Liver Failure, Acute
End Stage Liver Disease
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Liver Function Tests
Multiple Organ Failure
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
Disease Models, Animal
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Trilogy of Fallot
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Failure to Thrive
Severity of Illness Index
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Acute Kidney Injury
Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
Hepatitis B virus
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Portacaval Shunt, Surgical
Predictive Value of Tests
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Rats, Inbred Strains
Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway
International Normalized Ratio
Cardiac Output, Low
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Heart Failure, Systolic
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical
Vitamin D-Binding Protein
Bile Acids and Salts
Gene Expression Regulation
Vena Cava, Inferior
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. (1/874)Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3-24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or nonmalignant conditions, only patients with hematologic malignancies had adenoviral infections. Adenovirus was first detected at a median of 54 days (range -4 to +333) after BMT. Adenovirus developed in eight of 69 (11.6%) patients receiving grafts from matched unrelated or mismatched related donors, in four of 52 (7.7%) receiving grafts from HLA-matched siblings, and in one of 93 (1.1%) receiving autografts. The most common manifestation of adenovirus infection was hemorrhagic cystitis, followed by gastroenteritis, pneumonitis and liver failure. The incidence of adenovirus infection in pediatric BMT patients at our institution is similar to that reported in adult patients. Using univariate analysis, use of total body irradiation and type of bone marrow graft were significant risk factors for adenovirus infection. Only use of total body irradiation remained as a factor on multiple logistic regression analysis. (+info)
HIV-HCV RNA loads and liver failure in coinfected patients with coagulopathy. (2/874)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure contemporaneously HCV-RNA load, HIV-RNA load and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HCV/HIV coinfected patients with coagulopathy and to examine the relationship between these parameters and the liver failure. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 54 patients with severe coagulopathy: 39 HCV/HIV coinfected and 15 HCV+/HIV- comparable for age and HCV exposure time. HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA load, CD4+ lymphocyte count, biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters were evaluated at the time of entry to the study. RESULTS: Mean HCV-RNA load was significantly higher in coinfected patients (643,872 717,687 copies/mL) than in HCV+/HIV- (mean 161,573 276,896 copies/mL) (p = 0.01). The 39 HCV/HIV coinfected patients had a mean HIV-RNA load of 205,913 456,311 copies/mL (range 4,000-2,500,000) and a mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of 206.5171/microL (range 5-693). Five of the 39 (12.8%) coinfected patients had liver failure. In these five patients the mean HCV-RNA load (770,200 996,426 copies/mL) was high but not significantly different from that in the 34 HCV+/HIV+ patients (623,496 682,239 copies/mL) without liver failure (p = 1.0). Coinfected patients with liver failure had a significantly higher HIV-RNA load (mean 764, 599 978,542 copies/mL) and lower CD4+ lymphocyte count (mean 52.655. 6/microL) than those observed in coinfected patients without liver failure (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). A significant inverse correlation was found between CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-RNA load (r = -0.37, p = 0.01). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: HCV-RNA load is significantly higher in HIV+ than in HIV- patients with coagulopathy. Liver failure was found only in the HCV/HIV coinfected patients with severe immunodepression, expressed either by low CD4+ lymphocyte count or by high HIV-RNA load. (+info)
Azoxymethane-induced fulminant hepatic failure in C57BL/6J mice: characterization of a new animal model. (3/874)Without transplantation, approximately 50-90% of all patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) die. This poor outcome is due in part to the absence of an appropriate animal model, which would allow for a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Given the reports of liver injury in humans and livestock fed cycad palm nuts on the island of Guam, we hypothesized that the active ingredient azoxymethane (AOM) could cause FHF. We therefore evaluated AOM in C57BL/6J mice. Histologically, we observed microvesicular steatosis 2 h, sinusoidal dilatation 4 h, and centrilobular necrosis 20 h after AOM administration, and transmission electron microscopy showed that this agent causes mitochondrial injury. FHF was associated with all four stages of encephalopathy, as well as by a prodromal period of decreased eating and drinking lasting approximately 15 h before the development of stage I encephalopathy (i.e., loss of scatter reflex). Late encephalopathy was associated with increased arterial ammonia, decreased serum glucose, and evidence of brain edema (astrocyte swelling). We show that AOM-induced FHF is highly reproducible, without evidence of lot-to-lot variability, and is dose dependent. These findings therefore suggest that AOM is an excellent agent for the study of FHF, as well as indicate that Guamanian FHF may be due to AOM found in unwashed cycad palm nuts. (+info)
Preoperative assessment of residual hepatic functional reserve using 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl-human serum albumin dynamic SPECT. (4/874)Preoperative assessment of residual hepatic functional reserve offers important strategic information for hepatic resection. To predict the postoperative residual liver function, we assessed the value of hepatic 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) clearance estimated by dynamic SPECT analysis. METHODS: We investigated 114 consecutive patients with liver disease, including 55 hepatectomy cases. One minute after injection of 185 MBq 99mTc-GSA, 15 serial dynamic SPECT images were obtained every minute. The initial five sets of SPECT images were analyzed by Patlak plot to estimate the sequential initial hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance (mL/min) as an index of hepatic function. The sum of hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance of the segments immune from resection was categorized as predicted residual 99mTC-GSA clearance. In the hepatectomy cases, scintigraphy was performed before and 37 +/- 10 d after the operation. RESULTS: Good correlation was observed between the total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance and conventional hepatic function tests: plasma retention rate of iodocyanine green (ICG) at 15 min (ICG R15), r = -0.600, P < 0.0001, n = 94; plasma disappearance rate of ICG (K ICG), r = 0.670, P < 0.0001, n = 83; cholinesterase, r = 0.539, P < 0.0001, n = 121; serum albumin, r = 0.421, P = 0.0001, n = 123; and hepaplastin test, r = 0.456, P < 0.0001, n = 120. There was good correlation between the predicted residual 99mTc-GSA clearance and the postoperative total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance in patients who underwent segmentectomy or lobectomy (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001, n = 28) and between the pre- and postoperative total hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance in patients who underwent subsegmentectomy (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001, n = 25). Five patients who had postoperative complications due to hepatic insufficiency (2 patients died of postoperative hepatic failure within 2 mo after operation) showed significantly lower predicted residual 99mTc-GSA clearance compared with the patients without complications (90.3 +/- 37.2 versus 320.9 +/- 158.8 mL/min; P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: The total hepatic 99mTC-GSA clearance reflected hepatic function. In addition, preoperative predicted residual hepatic 99mTc-GSA clearance was a good indicator of postoperative hepatic function and early prognosis. 99mTc-GSA dynamic SPECT is assumed to be a useful method for determining the surgical strategy in patients with hepatic tumor and especially in patients with hepatic dysfunction. (+info)
Analysis of liver single photon emission computed tomography in a case of fulminant hepatic failure. (5/874)Fulminant hepatic failure is associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, accurate assessment of hepatic functional reserve and hepatic regeneration is important. We describe a 67-year-old woman who survived subacute hepatic failure. We had an opportunity to monitor the clinical course of the patient using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl-human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) and frequent hematological examinations. On admission, prothrombin time was remarkably prolonged (23.1% of control). The liver uptake of 99mTc-GSA was also considerably low. She responded well to treatment. Four weeks after admission, SPECT analysis showed a dramatic increase in liver uptake of 99mTc-GSA, suggesting promotion of hepatic regeneration. Moreover, functional liver volume calculated from the SPECT data showed a marked increase at 4 weeks after admission, whereas CT scan showed no change at that point. This indicated that SPECT with 99mTc-GSA reflected functional hepatocytes more accurately than liver volume determined by CT scan, which cannot exclude nonfunctional hepatocytes. The patient's condition improved in parallel with the improvements in the indices measured by SPECT and hematological examinations. SPECT analysis is practically useful for the prompt assessment of improvement in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. (+info)
Uneven distribution of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in tissues from subjects with end-stage liver disease: confounding effect of viral adsorption and mounting evidence for the presence of low-level extrahepatic replication. (6/874)We have found differences among the populations of hepatitis C virus sequences in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and various tissues in patients with chronic hepatitis C. These results are compatible with the existence of independent viral compartments in the infected host. Our results also suggest that PBMCs, and probably various tissues, can selectively adsorb viral subpopulations differing in the E2 region. (+info)
Peripheral arterial coil embolization for hepatic arteriovenous malformation in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease; useful for controlling high output heart failure, but harmful to the liver. (7/874)A 55-year-old Japanese housewife, who had Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, was admitted to our hospital because of frequent epistaxis and worsening exertional dyspnea. The computed tomography and hepatic arteriography revealed large hepatic arteriovenous malformation, which was considered to be the leading cause of her high output heart failure. Two series of hepatic arterial coil embolization procedures were performed to reduce hepatic shunt flow. They temporarily improved her cardiac condition, but gradually induced progressive hepatic failure due to intrahepatic cholangitis. Hepatic dysfunction restricted her quality of life and lead to a fatal clinical course one year after the second coil embolization. (+info)
