Liver Function Tests
Respiratory Function Tests
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Pancreatic Function Tests
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Biliary Tract Diseases
Liver Failure, Acute
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Clinical Enzyme Tests
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
Cholagogues and Choleretics
Severity of Illness Index
Common Bile Duct
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance
Common Bile Duct Diseases
Predictive Value of Tests
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Forced Expiratory Volume
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Hepatitis B virus
Bile Acids and Salts
Drug Administration Schedule
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
Platelet Function Tests
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
End Stage Liver Disease
Drug Therapy, Combination
Kidney Function Tests
Sensitivity and Specificity
Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
Analysis of Variance
Total Lung Capacity
Study of an epidemic of venoocclusive disease in India. (1/1790)Twenty-five cases of rapidly developing ascites occurring in an epidemic form were observed in a tribal district in Central India during August 1972-May 1973. Eleven of the patients died. Six patients were brought to hospital and studied for periods of two to 17 months. Necropsy was performed on one patient who died. The clinical features suggested an outflow tract obstruction such as a Budd-Chiari-like syndrome or venoocclusive disease. Radiographic and haemodynamic studies demonstrated a combination of post and perisinusoidal blocks. Liver dysfunction was indicated by the presence of a marked bromsulphthalein retention and mild to moderate hypoalbuminaemia. Histological examination of the liver biopsies showed changes that ranged from centrizonal haemorrhagic necrosis to an extensive centrilobular fibrosis associated with central vein occlusion. The disease was apparently caused by a food toxin, and the possible nature of this is discussed. (+info)
Factor VII as a marker of hepatocellular synthetic function in liver disease. (2/1790)Factor VII levels have been measured in 100 patients with liver disease following parenteral vitamin K1 therapy. There was good agreement between specific factor VII measurements and the one-stage prothrombin time apart from six patients with compensated cirrhosis in whom the prothrombin time was prolonged despite the presence of normal factor VII levels. A mean activity of 58% was found in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with features of hepatic decompensation had a significantly lower mean level of activity (40%) than the "contrast" patients with surgical obstruction of the major bile ducts (93%). Patients with chronic active liver disease had moderate depression of factor VII levels and those with non-cirrhotic liver damage had mean activities similar to the contrast group. Factor VII levels could not be correlated with BSP retention but there was a correlation with serum albumin concentration. It is concluded that the prothrombin time using Quick test with a standardized thromboplastin showing good sensitivity to factor VII, eg, the Manchester reagent (BCT), provides a reliable index of coagulability in chronic liver disease, and specific factor VII assays are not indicated. (+info)
A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (3/1790)2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
Outcomes of routine testing of liver enzymes in institutionalized geriatric patients. (4/1790)This study sought to identify any benefit of routine liver function tests (LFTs) in chronically ill, geriatric patients and to assess which patients require evaluation for abnormal LFT levels. A retrospective chart review was carried out on 268 consecutive patients (M:F = 1.2, mean age 77 years, range 61-98 years) presenting for acute care from a long-term care facility. All were without jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, pruritus, bruising, or signs of chronic liver disease. The degree of LFT abnormality (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, or alkaline phosphatase) during admission was compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of discharge. The most common diagnoses were pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and peripheral or coronary disease in 186 (60%). Thirty-seven patients (14%) had elevated LFT levels on admission. The levels normalized within 2 days in 26 of these patients, 25 of whom had a history of vascular disease (96%). Of the 11 remaining patients, 4 had coexistent vascular disease (36%), and 5 had LFT levels twice normal (none with vascular disease) and underwent abdominal ultrasound. One patient had a common bile duct stone successfully extracted. Enzyme abnormalities were due to hepatitis B or medication use in 10 of 11 patients. No patient had liver biopsy. All but one of the 268 patients were discharged without further evaluation. Over one year of follow up, no patient returned for a liver-related problem. Based on these findings, only those patients with LFT levels that are twice normal and which do not normalize within 2 days warrant further evaluation. Transient LFT abnormalities may be due to decreased liver perfusion. (+info)
Galactose elimination capacity as a prognostic index in patients with fulminant liver failure. (5/1790)In 25 patients with fulminant hepatic failure the prognostic value of a quantitative liver function test, the galactose elimination capacity, was assessed and comapred with routine liver function tests and clinical features. The galactose elimination capacity was significantly higher (P less than 0-05) in the five patients who survived than in the 20 patients who died. None of the other liver function tests, was significantly different. The values of the galactose elimination capacity overlapped considerably between survivors and non-survivors, but all patients with a galactose elimination capacity below 12-8 mumol galactose/min and kg body weight died. The disease among most patients who died having a galactose elimination capacity greater than 13 mumol ran a subacute course. It is suggested that quantitative liver function tests be included when new treatments of fulminant hepatic failure are investigated. (+info)
Analysis of hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, antibody to HGV envelope protein, and risk factors for blood donors coinfected with HGV and hepatitis C virus. (6/1790)Serologic, biochemical, and molecular analyses were used to study hepatitis G virus (HGV), antibody to the HGV envelope protein (anti-E2), risk factors, clinical significance, and the impact of HGV on coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among 329 donors with confirmed HCV infection, 12% were HGV RNA-positive and 44% were anti-E2-positive (total exposure, 56%). HGV RNA and anti-E2 were mutually exclusive except in 9 donors (1.5%); 8 of 9 subsequently lost HGV RNA but anti-E2 persisted. HGV had little impact on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in donors with HGV infection alone or those coinfected with HCV. A multivariate analysis showed that intravenous drug abuse was the leading risk factor for HGV transmission, followed by blood transfusion, snorting cocaine, imprisonment, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. In summary, HGV and HCV infections were frequently associated and shared common parenteral risk factors; HGV did not appear to cause hepatitis or to worsen the course of coexistent hepatitis C. (+info)
The natural history of histologically proved drug induced liver disease. (7/1790)BACKGROUND: The long term outcome of drug related liver disease is unknown. AIMS: To study the natural history of histologically proved drug induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: 110 patients with liver biopsies coded either as drug induced liver disease or hepatitis/cholestasis of unknown aetiology were identified from hospital records 1978-1996. Review of case notes and histology identified 44 patients with definite drug induced hepatotoxicity. Forty surviving patients were invited to attend a follow up clinic. History, examination, full liver screen, and isotope and ultrasound liver scans were repeated in all patients. Repeat liver biopsies were offered to patients with abnormal liver tests. RESULTS: Presentation at index biopsy was jaundice in 24 patients, abnormal liver tests in 17, and hepatic failure in three. Antibiotics (n=13) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=11) were the most common drugs implicated. Initial histology showed acute hepatitis in six, chronic hepatitis in 20, and cholestasis in 18. At 1-19 years (median 5 years) follow up, 13/33 (39%) patients had persistent significant abnormalities in their liver blood tests and/or scans. Three of the five repeat liver biopsies performed showed significant abnormalities. Factors predicting persistence or development of chronic liver disease were fibrosis and continued exposure to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Drugs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver function and/or histology, as failure to withdraw the offending drug is associated with a high risk of persistent liver damage. (+info)
Special considerations in interpreting liver function tests. (8/1790)A number of pitfalls can be encountered in the interpretation of common blood liver function tests. These tests can be normal in patients with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The normal range for aminotransferase levels is slightly higher in males, nonwhites and obese persons. Severe alcoholic hepatitis is sometimes confused with cholecystitis or cholangitis. Conversely, patients who present soon after passing common bile duct stones can be misdiagnosed with acute hepatitis because aminotransferase levels often rise immediately, but alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels do not become elevated for several days. Asymptomatic patients with isolated, mild elevation of either the unconjugated bilirubin or the gamma-glutamyltransferase value usually do not have liver disease and generally do not require extensive evaluation. Overall hepatic function can be assessed by applying the values for albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time in the modified Child-Turcotte grading system. (+info)
