Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Receptors, Estradiol: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Estrogens, Catechol: 2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Estradiol Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hydroxyestrones: Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Estradiol Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Phytoestrogens: PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Steryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Nafoxidine: An estrogen antagonist that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySulfatasesHydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.TriazolesAnti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Promegestone: A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Dydrogesterone: A synthetic progestational hormone with no androgenic or estrogenic properties. Unlike many other progestational compounds, dydrogesterone produces no increase in temperature and does not inhibit OVULATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.Equilenin: An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) are the three principal circulating estrogens in the body. These three forms ... where it is formed by aromatization of androstenedione. Estrone is the major estrogen after menopause, and this hormone may be ... in the liver by hydroxylation of estrone. Similar to estrogen, progesterone receptors bind several molecules other than only ... Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ...
However, estrogen bypassing the digestive tract and liver and entering through the skin is not converted to a new form before ... which combined the most common three estrogens (of over 25 types) found in human females: estriol, estradiol and estrone. ... Specific hormones used in BHT include estrone, estradiol, progesterone (which are available both in FDA-approved manufactured ... Typically, compounded preparations of bioidentical hormones include estriol, estrone, estradiol, testosterone, progesterone and ...
"Estradiol prodrugs (EP) for efficient oral estrogen treatment and abolished effects on estrogen modulated liver functions". J. ... Elger W, Palme HJ, Schwarz S (1998). "Novel oestrogen sulfamates: a new approach to oral hormone therapy". Expert Opin Investig ... analogously to conversion of estradiol into estrone. Moreover, EMATE is the dominant fraction found in circulation, and EMATE ... This enzyme is responsible for the transformation of hormonally inactive steroid sulfates into their hormonally active forms, ...
Estrogen conjugate Estradiol sulfate Estrone sulfate Estradiol glucuronide Estrone glucuronide Lipoidal estradiol Catechol ... It is formed from estriol in the liver and is eventually excreted in the urine by the kidneys. It has much higher water ... Estriol sulfate was a component, along with estriol glucuronide, of the early pharmaceutical estrogens Progynon and Emmenin. ... 54-. ISBN 978-1-60917-326-5. Gregory Pincus (22 October 2013). Recent Progress in Hormone Research: The Proceedings of the ...
... a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone. It is one of three major endogenous estrogens, the others being estradiol and ... Both of these transformations take place predominantly in the liver. Estrone can also be reversibly converted into estradiol by ... In addition to aromatization of androstenedione, estrone is also formed reversibly from estradiol by the enzyme 17β- ... other marketed estrogens such as estradiol and estrone sulfate produce estrone as a major metabolite. Estrone, also known as ...
... and a minor female sex hormone. It is one of three major endogenous estrogens, the others being estradiol and estrone. Levels ... It is a far less potent estrogen than is estradiol, and as such is a relatively weak estrogen. According to one in vitro study ... It is available in oral tablet, vaginal cream, and vaginal suppository form, and is used in menopausal hormone therapy for the ... in the fetal liver and to a limited extent in the fetal adrenal glands. 16α-OH-DHEA-S is then taken up by the placenta. Due to ...
... has a number of physiological effects that are amplified in the presence of estrogens. Estrogens through estrogen ... Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... and pregnanetriols are formed secondarily to 17α-hydroxylation. In addition, progesterone can be hydroxylated in the liver by ... Androstenedione can be converted to testosterone, estrone, and estradiol. Pregnenolone and progesterone can also be synthesized ...
... estradiol > estrone. DHEA is weakly bound to SHBG as well, but DHEA-S is not. Androstenedione is not bound to SHBG either, and ... Selva DM, Hammond GL (Jul 2009). "Thyroid hormones act indirectly to increase sex hormone-binding globulin production by liver ... is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, ... Androgens bind at the C3 functional groups on the A ring, and estrogens bind via a hydroxyl attached to C17 on the D ring. The ...