Animal models of fulminant hepatic failure: a critical evaluation. (8/874)Few conditions in medicine are more dramatic or more devastating than acute liver failure. Our understanding and treatment of this condition have been limited by the lack of satisfactory animal models. The most widely used models consist of surgical anhepatic and devascularization procedures and hepatotoxins, such as galactosamine and acetaminophen. Potential disadvantages with surgical models are their inability to recreate the inflammatory milieu that exists in acute liver failure and their reliance on surgical expertise. Models using hepatotoxins are free of such constraints. Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity is more predictable than acetaminophen, but its cost and lack of a human equivalent clinical syndrome has restricted its use. Acetaminophen-based models offer the greatest potential but have proven the most difficult to develop because of difficulties with reproducibility and refractory anemia. Although progress has been made, research must continue in this area to establish an animal model with minimal disadvantages that would accurately reflect the clinical syndrome seen in humans. (+info)
1. Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, or C)
2. Overdose of medications or supplements
3. Toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs, or chemicals)
4. Sepsis or other infections that spread to the liver
5. Certain autoimmune disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease)
6. Cancer that has metastasized to the liver
7. Blood vessel blockage or clotting in the liver
8. Lack of blood flow to the liver
1. Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Abdominal swelling and discomfort
4. Fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite
5. Confusion or altered mental state
6. Seizures or coma
7. Pale or clay-colored stools
8. Dark urine
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Laboratory tests (e.g., liver function tests, blood tests, imaging studies)
3. Biopsy of the liver tissue (to rule out other liver diseases)
1. Supportive care (fluids, nutrition, and medication to manage symptoms)
2. Addressing underlying causes (e.g., stopping alcohol or drug use, treating infections)
3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), a procedure that creates a new pathway for blood to flow through the liver
4. Liver transplantation (in severe cases where other treatments have failed)
The prognosis for acute liver failure depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the liver damage. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome. However, acute liver failure can be a life-threatening condition, and the mortality rate is high, especially in cases where there is severe liver damage or no available donor liver for transplantation.
There are several causes of liver failure, including:
1. Alcohol-related liver disease: Prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually liver failure.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to liver failure.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
4. Drug-induced liver injury: Certain medications can cause liver damage and failure, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain inherited conditions, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause liver damage and failure.
6. Acute liver failure: This is a sudden and severe loss of liver function, often caused by medication overdose or other toxins.
7. Chronic liver failure: A gradual decline in liver function over time, often caused by cirrhosis or NAFLD.
Symptoms of liver failure can include:
1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain
6. Confusion and altered mental state
7. Easy bruising and bleeding
Diagnosis of liver failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to check for liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the liver.
Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to manage symptoms, such as nausea and pain, and supportive care to maintain nutrition and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat complications.
Prevention of liver failure is important, and this can be achieved by:
1. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
3. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
4. Avoiding exposure to toxins, such as certain medications and environmental chemicals
5. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
6. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of hepatitis B and C.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
This condition is most commonly seen in people with advanced liver disease, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. It can also be caused by other conditions that affect the liver, such as hepatitis or portal hypertension.
Symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy can include confusion, disorientation, slurred speech, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or even death.
Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment options include medications to reduce the production of ammonia in the gut, antibiotics to treat any underlying infections, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to improve liver function. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Overall, hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can have significant impact on quality of life and survival in people with advanced liver disease. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.
The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.
In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.
Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.
There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.
ESLD is a critical stage of liver disease where the liver has failed to regenerate and recover from injury or damage, leading to severe impairment of liver function. This condition can arise due to various causes such as viral hepatitis, alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other forms of liver cirrhosis.
The diagnosis of ESLD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for ESLD are limited and may include liver transplantation, palliative care, and supportive therapies to manage complications.
The prognosis for patients with ESLD is generally poor, with a high mortality rate due to the advanced stage of the disease and the lack of effective treatment options. However, with advances in medical technology and the availability of liver transplantation, some patients with ESLD may have a chance of survival and improved quality of life.
The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:
"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."
The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:
1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).
The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.
There are two main types of fatty liver disease:
1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease
Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests
Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)
Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.
Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:
* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.
Causes of Hyperammonemia:
1. Liver disease or failure: The liver is responsible for filtering out ammonia, so if it is not functioning properly, ammonia levels can rise.
2. Urea cycle disorders: These are genetic conditions that affect the body's ability to break down protein and produce urea. As a result, ammonia can build up in the bloodstream.
3. Inborn errors of metabolism: Certain inherited disorders can lead to hyperammonemia by affecting the body's ability to process ammonia.
4. Sepsis: Severe infections can cause inflammation in the body, which can lead to hyperammonemia.
5. Kidney disease or failure: If the kidneys are not functioning properly, they may be unable to remove excess ammonia from the bloodstream, leading to hyperammonemia.
Symptoms of Hyperammonemia:
1. Lethargy and confusion
6. Decreased appetite
7. Weight loss
10. Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Hyperammonemia:
1. Blood tests: Measurement of ammonia levels in the blood is the most common method used to diagnose hyperammonemia.
2. Urine tests: Measurement of urea levels in the urine can help determine if the body is able to produce and excrete urea normally.
3. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans may be ordered to look for any underlying liver or kidney damage.
4. Genetic testing: If the cause of hyperammonemia is suspected to be a genetic disorder, genetic testing may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of Hyperammonemia:
1. Dietary changes: A low-protein diet and avoiding high-aminogram foods can help reduce ammonia production in the body.
2. Medications: Medications such as sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, and ribavirin may be used to reduce ammonia production or increase urea production.
3. Dialysis: In severe cases of hyperammonemia, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess ammonia from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases where the cause of hyperammonemia is liver disease, a liver transplant may be necessary.
5. Nutritional support: Providing adequate nutrition and hydration can help support the body's metabolic processes and prevent complications of hyperammonemia.
Complications of Hyperammonemia:
1. Brain damage: Prolonged elevated ammonia levels in the blood can cause brain damage, leading to cognitive impairment, seizures, and coma.
2. Respiratory failure: Severe hyperammonemia can lead to respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening.
3. Cardiac complications: Hyperammonemia can cause cardiac complications such as arrhythmias and heart failure.
4. Kidney damage: Prolonged elevated ammonia levels in the blood can cause kidney damage and failure.
5. Infections: People with hyperammonemia may be more susceptible to infections due to impaired immune function.
In conclusion, hyperammonemia is a serious condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of hyperammonemia and provide appropriate treatment to prevent complications. Early detection and management of hyperammonemia can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.
There are several types of mushroom poisoning, including:
1. Amatoxin poisoning: This is the most severe form of mushroom poisoning, caused by ingestion of mushrooms that contain the toxic compound amatoxin. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and liver damage.
2. Gyromitrin poisoning: This type of poisoning is caused by ingestion of mushrooms that contain the toxic compound gyromitrin. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
3. Orellanine poisoning: This type of poisoning is caused by ingestion of mushrooms that contain the toxic compound orellanin. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
4. Amanitin poisoning: This type of poisoning is caused by ingestion of mushrooms that contain the toxic compound amanitin. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage.
5. Autumn skullcap poisoning: This type of poisoning is caused by ingestion of mushrooms that contain the toxic compound autumn skullcap toxin. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
The diagnosis of mushroom poisoning is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes, as well as medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding mushroom poisoning. It is important to only consume mushrooms that are known to be safe and to avoid eating wild or unidentified mushrooms. Proper identification of mushrooms can help prevent accidental ingestion of toxic species. Additionally, it is important to cook mushrooms thoroughly before consumption to reduce the risk of toxicity.
There are several types of hepatitis, including:
1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.
Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.
Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.
In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.