Liver diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the liver, which is a vital organ responsible for many essential functions in the body. These diseases can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, genetic mutations, and metabolic disorders. Some common liver diseases include: 1. Hepatitis: An inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection, such as hepatitis A, B, or C. 2. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by the scarring and hardening of liver tissue, which can lead to liver failure. 3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver, often as a result of obesity, insulin resistance, or a high-fat diet. 4. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A group of liver diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. 5. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver and can lead to cirrhosis. 7. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and other organs, leading to liver damage and other health problems. 8. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, leading to iron overload in the liver and other organs. Treatment for liver diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise may be sufficient to manage the disease. In more severe cases, medications, surgery, or liver transplantation may be necessary.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the production of energy. In the medical field, AST is often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess liver function. When the liver is damaged or diseased, AST levels may increase in the blood. This can be an indication of a variety of liver conditions, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AST levels may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the heart, muscles, or kidneys. For example, AST levels may be increased in people with heart muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a heart attack or myocarditis. In addition, AST levels may be elevated in people with muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a muscle strain or injury. Overall, AST is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information about the health of the liver and other organs in the body.
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue, leading to a loss of liver function. This scarring, or fibrosis, is caused by a variety of factors, including chronic alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases. As the liver becomes increasingly damaged, it becomes less able to perform its many functions, such as filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to aid in digestion, and regulating blood sugar levels. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, jaundice, and confusion. In advanced cases, liver cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment options for liver cirrhosis depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, liver transplantation.
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down in the body. It is primarily produced in the liver and is then excreted in the bile, which is released into the small intestine. Bilirubin is an important part of the body's waste removal system and helps to remove old red blood cells from the bloodstream. In the medical field, bilirubin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. High levels of bilirubin in the blood can be a sign of liver disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, or of problems with the gallbladder or bile ducts. Bilirubin levels can also be affected by certain medications, infections, or genetic disorders. Low levels of bilirubin can be a sign of anemia or other blood disorders.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a type of liver damage that occurs as a result of taking medications or other substances. It can range from mild to severe and can be caused by a variety of drugs, including antibiotics, painkillers, and certain herbal supplements. DILI can present with a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. In severe cases, DILI can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of DILI typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve discontinuing the suspected drug, administering supportive care, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. Preventing DILI involves careful monitoring of patients who are taking medications that have the potential to cause liver damage, as well as educating patients about the potential risks and symptoms of DILI.
Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the liver. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign liver neoplasms include hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenomas. These growths are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant liver neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and include primary liver cancer (such as hepatocellular carcinoma) and secondary liver cancer (such as metastatic cancer from other parts of the body). These tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body, leading to serious health complications. Diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals and other harmful substances. In the liver, GGT is involved in the breakdown of certain toxins and drugs, as well as the production of bile, which is a fluid that helps digest fats. In the pancreas, GGT is involved in the production of digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. In the medical field, GGT is often measured as a blood test to help diagnose and monitor a variety of liver and pancreatic disorders, including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. High levels of GGT in the blood can also be an indicator of other conditions, such as kidney disease, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (icterus) due to an excess of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish-brown pigment produced when red blood cells are broken down in the liver. Jaundice can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver disease, gallbladder disease, infections, blockages in the bile ducts, and certain medications. It can also be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as liver cancer or cirrhosis. The symptoms of jaundice may include yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, dark urine, clay-colored stools, fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Treatment for jaundice depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver cells. It is a common condition that can affect people of all ages and is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Fatty liver can be classified into two types: 1. Simple fatty liver: This is the most common type of fatty liver and is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver cells. It is usually reversible with lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet. 2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver is caused by factors other than alcohol consumption, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. NAFLD can progress to more severe liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Fatty liver can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and liver biopsy. Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or in severe cases, liver transplantation.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, bone, and intestines. In the medical field, ALP levels are often measured as a diagnostic tool to help identify various conditions and diseases. There are several types of ALP, including tissue-nonspecific ALP (TN-ALP), bone-specific ALP (B-ALP), and liver-specific ALP (L-ALP). Each type of ALP is produced by different tissues and has different functions. In general, elevated levels of ALP can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, bone disease, and certain types of cancer. For example, elevated levels of ALP in the blood can be a sign of liver damage or disease, while elevated levels in the urine can be a sign of bone disease or kidney problems. On the other hand, low levels of ALP can also be a cause for concern, as they may indicate a deficiency in certain vitamins or minerals, such as vitamin D or calcium. Overall, ALP is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, and inherited metabolic disorders. There are several types of hepatitis, including: 1. Hepatitis A: caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and typically spreads through contaminated food or water. 2. Hepatitis B: caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be transmitted through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. 3. Hepatitis C: caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used for injecting drugs. 4. Hepatitis D: caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and can only occur in people who are already infected with HBV. 5. Hepatitis E: caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and is typically transmitted through contaminated food or water. Symptoms of hepatitis can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, hepatitis can be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms. Treatment for hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and can include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have hepatitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Hepatomegaly is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various functions such as detoxification, metabolism, and production of bile. When the liver becomes enlarged, it can be a sign of an underlying medical condition or disease. Hepatomegaly can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, alcohol abuse, liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and inherited metabolic disorders. In some cases, the cause of hepatomegaly may be unknown. The diagnosis of hepatomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment for hepatomegaly depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery in severe cases. It is important to note that hepatomegaly alone is not a disease, but rather a symptom of an underlying condition. Therefore, it is essential to identify and treat the underlying cause to prevent further complications and improve the patient's overall health.
