Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningLiver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.GalactosamineOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Mice, Inbred C57BLEthanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Perhexiline: 2-(2,2-Dicyclohexylethyl)piperidine. Coronary vasodilator used especially for angina of effort. It may cause neuropathy and hepatitis.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hypervitaminosis A: A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Aspalathus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is the source of an herbal tea that is commonly consumed in South Africa. Members contain aspalathin and other polyphenols (PHENOLS).Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Rats, Inbred F344Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Mice, Inbred BALB CDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Praseodymium: Praseodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Pr, atomic number 59, and atomic weight 140.91.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Phosphofructokinase-1, Muscle Type: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In humans, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 in muscle exists as the homotetramer of M subunits. Defects in this muscle enzyme cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VII, also known as Tarui's disease.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rats, Inbred LEC: A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.TriglyceridesBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.MalonatesMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Liver damage Omega-3 fats Cardiovascular Disease Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke, reduced glycemic control among ... Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods (bread ... Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,[72] other than the four elements carbon, ... "Healthy Water Living". BBC. Retrieved 2007-02-01. Archived from the original on 2007-01-01.. ...
Over-absorption of iron; accumulation of iron in vital organs (heart, liver, pancreas); organ damage; heart disease; cancer; ... Over-absorption of iron; accumulation of iron in vital organs (heart, liver, pancreas); organ damage; heart disease; cancer; ... Obstructive lung disease in adults; liver cirrhosis during childhood; when a newborn or infant has jaundice that lasts for an ... If there is a buildup of too much phenylalanine, brain tissue can be damaged, causing developmental delay. Newborn screening ...
Toxic liver disease. Toxin induced liver disease. Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver ... but overdose is the most common cause of drug-induced liver disease and acute liver failure worldwide.[10] Damage to the liver ... implies chemical-driven liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. ... higher concentrations cause more liver damage) and well characterized mechanisms of toxicity, such as directly damaging liver ...
The band released The First Day and Damage - a live recording from the Royal Albert Hall in London. During this period Gunn ... This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. ... Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if ... Years of working with broad-necked instruments like the Warr guitar affected Gunn physically and he had to seek less damaging ...
Civil War: Battle Damage Report #1 *^ Uncanny X-Men vol. 3, #33 ... It! The Living Colossus. It! The Living Colossus gets his own ... It! The Living Colossus is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Initially a ... It! The Living Colossus debuted in the 18-page science fiction story "I Created the Colossus" in the anthology series Tales of ... Clones of It the Living Colossus[edit]. Reed Richards made a duplicate of It using the "Ionic Inanimate Matter Converter". It ...
Temporary damage to the liver may occur.[17] Rarely, neurological disorders have been reported in association with Chikungunya ... Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon.[43] In vivo, in studies using living ... A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, to develop viral resistance in 98% of those tested after 28 days and 85 ... Joints are more likely to be affected if they have previously been damaged by disorders such as arthritis.[11] Pain most ...
Chronically infected individuals with persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver damage, and HBV ... "Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nat. Med. 11 (11): 1167-9. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC 2908083 . ... thus minimizing liver damage. As of 2008, there are seven medications licensed for the treatment of hepatitis B infection in ... Although liver damage is initiated and mediated by the CTLs, antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells can worsen CTL-induced ...
"Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nature Medicine. 11 (11): 1167-9. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC ... For example, in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (living fossil estimated to be over 400 million years old), the only blood cell ... Inflammatory damage to surrounding extracellular matrix continually reveals more collagen, maintaining the microvesicle ... Megakaryocyte and platelet production is regulated by thrombopoietin, a hormone produced in the kidneys and liver. ...
"San Juan is Hit By Hurricane; 30 Lives Lost, Damage Great". The Southeast Missourian. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Associated Press. ... Damage and deaths include totals from the storm's precursor and its remnants, and all of the damage figures are in 1932 USD. ... there was considerable damage to crops, and torrential rains caused $2,000 in damages.[2] Electric power in the city was also ... In total, the season resulted in at least 3,384 fatalities and at least $77.706 million in damages.[nb 2] A strong hurricane ...