The definition of MOF varies depending on the context and the specific criteria used to define it. However, in general, MOF is characterized by:
1. The involvement of multiple organs: MOF affects multiple organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Each organ failure can have a significant impact on the individual's overall health and survival.
2. Severe dysfunction: The dysfunction of multiple organs is severe enough to cause significant impairment in the individual's physiological functions, such as breathing, circulation, and mental status.
3. Lack of specific etiology: MOF often occurs without a specific identifiable cause, although it can be triggered by various factors such as infections, injuries, or medical conditions.
4. High mortality rate: MOF is associated with a high mortality rate, especially if left untreated or if the underlying causes are not addressed promptly.
The diagnosis of MOF requires a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, supporting the failing organs, and managing symptoms. The prognosis for MOF depends on the severity of the condition, the underlying cause, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.
There are several types of alcoholic liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This condition occurs when there is an accumulation of fat in the liver cells due to excessive alcohol consumption. It is the earliest stage of alcohol-related liver disease and can be reversed with abstinence from alcohol.
2. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH): This condition is characterized by inflammation of the liver, which can lead to scarring and liver failure. It is more common in individuals who consume heavy amounts of alcohol over a long period.
3. Cirrhosis: This is a chronic condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly. It is often irreversible and can lead to liver failure, heart disease, and other complications.
4. Liver failure: This is the most severe stage of alcoholic liver disease, where the liver fails to function entirely. It can be fatal if not treated promptly with a liver transplant or other medical interventions.
The symptoms of alcoholic liver disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). Treatment for alcoholic liver disease typically involves abstinence from alcohol, medication to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, a liver transplant.
Prevention is key in avoiding alcoholic liver disease. Limiting alcohol intake, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding harmful substances can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Early detection and intervention are also crucial in managing the condition before it progresses to more severe stages.
If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol addiction, there are many resources available to help. Seeking professional assistance from a healthcare provider, therapist, or support group can provide the necessary tools and guidance to overcome alcoholism and prevent alcoholic liver disease.
The term "alcoholic" in this context refers to the fact that the damage is caused by excessive alcohol consumption, rather than any other underlying medical condition or disease process. The suffix "-osis" means "condition" or "disease," and "alcoholic" modifies the noun "liver cirrhosis" to indicate the cause of the condition.
The term "LC-ALD" is used in medical literature and research to specifically refer to this type of cirrhosis caused by alcohol consumption, as opposed to other types of cirrhosis that may be caused by viral hepatitis or other factors.
The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition can occur in people of all ages, although it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 40.
Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). If left untreated, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death.
Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
There are several types of drug overdoses, including:
1. Opioid overdose: This is the most common type of drug overdose and is caused by taking too much of an opioid medication or street drug like heroin.
2. Stimulant overdose: This occurs when someone takes too much of a stimulant drug like cocaine or amphetamines.
3. Depressant overdose: This is caused by taking too much of a depressant drug like alcohol, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates.
4. Hallucinogenic overdose: This happens when someone takes too much of a hallucinogenic drug like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms.
The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary depending on the type of drug taken, but common signs include:
1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Slurred speech and difficulty speaking
3. Dizziness and loss of balance
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Slow or irregular breathing
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Cold, clammy skin
8. Blue lips and fingernails
9. Coma or unresponsiveness
If you suspect someone has overdosed on drugs, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Call emergency services or bring the person to the nearest hospital.
Treatment for drug overdoses usually involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluids, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, a patient may need to be placed on life support or receive other intensive treatments.
Preventing drug overdoses is crucial, and this can be achieved by avoiding the use of drugs altogether, using drugs only as directed by a medical professional, and having access to naloxone, a medication that can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose.
In conclusion, drug overdoses are a significant public health issue that can have severe consequences, including death. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of drug overdoses and seek medical attention immediately if you suspect someone has overdosed. Additionally, prevention measures such as avoiding drug use and having access to naloxone can help reduce the risk of overdose.
The hepatolenticular tract is a complex system of nerve fibers that connect the liver and other organs in the body, allowing for the exchange of information and coordination of bodily functions. HLD occurs when these nerve fibers are damaged or destroyed, leading to problems with brain function and communication.
The symptoms of HLD can vary depending on the severity of the damage and the specific areas of the brain affected. Common symptoms include difficulty with memory and cognitive function, poor coordination and balance, and changes in behavior and personality. In severe cases, HLD can lead to coma or even death.
There is currently no cure for HLD, but there are several treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as physical therapy and rehabilitation to improve cognitive and motor function. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary to treat underlying liver disease.
Overall, hepatobilayer degeneration is a serious condition that can have significant effects on brain function and quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of HLD, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.
The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.
There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:
* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss
If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope
Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer
Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Hepatitis, Alcoholic: A type of hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) caused by excessive alcohol consumption over a long period of time. It is characterized by fatty degeneration of liver cells, inflammation, and fibrosis (scarring). The condition can progress to cirrhosis if left untreated.
The term "alcoholic hepatitis" does not refer only to alcohol-related liver disease but also includes other conditions such as fatty liver disease caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
Causes: The exact cause of alcoholic hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed that long-term heavy drinking can damage liver cells and lead to inflammation.
Symptoms: Symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis can range from mild to severe and include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.
Treatment: Treatment for alcoholic hepatitis typically involves stopping drinking altogether, nutritional support, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.
Prevention: Preventing alcoholic hepatitis involves avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and seeking medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Prognosis: The prognosis for alcoholic hepatitis depends on the severity of the condition and how well the individual responds to treatment. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.
The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.
Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.
Imaging studies may include:
1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.
Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:
1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:
1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.
Please note that some of the information provided may not be medically accurate or up-to-date, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. It is important to consult a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles).
2. Pulmonary stenosis: A narrowing of the valve that connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, which can reduce blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: An aorta that is positioned over the ventricular septal defect, instead of being located under it.
These three defects work together to cause oxygen-poor blood to be pumped into the body, leading to blue discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) and other symptoms. The Trilogy of Fallot is a rare combination of cardiac defects that can occur in individuals with certain genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome. Treatment for the Trilogy of Fallot often involves surgery to repair the defects, which may include patching or repairing the VSD, enlarging the pulmonary artery, and repositioning the aorta.
A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.
Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.
Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
FTT is typically diagnosed when a child's weight or height is below the 10th percentile for their age, and they are not gaining weight or growing at a normal rate despite adequate nutrition and appropriate medical care. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake
* Genetic disorders that affect growth
* Chronic illnesses such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, or heart disease
* Environmental factors such as poverty, neglect, or poor living conditions
* Hormonal imbalances
FTT can have significant long-term consequences for a child's health and development. Children who fail to thrive may be at increased risk for:
* Delayed cognitive and social development
* Behavioral problems such as anxiety or depression
* Poor school performance
* Increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease later in life.
Treatment for FTT depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Nutritional supplements or changes to the child's diet
* Medical treatment for any underlying chronic illnesses
* Addressing environmental factors such as poverty or neglect
* Hormone replacement therapy if hormonal imbalances are suspected
* Psychosocial interventions to address behavioral problems or other issues that may be contributing to the child's FTT.
It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their child's growth and development and seek medical attention if they notice any signs of FTT, such as:
* Poor weight gain or growth rate
* Delayed physical milestones such as sitting, crawling, or walking
* Poor appetite or difficulty feeding
* Frequent illnesses or infections.
There are several types of cholestasis, including:
1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.
Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.
Etiology and Pathophysiology:
HRS is caused by a complex interplay of hemodynamic, metabolic, and neurohormonal derangements that occur in patients with advanced liver disease. The underlying mechanisms include:
1. Portosystemic shunting: Increased blood flow through the portasystemic shunt can lead to a decrease in effective circulating blood volume and renal perfusion, causing hypoxia and acidosis.
2. Vasopressin release: Elevated levels of vasopressin (ADH) can cause vasoconstriction and decreased GFR.
3. Sepsis: Bacterial infections can lead to systemic inflammation, which can impair renal function and worsen HRS.
4. Metabolic derangements: Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis can contribute to the development of HRS.
Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis:
Patients with HRS may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, and edema. Laboratory tests may reveal hypovolemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and elevated serum creatinine levels. Urinalysis may show proteinuria and hematuria. The diagnosis of HRS is based on the presence of oliguria (urine output < 400 mL/day) and/or anuria (urine output < 100 mL/day), in the absence of obstructive uropathy or other causes of acute kidney injury.
