Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).AzetidinesDiet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.FluorobenzenesATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Mevalonic AcidNuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.StigmasterolRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Component Removal: Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.EstersHepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
... which decreases LDL oxidation and removes cholesterol from arterial walls and transports it back to liver) a decrease in plasma ... This is the cause of cirrhosis of the liver. The liver is part of the body's filtration system and if it is damaged then ... Over 90% of it is processed by the liver. In the liver, the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme converts ethanol into acetaldehyde, ... The word alcohol was introduced into the English language circa 1543 from the Arabic: الغول‎, "al-ġuḥl". I removed this from ...
This converts IDL into low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is taken up by cells that require cholesterol for incorporation ... ultimately to be removed from the circulation by the liver. The free fatty acids released by the digestion of the chylomicrons ... The liver absorbs a proportion of the glucose from the blood in the portal vein coming from the intestines. After the liver has ... The remainder of the LDLs is removed by the liver. Adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands also take up glucose from the ...
It inhibits the protein which controls the number of receptors responsible for removing LDL cholesterol particles from the ... The drug targets miR-122, a host factor necessary for viral replication of the hepatitis C virus in host liver cells; because ... SPC-4955 inhibits the protein that is necessary for the formation of plasma LDL cholesterol particles. This has the potential ... Advanced SPC5001, which targets PCSK9, into drug development for the treatment of high cholesterol. Received the Red Herring ...
In the absence of PCSK9, there are more LDL receptors on the surface of liver cells to remove LDL-C from the blood. Amgen ... The FDA approved evolocumab injection on 27 August 2015, for some patients who are unable to get their LDL cholesterol under ... PCSK9 is a protein that targets LDL receptors for degradation and thereby reduces the liver's ability to remove LDL-C, or "bad ... Evolocumab is designed to bind to PCSK9 and inhibit PCSK9 from binding to LDL receptors on the liver surface. ...
Stormie's liver was unable to remove cholesterol, i.e. LDL-cholesterol, from her bloodstream. As a result, her LDL-cholesterol ... was able to clear the LDL-cholesterol from her blood. Indeed, after the transplant, Stormie's LDL-cholesterol declined by 81%- ... The case showed that the liver controls blood cholesterol and that high cholesterol is controllable, and was part of the ... Liver transplantation to provide low-density-lipoprotein receptors and lower plasma cholesterol in a child with homozygous ...
The liver is the primary site of action of atorvastatin, as this is the principal site of both cholesterol synthesis and LDL ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... LDL receptors) on hepatocytes. This increases LDL uptake by the hepatocytes, decreasing the amount of LDL-cholesterol in the ... Over the dose range of 10 to 80 mg/day total cholesterol was reduced by 27.0% to 37.9%, LDL cholesterol by 37.1% to 51.7% and ...
This occurs in all nucleated cells, but mainly in the liver which removes ~70% of LDL from the circulation. LDL receptors are ... LDL receptor mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL and thus maintains the plasma level of LDL. ... 7 LDL-R class A domains, and 6 LDL-R class B repeats. The N-terminal domain of the LDL receptor, which is responsible for ... The rapid recycling of LDL receptors provides an efficient mechanism for delivery of cholesterol to cells. It was also reported ...
LDL), transports a variety of triglyceride fats and cholesterol and, like LDL, can also promote the growth of atheroma.[ ... They are cleared from the plasma into the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis, or further degraded to form LDL particles. ( ... The triglycerides in VLDL are removed in capillaries by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, and the VLDL returns to the circulation ... IDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and cholesterol to ...
LDL, and called LDL-C. HDL particles remove fats and cholesterol from cells, including within artery wall atheroma, and ... which restart the uptake of cholesterol from cells. The cholesterol delivered to the liver is excreted into the bile and, hence ... As the result, VLDLs are processed to LDL, which are removed from the circulation by the LDL receptor pathway. The ... "good cholesterol" (despite being the same as cholesterol in LDL particles). Those with higher levels of HDL-C tend to have ...
Drinking apple juice also removes some toxins from the liver and kidneys and is low in calories. Over time, this can reduce the ... The compounds in apple juice called phytonutrients delay the break down of LDL or cholesterol. In history, the phrase from ... chances of having liver or kidney disease.[2] Use[change , change source]. Apple juice can be used to make cider and calvados. ...
