tissue (isografts) Genetically. (
  • But some organs and tissues can be donated while the donor is alive. (
  • Ingo Gruda of Munster, Germany, did not know little Elizabeth and Kathryn when he agreed to be an anonymous bone marrow donor four years ago. (
  • That process was conducted by the Australian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR) by searching the Australian and overseas donor registries. (
  • Like 80 per cent of the 400 Australian patients needing a bone marrow transplant each year, Ms Garvie's donor was found overseas. (
  • The first successful resection of a liver tumor was performed in 1887 in Germany by Langenbuch, the same surgeon who performed the first successful cholecystectomy 5 years earlier. (
  • Ty elected to be the living donor to his mother when she needed a kidney transplant and had no qualms about it. (
  • Each transplant center has its own protocol for living donor evaluation, which typically includes a comprehensive medical and psychosocial examination as well as non-invasive imaging and other studies to assess size, anatomy and function of the liver. (
  • 1,500 g were the donor milk question were excluded, resulting in analytic restricted to hospitals with level III or IV units, where infants samples of 616 hospitals with level III and IV units for infants with VLBW typically receive care ( 3 ). (
  • Dr. Chinnakotla and his colleagues retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 176 living liver donors at one transplant center to determine the incidence, type and Clavien grade of complications, as well as the donors' long-term quality of life. (
  • They must wait for a donor whose liver matches the size of the recipient's, which prolongs the time their patients wait for an appropriate donor. (
  • It can help patients with life-threatening conditions to live longer and with higher quality of life, and it supports complex medical and surgical procedures. (
  • About 30 per cent of all patients can find a donor within their family, with siblings usually offering the best chance of a match. (
  • Patients with a potential living donor (pLD) available were identified. (
  • Our prediction model identified patients at highest risk of dropout while waiting for deceased donor and most benefiting of pLD ( time -dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.82). (
  • The most recent organ transplant rabies transmission was detected in Beijing, China, in July 2015, when rabies was diagnosed in two patients who both received a kidney from same organ donor approximately 6 weeks earlier. (
  • Education of physicians to include rabies in their differential diagnoses for encephalitis patients, enhancement of donor screening, including questionnaires for next to kin regarding the donor's possible exposures to rabid animals, as well as development and implementation of a rapid laboratory diagnostic using modern molecular methods for detection of encephalitis causing pathogens, are a few ways in which the risk for transplant transmission of rabies could be mitigated. (
  • In the pediatric population, this issue was absent, since the size of the recipient was always much smaller than that of the donor. (
  • If we find a pair you're compatible with, each donor can donate their kidney to the other donor's recipient. (
  • Donate Life Virginia is teaming up with NASCAR driver Joey Gase to honor living kidney donor Christopher Woody, Sr. on Gase's #51 Donate Life Virginia Ford Cup Car for the Federated Auto Parts 400 race on September 12 at Richmond Raceway. (
  • Woody, 35, donated his kidney to a cousin in 2013 and hopes to donate part of his liver altruistically. (
  • This is the first time a living donor has been featured on the Donate Life Virginia car. (
  • It is an honor to be able to make history and be the first African American living donor to featured on Joey Gase's car for Donate Life Virginia," said Woody. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration has recently updated its guidelines, and Armed Services Blood Program blood donors who were once deferred for geographic risk factors related to vCJD, commonly known as "Mad Cow" disease, or for the receipt of a blood transfusion in the U.K., France or Ireland during certain periods of time, may now be eligible to donate, provided they meet all other eligibility requirements. (
  • According to the FDA, most individuals who were once deferred should now be eligible to donate blood, assuming they meet all other donor requirements. (
  • When the team returned in 2017, they hosted a booth for the entire day and staff and volunteers marched in the parade wearing items with the slogan "My Pride Lives On" to spread the Donate Life message. (
  • The lessons learned during World War II concerning liver trauma, blood supply to the liver, and bleeding control spurred the confidence of liver surgeons and marked the beginning of the modern era of liver operations. (
  • The first was Cuinaud's detailed description of the segmental anatomy of the liver based on blood supply (see image below). (
  • WHO highlights the fact that transfusion of blood and blood products helps save millions of lives every year. (
  • In order to achieve that goal and ensure a sustainable and safe blood supply, there is a need to recruit and retain as many young blood donors as possible. (
  • Donating blood is a simple, safe way to get involved and help save lives in your community. (
  • James Christopher Harrison OAM (born 27 December 1936), also known as the Man with the Golden Arm, is a blood plasma donor from Australia whose plasma contains antibodies against RhD which are used in making a treatment for Rhesus disease. (
  • The January issue of the journal Transfusion reported these findings in a compilation of seven articles and an editorial about the development, execution and preliminary results from the Red Blood Cell Omics (RBC-Omics) Study, one of the largest projects of the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Study-III (REDS-III) research program, which is funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (
  • However, other blood donors can give very frequently without experiencing anemia. (
  • Welcome back, blood donors! (
  • Since the 1980s, the existence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, referenced as vCJD and otherwise known as the "Mad Cow" disease, banned many potential donors from donating blood-in particular, those who have served in or traveled to certain countries in Europe. (
