Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Sorption Detoxification: Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.GalactosamineHepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Cross Circulation: The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Trilogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of three key features including ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; and RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tyrosinemias: A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Plasma Exchange: Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder: A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73)Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Citrullinemia: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Imino AcidsEsophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Hemoperfusion: Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Antipyretics: Drugs that are used to reduce body temperature in fever.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLPortoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)Ferrochelatase: A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Mice, Inbred BALB CPatient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.

Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. (1/874)

Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3-24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or nonmalignant conditions, only patients with hematologic malignancies had adenoviral infections. Adenovirus was first detected at a median of 54 days (range -4 to +333) after BMT. Adenovirus developed in eight of 69 (11.6%) patients receiving grafts from matched unrelated or mismatched related donors, in four of 52 (7.7%) receiving grafts from HLA-matched siblings, and in one of 93 (1.1%) receiving autografts. The most common manifestation of adenovirus infection was hemorrhagic cystitis, followed by gastroenteritis, pneumonitis and liver failure. The incidence of adenovirus infection in pediatric BMT patients at our institution is similar to that reported in adult patients. Using univariate analysis, use of total body irradiation and type of bone marrow graft were significant risk factors for adenovirus infection. Only use of total body irradiation remained as a factor on multiple logistic regression analysis.  (+info)

HIV-HCV RNA loads and liver failure in coinfected patients with coagulopathy. (2/874)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure contemporaneously HCV-RNA load, HIV-RNA load and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HCV/HIV coinfected patients with coagulopathy and to examine the relationship between these parameters and the liver failure. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 54 patients with severe coagulopathy: 39 HCV/HIV coinfected and 15 HCV+/HIV- comparable for age and HCV exposure time. HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA load, CD4+ lymphocyte count, biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters were evaluated at the time of entry to the study. RESULTS: Mean HCV-RNA load was significantly higher in coinfected patients (643,872 717,687 copies/mL) than in HCV+/HIV- (mean 161,573 276,896 copies/mL) (p = 0.01). The 39 HCV/HIV coinfected patients had a mean HIV-RNA load of 205,913 456,311 copies/mL (range 4,000-2,500,000) and a mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of 206.5171/microL (range 5-693). Five of the 39 (12.8%) coinfected patients had liver failure. In these five patients the mean HCV-RNA load (770,200 996,426 copies/mL) was high but not significantly different from that in the 34 HCV+/HIV+ patients (623,496 682,239 copies/mL) without liver failure (p = 1.0). Coinfected patients with liver failure had a significantly higher HIV-RNA load (mean 764, 599 978,542 copies/mL) and lower CD4+ lymphocyte count (mean 52.655. 6/microL) than those observed in coinfected patients without liver failure (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). A significant inverse correlation was found between CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-RNA load (r = -0.37, p = 0.01). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: HCV-RNA load is significantly higher in HIV+ than in HIV- patients with coagulopathy. Liver failure was found only in the HCV/HIV coinfected patients with severe immunodepression, expressed either by low CD4+ lymphocyte count or by high HIV-RNA load.  (+info)

Azoxymethane-induced fulminant hepatic failure in C57BL/6J mice: characterization of a new animal model. (3/874)

Without transplantation, approximately 50-90% of all patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) die. This poor outcome is due in part to the absence of an appropriate animal model, which would allow for a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Given the reports of liver injury in humans and livestock fed cycad palm nuts on the island of Guam, we hypothesized that the active ingredient azoxymethane (AOM) could cause FHF. We therefore evaluated AOM in C57BL/6J mice. Histologically, we observed microvesicular steatosis 2 h, sinusoidal dilatation 4 h, and centrilobular necrosis 20 h after AOM administration, and transmission electron microscopy showed that this agent causes mitochondrial injury. FHF was associated with all four stages of encephalopathy, as well as by a prodromal period of decreased eating and drinking lasting approximately 15 h before the development of stage I encephalopathy (i.e., loss of scatter reflex). Late encephalopathy was associated with increased arterial ammonia, decreased serum glucose, and evidence of brain edema (astrocyte swelling). We show that AOM-induced FHF is highly reproducible, without evidence of lot-to-lot variability, and is dose dependent. These findings therefore suggest that AOM is an excellent agent for the study of FHF, as well as indicate that Guamanian FHF may be due to AOM found in unwashed cycad palm nuts.  (+info)