... excess cholesterol in the blood is captured by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and removed by the liver via endocytosis of the ... Schematic representation of the seven mammalian LDL receptor (LDLR) family members LDL receptor family members LDL Receptors at ... These modules are: LDL receptor type A (LA) repeats of 40 residues each, displaying a triple-disulfide-bond-stabilized ... In addition to these domains which can be found in all receptors of the gene family, LDL receptor and certain isoforms of ...
The liver is the primary site of action of atorvastatin, as this is the principal site of both cholesterol synthesis and LDL ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.. Find sources: "Atorvastatin" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( ... LDL receptors) on hepatocytes. This increases LDL uptake by the hepatocytes, decreasing the amount of LDL-cholesterol in the ... Over the dose range of 10 to 80 mg/day total cholesterol was reduced by 27.0% to 37.9%, LDL cholesterol by 37.1% to 51.7% and ...
LDL-particles are removed from the blood when they bind to LDLR on the surface of cells, including liver cells, and are taken ... including cholesterol) per particle, within extracellular fluid. The LDL receptor (LDLR), on liver and other cell membranes, ... LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48865-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409699200. PMID 15358785. Lalanne F, ... and thus excessive removal of the LDL receptor, leaving people carrying the mutations with too much LDL cholesterol. Meanwhile ...
When LDL receptors, found concentrated in the liver, bind specific free blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, they are ... internalized and recycled removing the cholesterol from circulation. This process is a primary source of blood cholesterol ... During his postdoctoral research fellowship, Südhof worked to describe the role of the LDL receptor in cholesterol metabolism, ... Important sterols in humans include cholesterol and steroid hormones. Discovery of sterol regulatory elements and LDL receptor ...
VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ... they become LDL, with apoB-100 as the primary apolipoprotein. The LDL is taken into a cell via the LDL receptor via endocytosis ... LPL will remove triglycerides from VLDL for storage or energy production. VLDL now meets back up with HDL where apoC-II is ... Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL ...
... the lipoprotein particle that removes cholesterol from tissues and carries it back to the liver. The foam cells and platelets ... LDL) particles. To attract and stimulate macrophages, the cholesterol must be released from the LDL particles and oxidized, a ... The sugar, cyclodextrin, removed cholesterol that had built up in the arteries of mice fed a high-fat diet. Aging is the most ... Monocyte counts, as well as cholesterol markers such as LDL:HDL ratio and apolipiprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio can be ...
In 1991, Merck & Co's simvastatin was approved as an HMG-COA inhibitor to lower the levels of LDL cholesterol.[citation needed ... At this dose, liver adenoma/carcinoma was seen. Tumors were not seen from the smaller doses. Nomutagenic or clastogenic effects ... Juvisync was later removed from the market in 2013 due to business reasons. ... Juvisync was the first product to combine a cholesterol lowering drug with a type 2 diabetes drug in the same tablet. Due to ...
For this reason, LDL is referred to as "bad cholesterol". High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles transport cholesterol back ... In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites ... The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed ... Cholesterol circulates in the blood in low-density lipoproteins and these are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated ...
... the liver produces more LDL receptors, which remove circulating LDL from the blood. Statins effectively lower cholesterol and ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... Synthesis of cholesterol by the liver is suppressed in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway.[15] In FH, LDL receptor function is ... About 1 in 300 to 500 people have mutations in the LDLR gene that encodes the LDL receptor protein, which normally removes LDL ...
For this reason, LDL is referred to as "bad cholesterol".. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles transport cholesterol back ... In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites ... The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed ... Cholesterol. Main article: Cholesterol. The fate of cholesterol in the blood is highly determined by its constitution of ...
... removing it from the bloodstream. Overall, the result is a reduction in circulating cholesterol and LDL. A minor reduction in ... Taking place primarily in the liver, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the rate- ... LDL). These reductions increase the number of cellular LDL receptors, thus LDL uptake increases, ... have not improved cholesterol levels. The evidence for the use of pravastatin is generally weaker than for other statins. The ...