As prodrugs of estradiol, estradiol benzoate and other estradiol esters are estrogens, or agonists of the estrogen receptors ( ... Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen. Estradiol benzoate was discovered in 1933 ... Schwenk and Hildebrant discovered estradiol via reduction of estrone in 1933, and they proceeded to synthesize estradiol ... Estradiol benzoate, sold under the brand name Progynon-B among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as ...
... and DHEA sulfate to the estrogenic hormones estrone and estradiol, respectively; after these estrogens are produced by the ... In individuals with liver failure or cirrhosis, the liver's ability to properly metabolize hormones such as estrogen may be ... Approximately 10-40% of individuals with Graves' disease (a common form of hyperthyroidism) experience gynecomastia. Increased ... Serum testosterone levels (free and total), estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone may also be ...
... which can be directly converted by aromatase to the estrogens estrone and estradiol, respectively). Increased blood levels of ... They are more likely to be diagnosed with hormone-receptor positive tumors, with about six out of seven cases being estrogen- ... Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic form of estrogen. It has been used between the early 1940s and 1971. Pregnant women ... If all women lived to age 95, about one in eight would be diagnosed with breast cancer at some point during their lives. ...
... or estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide, is a conjugated metabolite of estradiol. It is formed from estradiol in the liver by UDP- ... as estrone, 25% as estrone sulfate, 25% as estradiol glucuronide, and 25% as estrone glucuronide. Formation of estrogen ... Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology and Clinical Application of Estrogens and Antiestrogen. Springer Science & ... ISBN 978-0-07-162686-6. F. A. Kincl; J. R. Pasqualini (22 October 2013). Hormones and the Fetus: Volume 1: Production, ...
... is conjugated in the liver to form estrogen conjugates like estradiol sulfate, estradiol glucuronide and, as such, ... As such, estradiol is the main estrogen in the body, although the roles of estrone and estriol as estrogens are said to not be ... Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. It is involved in the ... Estradiol is additionally conjugated with an ester into lipoidal estradiol forms like estradiol palmitate and estradiol ...
... the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. Estradiol valerate is an estrogen ester and a prodrug of estradiol in the ... Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen. Estradiol valerate was introduced for ... These concentrations of estradiol and estrone are comparable to those observed with 1 and 2 mg/day oral micronized estradiol. ... This cleavage occurs not only in the liver, but also in the blood and in tissues, and the hydrolysis of estradiol valerate into ...
... sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens and estrogens; and transcortin (corticosteroid-binding globulin), ... which can then subsequently be transformed into estrone (with androstenedione as an intermediate) and estradiol, respectively ... Since danazol is metabolized by the liver, it cannot be used by patients with liver disease, and in patients receiving long- ... Toxic effects formed the primary safety endpoint. The study was halted early, after telomere attrition was reduced in all 12 ...
Estrone and estradiol, in contrast, are estrogens.[22]. Biosynthesis[edit]. Androgens are synthesized from cholesterol and are ... During puberty, androgen, LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) production increase and the sex cords hollow out, forming ... Again BrdU was injected into both groups of rats in order to see if cells were multiplying in the living tissue. These results ... Again it was noted that AHN was not increase via activation of the estrogen receptors.[13] ...
... converts estradiol into estrone) and estrone sulfotransferase (converts estrone into estrone sulfate). In the breasts, ... It opposes the effects of estrogens in various parts of the body like the uterus and also blocks the effects of the hormone ... Progesterone is used in combination with an estrogen as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for the treatment of ... and upregulates estrone sulfotransferase. The antiestrogenic effects of progesterone and other progestogens form the basis for ...
EE is an estrogen similarly to natural estrogens like estradiol and conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) and synthetic ... It mediates its antiandrogenic effects by 1) stimulating the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the liver, ... This is thought to be because estrone and estrone sulfate can be reversibly converted back into estradiol and serve as a ... Today, EE is found in almost all combined forms of birth control pills and is nearly the exclusive estrogen used for this ...