Preoperative assessment of residual hepatic functional reserve using 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl-human serum albumin dynamic SPECT. (4/874)

Preoperative assessment of residual hepatic functional reserve offers important strategic information for hepatic resection. To predict the postoperative residual liver function, we assessed the value of hepatic 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) clearance estimated by dynamic SPECT analysis. METHODS: We investigated 114 consecutive patients with liver disease, including 55 hepatectomy cases. One minute after injection of 185 MBq 99mTc-GSA, 15 serial dynamic SPECT images were obtained every minute. The initial five sets of SPECT images were analyzed by Patlak plot to estimate the sequential initial hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance (mL/min) as an index of hepatic function. The sum of hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance of the segments immune from resection was categorized as predicted residual 99mTC-GSA clearance. In the hepatectomy cases, scintigraphy was performed before and 37 +/- 10 d after the operation. RESULTS: Good correlation was observed between the total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance and conventional hepatic function tests: plasma retention rate of iodocyanine green (ICG) at 15 min (ICG R15), r = -0.600, P < 0.0001, n = 94; plasma disappearance rate of ICG (K ICG), r = 0.670, P < 0.0001, n = 83; cholinesterase, r = 0.539, P < 0.0001, n = 121; serum albumin, r = 0.421, P = 0.0001, n = 123; and hepaplastin test, r = 0.456, P < 0.0001, n = 120. There was good correlation between the predicted residual 99mTc-GSA clearance and the postoperative total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance in patients who underwent segmentectomy or lobectomy (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001, n = 28) and between the pre- and postoperative total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance in patients who underwent subsegmentectomy (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001, n = 25). Five patients who had postoperative complications due to hepatic insufficiency (2 patients died of postoperative hepatic failure within 2 mo after operation) showed significantly lower predicted residual 99mTc-GSA clearance compared with the patients without complications (90.3 +/- 37.2 versus 320.9 +/- 158.8 mL/min; P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: The total hepatic 99mTC-GSA clearance reflected hepatic function. In addition, preoperative predicted residual hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance was a good indicator of postoperative hepatic function and early prognosis. 99mTc-GSA dynamic SPECT is assumed to be a useful method for determining the surgical strategy in patients with hepatic tumor and especially in patients with hepatic dysfunction.  (+info)

Analysis of liver single photon emission computed tomography in a case of fulminant hepatic failure. (5/874)

Fulminant hepatic failure is associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, accurate assessment of hepatic functional reserve and hepatic regeneration is important. We describe a 67-year-old woman who survived subacute hepatic failure. We had an opportunity to monitor the clinical course of the patient using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl-human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) and frequent hematological examinations. On admission, prothrombin time was remarkably prolonged (23.1% of control). The liver uptake of 99mTc-GSA was also considerably low. She responded well to treatment. Four weeks after admission, SPECT analysis showed a dramatic increase in liver uptake of 99mTc-GSA, suggesting promotion of hepatic regeneration. Moreover, functional liver volume calculated from the SPECT data showed a marked increase at 4 weeks after admission, whereas CT scan showed no change at that point. This indicated that SPECT with 99mTc-GSA reflected functional hepatocytes more accurately than liver volume determined by CT scan, which cannot exclude nonfunctional hepatocytes. The patient's condition improved in parallel with the improvements in the indices measured by SPECT and hematological examinations. SPECT analysis is practically useful for the prompt assessment of improvement in patients with fulminant hepatic failure.  (+info)