One of the main design objectives of statin design is the selective inhibition of HMGR in the liver, as cholesterol synthesis ... The end result is lower LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), TG (Triglycerides) and total cholesterol levels as well as increased HDL ... adverse effects due to its ability to inhibit vascular smooth muscle proliferation and as a result was voluntarily removed from ... The statins inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the body and that leads to reduction in blood cholesterol levels, which is thought ...
In addition, it has been shown to be effective in removing fatty liver deposits in rats, preventing liver disease, and reducing ... supplementation on plasma and liver lipid concentrations and free amino acid concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet ... High concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (essential structural component of VLDL and LDL) are major risk ... Dietary taurine has a blood cholesterol-lowering effect in young overweight adults. Furthermore, body weight also decreased ...
... are activated by shear stress and LDL cholesterol. Two types of PMRTs have been characterised. Type 1 PRMTs are found mainly in ... DDAH-1 is found in tissues expressing neuronal NOS (nNOS) and in the liver, kidney and lung. Expression is increased by IL-1β ... Protein detoxification removes free methylarginines that would otherwise inhibit the generation of nitric oxide. The pathway is ... LDL Cholesterol Upregulates Synthesis of Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine in Human Endothelial Cells Circ Res 2000;87:99-105 ...
... and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol) while raising HDL ("good" cholesterol) levels, with reported effectiveness rates ranging from ... Jiaogulan is a vine hardy to USDA zone 8 in which it may grow as a short lived perennial plant. It can be grown as an annual in ... removing pressure from the ginseng stock. Purported adaptogenic effects include regulating blood pressure and the immune system ... Pharmacological research has indicated a number of therapeutic qualities of jiaogulan, such as lowering cholesterol and high ...
cholesterol test. *liver function test. *blood test for vitamin A. Relevance of blood testsEdit. Retinol concentrations are ... However, recovery is dependent on removing the causative agent; stopping high Vitamin A intake.[34][35][36][37] ... LDL), retinoic acid bound to albumin, water soluble β-glucuronides of retinol and retinoic acid, and provitamin A carotenoids.[ ... Diet - liver is high in vitamin A. The liver of certain animals - including the polar bear, bearded seal,[24][25] walrus,[26] ...
... adding psyllium husk to a healthy diet significantly reduces total blood cholesterol and bad LDL cholesterol levels. Psyllium ... Find out everything you need to know about clean and healthy living when you sign up for our free email newsletter. Receive ... Australian police can kidnap people for medical reasons and remove anything "including underwear" to forcefully administer ... Fiber is an essential nutrient that benefits the heart as it helps control blood cholesterol levels. According to a study ...
It binds toxins and removes them.. "Serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were 4.7% and 6.7% lower in the psyllium ... Psyllium and Cholesterol. Psyllium lowers cholesterol, as excess cholesterol is secreted in bile by the gallbladder. This is ... Detoxifying Living Clay. *Bentonite Detox. *Montmorillonite Clay. *What is Bentonite. Invitation. *Detox FAQ ... Its ability to remove waste matter held for long in the colon can also make a person lose weight once that waste matter is ...
The best benefit is I recently had my cholesterol levels checked and my overall cholesterol dropped by 55 points LDL and ... How To Remove The Keto Bad Breath. *Keto Diet Reviews - Keto in The News ... HEART HEALTHY - may help reduces LDL cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and promote heart health ... Helps maintain normal cholesterol levels and support heart health. *A gentle fiber that promotes normal regularity while not ...
One important way to lower your cholesterol is through diet. Learn which foods to avoid, which ones you should limit, and what ... It carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Then your liver removes the cholesterol from your body ... One type, LDL, is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. ... you should have less than 200 mg a day of cholesterol. Cholesterol is in foods of animal origin, such as liver and other organ ...
... cholesterol. It helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries, so a higher HDL level is better. ... Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.. *LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the " ... What is cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance thats found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes ... It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. ...
LDL molecules carry cholesterol from the liver to other body tissues. They contain about 50% cholesterol. LDL particles are ... are made in the intestines and the liver. HDLs are about 50% protein and 19% cholesterol. They help to remove cholesterol from ... The cholesterol test is a way of measuring the cholesterol levels in a sampleof the patients blood. Total serum cholesterol ( ... The type of cholesterol in the blood is as important as the total quantity. Cholesterol is a fatty substance and cannot be ...