... and to stimulate the conversion of estrone into estrone sulfate (via activation of estrogen sulfotransferase activity) at low ... It is used in combination with estradiol as a birth control pill and in menopausal hormone therapy. NOMAC is available both ... Because NOMAC is metabolized by the liver, hepatic impairment can result in an accumulation of the drug. The side effects of ... Kuhl, H (2009). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration". Climacteric. 8 ( ...
... estrogens like ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol are not inactivated as well as estradiol in tissues like the liver and ... An estrogen is a type of medication that has similar effects to those of the estrogen steroid hormone estradiol. Estrogen may ... Estrogens are involved in breast development and may be used as a form of hormonal breast enhancement to increase the size of ... Estradiol, estrone, and estriol have all been approved as pharmaceutical drugs and are used medically. Estetrol is currently ...
Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Without these hormones, mature sperm cannot survive in the testes. This means that norethisterone could also be an effective ... Norethisterone binds to the ERs, the ERα and the ERβ, with 0.07% and 0.01% of the relative binding affinity of estradiol. Due ... However, norethisterone has been found to be a substrate for aromatase and is converted in the liver to a small extent (0.35%) ...
Endogenous estrogens (e.g., estradiol, estrone, estriol, estetrol) Natural estrogens (e.g., conjugated equine estrogens) ... utilizes a lot of energy in the form of ATP to properly pump blood and maintain physiological requirements in order to live, ... is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen. In humans, ER ... "Differential response of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta to partial estrogen agonists/antagonists". Mol. ...
Also activates estrogens from weaker forms to a lesser extent (estrone to estradiol). Essential for testicular but not ovarian ... and liver. HSD17B8: Inactivates estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone, though can also convert estrone into ... Hormones, Brain and Behavior. 4: Clinical Important Effects of Hormones on Brain and Behavior. Elsevier Science. p. 69. ISBN ... Hilborn E, Stål O, Jansson A (May 2017). "Estrogen and androgen-converting enzymes 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and their ...
Growth hormones such as rBST, estrogen, and testosterone are administered to increase development rate and muscle mass for the ... The sludge layer is a more solid layer formed by the stratification of sediments from the manure. After a while, this solid ... For the nursery, lagoon effluent concentrations ranged from 390 to 620 ng/L for estrone, 180 to 220 ng/L for estriol, and 40 to ... These overflows release harmful substances into the surrounding land and water such as: antibiotics, estrogens, bacteria, ...
The three major naturally occurring forms of estrogen in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Another type ... Estrogens are used as medications, mainly in hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy. The estrogen steroid ... Some estrogens are also produced in smaller amounts by other tissues such as the liver, adrenal glands, and the breasts. These ... The three major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estradiol is the ...
... , sold under the brand names Femtrace, Femring, and Menoring, is an estrogen medication which is used in hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women.[3][4][5][6] It is taken by mouth or given as a vaginal ring once every three months.[1] Side effects of estradiol acetate include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, nausea, headache, and fluid retention.[7][5][6] Estradiol acetate is a synthetic estrogen and hence is an agonist of the estrogen receptor (ER), the biological target of estrogens like estradiol.[8][9] It is an estrogen ester and a prodrug of estradiol in the body.[9][8] Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen.[9] Estradiol acetate was ...
The classical estrogen receptors first characterized in 1958[6] are water-soluble proteins located in the interior of cells that are activated by estrogenenic hormones such as estradiol and several of its metabolites such as estrone or estriol. These proteins belong to the nuclear hormone receptor class of transcription factors that regulate gene transcription. Since it takes time for genes to be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, the effects of estrogens binding to these classical estrogen receptors is delayed. However, estrogens are also known to have effects that are too fast to be caused by regulation of gene transcription.[7] In 2005, it was discovered that a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, GPR30 also binds with high affinity to estradiol and is responsible in part for the rapid ...