Uneven distribution of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in tissues from subjects with end-stage liver disease: confounding effect of viral adsorption and mounting evidence for the presence of low-level extrahepatic replication. (6/874)

We have found differences among the populations of hepatitis C virus sequences in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and various tissues in patients with chronic hepatitis C. These results are compatible with the existence of independent viral compartments in the infected host. Our results also suggest that PBMCs, and probably various tissues, can selectively adsorb viral subpopulations differing in the E2 region.  (+info)

Peripheral arterial coil embolization for hepatic arteriovenous malformation in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease; useful for controlling high output heart failure, but harmful to the liver. (7/874)

A 55-year-old Japanese housewife, who had Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, was admitted to our hospital because of frequent epistaxis and worsening exertional dyspnea. The computed tomography and hepatic arteriography revealed large hepatic arteriovenous malformation, which was considered to be the leading cause of her high output heart failure. Two series of hepatic arterial coil embolization procedures were performed to reduce hepatic shunt flow. They temporarily improved her cardiac condition, but gradually induced progressive hepatic failure due to intrahepatic cholangitis. Hepatic dysfunction restricted her quality of life and lead to a fatal clinical course one year after the second coil embolization.  (+info)

Animal models of fulminant hepatic failure: a critical evaluation. (8/874)

Few conditions in medicine are more dramatic or more devastating than acute liver failure. Our understanding and treatment of this condition have been limited by the lack of satisfactory animal models. The most widely used models consist of surgical anhepatic and devascularization procedures and hepatotoxins, such as galactosamine and acetaminophen. Potential disadvantages with surgical models are their inability to recreate the inflammatory milieu that exists in acute liver failure and their reliance on surgical expertise. Models using hepatotoxins are free of such constraints. Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity is more predictable than acetaminophen, but its cost and lack of a human equivalent clinical syndrome has restricted its use. Acetaminophen-based models offer the greatest potential but have proven the most difficult to develop because of difficulties with reproducibility and refractory anemia. Although progress has been made, research must continue in this area to establish an animal model with minimal disadvantages that would accurately reflect the clinical syndrome seen in humans.  (+info)