Increase the livers ability to remove the LDL cholesterol already in the blood. ... Lower LDL cholesterol by inhibiting an enzyme that controls the rate of cholesterol production. ... Most also had high cholesterol and blood pressure, and many had diabetes. ... statins to decrease cholesterol and blood thinners to prevent clots. The drug treatments typically cost at least $1,500 a year ...
The liver removes LDL cholesterol from the blood. It does this by making receptors that attach to LDL cholesterol. With FH, ... It causes high levels of total cholesterol. It also increases levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad cholesterol. ... In most cases, cholesterol-lowering medications called statins are prescribed. Statins may be able to reduce the risk of heart ... Liver transplant-may be done in severe cases where the condition is getting worse and treatment has been unsuccessful ...
... liver, and other tissues is absorbed by HDL cholesterol. There is evidence that even some oxidized LDL can be removed by the ... although growing cells removed more cholesterol than dead cells, the heat-killed cells could still remove cholesterol from ... The cholesterol pool of the liver is used in two important ways. The liver utilizes part of it to produce bile salts, to be ... The liver makes up for the loss of bile salts by synthesizing them from its cholesterol reservoir. Cells in the liver also ...
If you have high cholesterol, your doctor may prescribe you medicine to help you lower it to a healthy level. Learn about how ... They also increase the livers ability to remove LDL cholesterol that is already in the blood. The Food and Drug Administration ... Your LDL cholesterol level is 190 mg/dL or higher.. *You are 40-75 years old with diabetes and an LDL cholesterol level of 70 ... Statin drugs lower LDL cholesterol by slowing down the livers production of cholesterol. ...
Foods high in cholesterol include fatty meats, milk products, egg yolks, snacks, crackers, muffins, and fast foods. LDL (bad) ... cholesterol can be lowered with diet, medications, exercise, weight loss, and quitting smoking. ... Foods in the diet that lower cholesterol are foods high in fiber, low in saturated fats, olive oil, soy, and nuts. ... cholesterol in the blood?. *The liver manufactures and secretes LDL cholesterol into the blood. It also removes LDL cholesterol ...
When your cholesterol is too high, youre at risk for a variety of health issues, including heart disease and stroke. But if ... It removes LDL cholesterol from the body by moving it to the liver, where it can be excreted. This helps reduce heart disease ... Niacin, which may lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol (In high doses, niacin can cause liver damage, so consult ... LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is what most people think of as "bad cholesterol." It helps move cholesterol through your body ...
The liver produces 80% of your good cholesterol. • Gallbladder is connected to the liver by a hepatic duct. The gallbladder ... lipoproteins with high protein in other words good cholesterol. LDL is bad cholesterol. Cell Salts Tissue salts or cell salts ... Kidneys are where we remove waste and urea is produced by the liver. • Ureters from the kidney tubes that enter the bladder. • ... If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight. If a child lives with abuse, he learns to hurt others. If a child lives ...
LDL) receptors in the liver. This helps remove LDL cholesterol from your blood, which makes a heart attack less likely. ... If you have a high cholesterol level, cholesterol-lowering medicine called statins may be prescribed. Examples include: * ... Statins work by blocking the formation of cholesterol and increasing the number of low density lipoprotein ( ...
The liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.. * LDL cholesterol: This cholesterol, referred to as "lousy" or bad ... Total cholesterol: Total cholesterol is a measurement of HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and other lipid components. Elevated ... Know your levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy, fatlike substance produced by the liver and found in all ... This form of cholesterol is like a garbage truck, picking up and transporting cholesterol back to the liver. ...
For example, your genetic makeup might keep cells from removing LDL cholesterol from your blood efficiently or cause your liver ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, transports cholesterol particles throughout your body. LDL ... For instance, as you age, your liver becomes less able to remove LDL cholesterol. ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL, or "good" cholesterol, picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver. ...