  • If you are interested in donating blood or checking your eligibility, visit to locate a military blood donor center near you. (
  • however, 6 months following their surgery, hypertensive and non-hypertensive donors both maintained excellent blood pressure control and had similarly robust compensatory kidney responses. (
  • Ms Garvie's own stem cells were replaced with those of her donor to rebuild her blood and immune systems. (
  • People aged 18-35 can register to be a stem cell donor when they give blood through the Australian Red Cross Lifeblood program. (
  • Given current scrutiny of the blood donor deferral policy of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), interpretations between MSM and non-MSM respondents also were compared. (
  • Exclusion of prospective blood donors based on their acknowledged risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection began in 1983 (1). (
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (
  • Despite better recipient selection for liver transplant, the curative options are limited in recurrent cases and associated with extremely poor outcomes. (
  • These data can reassure donors that not only the early complications but the long-term outcomes are good," he told Reuters Health by email. (
  • Liver transplant (LT) candidates have become older and frailer, with growing Non- alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and comorbid disease burden in recent years, predisposing them for poor waitlist outcomes. (
  • The report found that four political parties received corporate donations from Gujarat, including BJP, the Congress, the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) and SKM, amounting to ₹ 174.06 crore from 1,571 corporate donors. (
  • Meanwhile, the Congress received ₹ 10.464 crore from 47 corporate donors across the five years, receiving the highest donations from 10 donors worth ₹ 3.37 crore in FY 2019-20. (
  • In 2018-2019, out of a total of 532 corporate donations worth ₹ 48.832 crore, BJP got the highest amount amounting ₹ 46.222 crore from 524 corporate donors across the five years amongst all political parties. (
  • Ms Garvie needed an allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor stem cell (HPC) transplant, during which healthy stem cells from a matching donor are infused into a patient's bloodstream. (
  • Now, early findings from a large, multicenter study suggest that the donors' genes may also play an essential role. (
  • We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. (
  • Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. (
  • Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors (92 female, 78 male, mean age 39 years, range 18-61 years) underwent biphasic CT of the liver (Table 1 ). (
  • Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) weighing 1,500 g, analyses included hospitals with level II, survey was used to assess practices for donor milk use in U.S. advanced neonatal care units of hospitals that provide mater- nity care ( 3 ). (
  • Study objectives were to assess question interpretation, understand potential donors' processes for formulating a response, identify question design problems that could increase inaccurate reports, and compare interpretations between those in different geographic regions. (
  • The SPH Portal provides a comprehensive one-stop platform for partners and donors to identify gaps in a country's health security capacities, assess opportunities to target their financial and technical resources for the maximum public health benefit, and explore mechanisms for collaboration with countries. (
  • The prevalence of donor milk use was examined by unit mended alternative for infants with VLBW ( 2 ). (
  • Every year in the United States, thousands of people die while waiting for a liver transplant . (
  • It would have been horrible if we said no and later we found out she had would have wanted to be a donor and she could not have helped those 66 people. (
  • This year, on June 15, around 35 people from the Columbus-based OPO will walk in the parade and another 20 will be on hand to help register organ donors. (
  • Experts say that the organs from one donor can save or help as many as 50 people. (
  • People of all ages and background can be organ donors. (
  • An organ donor can save the lives of up to eight other people. (
  • The federal government funded a review of the HPC sector in 2018 and released a National HPC Framework in November 2021, which identified reducing reliance on overseas donors and improved recruitment model as long-term objectives. (
  • However, formal entry into the abdominal cavity to treat a liver tumor or to drain an abscess began with the advent of general anesthesia and antisepsis in the late 1800s. (
  • I would be cautious with the interpretation of the lower rates of complications in the donors who had a left hepatectomy," he advised. (
  • The history of liver surgery stretches back to ancient times, when battle surgeons introduced debridement of damaged liver segments from open wounds. (
  • Duke surgeons are experienced in split liver transplant. (
  • Australian clinicians are selecting an overseas donor 60 per cent more often than their overseas counterparts,' she said. (
  • Clinicians must make every effort to prevent psychologic coercion of donors. (
  • Clinicians only have a few hours to make a risk assessment and decide if organs from a donor can be transplanted. (
  • and receive donor milk at any time while in the unit: few (0%- neurodevelopmental impairment ( 1 ). (
  • 1057 Summary of Guidance for Minimizing the Impact help ensure that infants with VLBW receive donor milk when of COVID-19 on Individual Persons, Communities, needed and help reduce morbidity and mortality in infants and Health Care Systems -- United States, with VLBW ( 1 , 4 ). (
  • Most of the biggest donors of the top five beneficiaries of the poll bond scheme \u2014 BJP, Trinamool Congress, Congress, Bharat Rashtra Samithi, and Biju Janata Dal \u2014 had not contributed to them in the five years before 2018, when the anonymous mode of funding was launched. (
  • The findings were supported by 2 additional data sets of 210 group A living kidney donors and 124 samples with unclear lectin testing sent to a reference laboratory. (
  • No donor had Clavien grade 4 or higher complications. (
  • Less than 10% of donors had complications that required intervention and none of the reported complications were life-threatening. (
  • The interviews were conducted considering socio-demographic data and the potential donors motivations concerning the transplant. (