  • SAN FRANCISCO - Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with Child-Pugh B status experienced encouraging efficacy and safety outcomes after treatment with PD-1 inhibitor Opdivo, according to data presented at The Liver Meeting 2018. (healio.com)
  • Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • There are several potential causes for liver failure including metabolic conditions, infections or viruses, cardiovascular conditions or consumption of drugs or toxins. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Drugs or toxins harmful to the liver. (medindia.net)
  • It essentially "washes" a patient's blood with a solution containing albumin - normally produced by healthy livers -- to remove toxins such as bile acids, ammonia, bilirubin, copper, iron and phenols from the blood. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new model was externally validated against data from 412 patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure managed at intensive care units in the UK (London, Birmingham, and Edinburgh) and Denmark (Copenhagen), and showed excellent accuracy. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • This better reflects the real world of acute emergency care for paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Heart failure affects 26 million people worldwide. (novartis.com)
  • More people die from heart failure than from some advanced cancers, including breast and bowel cancer. (novartis.com)
  • Heart failure is the biggest single cause of hospital admissions in adults aged over 65 in the Western world. (novartis.com)
  • Ageing populations and deteriorating lifestyles mean heart failure is the most rapidly growing cardiovascular condition. (novartis.com)
  • One in 5 people aged 40 and over will develop heart failure in their lifetime and the treatment costs are estimated at $65 billion a year worldwide. (novartis.com)
  • Nick Hartshorne-Evans was just 39 when he was diagnosed with heart failure following a viral infection. (novartis.com)
  • Heart failure can make everyday activities like walking difficult. (novartis.com)
  • I heard my doctor say 'heart failure' and it sounded like a death sentence. (novartis.com)
  • Yet for many people living with heart failure, everyday activities like walking and climbing stairs can become increasingly difficult. (novartis.com)
  • Healthcare companies and care providers are currently pursuing various approaches in their efforts to develop more effective ways of treating heart failure. (novartis.com)
  • According to the American Heart Association, almost 6 million Americans are living with heart failure, and over 900,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. (courierpress.com)
  • So, those diagnosed with heart failure are not alone, and the good news is collaborating with the health care team can help manage the illness. (courierpress.com)
  • When people hear the words "heart failure," they may think the heart is about to stop, but actually the term means the heart is not pumping powerfully enough to meet the demands of the body. (courierpress.com)
  • In heart failure, because the heart is not pumping enough blood and oxygen to the body, people develop symptoms related to insufficient blood flow. (courierpress.com)
  • Some common symptoms of heart failure are shortness of breath, chronic cough or wheeze, fluid build-up (swelling), sudden weight gain and fatigue. (courierpress.com)
  • Patient self-management tasks in heart failure include monitoring for weight gain, edema and shortness of breath, as well as decreasing sodium intake, attending follow-up appointments, taking medications and stopping smoking. (courierpress.com)
  • People with heart failure could use heart failure zone sheets or symptom tracker action plans to know when to notify the health care team of concerns. (courierpress.com)
  • Some resources for managing heart failure are available via the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. (courierpress.com)
  • Living with heart failure can create challenges, but following treatment plans and self-managing symptoms can lead to an improved quality of life. (courierpress.com)
  • Murray Mittleman and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School studied data on 31,823 middle-aged and elderly Swedish women to assess the relationship between chocolate and heart failure. (care2.com)
  • The women who consumed an average of one to two servings (that's a fairly small amount) of high-quality, cocoa-rich chocolate per week had a 32 percent lower risk of experiencing heart failure. (care2.com)
  • Those women who ate 1 to 3 servings a month had a 26 percent lower risk of heart failure. (care2.com)
  • A minister-triathlete has no intention of letting heart failure slow him down. (healthcentral.com)
  • Because it masked some things, the heart failure took longer to diagnose, but it also allowed me to function better. (healthcentral.com)
  • Heart failure means your tissues don't get the oxygen and nutrients they need. (healthcentral.com)
  • When I first heard I [had heart failure] I was upset about it," he says. (healthcentral.com)
  • He knows because he's experienced the swelling (known as edema) that often comes with heart failure himself. (healthcentral.com)
  • Having heart failure does not mean you need to stop doing all your normal activities and enjoying life. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • These tips will help you adjust to living with heart failure. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Board-certified cardiologist, Ronald Pariser, MD, will bring insight into practicing healthier cardiac lifestyles to support 'Living Well with Heart Failure' on Tuesday, April 4. (courant.com)
  • That's exactly the goal of the Interim HealthCare Living with Heart Failure Program. (interimhealthcare.com)