Levels of estradiol in premenopausal women are highly variable throughout the menstrual cycle and reference ranges widely vary from source to source.[60] Estradiol levels are minimal and according to most laboratories range from 20 to 80 pg/mL during the early to mid follicular phase (or the first week of the menstrual cycle, also known as menses).[61][62] Levels of estradiol gradually increase during this time and through the mid to late follicular phase (or the second week of the menstrual cycle) until the pre-ovulatory phase.[60][61] At the time of pre-ovulation (a period of about 24 to 48 hours), estradiol levels briefly surge and reach their highest concentrations of any other time during the menstrual cycle.[60] Circulating levels are typically between 130 and 200 pg/mL at this time, but in some women may be as high as 300 to 400 pg/mL, and the upper limit of the ...
Levels of estradiol in premenopausal women are highly variable throughout the menstrual cycle and reference ranges widely vary from source to source.[59] Estradiol levels are minimal and according to most laboratories range from 20 to 80 pg/mL during the early to mid follicular phase (or the first week of the menstrual cycle, also known as menses).[60][61] Levels of estradiol gradually increase during this time and through the mid to late follicular phase (or the second week of the menstrual cycle) until the pre-ovulatory phase.[59][60] At the time of pre-ovulation (a period of about 24 to 48 hours), estradiol levels briefly surge and reach their highest concentrations of any other time during the menstrual cycle.[59] Circulating levels are typically between 130 and 200 pg/mL at this time, but in some women may be as high as 300 to 400 pg/mL, and the upper limit of the ...
The first CIC to be studied was estradiol valerate/hydroxyprogesterone caproate (EV/OHPC) in 1963, and the second CIC to be studied was estradiol enantate/algestone acetophenide (E2-EN/DHPA) in 1964.[18][17] In 1967, E2-EN/DHPA was in the late stages of clinical development.[25][18] By 1969, the medication was available for medical use under the brand name Perlutal.[26] Within a few years, it was marketed under other brand names such as Topasel and Ova-Repos as well.[27][28][29][30] In addition, several other CICs had been introduced for medical use by 1972.[30] By 1976, two major CICs were in use: E2-EN/DHPA (brand names Perlutan, Topasel) in Spain and Latin America, and EV/OHPC (brand name Injectable No. 1) in China.[31] These CICs have been described as first-generation CICs.[31] Two second-generation CICs, estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate (EC/MPA; brand names Cyclofem and later Lunelle) ...
FSH stimulates the growth and recruitment of immature ovarian follicles in the ovary. In early (small) antral follicles, FSH is the major survival factor that rescues the small antral follicles (2-5 mm in diameter for humans) from apoptosis (programmed death of the somatic cells of the follicle and oocyte). In the luteal-follicle phase transition period the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen (primarily estradiol) decrease and no longer suppress the release of FSH, consequently FSH peaks at about day three (day one is the first day of menstrual flow). The cohort of small antral follicles is normally sufficient in number to produce enough Inhibin B to lower FSH serum levels. In addition, there is evidence that gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor produced by small follicles during the first half of the follicle phase also exerts a negative feedback on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion amplitude, thus allowing a more favorable environment for ...
LH supports theca cells in the ovaries that provide androgens and hormonal precursors for estradiol production. At the time of menstruation, FSH initiates follicular growth, specifically affecting granulosa cells.[7] With the rise in estrogens, LH receptors are also expressed on the maturing follicle, which causes it to produce more estradiol. Eventually, when the follicle has fully matured, a spike in 17α-hydroxyprogesterone production by the follicle inhibits the production of estrogens, leading to a decrease in estrogen-mediated negative feedback of GnRH in the hypothalamus, which then stimulates the release of LH from the anterior pituitary.[8] However another theory of the LH peak is a positive feedback mechanism from estradiol. The levels keep rising through the follicular phase and when they reach an unknown threshold, this results in the peak of the ...