The primary goals of HRS treatment are to address the underlying cause, correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and prevent further renal damage. Treatment may include:
1. Fluid management: Administering intravenous fluids to correct hypovolemia and maintain urine output.
2. Electrolyte replacement: Correcting hypokalemia and hyperkalemia with potassium supplements and monitoring serum potassium levels.
3. Vasopressor support: Using vasopressors such as dopamine or norepinephrine to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 65 mmHg.
4. Antibiotics: Administering broad-spectrum antibiotics for suspected sepsis.
5. Dialysis: Initiating dialysis in patients with severe HRS who have failed conservative management or have signs of uremic crisis (e.g., pericarditis, seizures, coma).
Prognosis and Complications:
The prognosis of HRS is highly dependent on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, the mortality rate for HRS is high, ranging from 20% to 80%. Potential complications include:
1. Uremic crisis: A life-threatening condition characterized by seizures, coma, and multisystem organ failure.
2. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can lead to septic shock and death.
3. Cardiovascular complications: Such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.
4. Respiratory complications: Such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
5. Neurological complications: Such as seizures, stroke, and coma.
Preventing HRS requires identifying and addressing the underlying causes of hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalances. Key prevention strategies include:
1. Proper fluid management: Ensuring that patients receive adequate fluids to maintain hydration and avoid hypovolemia.
2. Electrolyte monitoring: Regularly measuring electrolyte levels and correcting any imbalances promptly.
3. Avoiding nephrotoxic medications: Minimizing the use of medications that can harm the kidneys, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Monitoring for signs of volume overload: Closely monitoring patients for signs of volume overload, such as edema or weight gain.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: Managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, to reduce the risk of developing HRS.
The goal of HRS treatment is to correct electrolyte imbalances, manage fluid overload, and address any underlying conditions that may have contributed to the development of the condition. Treatment strategies include:
1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement: Administering intravenous fluids and electrolytes to restore balance and correct hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalances.
2. Diuretics: Using diuretics to help remove excess fluid and reduce pressure on the heart and kidneys.
3. Vasopressors: Administering vasopressors to help raise blood pressure and improve perfusion of vital organs.
4. Hemodialysis: In severe cases, hemodialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: Managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, to reduce the risk of developing HRS.
The prognosis for HRS is generally poor, with a mortality rate of up to 80%. However, with early recognition and aggressive treatment, some patients may recover partially or fully. Factors that influence prognosis include:
1. Timeliness of diagnosis and treatment
2. Severity of electrolyte imbalances and fluid overload
3. Presence of underlying conditions
4. Response to treatment
5. Degree of organ dysfunction and failure
HRS can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Cardiac arrest
2. Heart failure
3. Renal failure
4. Respiratory failure
5. Neurological damage
6. Septic shock
7. Multi-organ failure
Preventing HRS involves managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and avoiding medications that can cause electrolyte imbalances or fluid overload. Additionally, monitoring for early signs of HRS and prompt treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are three main types of tyrosinemia:
1. Tyrosinemia type I: This is the most severe form of the disorder, and it is caused by a complete deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). This enzyme is essential for breaking down tyrosine, and without it, tyrosine builds up in the blood and tissues, leading to severe symptoms.
2. Tyrosinemia type II: This form of the disorder is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL). TAL is involved in the final step of tyrosine breakdown, and without it, tyrosine accumulates in the blood and tissues.
3. Tyrosinemia type III: This is a mild form of the disorder, and it is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). HPPD is involved in the breakdown of tyrosine, but it is not essential for survival.
Symptoms of tyrosinemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder, but they may include:
* Skin and joint problems
* Eye problems
* Liver and kidney damage
* Increased risk of infections
* Delayed growth and development
* Cognitive impairment
Tyrosinemia is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the disorder typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions and medication. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
In summary, tyrosinemia is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. The disorders are caused by deficiencies of specific enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism, and they can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important for managing the disorder and preventing long-term health problems.
Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.
Symptoms of intracranial hypertension can include headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce pressure, draining excess CSF, or surgery to relieve obstruction.
Intracranial hypertension can be life-threatening if left untreated, as it can lead to permanent brain damage and even death. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for proper diagnosis and management of this condition.
The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.
There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.
The primary symptom of PEP is severe photosensitivity, which can lead to blistering, burning, and scarring of the skin, as well as anemia, fatigue, and infections. Symptoms typically appear within the first few months of life and worsen with age. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests (such as urine porphyrin analysis), and genetic analysis.
There is no cure for PEP, but treatments include avoidance of triggering factors such as sunlight and certain medications, management of symptoms with pain relief medication and anti-anxiety drugs, blood transfusions to increase hemoglobin levels, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.
Sources: National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
The disorder is named after Dr. Schilder, a Dutch neurologist who first described it in 1928. It is also known as diffuse cerebral sclerosis, progressive cerebral degeneration, or Schilder's disease. The exact prevalence and incidence of the disorder are not known, but it is believed to affect approximately 1 in 1 million individuals worldwide.
The symptoms of Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder typically begin in early adulthood and progress slowly over several years. Affected individuals may experience cognitive decline, including memory loss, difficulty with concentration and problem-solving, and decreased language skills. They may also experience ataxia, which is a loss of coordination and balance, leading to difficulties with walking and maintaining their posture. Seizures are common in individuals with Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder, and can range from mild to severe. Weakness and paralysis may also develop as the disorder progresses.
The exact cause of Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder is not known, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune response, in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the central nervous system. There is no cure for the disorder, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and slowing its progression. Medications such as anticonvulsants and steroids may be used to control seizures and inflammation, while physical therapy and occupational therapy can help individuals maintain their physical function and independence.
In summary, Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder is a rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of cognitive, motor, and behavioral symptoms. While there is no cure for the disorder, treatment can help manage symptoms and slow its progression, allowing individuals with Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder to maintain their quality of life as much as possible.
The term "experimental" refers to the fact that this type of cirrhosis is typically induced in animals through the use of certain chemicals, toxins, or viruses, rather than occurring naturally in humans. The goal of studying experimental liver cirrhosis is to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and to develop new treatments for this condition.
Some examples of how experimental liver cirrhosis may be induced include:
* Administering certain chemicals or toxins, such as carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide, to animals in order to damage the liver and trigger the formation of nodules and fibrosis.
* Infecting animals with viruses that can cause liver damage and inflammation, such as hepatitis B or C virus.
* Using genetic models to study the role of specific genes in the development of liver cirrhosis.
Experimental liver cirrhosis is often studied in laboratory animals, such as mice, rats, and pigs, using a range of techniques including histology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The studies may focus on various aspects of the disease, such as the mechanisms of inflammation and fibrosis, the role of specific cell types or signaling pathways, and the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
Jaundice is typically diagnosed through physical examination and laboratory tests such as blood tests to measure bilirubin levels. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce bilirubin production or increase its excretion, or surgery to remove blockages in the bile ducts.
Here are some of the synonyms for Jaundice:
1. Yellow fever
2. Yellow jaundice
6. Obstruction of the bile ducts
7. Biliary tract disease
9. Sickle cell anemia
10. Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Here are some of the antonyms for Jaundice:
2. Normal skin color
3. Healthy liver function
4. Bilirubin levels within normal range
5. No signs of liver disease or obstruction of bile ducts.
Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.
There are several types of necrosis, including:
1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.
The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.
Note: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver disease, especially cirrhosis. It is characterized by elevated pressure within the portal vein system, which can lead to splanchnic vasodilation, increased blood flow, and edema in the splanchnic organ.
Symptoms: Symptoms of portal hypertension may include ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), encephalopathy (mental confusion or disorientation), gastrointestinal bleeding, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of portal hypertension is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include liver function tests, blood counts, and coagulation studies. Imaging studies may include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Treatment: Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control symptoms, such as beta blockers to reduce portal pressure, antibiotics to treat infection, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain. In severe cases, surgery or shunt procedures may be necessary.
Prognosis: The prognosis for patients with portal hypertension is generally poor, as it is often associated with advanced liver disease. The 5-year survival rate for patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension is approximately 50%.
The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.
Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.
Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Without enough citrulline synthase, citrulline builds up in the blood and urine, leading to a range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and abnormal brain function. Citrullinemia can be diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and genetic analysis, and is typically treated with a diet that restricts protein intake and includes supplements to support the urea cycle. In some cases, medication or a liver transplant may also be necessary.