Hepatitis, autoimmune is a type of liver inflammation that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy liver cells. This can lead to damage to the liver and a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. There are several types of autoimmune hepatitis, including type 1 and type 2, which are distinguished by their underlying causes and response to treatment. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is often associated with the presence of certain autoantibodies in the blood, while type 2 is more commonly associated with the presence of other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or thyroiditis. Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the liver.
Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile in the liver and bile ducts. Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. In cholestasis, the bile flow is either reduced or blocked, leading to the accumulation of bile in the liver and bile ducts. This can cause a range of symptoms, including jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), itching, abdominal pain, and dark urine. Cholestasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, and primary biliary cholangitis. It can also be a complication of pregnancy, known as obstetric cholestasis. Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to improve bile flow, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as liver damage and liver failure.
Indocyanine Green (ICG) is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is a water-soluble, non-toxic dye that is administered intravenously and is rapidly taken up by the liver, where it is metabolized and excreted. ICG is often used in liver function tests to assess liver blood flow and to detect liver disease. It is also used in ophthalmology to evaluate the health of the retina and to guide laser surgery for conditions such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. In addition, ICG is used in interventional radiology to guide the placement of catheters and stents in the liver and to detect liver tumors. ICG is also used in some surgical procedures, such as liver transplantation, to help surgeons identify healthy liver tissue and to guide the placement of liver grafts. It is a valuable tool in the medical field because of its ability to provide real-time, non-invasive information about organ function and tissue health.
Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the blockage of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver that helps to digest fats and absorb fat-soluble vitamins. When bile flow is blocked within the liver, it can lead to a buildup of bile acids and other substances in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. The most common cause of intrahepatic cholestasis is pregnancy, although it can also occur in non-pregnant individuals. Other potential causes include viral infections, drug reactions, and inherited metabolic disorders. Symptoms of intrahepatic cholestasis may include itching, fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, the condition can lead to liver damage and even liver failure. Treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help increase bile flow or reduce itching. In severe cases, hospitalization and other more aggressive treatments may be necessary.
In the medical field, "steatitis" refers to the inflammation of the liver, also known as hepatitis. It is a condition characterized by the swelling and irritation of the liver cells, which can lead to damage and scarring of the liver tissue. Steatitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic disorders. Symptoms of steatitis may include fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice, and dark urine. Treatment for steatitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and prevent further liver damage. In more severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have steatitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Liver failure is a medical condition in which the liver is unable to perform its normal functions effectively. The liver is a vital organ that plays a crucial role in many bodily processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and the production of bile, which helps to digest fats. There are several types of liver failure, including acute liver failure and chronic liver failure. Acute liver failure occurs suddenly and is often caused by a severe injury or infection to the liver, such as from alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, or drug toxicity. Chronic liver failure, on the other hand, develops gradually over time and is often caused by long-term liver damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, or autoimmune hepatitis. Symptoms of liver failure can include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and confusion. Treatment for liver failure depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or liver transplantation in severe cases.
Chronic hepatitis refers to a long-term or persistent inflammation of the liver that lasts for more than six months. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol abuse, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain toxins or medications. Chronic hepatitis can lead to liver damage, scarring (fibrosis), and eventually liver failure or liver cancer if left untreated. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis may include fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, dark urine, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of liver enzymes, viral markers, and other indicators of liver damage. Treatment for chronic hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Antiviral medications may be used to treat viral infections, while lifestyle changes such as avoiding alcohol and quitting smoking can also help manage the condition. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary for severe cases of liver failure.
Sulfobromophthalein, also known as SBP or Tc-99m sulfur colloid, is a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging to diagnose liver and spleen disorders. It is a type of radioactive tracer that is injected into the bloodstream and accumulates in the liver and spleen, allowing doctors to visualize these organs on a gamma camera. The sulfur colloid is composed of a complex of sulfur, bromine, and phthalein dye, which is labeled with technetium-99m, a radioactive isotope that emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. The sulfur colloid is usually administered as an intravenous injection and is distributed throughout the body, but it is primarily taken up by the liver and spleen. The use of sulfobromophthalein in medical imaging is particularly useful in diagnosing liver and spleen disorders such as cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and splenomegaly. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions.
Hepatitis, viral, human refers to a group of infectious diseases caused by various types of viruses that affect the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile, and regulating metabolism. When the liver is infected with a virus, it can become inflamed, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. There are several types of viruses that can cause viral hepatitis in humans, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each type of virus has its own unique characteristics and can cause different levels of liver damage. Hepatitis A is typically caused by consuming contaminated food or water and is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own. Hepatitis B and C are more serious and can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Hepatitis D is a rare form of viral hepatitis that only occurs in people who are already infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis E is primarily a disease of pregnant women and can cause severe liver damage in some cases. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of the virus and to measure liver function. Treatment depends on the type of virus and the severity of the illness. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help the body fight off the virus, while in other cases, supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular is a type of cancer that originates in the liver cells, specifically in the cells that line the small blood vessels within the liver. It is the most common type of liver cancer and is often associated with chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatitis B or C infection. The cancer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma can grow and spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, bones, and lymph nodes. Symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and fatigue. Treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and liver transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Jaundice, obstructive is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) due to the buildup of bilirubin in the body. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment produced when red blood cells are broken down and is normally processed by the liver and excreted in the bile. Obstructive jaundice occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or injury to the bile ducts. When bile cannot flow freely from the liver, it builds up in the liver and eventually leaks into the bloodstream, causing jaundice. Other symptoms of obstructive jaundice may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dark urine. Treatment for obstructive jaundice depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or radiation therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of gallstones (choleliths) in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. The condition can cause blockages in the bile duct, leading to a buildup of bile and pressure in the liver and gallbladder, which can cause pain, inflammation, and other symptoms. Symptoms of choledocholithiasis may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and clay-colored stools. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, which can detect the presence of gallstones in the bile duct. Treatment for choledocholithiasis may involve the use of medications to dissolve the gallstones, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to remove the stones, or surgery to remove the gallbladder or bile duct. The choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the stones, as well as the severity of symptoms and other medical factors.
Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile from the liver to the small intestine. The biliary system includes the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract diseases can be classified into two main categories: obstructive and non-obstructive. Obstructive biliary tract diseases occur when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing normally. Non-obstructive biliary tract diseases, on the other hand, do not involve a blockage but can still cause problems with bile flow. Some common biliary tract diseases include: 1. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder. 2. Cholangitis: Inflammation of the bile ducts. 3. Cholangiocarcinoma: Cancer of the bile ducts. 4. Choledocholithiasis: Presence of stones in the bile ducts. 5. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas, which can affect the bile ducts. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: Chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts. Biliary tract diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. Treatment options depend on the specific type and severity of the disease, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Splenomegaly is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement of the spleen, which is a vital organ in the body that plays a crucial role in the immune system. The spleen is responsible for filtering blood, removing old or damaged red blood cells, and producing white blood cells that help fight infections. Splenomegaly can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, blood disorders, and certain types of cancer. In some cases, the cause of splenomegaly may be unknown. Symptoms of splenomegaly may include abdominal pain, discomfort, and fullness, as well as fatigue, weakness, and anemia. In severe cases, splenomegaly can lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, and organ failure. Diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans, and in some cases, a biopsy of the spleen. Treatment of splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.
Gallstones are hard, solid masses that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts. They are typically composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both. Gallstones can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In some cases, gallstones may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. Treatment for gallstones depends on the size and number of stones, as well as the presence of symptoms. Small stones may be able to pass through the bile ducts on their own, while larger stones may require surgery or other medical interventions.
Acute liver failure is a medical condition in which the liver suddenly stops functioning properly, leading to a rapid decline in its ability to perform its vital functions. This can occur due to a variety of causes, including viral infections, drug toxicity, alcohol abuse, autoimmune disorders, and inherited liver diseases. Symptoms of acute liver failure can include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), confusion, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and a rapid heart rate. In severe cases, acute liver failure can be life-threatening and may require immediate medical intervention, such as liver transplantation. Diagnosis of acute liver failure typically involves blood tests to measure liver function, imaging studies to assess liver damage, and a thorough medical history and physical examination to identify potential causes. Treatment options may include supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as specific therapies to address the underlying cause of the liver failure.
Cholelithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of gallstones in the gallbladder. Gallstones are hard, solid masses that can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. They are typically composed of cholesterol, calcium, or a combination of both. Cholelithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In some cases, gallstones may cause no symptoms at all and may only be discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. If left untreated, cholelithiasis can lead to complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and gallbladder cancer. Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, endoscopic procedures, and surgery.
Serum albumin is a type of protein that is found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. It is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Serum albumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones, fatty acids, and other molecules, and serving as a buffer to regulate pH. It is also an important indicator of liver function, as the liver is responsible for producing most of the serum albumin in the body. Abnormal levels of serum albumin can be an indication of liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva. Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness that resolves on its own to a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The severity of the infection depends on the age of the person infected, the immune system's response to the virus, and the presence of other liver diseases. Symptoms of hepatitis B can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Treatment for hepatitis B depends on the severity of the infection and the presence of any complications. Antiviral medications can help to control the virus and prevent liver damage, while a vaccine is available to prevent infection. It is important for people who are infected with hepatitis B to receive regular medical care and to follow their treatment plan to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary refers to a condition where the liver becomes scarred and damaged due to chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts. Bile ducts are responsible for carrying bile, a fluid produced by the liver, from the liver to the small intestine. The most common cause of liver cirrhosis, biliary is chronic inflammation of the bile ducts, which can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, and inherited genetic conditions. Other causes include liver damage due to alcohol, viral hepatitis, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or surgery may be used to treat the underlying cause. In other cases, supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications such as infections and bleeding. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid that is naturally produced by the liver. It is used in the medical field to treat a variety of liver and gallbladder conditions, including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). UDCA works by reducing inflammation and improving the function of the liver and bile ducts. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of capsules or tablets.
Hypertension, Portal refers to high blood pressure in the portal vein, which is the main vein that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. This condition is also known as portal hypertension and is typically associated with liver disease, such as cirrhosis or liver fibrosis. Portal hypertension can cause a number of complications, including varices (enlarged veins), ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and portal vein thrombosis (blood clot in the portal vein). Treatment for portal hypertension may include medications to reduce blood pressure, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Albumins are a group of water-soluble proteins that are found in the blood plasma of animals, including humans. They are the most abundant proteins in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Albumins play a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining osmotic pressure, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a reservoir of amino acids for the liver to use in the production of other proteins. In the medical field, albumin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess overall health and to monitor patients with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or malnutrition. Low albumin levels (hypalbuminemia) can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require further evaluation and treatment. High albumin levels (hyperalbuminemia) are less common but can also be a cause for concern, particularly if they are accompanied by other symptoms or if they are the result of an underlying medical condition.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures or surgeries. It works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves to the brain. Lidocaine is available in various forms, including topical creams, gels, ointments, and injections. It is also used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation, and to relieve symptoms of neuropathy, a condition in which the nerves are damaged or diseased. Lidocaine is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, and allergic reactions in some people.
Common bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. The common bile duct is responsible for transporting bile produced by the liver to help with digestion and absorption of fats. Some common bile duct diseases include: 1. Cholangitis: Inflammation of the bile ducts, which can be caused by a blockage or infection. 2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, which can cause blockage of the common bile duct. 3. Choledocholithiasis: Formation of stones in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage and lead to inflammation. 4. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas, which can cause blockage of the common bile duct. 5. Biliary atresia: A rare condition in which the common bile duct is missing or blocked, leading to liver damage. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic inflammatory disease that affects the bile ducts, leading to scarring and blockage. 7. Caroli's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the bile ducts. Treatment for common bile duct diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is a serious health condition that can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer if left untreated. CHC is characterized by the persistence of the HCV virus in the liver for more than six months, despite the body's immune system attempting to clear the virus. The virus can remain dormant for years, and symptoms may not appear until significant liver damage has occurred. CHC is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, such as through sharing needles or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. Treatment for CHC typically involves antiviral medications that can help the body clear the virus and prevent further liver damage. However, some people may not respond to treatment or may experience side effects, so treatment decisions are made on an individual basis.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a group of conditions that affect the liver as a result of excessive alcohol consumption. It is a common and serious health problem worldwide, and can lead to a range of complications, including cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. ALD can be classified into three main categories: fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Fatty liver is the earliest stage of ALD, characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells. Alcoholic hepatitis is a more severe form of ALD, characterized by inflammation and damage to liver cells. Cirrhosis is the final stage of ALD, characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue, which can lead to liver failure. The symptoms of ALD can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but may include fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, jaundice, and loss of appetite. Treatment for ALD typically involves stopping alcohol consumption, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, medications or liver transplantation may be necessary.