... (-utawa oestrogen) -ya iku sekelompok senyawa steroid kang fungsine mligi minangka hormon seks wanita. Sanajan turah bisa iku ing jero awak priya utawa wanita, kandungane luwih dhuwur ing awak wanita umur subur. Hormon iki nyebapake perkembangan lan nahanake tanda-tanda kelamin sékundhèr ing wanita, kaya susu, lan uga mèlu sajrone kekandelan endometrium utawa sajrone pengaturan siklus haid. nalika wektu menopause, estrogen wiwit kurang saéngga bisa nyebapake pira-pira efek, ing antarané hot flash, kanti kringet nalika wektu turu, lan was-was kang ora wajar. telu jinis estrogen utama kang turah kanthi alami sajrone awak wanita ya iku estradiol, estriol, lan estron. Awit menarche nganti menopause, estrogen utama -ya iku 17β-estradiol. Ing jero awak, katelu jinis estrogen mau digawé saka androgen kanti bantuan enzim. ...
Oestrogen (or estrogen) is a group of female hormones.[1] It includes oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), and oestriol (E3). Oestradiol is the most important oestrogen. Oestrogen is mainly secreted by the ovary, a small amount by the liver, adrenal cortex, and breast. In pregnancy, the placenta can also have a lot of secretion. Male testes also secrete a small amount. Ovary mainly secretes β-estradiol, other estrogens are less important.[2] Oestrogen helps women grow during puberty and is part of the menstrual cycle. During menopause, oestrogen levels go down. The male hormone that is similar is androgen. ...
Ang dalawang pangunahing uri ng mga sex steroid ay ang mga androgen at estrogen, na kung saan ang pinakamahalaga ang testosterone at estradiol. Sa ibang bahagi, tinutukoy ang mga progestogen bilang ikatlong-klase na mga sex steroid. Ang progesterone ay ang pinaka-importante at natural na progestogen ng mga tao. Ang mga androgen, ay tinutukoy bilang mga sex hormone na panlalaki, sapagkat ito ay may epektong pampalalaki, habang ang estrogen naman at mga progestogen naman, ay tinutukoy bilang mga sex hormone na pambabae, kahit na ang mga hormone na ito ay matatagpuan sa bawat kasarian, sa iba't ibang antas nga lamang. Kabilang sa mga sex steroids ang: ...
Mueller, G.C. and Rumney, G. (1957). "Formation of 6β-hydroxy and 6-keto derivatives of estradiol-16-C14 by mouse liver microsomes". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79: 1004-1005. ...
LH djeluje na Leidigove ćelije testisa , što se regulira putem GnRH.[9] Leydigove ćelije proizvode testosteron (T) pod kontrolom LH, koji regulira ekspresiju enzima 17-β hidroksisteroid-dehidrogenaze koji se koristi za pretvaranje androstenediona, hormona koji proizvodi gonada, testosterona,[10] i androgena, koji i endokrinu i intratestikulsku aktivnosti u spermatogenezi. LH se luči iz hipofize, a pod kontrolom impulsa oslobađajućeg hormona gonadotropina (GnRH). Kada su razine T niske, GnRH se oslobađa iz hipotalamusa, stimuliranjem hipofize za oslobađanje LH. [9] Kako se razina T povećava, to će djelovati na hipotalamus i hipofizu preko negativne povratne petlje i inhibiraju oslobađanje GnRH, a posljedično i LH.[10] Androgeni (T, DHT) inhibiraju monoaminooksidaze (MAO) u epifizi, što dovodi do povećanja melatonina i smanjenja LH i FSH putem povećanja GnIH i sekrecije, što izaziva sinteza pod uticajem melatonina. T se može biti aromatiziran u estradiol (E2) da inhibira LH. ...
Steroid je organska spojina s štirimi obroči, razporejenimi v določeno molekularno konfiguracijo. Nekaj primerovː lipidni holesterol, spolna hormona estradiol in testosteron[1] ter protivnetno zdravilo deksametazon.[2] Steroidi imajo dve glavni biološki funkciji: nekateri (npr. holesterol) so pomembne komponente celične membrane, ki spremenijo membransko fluidnost, mnogi steroidi pa so signalne molekule, ki vključijo steroidne receptorje. Steroidni osnovni skelet je sestavljen iz sedemnajstih ogljikovih atomov, povezanih v štiri "kondenzirane" obroče: tri šestčlenske cikloheksanske obroče (obroči A, B in C na prvi sliki) in en petčlenski ciklopentanski obroč (obroč D). Steroidi se med seboj razlikujejo po funkcionalnih skupinah, vezanih na ta štiriobročno jedro, in po oksidacijskem stanju obročev. Steroli so oblika steroidov s hidroksilno skupino na položaju 3 in skeletom, ki izvira iz holestana.[3]:1785f [4] Lahko se razlikujejo tudi bolj izrazito glede na spremembe obročne ...