The prognosis for citrullinemia varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. Some individuals with mild forms of the disorder may lead relatively normal lives with proper management, while those with more severe forms may experience significant cognitive and physical impairments. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to improving outcomes for individuals with citrullinemia.
Here are some key points to remember about citrullinemia:
* It is a rare genetic disorder that affects the urea cycle, leading to a build-up of citrulline in the blood and urine.
* Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and abnormal brain function.
* Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and genetic analysis.
* Treatment typically involves a protein-restricted diet and supplements to support the urea cycle.
* The prognosis varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment.
Overall, citrullinemia is a rare and complex disorder that requires careful management to prevent complications and improve outcomes for individuals affected by the condition.
Treatment options for ascites include medications to reduce fluid buildup, dietary restrictions, and insertion of a catheter to drain the fluid. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Ascites is a serious condition that requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.
Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.
Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:
While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:
* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis
Managing Chronic Hepatitis:
If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:
* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation
Living with Chronic Hepatitis:
Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:
* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits
Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.
The exact cause of Biliary Atresia is unknown, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), poor feeding, and a large liver size. If left untreated, Biliary Atresia can lead to long-term complications such as liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and an increased risk of liver cancer.
Treatment for Biliary Atresia usually involves a surgical procedure called the Kasai procedure, where the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a section of the small intestine. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease is advanced or if there are complications such as liver cirrhosis.
Overall, Biliary Atresia is a rare and complex condition that requires early diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
Portal hypertension can be caused by several conditions, such as cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and congenital heart disease. When the portal vein is blocked or narrowed, blood flow through the veins in the esophagus and stomach increases, leading to enlargement of these vessels and an increased risk of bleeding.
Esophageal varices are the most common type of variceal bleeding and account for about 75% of all cases. Gastric varices are less common and usually occur in conjunction with esophageal varices.
Symptoms of esophageal and gastric varices may include:
* Vomiting blood or passing black stools
* Weakness, dizziness, or fainting due to blood loss
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Difficulty swallowing
Treatment for esophageal and gastric varices usually involves endoscopy, which is a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the esophagus and stomach. During endoscopy, the physician may use medications to shrink the varices or apply heat to seal off the bleeding vessels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the varices.
Prevention of esophageal and gastric varices involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. This can include medications to reduce portal pressure, lifestyle changes to improve liver function, and in some cases, surgery to remove the affected liver tissue.
In summary, esophageal and gastric varices are enlarged veins in the lower esophagus and stomach that can develop in people with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or liver cancer. These varices can cause bleeding, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Treatment usually involves endoscopy and may involve medications, heat therapy, or surgery to seal off the bleeding vessels. Prevention involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension.
Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:
1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.
Treatment and Management:
Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:
1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.
Prevention and Prognosis:
Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:
1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.
The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.
Complications and Comorbidities:
Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:
1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.
Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.
The condition is named after the German physician Hans von Budde and the Italian physician Giorgio Chiari, who independently described it in the late 19th century. It is also known as Budd-Chiari syndrome or venous sinus thrombosis.
The exact cause of Budd-Chiari Syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some cases have been linked to autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, or to infections, such as endocarditis.
Symptoms of Budd-Chiari Syndrome can vary in severity and may include:
* Facial swelling
* Difficulty swallowing
* Numbness or tingling in the face or limbs
* Vision problems
* Shortness of breath
If you suspect that you or someone else may have Budd-Chiari Syndrome, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or blood tests, to confirm the diagnosis and determine the underlying cause.
Treatment for Budd-Chiari Syndrome typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as antibiotics for an infection or medication to treat an autoimmune disorder. In some cases, a procedure called thrombectomy may be necessary to remove a blood clot that is blocking the veins.
In severe cases, Budd-Chiari Syndrome can lead to complications such as stroke or heart failure, so it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With timely and appropriate treatment, however, many people with this condition are able to recover and manage their symptoms effectively.
The word "edema" comes from the Greek word "oidema", meaning swelling.
Hepatitis A is typically spread through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who has the infection. The virus can also be spread through sexual contact or sharing of needles.
Symptoms of hepatitis A usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or months. In some cases, the infection can lead to complications such as liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is a vaccine available for hepatitis A, which is recommended for individuals traveling to areas where the virus is common, people who engage in high-risk behaviors, and those with chronic liver disease. Treatment for hepatitis A typically focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the liver as it recovers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food; avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters; and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.
Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH):
Hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb iron. It is caused by a genetic mutation in the HFE gene, which codes for a protein involved in iron absorption. The mutated protein leads to excessive iron accumulation in the body, especially in the liver, pancreas, and other organs.
Symptoms of HH typically appear in adulthood and may include:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Joint pain and swelling
3. Abdominal discomfort and weight loss
4. Skin bronzing or darkening
5. Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
6. Heart problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
7. Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer
8. Infertility and sexual dysfunction
Acquired Hemochromatosis (AH):
Acquired hemochromatosis is a condition that develops in people who have chronic iron overload due to blood transfusions or other medical conditions that cause excessive iron accumulation. It can also occur in people with certain genetic mutations that affect iron metabolism.
Symptoms of AH may include:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Joint pain and swelling
3. Abdominal discomfort and weight loss
4. Skin bronzing or darkening
5. Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
6. Heart problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
7. Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer
8. Infertility and sexual dysfunction
Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis:
Hemochromatosis can be diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
1. Serum iron and transferrin saturation: These tests measure the levels of iron in the blood and how well it is bound to transferrin, a protein that carries iron throughout the body. High levels of iron and low transferrin saturation can indicate hemochromatosis.
2. Ferritin: This test measures the level of ferritin, a protein that stores iron in the body. High levels of ferritin can indicate hemochromatosis.
3. Transferrin receptor gene analysis: This test can identify specific genetic mutations that cause hemochromatosis.
1. Ultrasound: An ultrasound of the liver can show signs of cirrhosis or other liver damage caused by hemochromatosis.
2. CT or MRI scans: These tests can provide detailed images of the liver and other organs and tissues, helping doctors identify any damage caused by excessive iron accumulation.
1. Liver biopsy: A liver biopsy involves removing a small sample of liver tissue for examination under a microscope. This test can help diagnose hemochromatosis and assess the extent of liver damage.
2. Biopsy of other organs: Biopsies of other organs, such as the pancreas or joints, may be performed to assess damage caused by hemochromatosis in these tissues.
It's important to note that not everyone with hemochromatosis will require all of these tests, and your healthcare provider will determine which tests are appropriate for you based on your symptoms and medical history.
There are several possible causes of hyperbilirubinemia, including:
1. Hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where red blood cells are broken down faster than they can be replaced, leading to an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood.
2. Liver dysfunction: The liver plays a crucial role in processing and eliminating bilirubin from the body. If the liver is not functioning properly, bilirubin levels can become elevated.
3. Sepsis: This is a systemic infection that can cause inflammation throughout the body, including the liver, which can disrupt the normal processing of bilirubin.
4. Neonatal jaundice: This is a condition that affects newborn babies and is caused by an immature liver that is unable to process bilirubin quickly enough.
Symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia can include yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), dark urine, pale or clay-colored stools, and fatigue. In severe cases, hyperbilirubinemia can lead to kernicterus, a condition that can cause brain damage and hearing loss.
Diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia is typically made through blood tests that measure the level of bilirubin in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include blood transfusions, liver function tests, and phototherapy (exposure to light) to help break down bilirubin. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
Cardiac output is typically measured using invasive or non-invasive methods. Invasive methods involve inserting a catheter into the heart to directly measure cardiac output. Non-invasive methods include echocardiography, MRI, and CT scans. These tests can provide an estimate of cardiac output based on the volume of blood being pumped out of the heart and the rate at which it is being pumped.
There are several factors that can contribute to low cardiac output. These include:
1. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue and shortness of breath.
2. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can reduce the amount of oxygen being delivered to the body's tissues, leading to fatigue and weakness.
3. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate and reduce cardiac output.
4. Sepsis: A severe infection can lead to inflammation throughout the body, which can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively.
5. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the heart muscle is damaged due to a lack of oxygen, leading to reduced cardiac output.