A live DVD/CD, entitled Take to the Road, documenting two shows from the tour - Shepherds Bush Empire and the Union Chapel - ... The Real Damage, in May 2007. After a further tour with Jonah Matranga and Jacob Golden, the "All About The Destination" DVD ... In September, he was the last act to appear on Steve Lamacq's "Lamacq Live" show on BBC Radio 1.[17] Turner's debut full-length ... "Frank Turner confirms Wembley Arena show will be filmed for live DVD - video , News". Nme.com. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 18 ...
Chronic exposure may result in kidney and liver damage.[4] 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol can be added to SDS-PAGE gels in order to ...
Liver damage (cirrhosis). Liver damage can cause fluid to back up in the abdomen (ascites) and the legs.[8] ...
The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic sinusoidal syndrome (obstruction of the veins in the liver), ... Hepatotoxicity (liver damage) can be caused by many cytotoxic drugs. The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be ... Organ damage[edit]. Cardiotoxicity (heart damage) is especially prominent with the use of anthracycline drugs (doxorubicin, ... As these drugs cause damage to cells, they are termed cytotoxic. They prevent mitosis by various mechanisms including damaging ...
Liver and kidney damage are a possibility with mood stabilizers. Psychological treatment usually includes some combination of ...
Health effects include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; and damage to the liver, ...
Effects over overexposure include "skin, respiratory, kidney and liver damage. Repeated or prolonged contact with the ... For simplicity's sake, this section focuses on film and shows with live-action swimmers and tails as the main characters. For ... Tin-cure tails have historically not been allowed in aquariums featuring live fish or other sea life, due to the chemicals ... Professional mermaids will often swim in live, filmed, or photographed productions or shows and can be hired for special events ...
Subacute toxicity Subacute toxicity studies of aflatoxin B1 in animals showed moderate to severe liver damage. In monkeys for ... "Aflatoxin genotoxicity is associated with a defective DNA damage response bypassing p53 activation". Liver International. 31 (4 ... The mold lives in soil, surviving off dead plant and animal matter, but spreads through the air via airborne conidia. This ... The liver is the most susceptible organ to aflatoxin B1 toxicity. In animal studies, pathological lesions associated with ...
This includes kidney damage, which causes low urine output and bloody urine; low white blood cell counts that can last for ... several days; anemia; muscular weakness; liver failure; hepatomegaly; bone marrow suppression; thrombocytopenia; and ascending ... High doses can also damage bone marrow, lead to anemia, and cause hair loss. All of these side effects can result from ... This can cause hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the gastrointestinal tract, which can be ...
Liver cirrhosis. Nephrocalcinosis. While it is a consequence of dRTA, it can also be a cause; related to calcium-induced damage ...
... which cause liver damage. Lupin allergy[edit]. Lupin allergy may cause life-threatening anaphylaxis in sensitive individuals.[ ...
Pigs live in the mountains and damage plants; they are controlled by hunting and poisoning. Fallow deer and wild goats occur in ... The greater glider lives in higher altitude wet sclerophyll forest. The common wombat lives in the high country and along river ... It lives in high, boggy country in the ACT and also in the Fiery Range in New South Wales. The most common snake in the ACT is ... Angling is a popular sport in the ACT and many of these have spread due to illegal introductions and their illegal use as live ...
Liver damage[62]. *Paradoxical behavioural disinhibition[8][63] (most frequently in children, the elderly, and in persons with ... Olsson R, Zettergren L; Zettergren (May 1988). "Anticonvulsant-induced liver damage". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 83 (5): 576-7. PMID ...
... its usefulness is limited by possible complications such as liver damage.[74] A similarly effective drug, entacapone, has not ... The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme that helps to manage PD symptoms or protects the brain from further damage.[ ... daily living activities, and quality of life compared to a self-supervised exercise program at home.[92] In terms of improving ... aims to promote health and quality of life by helping people with the disease to participate in as many of their daily living ...