... and DHEA sulfate to the estrogenic hormones estrone and estradiol, respectively; after these estrogens are produced by the ... In individuals with liver failure or cirrhosis, the livers ability to properly metabolize hormones such as estrogen may be ... Approximately 10-40% of individuals with Graves disease (a common form of hyperthyroidism) experience gynecomastia. Increased ... Serum testosterone levels (free and total), estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone may also be ...
... micronized 17-B estradiol is rapidly absorbed and is conjugated and metabolized within the liver to estrone. This form of ... that form of estrogen is often prescribed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Esterified estrogens (Estratab, Menest ... The standard minimum oral estrogen doses of conjugated equine estrogens 0.625mg and micronized 17-B estradiol 1mg are ... Figure 2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in a menopausal woman who has had hysterectomy calls for prescribing estrogen ...
Physiology of sex hormones and issues related to sex hormone replacement in older adults. ... Estrone is mainly formed in peripheral tissues. Most estriol is made in the liver from estradiol. Estriol is a weak estrogen. ... Major Horse Estrogens. Unlike human estrogen in which estradiol is the most active estrogen, the most active estrogens in ... Human estrogen is about 90% estriol (E3), 7% estradiol (E2) and 3% estrone (E1). Estradiol (17β−estradiol, to be specific, ...
The liver is responsible for converting the resulting potent estrogens (estradiol and estrone) into the less potent form, ... This creates a state of estrogen dominance.. Symptoms of insufficient clearance of estrogens or estrogen dominance include acne ... THE LIVER PLAYS A ROLE. Its important to understand the livers role in relationship to sex hormones. Once hormones have done ... adrenal hormones and their influence over the transition known as menopause. Estrogens (estradiol, estrone and estriol) are ...
Some women who opt for hormone therapy are choosing bioidentical hormones, which are manufactured instead of occurring in ... Bioidentical estrogens are 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, and estriol. (Estradiol is the form of estrogen that decreases at ... Bioidentical estradiol in pill form is converted in the liver to estrone, a weaker bioidentical estrogen. But given in a patch ... Bioidentical estradiol until ingested and converted in the liver to estrone.. +For vaginal symptoms only.. ++The estradiol is ...
Thus, estrone, especially in its sulfate ester form, is the most abundant circulating estrogen in postmenopausal women. ... such as ethinyl estradiol and the nonsteroidal estrogens, are degraded very slowly in the liver and other tissues, which ... Estrogens. Class Summary. For the purpose of hormone replacement and induction of puberty. Treatment of moderate to severe ... Estrogens occur naturally in several forms. The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian ...
It is metabolized primarily in liver to estrogens such as estrone, estradiol, and estriol. The influx of E1S into the liver ... Estrone sulfate (E1S)1serves as a storage form of estrogens in the human circulation and is used in hormone replacement therapy ... and anionic estrogen conjugates (Kullack-Ublick et al., 1994; Shi et al., 1995; Bossuyt et al., 1996;Kanai et al., 1996; Noé et ... 1980) Uptake of estrone sulfate by isolated rat liver cells. J Steroid Biochem 13:669-673. ...
There are three main forms of estrogen found in the human body: estrone, estradiol, and estriol, with estradiol being the most ... Estrogens. Estrogens are the most important hormones that influence the lives of women, are responsible for regulating the main ... Other hormones, such as thyroid hormones, are stored in the form of thyroglobulin in the thyroid gland even months before they ... After menopause, the production of estradiol falls to a very low but constant level. Decreasing levels of estrogen during ...