  • Clients learn healthful behaviors that reduce the effects of heart failure, develop exercise habits that improve strength and endurance and how to best communicate with their physicians. (interimhealthcare.com)
  • Nursing and therapy services, and education, are provided by clinicians who have completed an extensive professional education program about Heart Failure. (interimhealthcare.com)
  • The Interim HealthCare Heart Failure Program makes the best use of the acute care benefits available through Medicare, Medicaid and most insurance and managed care programs to equip clients and families to live with Heart Failure on a long term basis. (interimhealthcare.com)
  • This booklet explains the causes and symptoms of heart failure. (heart.org)
  • It includes content on risk factors, types of heart failure and how heart failure is diagnosed and classified, ejection fraction, as well as information on treating and managing symptoms, including lifestyle changes, medications, and surgical and non-surgical interventions. (heart.org)
  • It reassures readers that medicine and lifestyle changes can help make a full, active life possible for those living with heart failure. (heart.org)
  • Congestive Heart Failure, also referred to as CHF or simply heart failure, is a serious medical condition which leaves the heart unable to supply enough blood to the rest of the body and in some cases, unable to properly fill with blood. (empowher.com)
  • If so, you may already be winning the war against heart failure in your senior years, new research suggests. (medicinenet.com)
  • The researchers found that people who were obese and had high blood pressure and diabetes by age 45 were diagnosed with heart failure an average of 11 to 13 years sooner than those who had none of the three risk factors. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even having one or two of the three risk factors reduced the years a person lived without heart failure, the researchers found. (medicinenet.com)
  • People who had one or two of the risk factors developed heart failure an average of three to 11 years earlier than those with none of the risk factors, Ahmad's team said. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doing so can significantly increase the number of years you are likely to live free of heart failure," Ahmad said. (medicinenet.com)
  • Want to Live Longer With Heart Failure? (healthcentral.com)
  • Research published in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation shows that getting an annual flu shot reduces the risk of premature death from heart failure, particularly in people 65 and older who have compromised circulation and other health complications. (healthcentral.com)
  • How long can you live with congestive heart failure? (reference.com)
  • How is a salty diet related to congestive heart failure? (reference.com)
  • Salty diets cause the body to retain large amounts of water, which exacerbates the buildup of fluids commonly associated with heart failure, states WebMD. (reference.com)
  • What is systolic heart failure? (reference.com)
  • What are the stages of congestive heart failure? (reference.com)
  • Is there a cure for congestive heart failure? (reference.com)
  • There is no cure for heart failure, but the condition can be controlled and managed to decrease its progression, as stated by WebMD. (reference.com)
  • At the time initial blood studies were obtained, the patient was normotensive and had no physical examination or chest radiograph findings of congestive heart failure. (annals.org)
  • Walking is one of the most important things you can do to help your health when you have heart failure. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • We know that being diagnosed with heart failure can be frightening for you and your family. (bhf.org.uk)
  • You are probably taking a combination of many different medications to treat your heart failure and we know it can be hard to keep track. (bhf.org.uk)
  • It can also be helpful to keep a record of your experiences of heart failure, to keep track of useful information that you can tell your doctors during hospital, GP and heart failure clinic appointments. (bhf.org.uk)
  • Our heart failure personal record can help with this, allowing you to make notes about all of these details, and any other important information that your doctor might want to keep track of. (bhf.org.uk)
  • You may find you need to make some changes in your life as a result of your heart failure - from getting some help with the housework to changing jobs. (bhf.org.uk)
  • Find out about Sheila's heart failure experience and how she breaks down her tasks. (bhf.org.uk)
  • This booklet is for people with heart failure and their family and friends. (bhf.org.uk)
  • It explains what heart failure is, what causes it, the symptoms, the possible treatments including medicines, and what can be done to help keep the condition under control. (bhf.org.uk)
  • Biju Parekkadan, a graduate student working with Dr Yarmush, said: 'A patient presenting with liver failure could first be treated with an intravenous injection of an 'off-the-shelf' drug containing MSC-produced factors in an effort to halt cell damage and allow the organ to regenerate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The liver is a vital organ that has the functions of toxin filtering as well as energy, nutrient and fat distribution in the dog's body. (vetinfo.com)
  • This often contributes towards multi organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with colleagues from the universities of Würzburg and Bonn (Germany), they discovered that this organ failure is not in fact caused by the death of liver cells, but by defects in the vascular (blood vessel) system. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their liver is able to reform itself into a healthy organ. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • The liver is a dark, reddish-brown organ situated in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity. (medindia.net)