The Sinner in Me (Live in Milan) - 5:26. *Damaged People (Live in Milan) - 3:35 ... The World We Live In and Live in Hamburg • Some Great Videos • Strange • 101 • Strange Too • Devotional • The Videos 86,98 • ... Touring the Angel: Live in Milan *A Pain That I'm Used To (Live in Milan) - 4:21 ... Songs of Faith and Devotion Live *I Feel You (Live 1993) - 7:11 ... Macro (Live in Milan) - 4:31. *I Want It All (Live in Milan) - ...
... heart damage; anemia; liver and kidney damage; facial paralysis; coma; and death. Breathing high levels of cresols for a short ... Skin contact with high levels of cresols can burn the skin and damage the kidneys, liver, blood, brain, and lungs. Short-term ...
Of the 23,483 households, 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, ... were the three most damaging hurricanes to affect Baytown. ... Finding inspiration in Peter Kageyama book Love Where You Live ... About 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. ... Renée Zellweger, Oscar-winning actress, resident until age 9. Lived in Chapparell Village, attended Stephen F. Austin ...
Are you looking to file a Tylenol liver damage lawsuit? If yes, than visit our site and get all the related information about ... Lawyers » Tylenol Liver Damage Lawsuit Tylenol Liver Damage Lawsuit. Tylenol ®, the brand name for acetaminophen, is the ... for several days on a stretch might be at risk of liver damage or even liver failure. In some cases the damage sustained can ... 8.8 million in damages to a liver patient who alleged that the product was responsible for his liver damage which landed him in ...
Liver Damage in Amoebiasis. Br Med J 1947; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4491.172 (Published 01 February 1947) Cite this ...
Two liver enzymes in particular (alanine aminotransferase or ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase or AST) may be mildly elevated ... It is very unusual for a patient to have symptoms of liver damage due to taking statins because if liver function tests are ... Liver damage and statins. Two liver enzymes in particular (alanine aminotransferase or ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase or ... The damage is not permanent and when statins are stopped the liver tests return to normal. ...
... and the extent of any damage. This could lead to liver damage being assessed faster and more accurately in the future "" ... Scientists have discovered that the presence of specific proteins in the blood are indicative of early liver cell damage and ... Research at the University of Liverpool could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of liver damage. ... The current blood test used by clinicians to assess liver function simply indicates whether liver enzymes leaking from dying ...
A compound found in the common curry spice turmeric appears to delay the liver damage that eventually causes cirrhosis, ... LONDON (Reuters) - A compound found in the common curry spice turmeric appears to delay the liver damage that eventually causes ... The Austrian research team wanted to find out if curcumin could delay the damage caused by progressive inflammatory liver ... They found the curcumin diet significantly reduced bile duct blockage and curbed liver cell damage and scarring by interfering ...
Drinking more coffee might help reduce the kind of liver damage thats associated with overindulging in food and alcohol, a ... Reuters Health) - Drinking more coffee might help reduce the kind of liver damage thats associated with overindulging in food ... Its also not clear exactly how coffee might lead to a healthier liver, or whether the type of beans or brewing method matter. ... also important to note that coffee isnt powerful enough to counteract lifestyle choices that can severely damage the liver, ...
... disposable blood test for liver damage. The device uses a stack of paper the size of a postage stamp for a test of toxicity for ... Liver colors: Diagnostics for Alls paper test indicates liver damage by changing color when a drop of blood is added. Normal ... medication in rich countries are typically monitored every month for liver damage and taken off the treatment if liver damage ... By the yard: Diagnostics for All hopes to mass-produce its disposable paper test for liver damage on sheets.. Diagnostics for ...
The liver damage occurred as a result of excessive vitamin B3 (niacin) levels. ... A medical exam and diagnostic tests revealed upper abdominal tenderness and elevated liver enzymes. Liver biopsy confirmed the ... or illicit drug use-suggesting the energy drinks as the cause for the liver inflammation. Each bottle of energy drink contained ...