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.
Hepatitis A is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, typically through contaminated food or water. The virus can also be spread through close personal contact with an infected person. Symptoms of hepatitis A can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). The illness is usually self-limiting and resolves on its own within a few weeks to a few months, without any long-term liver damage. However, in some cases, hepatitis A can lead to more severe complications, such as liver failure, especially in people with underlying liver disease or weakened immune systems. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent hepatitis A, and good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can also help reduce the risk of infection.
Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron from the diet. This leads to an excess of iron in the body, which can cause damage to organs such as the liver, heart, and pancreas. Hemochromatosis is also known as idiopathic hemochromatosis or hereditary hemochromatosis. It is a common inherited disorder, affecting about 1 in every 200 people of Northern European descent. The symptoms of hemochromatosis can include fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, and liver disease. Treatment typically involves removing excess iron from the body through a process called phlebotomy.
Cholangitis, sclerosing is a rare and serious condition that affects the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. In this condition, the bile ducts become inflamed and scarred, leading to a blockage that can cause damage to the liver and other organs. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Other possible causes include infections, genetic factors, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins. Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and a biopsy of the bile ducts. Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis may include medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, as well as procedures to remove blockages in the bile ducts or to bypass them altogether. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic is a chronic liver disease that occurs as a result of long-term excessive alcohol consumption. It is characterized by the scarring and hardening of the liver tissue, which can lead to liver failure and other serious complications. The liver is responsible for filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to aid in digestion, and regulating various metabolic processes in the body. When the liver is damaged by excessive alcohol consumption, it becomes unable to perform these functions properly, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body and the development of cirrhosis. Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, alcoholic may include fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, swelling in the legs and ankles, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and confusion. In advanced stages, the disease can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for liver cirrhosis, alcoholic typically involves stopping alcohol consumption and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the disease. In some cases, medications or liver transplantation may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent further liver damage.
In the medical field, "Liver Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of liver tumors or cancer in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or tissue cultures. This type of research is typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer and to develop new treatments or therapies for the disease. Experimental liver neoplasms may involve the use of various techniques, such as genetic manipulation, drug administration, or exposure to environmental toxins, to induce the development of liver tumors in animals or cells. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of liver cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the disease.
Bile acids and salts are a group of compounds that are produced in the liver and secreted into the small intestine. They play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and are stored in the gallbladder. When food enters the small intestine, the gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Bile acids emulsify fats, breaking them down into smaller droplets that can be more easily digested by enzymes in the small intestine. Bile salts are the primary components of bile and are responsible for the emulsification of fats. They are also involved in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. In the medical field, bile acids and salts are often studied in relation to digestive disorders, such as gallstones, liver disease, and bile duct obstruction. They are also used in the treatment of certain conditions, such as bile acid diarrhea and cholestatic liver disease.
Acetamides are a class of organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to an amide group (-CONH2). They are commonly used as drugs and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. In the medical field, acetamides are used as analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. One example of an acetamide drug is acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol), which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Other examples of acetamide drugs include amantadine, which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and influenza, and acetazolamide, which is used to treat glaucoma and altitude sickness. Acetamides can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. For example, they can be converted into amides, which are important components of many drugs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants.
Galactose is a simple sugar that is a component of the disaccharide lactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. In the medical field, galactose is often studied in relation to its role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and its potential health effects. Galactose is a monosaccharide, which means that it is a single unit of sugar. It is a reducing sugar, which means that it can undergo a chemical reaction called oxidation that can be used to identify it. In the body, galactose is broken down and converted into glucose, which is used for energy. However, if galactose is not properly metabolized, it can build up in the blood and cause a condition called galactosemia. Galactosemia is a rare genetic disorder that occurs when the body is unable to properly break down galactose, leading to a buildup of galactose in the blood and other tissues. Galactose is also used in the production of certain foods and beverages, such as yogurt and some types of soft drinks. It is also used in the production of certain medications and other chemicals.
Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is characterized by persistent inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. CHB can develop in people who have been infected with HBV for more than six months. The virus can remain in the body for years or even decades, causing ongoing liver damage. Symptoms of CHB may include fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. However, many people with CHB do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection. CHB is typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus and measure liver function. Treatment options for CHB include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, liver transplantation. It is important to diagnose and treat CHB early to prevent liver damage and reduce the risk of complications.
In the medical field, liver extracts refer to preparations made from the liver of animals, typically cows or pigs, that contain various bioactive compounds. These extracts are used for a variety of therapeutic purposes, including treating liver disease, improving liver function, and reducing inflammation. The liver is a vital organ that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including detoxification, metabolism, and the production of bile. Liver extracts contain a range of nutrients and bioactive compounds that can help support liver health and function. Some of the bioactive compounds found in liver extracts include: - Albumin: a protein that helps maintain blood volume and pressure - Coenzyme A: a molecule that plays a key role in metabolism - Glutathione: an antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage - Iron: an essential mineral that helps produce red blood cells - Vitamin A: an essential nutrient that supports vision and immune function Liver extracts are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid extracts. They are typically taken orally and may be prescribed by a healthcare provider or purchased over-the-counter. However, it is important to note that liver extracts may interact with other medications and may not be suitable for everyone. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking liver extracts.
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental refers to a condition in which the liver becomes scarred and damaged due to various experimental procedures or treatments. This can occur in laboratory animals or humans who are undergoing medical research or clinical trials. Experimental liver cirrhosis can be induced by various methods, such as administering toxins, viruses, or other substances that cause liver damage. The purpose of such experiments is to study the pathophysiology of liver disease and to develop new treatments or therapies. The severity and extent of liver damage in experimental liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the type and duration of the experimental procedure. In some cases, the liver damage may be reversible, while in others, it may be irreversible and lead to liver failure or death. It is important to note that experimental liver cirrhosis is a controlled and regulated process that is conducted under strict ethical guidelines to minimize harm to the animals or humans involved.