Patch Bioidentical estradiol in pill form is converted in the liver to estrone, a weaker bioidentical estrogen. Sex Estrace ... Estradiol is a form of estrogen, a female sex hormone that regulates many processes in Estrace Hormone Pills the body. I still ... Some FDA-approved products - such as Estrace, Climara and Vivelle-Dot, which contain estrogens, and Prometrium, a natural ... Bioidentical estradiol in pill form is converted in the liver to estrone, a weaker bioidentical estrogen Estrace Pill ...
Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) are the three principal circulating estrogens in the body. These three forms ... where it is formed by aromatization of androstenedione. Estrone is the major estrogen after menopause, and this hormone may be ... in the liver by hydroxylation of estrone. Similar to estrogen, progesterone receptors bind several molecules other than only ... Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ...
The liver converts estradiol to Estrone, and Estriol *The Adrenal Gland can synthesize estrogens, whereas fat cells, muscle ... Estradiol, Estrone, Estriol*The female produce the above forms of Estrogen. *Estradiol is produced in the ovaries ... The naturally occurring hormones pose first-pass metabolism. 129. Estrogens-Mechanism of action*Steroid hormones cross the cell ... the liver *The synthetic estrogen analogs (ethinyl estradiol) and (mestranol) are well absorbed, and ethinyl estradiol come in ...
Estrogen has different forms. The strongest form is estradiol. Other important, but less powerful estrogens are estrone and ... The liver *The urinary tract Progesterone. Progesterone, the other major female hormone, is necessary for thickening and ... Different types of estrogen are used in hormone therapy products. They include estradiol and conjugated estrogens. ... Hormone Therapy (HT). Hormone therapy (HT), also known as menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT ...
... but little is known about the effect of hormone therapies (HT) on changes in the brain during menopause. ... Sex hormones influence the structure and function of the brain, ... a particular form of estrogen commonly found in postmenopausal ... were linked to decreases in follicle-stimulating hormone in women taking transdermal estradiol and higher levels of estrone ( ... Although an oral administration is further metabolized in the liver, the transdermal hormones are absorbed directly into the ...
... is the use of synthetic or natural female hormones to make up for the decline or lack of natural hormones produced in a womans ... Hormone Replacement Therapy Definition Hormone replacement therapy [1] (HRT) ... Estrone. Estrone is the form of estrogen present in women after menopause. It is available as tablets under the brand name Ogen ... Combining estrogens with certain other medicines can cause liver damage. Among the drugs that may cause liver damage when taken ...
Reproducibility studies and interlaboratory concordance for assays of serum hormone levels: estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate ... Estrogen metabolism occurs primarily in the liver along an oxidative pathway, although enzymes involved in hormone metabolism ... The reported EM concentrations, in pg EM/mg creatinine, are for unconjugated forms of the EM. No corrections were made for ... estrone; estradiol; 3 catechol estrogens; 5 estrogens in the 16α pathway, including estriol; and 5 methoxy estrogens. ...
Bioidentical estrogens include:. *17 beta-estradiol. *estrone. *estriol. Bioidentical progesterone is progesterone that has ... Its also obvious that hormone therapy saves lives. Lets discuss a natural and better form of therapy before listing the ... Declining estrogen levels coupled with natural aging can have a negative influence on your gums and other oral tissues. We now ... Then lets move on to a natural form of menopause support. It is called bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), and ...
Estrogen refers to a group of hormones that play an essential role in the growth and development of female sexual ... Ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl). This synthetic estrogen is available in tablet form.. Synthetic conjugated estrogens, B (Enjuvia ... The term "estrogen" includes a group of chemically similar hormones: estrone, estradiol (the most abundant in women of ... Active liver disease. *Blood clots or pulmonary embolism. Women taking either estrogen alone or estrogen plus progestin are ...
... exercise and possibly hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or estrogen medications. Benefits and side effects described. ... Estrone is produced from estradiol and is a less potent estrogen. It is available in pill form (Ogen, Ortho-Est) and prescribed ... Estradiol is one of the three major estrogens made by the human body and is the major estrogen secreted during the menstrual ... Common side effects include weight gain, acne, facial hair, and liver disease. Testosterone can exacerbate estrogens ...