... include fatigue and weakness but as the disease progresses, there is a definite drop in energy, ... Cirrhosis of the liver refers to the scarring of the liver due to liver damage. Cirrhosis of the liver is caused by excessive ... Any kind of damage to the liver or liver disease affects the functioning of the liver, causing the toxic substances to build up ... there are no obvious symptoms of liver damage apart from fatigue, lack of drive and itching. It is only when the liver damage ...
When the liver is damaged from disease or injury, the cells of the liver are unable to function properly.... ... The liver removes toxic chemicals from the blood. ... Causes of Liver Damage. Damage to the liver cells resulting in ... The liver removes toxic chemicals from the blood. When the liver is damaged from disease or injury, the cells of the liver are ... Symptoms of Liver Damage. When the liver cells cant remove toxic chemicals from the blood, some people experience no symptoms ...
Ketek (telithromycin) has been linked to liver damage in dozens of cases, some of which resulted in liver failure and death. ... Permanent liver damage? I dont know. I had a lung condition. And ended up almost dying. My kidneys got better. A biopsy showed ... The first alarms went up in 2006 when cases of liver damage and failure started turning up in Ketek patients. The FDA removed ... My liver eventually started working as did my kidneys. I live 4 miles from the hospital and when I became so ill so fast I went ...
This may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ... Gut bacteria may damage liver by turning carbs into alcohol. ... What links carbohydrates and liver damage?. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition in which excess fat ... In both cases, liver damage was apparent within 8 weeks.. Yet, when scientists eliminated these K. pneumonia strains before the ... To find out if the high alcohol producing K. pneumonia could directly cause liver damage, the team turned to a germ free mouse ...
More than a fifth of the first Covid-19 patients in the SAR had liver problems that would worsen their conditions significantly ... And 71 percent of those 79 had liver damage.. Lead researcher Terry Yip Cheuk-fung said: About one fifth of liver-damaged ... Coronavirus linked to liver damage cases. More than a fifth of the first Covid-19 patients in the SAR had liver problems that ... Wong also said the liver damage was reversible and no liver failure was recorded. ...
... which is needed for optimal kidney and liver health. ... which is needed for optimal kidney and liver health. ... inhibits a major detoxification enzyme in the liver, ... inhibits a major detoxification enzyme in the liver, ... Despite the known risks of liver damage, and other health effects, from weight loss drugs already on the market, the FDA is ... Despite the known risks of liver damage, and other health effects, from weight loss drugs already on the market, the FDA ...
... explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives. ... Proof-of-principle study could point the way to averting the need for liver transplants. ... Reprogrammed Cells Repair Damaged Livers. Proof-of-principle study could point the way to averting the need for liver ... Cells taken from the tips of mouse tails and genetically reprogrammed to mimic mature liver cells can repair damaged livers. ...
Drug Administration has said that a heart drug by French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi-Aventis has been linked to liver damage in ... Alcoholic Liver Disease. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general information about Alcoholic Liver Disease. ... Drug Toxicity Hepatitis A Signature Drug Toxicity Heart Liver Healthy Heart Wilsons Disease Statins Mitral Valve Prolapse ... Two elderly women were found to have severe liver failure four and a half and six months after they began taking the drug, the ...
Liver damage is graded according to the inflammatory component and is described as follows: Grade 0 - Portal inflammation only ... encoded search term (How is liver damage graded in hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B)?) and How is liver damage graded in hepatitis B ( ... Liver damage is graded according to the inflammatory component and is described as follows:. * Grade 0 - Portal inflammation ... How is liver damage graded in hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B)?. Updated: Aug 01, 2018 ...
The results, published today in Cancer Cell, represent another foundational step towards better treatments for liver cancer. ... The liver reacts to chronic injury by trying to wall it off with scar tissue and calling in immune cells with inflammatory ... "We show that those drugs ability to suppress liver damage requires p62, which in liver tumors is usually absent from the cells ... Research uncovers defender against cancer-promoting liver damage New research helps explain failure of past clinical trials ...