But high cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease. Lifestyle changes can help. ... You need some cholesterol in your blood to build healthy cells. ... your liver becomes less able to remove LDL cholesterol.. * ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, transports cholesterol particles throughout your body. LDL ... For example, your genetic makeup might keep cells from removing LDL cholesterol from your blood efficiently or cause your liver ...
LDL is the main carrier of cholesterol but leaves some behind for uptake in the arteriole wall. HDL removes cholesterol from ... tissues and take it to the liver for disposal. HDL IS GOOD CHOLESTEROL ... High calorie diet, which increases VLDL and its conversion to LDL. -genetic predisposition. -Comorbid conditions. -certain ... What is the difference between LDL and HDL? Which one is better? ...
... boost levels of good cholesterol and protect people against diabetes - a breakthrough study has revealed. ... Good cholesterol removes bad - or LDL cholesterol - from circulation and transports it back to the liver for processing. Six in ... The rats had been fed a high sugar and high cholesterol diet for twelve weeks so the scientists could accurately analyse the ... ten people in the uK are living with abnormal cholesterol levels and could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. ...
Now the FDA may be poised to approve a powerful new class of drugs that can attack cholesterol levels in a different way. Hari ... More than 30 million Americans take statins to lower their cholesterol, according to estimates. But these popular drugs dont ... They increase the activity of the receptors in the liver that are responsible for removing LDL cholesterol. ... So it is true that bad cholesterol, this LDL cholesterol, contributes to heart disease. And it would seem in theory that, if we ...
LDL), or bad cholesterol, has been the primary approach to improving cholesterol levels. ... Thanks to powerful cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, driving down low-density lipoprotein ( ... HDL removes LDL from artery walls and ferries it to the liver for processing or removal. HDL also fights potentially dangerous ... Thanks to powerful cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, driving down low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, has ...
This fact sheet explains what cholesterol is and how you can improve your diet to help reduce the cholesterol level in your ... Eating a diet high in saturated fat increases production in the liver of LDL or bad cholesterol. Saturated fat also slows down ... how quickly cholesterol is removed from your body. Cutting down on saturated fat in the diet and replacing it with unsaturated ... good cholesterol, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) - bad cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps your body but LDL cholesterol ...
Carry cholesterol and TG from liver, and TG is removed leaving LDL ... Where cholesterol crystals are laid down, there are needle shaped crystals of cholesterol that are soluble, so when solvents ... because people living that long are likely not to have atheroma, or they wouldnt have lived that long) ... LDL oxidation. Uptake of lipid by smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Migration of monocytes into intima. Stimulated smooth ...
... because it helps remove LDL cholesterol from the body. It does this by taking the LDL cholesterol to the liver, which will ... cholesterol, also known as "good" cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which people describe as "bad" ... It is well known that not all cholesterol is bad for you. Of HDL and LDL cholesterol, HDL packs some great benefits. This MNT ... cholesterol.. Healthcare professionals often refer to LDL cholesterol as "bad" because the overaccumulation of this fatty ...
There are two types of lipoprotein: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is sometimes called bad cholesterol and high-density ... Cholesterol is transported around the body in the bloodstream on proteins called lipoproteins. ... lipoprotein (HDL), also referred to as good cholesterol. ... HDL carries cholesterol to the liver, where it is removed from ... LDL transports cholesterol to the arteries, and when the LDL level is elevated, this cholesterol can accumulate in the blood ...
  • cholesterol is also hereditary (Familial Hypercholestraemia (FH))1 and a chronic condition. (slideserve.com)
  • NICE has published draft guidance not recommending evolocumab (Repatha, Amgen) as an option for people with high cholesterol (primary hypercholesterolaemia - heterozygous-familial and non-familial) and mixed dyslipidaemia. (nice.org.uk)
  • In primary non-familial hypercholesterolaemia, a number of genes interact with dietary and other factors such as smoking and lack of exercise to cause high cholesterol levels. (nice.org.uk)
  • Familial LDL receptor deficiency and familial defective apoprotein B-100 are examples of primary defects that can lead to the accumulation of LDL, which corresponds to a type IIa pattern of hyperlipidemia. (medscape.com)
  • Genetic factors - A condition called familial hypercholesterolaemia occurs in approximately 1 in 500 people and causes an approximate doubling of LDL cholesterol. (liverdoctor.com)
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