... actually describes several different related hormones. These estrogens are estrone (predominant form during menopause),... ... These estrogens are estrone (predominant form during menopause), estriol (primary estrogen during pregnancy), and estradiol ( ... Estrogen Production. Estrogens can be produced by fat tissue, the liver, the adrenal glands and the ovaries. The ovaries are ... Estrogen Forms. The term "estrogen" actually describes several different related hormones. ...
DHEA is structurally similar to and is a precursor of, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and estrogen. It is ... Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with ... May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver. Gene Name:. SLCO1B1. Uniprot ID:. ... Conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to estrogens during pregnancy. Gene Name:. STS. Uniprot ID:. P08842 Molecular weight: ...
The livers job is to take the excess estrogen from its fat soluble form and turn it in to a water soluble form to be ... Any production of alcohol means that it will cause the formation of higher levels of estrogens like estrone and estradiol in ... These hormones continue to collect and overwhelm the normal detox pathways in the liver called phase 1 and 2 detoxification ... The excessive estrogens cant be cleared by the liver and the excesses lead to neolithic diseases when this occurs chronically ...
However, estrogen bypassing the digestive tract and liver and entering through the skin is not converted to a new form before ... which combined the most common three estrogens (of over 25 types) found in human females: estriol, estradiol and estrone. ... Specific hormones used in BHT include estrone, estradiol, progesterone (which are available both in FDA-approved manufactured ... Typically, compounded preparations of bioidentical hormones include estriol, estrone, estradiol, testosterone, progesterone and ...
Estrone is produced from estradiol and is a less potent estrogen. It is available in pill form (Ogen , Ortho-Est ) and ... Hormone replacement therapy: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) uses man-made estrogens and progestin (synthetic progesterone) ... Common side effects include weight gain, acne, facial hair, and liver disease. Testosterone can exacerbate estrogens ... Estradiol: Estradiol is one of the three major estrogens made by the human body and is the major estrogen secreted during the ...
It is a hormone synthesized in the human body naturally. 7-Keto DHEA is a metabolite product ... The female hormones are estradiol and estrone which are grouped under estrogens. ... It is a metabolite of a hormone which can enhance the immune functioning and helps in reducing body fat. 7-Keto DHEA is formed ... Studies show that in certain cases, DHEA might contribute to liver damage or even liver cancer. One of the milder side effects ...
Synthesized in the ovaries and metabolized in the liver, estradiol is the mostphysiologically active form of estrogen. ... The body naturally produces three mainforms of estrogen: estrone, estradiol, and estriol. Bioidentical estrogens are ... Bioidentical hormones are identical to hormones produced endogenously. In the case of HRT,these include estrone (E1), estradiol ... of these forms of estrogen increases serum estradiol and estrone due tothe pathways by which they are metabolized. In contrast ...
  • Many women and health experts continue to struggle with the turnaround in attitude toward hormone therapy in the wake of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of combined estrogen and progestin (as Prempro) for preventing later-life ills. (harvard.edu)
  • Most HRT programs include progestin treatment with estrogen compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. (drugs.com)
  • Because of these findings, patients should be prescribed estrogen HRT or estrogen-progestin HRT for the shortest duration consistent with the treatment goals. (empowerpharmacy.com)
  • Estrogen HRT with or without a progestin is not indicated and should not be used to prevent coronary artery disease or other cardiovascular disease. (empowerpharmacy.com)
  • Use of estrogen, alone or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. (rxlist.com)
  • Breast feeding lowers your risk of breast cancer because you normally don't menstruate while breast feeding which cuts down on your lifetime production of estradiol. (bravesites.com)
  • Esterified Estrogens and Methyltestosterone Tablets H.S. (Half Strength): Each light blue, capsule-shaped, aqueous film coated tablet debossed "IP 77" on obverse and plain on the reverse contains: 0.625 mg of Esterified Estrogens, USP and 1.25 mg of Methyltestosterone, USP. (nih.gov)