Imino acids are a type of amino acid that have a nitrogen atom (imino group) bonded to the alpha carbon atom of the amino acid side chain. They are also known as alpha-imino acids or alpha-aminoiminocarboxylic acids. There are 20 amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, and 16 of them are imino acids. The remaining four are non-imino acids, which do not have an imino group in their side chains. Imino acids play important roles in the structure and function of proteins, and they are involved in many biological processes, including metabolism, enzyme catalysis, and signal transduction.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) is a severe form of liver disease that occurs when the liver is unable to function properly due to chronic damage or disease. It is also known as cirrhosis, which is a condition characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue. ESLD is typically caused by long-term alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or other liver diseases. The symptoms of ESLD can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include fatigue, weakness, jaundice, abdominal pain, and swelling in the legs and ankles. ESLD is a serious condition that can lead to liver failure, which is a life-threatening condition that requires a liver transplant. Treatment for ESLD may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, a liver transplant. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help prevent the progression to ESLD.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. In the medical field, alcoholism is diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). These criteria include: 1. The presence of tolerance, which is the need to consume more alcohol to achieve the same desired effect. 2. The presence of withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is reduced or stopped. 3. The presence of cravings or a strong desire to drink. 4. The continuation of alcohol use despite negative consequences, such as health problems, relationship problems, or legal problems. 5. The presence of significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning due to alcohol use. Alcoholism is a complex disorder that can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups.
Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas plays a crucial role in the digestive system by producing enzymes that help break down food and hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. There are two main types of pancreatitis: acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas that usually lasts for a few days to a few weeks. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstones, infections, and certain medications. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis may include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and elevated levels of certain enzymes in the blood. Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term inflammation of the pancreas that can develop over time due to repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, long-term alcohol abuse, or other factors. It can cause permanent damage to the pancreas, leading to problems with digestion and blood sugar control. Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis may include abdominal pain, weight loss, malnutrition, and diabetes. Treatment for pancreatitis depends on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage pain, prevent complications, and provide supportive care. In other cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption may be recommended to prevent future episodes. Medications and surgery may also be used to treat specific causes of pancreatitis, such as gallstones or infections.
A liver abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the liver. It is usually caused by an infection, such as bacteria or parasites, that enters the liver through the bloodstream or bile ducts. The infection can also occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or cancer. Symptoms of a liver abscess may include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. In some cases, the abscess may rupture and cause severe complications, such as sepsis or organ failure. Diagnosis of a liver abscess typically involves imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the abscess through a procedure called percutaneous abscess drainage or surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Lung diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the lungs and their ability to function properly. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of lung diseases include: 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A progressive lung disease that causes scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. 5. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can cause fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. 6. Emphysema: A lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 7. Interstitial Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases that affect the tissue between the air sacs in the lungs, causing difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 8. Lung Cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. These are just a few examples of the many different types of lung diseases that can affect people. Treatment for lung diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Para-aminobenzoates are a group of organic compounds that contain a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety. PABA is an aromatic compound that is found naturally in plants and is also synthesized in the human body. Para-aminobenzoates are used in the medical field as antifungal agents, particularly for the treatment of dermatophyte infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch. They work by inhibiting the growth of fungi by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, which is essential for their growth and reproduction. Some examples of para-aminobenzoates used in medicine include miconazole, clotrimazole, and terbinafine.
Hepatic Encephalopathy is a neurological disorder that occurs when the liver is unable to effectively remove toxins from the blood. These toxins can build up in the brain and cause a range of symptoms, including confusion, drowsiness, and difficulty with speech and coordination. The severity of the symptoms can vary, ranging from mild to severe, and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Hepatic Encephalopathy is most commonly seen in people with liver disease, such as cirrhosis, but can also occur in people with other conditions that affect liver function. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the liver disease and managing the symptoms of the Encephalopathy.
Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, dense liquid with a sweet, chlorinated smell. It is a commonly used solvent in the medical field, particularly in the preparation of medications and in the sterilization of medical equipment. However, carbon tetrachloride is also a known neurotoxin and can cause serious health problems if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It has been linked to liver damage, kidney damage, and even death in severe cases. As a result, its use in the medical field has been largely phased out in favor of safer alternatives.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin is a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging to diagnose and monitor liver and spleen diseases. It is a complex of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope, and aggregated albumin, a protein found in the blood. The Tc-99m is attached to the albumin, which allows it to be transported to the liver and spleen, where it is taken up by the cells. The radiopharmaceutical is then imaged using a gamma camera to visualize the uptake of the Tc-99m in the liver and spleen, which can help diagnose conditions such as liver and spleen tumors, infections, and cirrhosis.
Hepatic insufficiency, also known as liver failure, is a medical condition in which the liver is unable to perform its normal functions effectively. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including liver disease, injury, or toxins. Symptoms of hepatic insufficiency may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, hepatic insufficiency can lead to organ failure and be life-threatening. Treatment for hepatic insufficiency typically involves addressing the underlying cause and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Liver function tests
Miriam Posner Finkel
Primary biliary cholangitis
Fatty liver disease
Side effects of bicalutamide
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Feminizing hormone therapy
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- They are used to identify liver diseases such as hepatitis and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and assess the efficacy of treatment and determine the adverse effects of certain medications. (sarwarpro.com)