Low cardiac output can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Dizziness and lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Pale skin
5. Decreased urine output
6. Confusion and disorientation
The treatment of low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause. Treatment may include:
1. Medications to increase heart rate and contractility
2. Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
3. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygenation of tissues
4. Mechanical support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pumps or ventricular assist devices
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart tissue
6. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, to improve cardiovascular health.
Preventing low cardiac output involves managing any underlying medical conditions, taking medications as directed, and making lifestyle changes to improve cardiovascular health. This may include:
1. Monitoring and controlling blood pressure
2. Managing diabetes and other chronic conditions
3. Avoiding substances that can damage the heart, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol
4. Exercising regularly
5. Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol
6. Maintaining a healthy weight.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The primary cause of systolic heart failure is typically related to damage or disease affecting the left ventricle, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, or cardiomyopathy. Other contributing factors may include valvular heart disease, anemia, and thyroid disorders.
Diagnosis of systolic heart failure often involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and blood tests. Treatment options for systolic heart failure may include lifestyle modifications, medications to manage symptoms and slow progression of the disease, and in severe cases, implantable devices or surgical interventions such as left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) or heart transplantation.
Systolic heart failure is a serious medical condition that can significantly impact quality of life and longevity if left untreated or undertreated. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive management are essential to improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.
Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.
See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus
There are several types of respiratory insufficiency, including:
1. Hypoxemic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs do not take in enough oxygen, resulting in low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream.
2. Hypercapnic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, leading to high levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
3. Mixed respiratory failure: This occurs when both hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure occur simultaneously.
Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive care measures. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of respiratory insufficiency are present, as early intervention can improve outcomes and prevent complications.
The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:
* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and dizziness
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:
* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:
* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:
* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:
* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.
It is important to identify and address prosthesis failure early to prevent further complications and restore the functionality of the device. This may involve repairing or replacing the device, modifying the design, or changing the materials used in its construction. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to correct issues related to the implantation of the prosthetic device.
Prosthesis failure can occur in various types of prosthetic devices, including joint replacements, dental implants, and orthotic devices. The causes of prosthesis failure can range from manufacturing defects to user error or improper maintenance. It is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to prosthesis failure to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.
In conclusion, prosthesis failure is a common issue that can significantly impact the quality of life of individuals who rely on prosthetic devices. Early identification and addressing of prosthesis failure are crucial to prevent further complications and restore functionality. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of prosthesis failure is necessary to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.
Types of Cholangitis:
There are two types of cholangitis:
1. Acute cholangitis: This type of cholangitis occurs suddenly and is usually caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, such as a gallstone or a tumor.
2. Chronic cholangitis: This type of cholangitis develops gradually over time and can be caused by recurring inflammation or scarring of the bile ducts.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The most common cause of cholangitis is a blockage in the bile ducts, which allows bacteria to grow and multiply, leading to infection. Other causes include:
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Trauma to the abdomen
* Inflammatory bowel disease
The symptoms of cholangitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
* Nausea and vomiting
Cholangitis is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests to determine the presence of infection. A liver biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
The treatment of cholangitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics to treat bacterial or fungal infections
* Supportive care, such as fluids and nutrition, to manage symptoms
* Surgical drainage of the bile ducts to relieve blockages
* Endoscopic therapy, such as stent placement or laser lithotripsy, to remove gallstones or other obstructions
* Liver transplantation in severe cases
The prognosis for cholangitis depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying cause. If treated promptly and effectively, the prognosis is generally good. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the prognosis can be poor.
Preventing cholangitis involves managing any underlying conditions that may increase the risk of infection, such as gallstones or liver disease. Other preventive measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause cholangitis
* Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease
Cholangitis can lead to several complications, including:
* Bile duct damage, which can lead to bile leaking into the abdomen and causing an infection called peritonitis
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or lungs
* Sepsis, a severe and life-threatening reaction to the infection
* Organ failure, particularly liver and kidney failure
It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of cholangitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
In medical terminology, coma is defined as a state of prolonged unconsciousness that lasts for more than 24 hours and is characterized by a lack of responsiveness to stimuli, including pain, light, sound, or touch. Coma can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:
1. Traumatic brain injury: Coma can result from a severe head injury that causes damage to the brain.
2. Stroke: A stroke can cause coma if it affects a large part of the brain.
3. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can spread to the brain and cause coma.
4. Poisoning: Toxic substances, such as drugs or chemicals, can cause coma by damaging the brain.
5. Hypoxia: Lack of oxygen to the brain can cause coma.
6. Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar can cause coma.
7. Metabolic disorders: Certain metabolic disorders, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or hypothyroidism, can cause coma.
8. Electrolyte imbalance: An imbalance of electrolytes, such as sodium or potassium, can cause coma.
9. Chronic conditions: Certain chronic conditions, such as brain tumors or degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, can cause coma over time.
It is important to note that a coma is different from a vegetative state, which is characterized by awakening and opening one's eyes but lacking any meaningful response to stimuli. A comatose patient may also exhibit automatic responses, such as breathing or reacting to pain, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate.
The diagnosis of coma is typically made by a neurologist based on the patient's medical history, physical examination, and results of diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment of coma depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, medication, or surgical intervention.
Acute liver failure
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- But in other situations, a liver transplant may be the only cure for acute liver failure. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Approximately half of all children with acute liver failure need a liver transplant in order to survive. (childrenliverindia.org)
- If the liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may be necessary. (justburyme.com)
- People with either acute or chronic liver failure may need a liver transplant to survive. (who.int)
- Among those patients, 51 (82%) reported consuming OEP, 25 (40%) were hospitalized, two (3%) received liver transplants, and one (2%) died. (cdc.gov)
- What that means is that a significant percentage of people who need liver transplants in the United States need them not because of IV drug abuse or anything else other than the fact that they were 'poisoned' in some way by too much acetaminophen," said Zacharoff. (ibtimes.com)
- Some of the children required hospitalization and six have undergone liver transplants, but no deaths were reported as of April 11, 2022. (jewelryon.com)
- Patients selected for heart transplants have severe end-stage heart failure that is caused by a variety of cardiovascular diseases, hereditary conditions and viral infections of the heart. (who.int)
- Certain auto-immune diseases like Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (inflammation of bile ducts), Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (excess bile accumulation in the liver), autoimmune hepatitis and few more can cause liver failure and damage to other vital organs. (factdr.com)
- Portal hypertension is the leading bleeding episodes stop spontaneously, cause of morbidity and mortality in the rebleeding rate is high with about liver cirrhosis. (who.int)
- Most often, chronic liver failure is the result of alcoholism that has produced scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. (who.int)
- On the other hand, hepatitis B is more serious in that it frequently causes a chronic infection, which may result in progressive damage to the liver, leading to cirrhosis, or scarring, of the liver and/or liver cancer, both of which can be fatal. (cdc.gov)
- Acute liver failure can cause many complications, including excessive bleeding and increasing pressure in the brain. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- What is the management for the complications of acute liver failure? (childrenliverindia.org)
- Hepatic Failure can be either acute or chronic and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. (justburyme.com)
- If left untreated, Hepatic Failure can lead to serious complications, including liver cancer, ascites (fluid buildup in the abdomen), and hepatic encephalopathy (brain dysfunction caused by liver failure). (justburyme.com)