... taken over a long time can cause liver failure and death, according to a new study. ... Acetaminophen over-use can lead to serious liver damage. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Acetaminophen, Blood, Brain, Dialysis, Drugs, Fever, Headache, Hospital, Kidney, Liver, Mortality, Pain, Painkiller, ... Common pain and fever Acetaminophen (best known by the brand name Tylenol) taken over a long time can cause liver failure and ...
My question relates to liver damage related to the use/abuse of pain medication. By pain medicat... ... What is the reality of liver damage caused by OTC pain meds and narcotic pain meds? Based on what I have written, assuming its ... Oh boy... Im sorry, I didnt realize how many people ask about Tylenol related liver damage. Im sorry if this is a repost but ... My question relates to liver damage related to the use/abuse of pain medication. By pain medication I mean OTC(Tylenol/Advil) ...
may delay the inflammation-related liver damage that leads to cirrhosis, according to a new study in the journal Gut. Another ... In people with PBC, the livers bile ducts become inflamed, scarred and blocked, resulting in extensive tissue damage and liver ... Consuming curcumin significantly reduced bile duct blockage and curbed liver cell damage and liver scarring (fibrosis). ... Indian Spice May Thwart Liver Damage. Print this page THURSDAY, March 25 -- Curcumin -- a component of the Indian spice ...
Sufferers of liver disease experience jaundice, abdominal pain and swelling, leg swelling,... ... The Mayo Clinic states that liver damage can be indicated by several symptoms related to liver disease. ... WebMD states that liver damage symptoms are often linked to alcohol intake. Liver damage is referred to as fatty liver disease ... Symptoms of liver damage can be related to hepatitis, medication, inherited liver disease, autoimmune liver disease or ...
Damaged liver tissues, which cause scars, can bring on cirrhosis -- where the organ is unable to clean blood or produce vital ... Tags: blood cells, cellular medicine, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, damaged liver, environmental factors, hepatitis c, ... Healing damaged liver tissues. December 5th, 2011 - 4:39 pm ICT by IANS Tweet. ... London, Dec 5 (IANS) Damaged liver tissues, which cause scars, can bring on cirrhosis - where the organ is unable to clean ...
... have led to discovery of substances that may have less potentially toxic effects on the liver. ... Living Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks?. The risk of dying as a result of a living donor liver segment removal is ... Fatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in India. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver ... Roman Shchepin and colleagues explain that a link exists between acetaminophen and liver damage. The damage may be severe and ...
Can my liver recover?. Depending on how badly your liver is damaged, it may be able to partially recover. If your liver cant ... What does my liver do?. Your liver helps you digest your food. It also removes toxins from your blood and makes important ... A fatty diet, certain medicines, and even your own immune system can also damage your liver. ... Sometimes an ultrasound is used to take a picture of your liver. Your doctor also may take a small sample of your liver to ...