- Is intestinal oxidative stress involved in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis? (1library.co)
- According to the National Library for Medicine, around two million people die from chronic liver diseases, and one million of those deaths are due to complications of a condition called liver cirrhosis (liver cirrhosis is the term for long-term damage of the liver). (zeamed.com)
- If you have cirrhosis (long term damage to the liver where scar tissue begins to replace healthy tissue), and need to be monitored. (zeamed.com)
- Liver fibrosis is a serious health concern which leads to liver diseases such as cirrhosis and primary liver cancer having a worldwide mortality of approximately 1.5 million deaths per year 23 . (nature.com)
- Cirrhosis of the Liver Cirrhosis is the widespread distortion of the liver's internal structure that occurs when a large amount of normal liver tissue is permanently replaced with nonfunctioning scar tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 6 ] HELLP syndrome is a severe form of preeclampsia and involves hemolytic anemia, elevated liver function tests (LFTs), and low platelet count. (medscape.com)
- The liver also produces proteins that aid in blood clotting, and albumin is an important protein found in blood serum, which transports fatty acids and steroids. (sarwarpro.com)
- Changes in certain levels of proteins or enzymes can alert doctors of potential problems such as liver cancer, fatty liver disease, or hepatitis. (annapharmacy.com)
- Fatty Liver Fatty liver is an abnormal accumulation of certain fats (triglycerides) inside liver cells. (msdmanuals.com)
- People with fatty liver may feel tired or have mild abdominal discomfort but otherwise have no symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
- All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. (bris.ac.uk)
- METHODS: This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. (bris.ac.uk)
- We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. (bris.ac.uk)
- RESULTS: Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C). The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal) was less efficient (more expensive per case detected) than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. (bris.ac.uk)
- A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. (bris.ac.uk)
- It recommends testing all patients where a clear clinical indication of infection is present (e.g. evidence of intravenous drug use), followed by testing all patients who originated from countries where viral hepatitis is prevalent, and finally testing those who have a notably raised ALT level (more than twice the upper limit of normal). (bris.ac.uk)
- Liver function tests are typically utilized to assess how severe a particular disease such as alcoholic hepatitis or viral hepatitis is. (sarwarpro.com)
- This test might be suggested if you have a previous history of viral hepatitis or a family history of liver disease, drink too much alcohol, or take any medication that can harm the liver function. (sarwarpro.com)
- GR was more sensitive in hepatitis C infection, while MDA reflected changes in liver ultrasound and GST-α was the best indicator for histopathological changes. (who.int)
- BACKGROUND: Liver function tests (LFTs) are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS) study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. (bris.ac.uk)
- Clinical teams should coordinate with STLT public health officials and CDC to assess the risk of Ebola disease based on the clinical presentation and epidemiologic risk factors to determine if ebolavirus testing is needed, and if other causes of illness should be considered (e.g., malaria). (cdc.gov)
- Prior travel to an Ebola disease-affected region should not be a reason to defer diagnostic testing needed for patient care. (cdc.gov)
- If a hospital facility is unable to provide appropriate clinical care and laboratory diagnostic testing for a suspect case of Ebola disease, the patient should be transferred to a facility that is able to provide appropriate management until ebolavirus testing is completed. (cdc.gov)
- A high level of ALT could indicate damage to the liver or liver disease. (sarwarpro.com)
- ALP levels that are high indicate damages to the liver or disease. (sarwarpro.com)
- ABSTRACT Serum levels of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase-α (GST-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate their use in diagnosing hepatocellular damage in 75 children with liver disease. (who.int)
- biochemical liver disease or dysfunc- tion. (1library.co)
- Since the 1900's, liver disease and complications have become more common because of changes in lifestyles (such as drinking alcohol) and because of other reasons like genetics, obesity, or becoming ill with a virus (CDC, 2019). (zeamed.com)
- Higher levels of ASP may show inflammation of the liver, blockage of bile ducts, and bone disease. (zeamed.com)
- Liver function tests can also help determine if certain medications are damaging your liver or help you monitor the progression of liver disease. (annapharmacy.com)
- For example, a high AST:ALT ratio may indicate alcoholic liver disease. (annapharmacy.com)
- High levels of GGT in the blood may be a sign of liver disease or damage to the bile ducts. (annapharmacy.com)
- Liver disease blood tests are effective in determining if liver problems have progressed to liver disease. (annapharmacy.com)
- have liver problems, · suffer from heart disease, including problems with your heart rhythm, · have a history of epilepsy of suffer from convulsions (fits), · have a history of cysticercosis nodules (bumps) just under the skin, · have a worm infection of the brain. (who.int)
- This cross-sectional study hypothesized the possibility that liver function test variations in the normal range might be meaningfully associated to coronary artery disease. (uwi.edu)
- Celiac disease can also cause a loss of bone density and reduced spleen function (hyposplenism). (webmd.com)
- You suspect enlargement of the caudate lobe in a patient with liver disease. (proprofs.com)
- By identifying this fissure, one can confirm the presence of the caudate lobe and potentially diagnose its enlargement in a patient with liver disease. (proprofs.com)
- Alcohol-related liver disease is liver damage caused by drinking too much alcohol for a long time. (msdmanuals.com)
- If people who have been drinking in excess have symptoms of liver disease, doctors do blood tests to evaluate the liver and occasionally do a liver biopsy. (msdmanuals.com)
- If you've been told you need a liver function blood test, you may also have heard it called a liver function test, or a hepatic panel. (zeamed.com)
- The word hepatic refers to the liver. (zeamed.com)
- The middle hepatic vein can be used as an anatomical landmark to identify the left medial segment separate from the right anterior segment of the liver. (proprofs.com)
- The left medial segment is located on the left lobe of the liver, and the middle hepatic vein serves as a boundary between this segment and the right anterior segment. (proprofs.com)
- The liver receives oxygenated blood from both the portal vein and the hepatic artery. (proprofs.com)
- The portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the intestines to the liver, while the hepatic artery supplies oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver. (proprofs.com)
- PGJ abrogates liver fibrosis instigated by NDEA in Wistar rats by declining oxidative stress via regulation of Nrf2 and NFκB. (nature.com)
- These findings point towards pomegranate as a potential and efficacious therapeutic agent against liver fibrosis. (nature.com)
- Now, it is high time that work should be done on these lines to garner the potential of pomegranate in order to cure liver fibrosis. (nature.com)
- Fibrosis of the Liver Fibrosis is the formation of an abnormally large amount of scar tissue in the liver. (msdmanuals.com)
- 2. Aspartate Aminotransferase tests are also known as the AST Test. (zeamed.com)
- The AST shows the amount of an enzyme, known as Aspartate aminotransferase, found in your heart, liver, and muscles. (zeamed.com)
- When the liver is damaged, the enzyme Aspartate Aminotransferase can be released into the bloodstream. (annapharmacy.com)
- Certain tests help to determine the effectiveness of the liver's functions, such as producing proteins, eliminating waste products from the blood, such as the Bilirubin, and other tests measure the number of enzymes that are created by the liver, which could be a sign of damage to the liver. (sarwarpro.com)
- The test also determines the number of specific proteins and enzymes present in the blood. (sarwarpro.com)
- Liver function blood tests generally measure the enzymes and proteins in your blood, depending on what the condition of the liver is. (zeamed.com)
- Thus, it can be concluded that serum ADA activity is increased in untreated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and liver enzymes-ALT, AST and ALP activity increased in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. (allresearchjournal.com)