Acute liver failure i2
- Other viruses that can cause acute liver failure include Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus . (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Toxins that can cause acute liver failure include the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides, which is sometimes mistaken for other edible species. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- The most common etiologies in the developing world are hepatotrophic viruses (Hepatitis A, B and E) in comparison to drug induced liver failure which predominates in developed countries [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Other etiologies include other viral infections and drugs, ischemic hepatitis, Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, pregnancy related liver disorders and a large sero-negative cohort where no inciting cause can be identified. (intechopen.com)
- On September 9, 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified by a hospital that it had observed seven patients with acute hepatitis and liver failure of unknown cause. (cdc.gov)
- Ultrasonograph images from patients with liver failure caused by acetaminophen poisoning or hepatitis B indicate increased portal vein flow and normal flow velocity to the damaged liver ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- Acute liver failure is caused most often by drugs and hepatitis viruses. (merckmanuals.com)
- Hepatitis A , hepatitis B and hepatitis E can cause acute liver failure. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Liver failure can be caused by autoimmune hepatitis - a disease in which your immune system attacks liver cells, causing inflammation and injury. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Infections due to Hepatitis A (via contaminated food and fluids), Hepatitis B (due to immune reaction), Hepatitis C (via contact with infected blood) and Hepatitis E can cause liver failure in the advanced stage. (factdr.com)
- He was found to be hepatitis B surface antigen reactive, and his laboratory tests indicated severe liver dysfunction with elevated levels of serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and International normalized ratio. (who.int)
- Chronic Hepatic Failure, on the other hand, develops over time and is often the result of long-term alcohol abuse or chronic viral infections like hepatitis B or C. Other causes of Hepatic Failure include autoimmune diseases, genetic disorders, and certain prescription medications. (justburyme.com)
- could this increased susceptibility to infection also be playing a role in hepatitis and other cases of liver disease? (jewelryon.com)
- In the U.S., nine children in Alabama have developed severe hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, that health officials can't explain. (jewelryon.com)
- Hepatitis B is a serious disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus, or HBV. (cdc.gov)
- All people, no matter how old they are or where they live, may be at risk for hepatitis B. (cdc.gov)
- Stephen Hadler] These two types of hepatitis are both caused by viruses which primarily infect the liver, and both cause a typical serious illness with fatigue, malaise, weakness, sometimes fever, and a yellowing of the skin and eyes called jaundice. (cdc.gov)
- Generally, people who are infected will recover, but rarely these can cause what's called fulminant hepatitis which can lead to death due to liver failure. (cdc.gov)
- Globally, an estimated 780,000 people die annually from hepatitis B-related liver disease, including approximately 300,000 each year in China. (cdc.gov)
- Small but effective changes can reduce your risk of hospitalization and help you live longer. (medicinenet.com)
- Acute liver failure is a medical emergency that requires hospitalization. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- In cases of acute Hepatic Failure, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care while the liver recovers. (justburyme.com)
- Newer definitions differentiate between, hyper-acute, acute and sub-acute liver failure contingent on the time period between the onset of jaundice and the onset of encephalopathy [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Despite stable blood pressure over the next 6 days, liver enzymes continued to rise with progressive jaundice ( Technical Appendix ). (cdc.gov)
- The symptoms of Hepatic Failure can vary depending on the cause of the condition, but may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea, and fatigue. (justburyme.com)
- 4 Symptoms of the liver disease include diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, along with jaundice in some. (jewelryon.com)
- By the end of June, the man's jaundice and liver function tests improved, but then he received a second dose of the Moderna shot on July 6, 2021. (jewelryon.com)
- Kidney failure often occurs following liver failure, especially in cases of acetaminophen overdose, which damages both your liver and your kidneys. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Paraquat causes toxic chemical reactions to occur throughout many parts of the body, primarily the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (cdc.gov)
Caused by acetaminophen1
- When the acute liver failure is caused by acetaminophen or certain metabolic diseases, medications may be able to reverse the condition if irreversible damage has not yet occurred. (childrenliverindia.org)
- DENV infection is one of the most prevalent emerging infectious diseases affecting children and one of the leading causes of liver failure in tropical countries ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Hepatic Failure, also known as liver failure, is a serious condition that occurs when the liver is no longer able to function properly. (justburyme.com)
- In this article, we will explore the factors that can impact life insurance approvals with Hepatic Failure and offer some tips to help you get the coverage you need. (justburyme.com)
- Acute Hepatic Failure can be caused by an overdose of medication or exposure to toxic chemicals. (justburyme.com)
- Treatment for Hepatic Failure depends on the cause of the condition. (justburyme.com)
- In cases of chronic Hepatic Failure, treatment may involve managing the underlying cause of the condition. (justburyme.com)
- In some cases, Hepatic Failure can be life-threatening. (justburyme.com)
- If you suspect you may have Hepatic Failure, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. (justburyme.com)
- If you have been diagnosed with Hepatic Failure, it will impact your ability to obtain traditional life insurance coverage. (justburyme.com)
- This is because, life insurance companies view Hepatic Failure as a serious health condition and will consider you an unacceptable high-risk applicant for traditional life insurance coverage. (justburyme.com)
- Guaranteed Issue Life Insurance Policies are designed for individuals who are unable to obtain traditional life insurance coverage due to pre-existing medical conditions, such as Hepatic Failure. (justburyme.com)
- Although the drug is effective in treating symptoms like pain and fever, sustained intake of the drug in high doses can potentially cause irreparable damage to the liver since it can't keep up with the breakdown process, which could cause toxic byproducts to accumulate and damage liver cells. (ibtimes.com)
- In particular the causes of Acute Liver Failure, symptoms, diagnosis and finally the various treatment options available. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- What are the symptoms of acute liver failure? (childrenliverindia.org)
- Symptoms of acute liver failure can be like those of a virus infection such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of skin and eyes, and a tired feeling all the time. (childrenliverindia.org)
- To know about the Symptoms, Signs and Management of LIVER FAILURE, You can go through the following Links and Pages given below. (livinginwellbeing.org)
- Rare metabolic diseases, such as Wilson's disease, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and Reye's syndrome, infrequently cause acute liver failure. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Certain genetic liver diseases such as Hemochromatosis (excess iron build up in liver), Wilson's disease (accumulation of iron and copper in the liver), Amyloidosis (protein deposition) can predispose the body to liver failure at some point of time. (factdr.com)
- Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by severe hepatic dysfunction leading to multiorgan failure in patients with end-stage liver disease . (bvsalud.org)
- There are some patients who will get better on their own and need organ dysfunction to be temporarily supported as the liver is able to regenerate itself into a healthy organ. (childrenliverindia.org)
Lead to liver failure5
- But taking too much Tylenol can lead to liver failure. (foxnews.com)
- According to recent statistics produced by the American Liver Foundation, nearly 6 million children all over the world suffer from liver dysfunctions, which when left undiagnosed lead to liver failure. (factdr.com)
- Extreme cases of liver dysfunctions lead to hepatic cancer in many cases that may eventually lead to liver failure. (factdr.com)
- Degeneration of liver cells occurs with age, leading to an abnormal increase in the levels of aminotransferase and bilirubin, which may gradually lead to liver failure. (factdr.com)
- Ischemic hepatocellular injuries or acute damage to liver parenchyma cells can lead to liver failure. (factdr.com)
Causes of liver failure2
- Acute liver failure (ALF), the manifestation of severe hepatocellular injury in the absence of pre-existing liver disease is a catastrophic and frequently fatal disorder. (intechopen.com)
- An updated report by the National Institutes of Health also put acetaminophen overdose as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the U.S. (ibtimes.com)
- We report a rare hepatic ultrasonograph finding for a patient with liver failure associated with dengue virus (DENV) infection. (cdc.gov)
- Ultrasonograph with Doppler image of the liver of a 10-year-old boy with liver failure associated with dengue virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- This finding is unusual in other instances of toxin- or virus-induced liver failure and might contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of liver involvement in patients with DENV infection. (cdc.gov)
- ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: Immunoparesis: Infection and. (ilts.org)
- Treatment failure is a health treatment failure accounts for 3%-5% and economic burden as the patient re- of the treatment outcome of new smear- mains a source of infection in the commu- positive cases and 13%-17% of re-treated nity and it may lead to the development of cases [ 4 ]. (who.int)
- Bacterial infections of the liver may lead to granuloma, abscess, and inflammation, causing liver failure. (factdr.com)
- During that time, 662 patients met the reseachers' criteria for acute liver failure. (foxnews.com)
- Many patients (65 percent) who reported exceeding acetaminophen's daily limit also abused alcohol, which can damage the liver, the researchers note. (foxnews.com)
- O'Grady adds that the patients' liver tissue wasn't examined. (foxnews.com)
- Generally, young patients with heart failure have a better prognosis than older patients. (medicinenet.com)
- Although liver involvement in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever is well known, the mechanism for DENV-induced liver injury is still a mystery. (cdc.gov)