  • Need to make a doctor appointment for Organ (Heart , Liver, Lung) Failure this week? (zocdoc.com)
  • It is typically a medical emergency that requires hospitalization due to mental confusion, multi-organ failure, bleeding, infection and increased pressure in the brain. (virginiamason.org)
  • Your liver is the only organ in your body that can regrow after parts of it have been removed or damaged. (healthline.com)
  • People who receive a liver from a deceased donor tend to get transplanted with the entire organ. (healthline.com)
  • After several test, they had me head down to the emergency room of a local hospital which admitted me in ICU and was diagnosed with acute liver failure. (expertlaw.com)
  • The Pediatric Acute Liver Failure (PALF) Study Group was formed in 2000 as a multisite, multinational consortium to prospectively study ALF in children from birth up to 18 years of age. (medscape.com)
  • That it appears not to help in pediatric acute liver failure sheds light both on the particular inflammatory patterns in the condition and also on the role of reactive oxygen species, he said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To find potential biomarkers, one team carried out protein analyses of liver biopsies taken at 6 months and a year, and found a panel of 250 proteins that were linked with faster development of fibrosis in the liver, and could be used to predict early-onset liver fibrosis. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Lots of things cause liver damage, and it tends to get worse over time. (webmd.com)
  • Street drugs like heroin and cocaine also cause liver damage. (webmd.com)
  • Certain medicines, herbal supplements, and illegal drugs can cause liver damage. (drugs.com)
  • Other medicines that can cause liver failure include antiseizure medicines and certain antibiotics. (drugs.com)
  • Illegal drugs, such as cocaine, can also cause liver damage. (drugs.com)
  • Excessive consumption of Acetaminophen and certain prescription medications like Rifampicin and Isoniazid, Sodium valproate, Halothane, Zidovudine, and Didanosine can also cause liver failure. (medindia.net)
  • Find information about which prescription medicines, painkillers, herbal remedies, supplements and drugs can cause liver damage and liver failure as well as what you can do about preventing this from occurring. (health24.com)
  • In view of the pleiotropic functions of critical mediators of cell death and tissue regeneration, a particular challenge will be to reduce hepatocellular death without inhibiting the regenerative capacity of the liver. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanisms by which liver cells are destroyed as well as the processes mediating liver regeneration, remain largely unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some institutions, especially those overseas, had begun giving NAC to children with acute liver failure because of this presumed mechanism and because of its demonstrated effectiveness in adults. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Your child will be transferred from a local hospital to a specialist centre so they can be looked after by a team who have more experience looking after children with acute liver failure. (childliverdisease.org)
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Chronic Liver Failure - Mechanisms and Management | Pere Ginès | Springer (springer.com)
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Parenteral nutrition - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
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Spectrum of Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetes and Management of Patients With Diabetes and Liver Disease | Diabetes Care (care.diabetesjournals.org)
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Acute Liver Failure | Johns Hopkins Medicine (hopkinsmedicine.org)
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DailyMed - ALBURX (albumin- human solution (dailymed.nlm.nih.gov)
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Frontiers | Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines: Keystones in Liver Inflammatory Diseases | Immunology (frontiersin.org)
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HC Heart Failure LIver and Lungs - Chron (chron.com)
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Poor and Uninsured in Texas | The New Yorker (newyorker.com)
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Health Information | Griffin Health - Derby, Connecticut | Health Library (healthlibrary.epnet.com)
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Effect of liver failure on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
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Akutes Leberversagen (aerzteblatt.de)
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The Long-Term Effects of Tylenol PM | LIVESTRONG.COM (livestrong.com)
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Most Popular Articles : European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (journals.lww.com)
Molecular Biology in Blood Transfusion : C.Th. Smit Sibinga : 9780792365341
Molecular Biology in Blood Transfusion : C.Th. Smit Sibinga : 9780792365341 (bookdepository.com)
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Ascites, Liver Failure...what is it? | BackYard Chickens - Learn How to Raise Chickens (backyardchickens.com)
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8 Painkiller Side Effects Men Need to Beware Of: Opioid, NSAID and OTC (losethebackpain.com)
Tylenol User Wins $8.8 Million From Lawsuit Over Liver Failure - latimes
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