- No significant difference in activities of liver enzymes-ALT, AST and ALP in untreated cases of PTB and control subjects were found. (allresearchjournal.com)
- This dual blood supply is important for the liver's metabolic functions, as it allows for the processing of nutrients and the removal of waste products from the blood. (proprofs.com)
- The test for liver function is a series of blood tests that are used to check the functioning of the liver and determine the extent of inflammation or damage to the liver. (sarwarpro.com)
- Albumin is a protein produced by the liver. (sarwarpro.com)
- The amount of albumin can tell how the liver is producing enough albumin. (sarwarpro.com)
- Albumin and globulin are the two most important proteins produced by the liver. (sarwarpro.com)
- Albumin: A protein made in the liver, that helps keep your blood from seeping out of blood vessels, and helps transport medications through the blood. (zeamed.com)
- The disposition of enalapril and enalaprilat in patients with renal insufficiency is similar to that in patients with normal renal function until the glomerular filtration rate is 30 mL/min or less. (nih.gov)
- Serology tests look for certain antibodies. (webmd.com)
- The clinical manifestations of maternal preeclampsia are hypertension and proteinuria with or without coexisting systemic abnormalities involving the kidneys, liver, or blood. (medscape.com)
- Kidney function tests. (cdc.gov)
- Although there are numerous studies exploring ultrasound and biomarker prediction of patients at risk of pre-eclampsia, other than early detection of preeclampsia , no reliable test or symptom complex predicts the development of eclampsia. (medscape.com)
- This document provides guidance for hospitals and clinical laboratories on performing routine diagnostic (non-ebolavirus) testing necessary for management and care of patients with suspected ebolavirus infection, while minimizing risk to laboratory personnel. (cdc.gov)
- These patients should be isolated at a healthcare facility, in a private room and continue to undergo appropriate clinical assessment and management while determining whether ebolavirus testing is indicated. (cdc.gov)
- These tests are specifically for patients who are experiencing symptoms (shown below), which fit with the possibility of a liver disorder. (zeamed.com)
- It is not recommended for patients to have these tests done without checking with your doctor. (zeamed.com)
- Correlation between Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) and Liver Function Tests in untreated and treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. (allresearchjournal.com)
- Total protein- measures the number of proteins created in the liver. (sarwarpro.com)
- Hospitals with concerns about a patient with compatible symptoms and potential epidemiologic risk factors should contact their STLT public health officials [PDF - 2 pages] as soon as possible for consultation to determine if ebolavirus testing is indicated. (cdc.gov)
- This test might be recommended to you if you are experiencing specific symptoms such as dark-coloured urine as well as nausea, diarrhoea and nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite as well as yellow-coloured eyes and skin and eyes, bloody or light-coloured stool, abdominal swelling or abdomen, fluid accumulation (ascites) ascites, pain in the abdomen, fatigue as well as weight loss or increase and so on. (sarwarpro.com)
- What are the common symptoms of a liver disorder? (zeamed.com)
- Knowing the symptoms is very important, although some liver disorders can be unnoticed at the beginning. (zeamed.com)
- Symptoms range from none at first to fever, jaundice, fatigue, and a tender, painful, and enlarged liver, then to more serious problems such as bleeding in the digestive tract and deterioration of brain function. (msdmanuals.com)
Sign of liver1
- If there is an increased level of ALT in the blood, it could be a sign of liver damage. (zeamed.com)
- Routine testing to monitor the patient's clinical status and diagnostic testing for other potential causes of the patient's illness should be pursued while ebolavirus testing is underway. (cdc.gov)
- C. Special clinical procedures and tests A specially trained health technician carried out the following on examined persons in the designated age ranges: 1. (cdc.gov)
- The name is the overall term for a group of blood tests that give providers information about how the liver is functioning. (zeamed.com)
- What are the common liver function blood tests? (zeamed.com)
- Liver Function Blood Tests are available at Anna Pharmacy Group as part of our phlebotomy services in Carshalton, Sutton, Hackbridge, Wallington & Croydon. (annapharmacy.com)
- Routine blood tests were normal, the sickle-cell screening test was negative, and haemoglobin electrophoresis was normal. (erowid.org)
- Blood tests check other parts of your immune system . (webmd.com)
- The gallbladder sits at the base of the liver, along with the pancreas and intestinal tracts. (sarwarpro.com)
- A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. (bris.ac.uk)
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): an enzyme made in the liver, that turns proteins into energy. (zeamed.com)
- 1. Alanine transaminase tests are also known as ALT tests. (zeamed.com)
- Previous studies have suggested that prescribed cannabidiol (CBD) products may cause elevations in liver tests (LT). This study compared the prevalence of elevated LT in an adult population self-administering CBD with the normal and general adult population prevalences. (nih.gov)
- The liver helps in detoxifying, creating proteins and hormones, and producing biochemicals that you need for digestion. (zeamed.com)
- An ALP test is typically ordered in combination with several other tests. (annapharmacy.com)
- The test can help in diagnosing a liver disorder or liver issue. (sarwarpro.com)
- In general, the amount of alcohol consumed (how much, how often, and for how long) determines the risk and severity of liver damage. (msdmanuals.com)
- Alcohol Use Alcohol (ethanol) is a depressant (it slows down brain and nervous system functioning). (msdmanuals.com)
- Most alcohol, after being absorbed in the digestive tract, is processed (metabolized) in the liver. (msdmanuals.com)
- The more alcohol a person drinks, the greater the damage to the liver. (msdmanuals.com)
- When alcohol damages the liver, the liver can continue to function for a while because the liver can sometimes recover from mild damage. (msdmanuals.com)
- However, if people continue to drink alcohol, liver damage progresses and may eventually result in death. (msdmanuals.com)
- The ligamentum teres, also known as the round ligament of the liver, is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein. (proprofs.com)
- The liver filters blood out of the digestive tract. (sarwarpro.com)
- Current recommendations are to test blood samples collected within the first 10 days of symptom onset. (medscape.com)
- Serum Adenosine Deaminase activity and Liver function test was determined by standard method after taking sample from subjects. (allresearchjournal.com)
- It's usually measured together with ALT to check for liver problems. (annapharmacy.com)
- Ebolavirus testing should only be performed after consultation with public health officials. (cdc.gov)
- Following consultation with local/state health departments and CDC, presumptive testing for Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) or Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus) is available at select public health laboratories within the Laboratory Response Network (LRN). (cdc.gov)
- Health department staff will facilitate access to testing at the LRN reference laboratories. (cdc.gov)
- Your doctor will provide specific instructions based on your medical health condition regarding how to prepare for the LFT Test. (sarwarpro.com)
- The typical test results could be different depending on gender, age or health history. (sarwarpro.com)
- We will look at diet and other interview with health tests, which we do in habits that affect health, such as smoking and mobile units. (cdc.gov)
- Our medical and effort team will collect health data by examining you, doing lab testing, and asking questions about your health. (cdc.gov)
- A simple blood test for liver function can determine the health of your liver. (annapharmacy.com)
- Staying aware is one of the key things you can do to prevent and treat liver problems. (zeamed.com)
- Timely identification of other more likely pathogens and access to routine laboratory testing, such as blood counts and chemistries, is essential for providing appropriate patient care. (cdc.gov)
- Liver stores carbohydrates, which can be converted into glucose and then utilized for energy when required. (sarwarpro.com)
- Before your LFT Test, inform your physician if you are taking any medication or suffering from allergies or medical issues. (sarwarpro.com)