- Liver autopsy specimens of terminal DSS patients generally showed massive or focal necrosis with little or no recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells or lymphocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Fresh frozen plasma is given if patients have bleeding from any site (as clotting factors are not produced by the liver) or an invasive procedure needs to be performed. (childrenliverindia.org)
- Excess fat deposition in the liver is common in overweight, Diabetic, alcoholic and high cholesterol patients, and may progress to liver failure in future. (factdr.com)
- Dehydration is a common complication of illness observed in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early recognition and early intervention are important to reduce risk of progression to hypovolemic shock and end-organ failure. (medscape.com)
- Patients identified with treatment failure rect economic burden attributed to absence have more localized disease as shown on from work and inability to work. (who.int)
- Treatment failure may strategy involves the direct observation of be due to poor compliance of the patient or patients during drug intake to ensure that to practitioner error, e.g. in cases where in- the full treatment course is followed. (who.int)
- Recent research shows that taking a combination of medications for heart failure can improve life expectancy. (medicinenet.com)
- Liver Injury Caused by Drugs Many medications (eg, statins) commonly cause asymptomatic elevation of hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase). (merckmanuals.com)
- Some prescription medications can cause acute liver failure, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants, among others. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Existing diseases of the liver are strong indicators of liver failure at some point of time if left untreated. (factdr.com)
- Survival rates are based on studies of large groups of people with certain diagnoses and generally presented as a 5-year survival rate, which is the percentage of people who lived for at least 5 years after diagnosis. (medicinenet.com)
- Prognosis Following a Diagnosis of Heart Failure and the Role of Primary Care: A Review of the Literature. (medicinenet.com)
- Trends in survival after a diagnosis of heart failure in the United Kingdom 2000-2017: population based cohort study. (medicinenet.com)
- Investigations should be aimed at establishing the diagnosis and finding the cause of acute liver failure. (childrenliverindia.org)
- Acute liver failure occurs when your liver rapidly loses its ability to function. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- The liverAcute liver failure occurs when liver cells are damaged significantly and no longer able to function. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Alteration of consciousness or encephalopathy occurs when a child has sudden and severe liver failure. (childrenliverindia.org)
- In this condition, an excess buildup of waste products (which are supposed to be eliminated through bile) in the liver occurs mainly due to obstruction of bile ducts , leading to loss of liver functions and liver failure. (factdr.com)
- At 29 weeks pregnant, Erica was diagnosed with preeclampsia , a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and signs of organ failure, most often liver or kidney damage. (cdc.gov)
- Predisposing factors for acetaminophen -induced liver failure include preexisting liver disease, chronic alcohol use, and use of drugs that induce the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system (eg, anticonvulsants). (merckmanuals.com)
- Excess alcohol or tobacco consumption may affect the liver health severely, leading to liver failure. (factdr.com)
- For example, if alcohol abuse is the cause of the condition, quitting drinking can help prevent further liver damage. (justburyme.com)
- The man had his liver function tested four years earlier, with tests coming back normal, and had no history of acetaminophen usage, which can cause liver damage, and only minimal alcohol usage. (jewelryon.com)
- Hepatic ultrasonograph on the second day after admission showed totally reversed direction of portal venous blood flow away from the liver ( Figure , panel A), becoming bidirectional on the following day and, finally, reverting to normal direction (although with low velocity) 3 days later ( Figure , panel B). Despite improved hemodynamic status, progressive encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding developed and were unresponsive to treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatocellular carcinoma can cause severe damage to the liver cells and may cause liver failure. (factdr.com)
Chronic liver d1
- Acute liver failure can occur if you take a very large dose of Paracetamol all at once, or it can occur if you take smaller doses every day for several days, especially in people with chronic liver disease. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- It is one of the largest reported outbreaks of liver disease associated with a dietary supplement to date. (cdc.gov)
- This finding might shed light on the pathogenesis of liver involvement in this disease. (cdc.gov)
- About 25% of babies who develop lifelong HBV infections die of liver disease or liver cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Significant risk factors for treatment failure were non-compliance to treatment, deficient health education to the patient, poor patient knowledge regarding the disease and diabetes mellitus as co-morbid condition. (who.int)
- Though the injury is potentially reversible, the clinical course often culminates in multiple organ failure which is associated with a poor prognosis. (intechopen.com)
- Liver Structure and Function The liver is a metabolically complex organ. (merckmanuals.com)
- HBV attacks and destroys the liver, which is such an important organ that you cannot live without it. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatocytes (liver parenchymal cells) perform the liver's metabolic functions: Formation and excretion of bile as a component of bilirubin metabolism. (merckmanuals.com)
- Liver failure is defined as the partial or complete failure of the liver to perform its functions (both metabolic and synthetic) due to various physiological and environmental factors. (factdr.com)
- People with acute liver failure are at an increased risk of developing a variety of infections, particularly in the blood and in the respiratory and urinary tracts. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- Many of these babies develop lifelong HBV infections and can pass the virus on to others throughout their lives. (cdc.gov)
Cause of liver2
- This investigation was the first to recognize OEP as a potential cause of liver injury. (cdc.gov)
- The drug cited as the leading cause of liver failure in the United States continues to be available in the market and embedded in hundreds of cold and cough medicines, according to a report. (ibtimes.com)
- At first, babies may not look or feel sick, but as they grow up, they may have liver damage. (cdc.gov)
- What is the life expectancy of people with heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- The best way to understand how long you can live with heart failure is to ask your doctor, who can calculate life expectancy based on your age, risk factors, and heart failure stage (stage A to D). (medicinenet.com)
- What factors determine your life expectancy with heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- How can you prolong your life expectancy with heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- Thus liver failure has increased infant mortality rates and reduced life expectancy in general. (factdr.com)
- Liver enzymes were also elevated. (jewelryon.com)
- Phosphine is a respiratory tract irritant that attacks primarily the cardiovascular and respiratory systems causing peripheral vascular collapse, cardiac arrest and failure, and pulmonary edema. (cdc.gov)
- Clin Liver Dis;27(3): 681-690, 2023 08. (bvsalud.org)
- Evaluation of the Patient With a Liver Disorder History and physical examination often suggest a cause of potential liver disorders and narrow the scope of testing for hepatic and biliary disorders. (merckmanuals.com)
- Vascular diseases that cause blockages to form in the veins of the liver can cause acute liver failure. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
- In the recent years, liver failure has been a very common occurrence in countries lacking hygienic conditions necessary for maintaining a healthy life. (factdr.com)
- While recovering from acute liver failure, the patient became delirious and developed acute renal failure, acute pancreatitis, pronounced thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, epistaxis, and petechial hemorrhage. (erowid.org)
- Since 2009, McNeil Consumer Products/Janssen (subsidiaries of Johnson & Johnson) has recalled different formulations of Tylenol® worldwide for a variety of problems that could affect patient health including in some cases liver failure. (harmanlaw.com)
- We interviewed 119 people with treatment failure and an equal number of cured cases (controls) and their families regarding sociodemographic characteristics, information about TB, information about drugs, treatment compliance, family support and patient-family interaction. (who.int)
- Other long-term effects may also occur, including kidney failure, heart failure, and esophageal strictures (scarring of the swallowing tube that makes it hard for a person to swallow). (cdc.gov)
- This is called kidney failure. (medlineplus.gov)
- But with the help of health care providers, family, and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives. (medlineplus.gov)
- What Is Kidney Failure? (medlineplus.gov)
- How Do Health Care Professionals Treat Kidney Failure in Children? (medlineplus.gov)
- Liver failure may be an outcome of several physiological, environmental and genetic factors. (factdr.com)
- These people are known as carriers, and they can infect other household and sexual contacts throughout their lives. (cdc.gov)
- How Long Can You Live With Heart Failure? (medicinenet.com)
- Heart failure is a condition in which your heart becomes so weak that it is unable to pump blood effectively to other parts of your body. (medicinenet.com)
- Although there have been improvements in treatments for heart failure, survival rates. (medicinenet.com)
- What are the survival rates for heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- This means that about 76 out of 100 people who were diagnosed with heart failure could live for at least 5 years. (medicinenet.com)
- Once you have been diagnosed with heart failure, your doctor will likely recommend that you make certain lifestyle modifications. (medicinenet.com)
- Other lifestyle changes that can prevent your heart failure from worsening include. (medicinenet.com)
- Huff C. "Ways to Maximize Your Lifespan With Heart Failure. (medicinenet.com)
- however, linking liver injury to a specific product is difficult. (cdc.gov)
- This prompted the team to broaden the scope of the investigation, alerting clinicians and public health professionals nationwide to be on the lookout for liver injury associated with use of weight loss and muscle building dietary supplement. (cdc.gov)
- Now, a new study shows a rise in cases of acute (sudden) liver failure reportedly linked to Tylenol overdoses. (foxnews.com)
- Amongst drugs, acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure and accounts for approximately 50% of the cases in the US [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)