  • American Liver Foundation (ALF) is a national, voluntary nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and cure of hepatitis and other liver diseases through research, education, and advocacy. (pficvoices.com)
  • In PFIC, the liver is unable to excrete bile acids as the result of a genetic defect, so they accumulate to high levels in the liver and in the bloodstream. (pficvoices.com)
  • Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Since we first discovered in 1987 the depletion of mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) status by chronic ethanol intake, considerable progress has been made regarding the molecular mechanism(s) of the defect and its functional impact in alcohol-induced liver damage (ALD). (nih.gov)
  • The new Wiley Online Library will be migrated over the weekend of February 24 and 25 and will be live on February 26, 2018. (wiley.com)
  • We show that those drugs' ability to suppress liver damage requires p62, which in liver tumors is usually absent from the cells that initiate the inflammatory cascade. (eurekalert.org)
  • Systemic Contraceptives and Liver Tumors. (ebscohost.com)
  • We wish to emphasize that malignant, as well as benign, liver tumors can occur in users of oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Both ultrasonography and radioisotope scans (scintiscans) are useful in demonstrating space-occupying lesions of the liver, such as cysts, abscesses, and tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diagnosed with liver damage, tumors or cancer after Valsartan use? (drugwatch.com)
  • If we can identify the cause sooner, we could treat and even prevent liver damage," she comments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Therefore, the mechanism to restore hepatic injuries caused by alcoholic oxidative stress is tightly regulated by the antioxidant status of a living system. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that oxidative stress, DNA damage and precancerous symptoms were all reduced. (naturalnews.com)
  • As(III) induced damage was evaluated by levels of DNA methylation detected by an anti-5-methylcytosine antibody (α-5'mc), oxidative DNA damage by an anti-8-Oxo-dG antibody (α-8-Oxo-dG panel), and apoptotic cell death by TUNEL labeling (apoptosis panel). (nih.gov)
  • The tremendous natural variation in maximum species lifespan may be due to interspecific differences in reactive oxygen species generation, antioxidant defenses and/or levels of accrued oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (such as DNA, lipids and proteins). (nih.gov)
  • Given that NMRs live an order of magnitude longer than predicted based on their body size, our findings strongly suggest that mechanisms other than attenuated oxidative stress explain the impressive longevity of this species. (nih.gov)
  • They have a strong chemical constituent that inhibits oxidative stress (from sun damage or skin conditions like hives or eczema) and is palliative on irritated skin. (wholeliving.com)
  • Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. (springer.com)
  • Consumers take drugs and supplements to promote health, but some common pills that might be in your medicine cabinet could cause serious liver damage if taken in the wrong dose and combinations. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Among this group, the children drinking water with more than 2 ppm fluoride - particularly those with dental fluorosis - were found to have increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase in their blood (an indicator of liver damage) and increased levels of NAG and y-GT in their urine (two markers of kidney damage). (fluoridealert.org)
  • A legal challenge issued against Monsanto forced the multi-national agriculture giant to release raw data revealing that animals fed its patented GM corn suffered liver and kidney damage within just three months. (sott.net)
  • Male and the elderly were more susceptible, and Grace Wong Lai-hung, a professor of gastroenterology and hepatology, said the risk of liver damage rose with age. (thestandard.com.hk)
  • Coffee consumption reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer", by about 40 percent, according to a study published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. (foodandwine.com)
  • Health authorities are investigating the use of the antibiotic after numerous cases of liver damage and several deaths. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • In 2016 there will be about 39,000 new cases of liver cancer, of which only 20% of patients will survive more than five years after diagnosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • This could lead to liver damage being assessed faster and more accurately in the future "" information which could prove valuable when treating people following drug overdoses. (redorbit.com)
  • Cells taken from the tips of mouse tails and genetically reprogrammed to mimic mature liver cells can repair damaged livers. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The cells created by Hui's team were not exact replicas of mature liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The expression of several genes, including at least one involved in breaking down toxins, differed between normal liver cells and Hui's reprogrammed cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Those alternative methods include generating liver cells from adult skin cells by first converting them into a type of stem cell called an induced pluripotent stem cell, and then coaxing those stem cells into behaving like liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although liver cells are well known for their ability to proliferate in the body -- slice out two-thirds of a liver and the remaining third will quickly regenerate a normal organ - the cells do not fare well in laboratory cultures. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Liver cells derived directly from stem cells may also behave more like fetal liver cells than adult liver cells, he notes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because they'd previously studied p62 in liver cancer, they removed it from the cells that become its support system--hepatic stellate cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since p62 is so important in preventing liver cancer, we're now interested in why it disappears in stellate cells," said Moscat. (eurekalert.org)
  • Experimental results published in the December 2010 issue of the "Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology" found that flavokawain B will kill liver cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Damage to these hair cells, which can be caused by exposure to loud noise, can result in hearing loss, and mammals are not able to repair hair cells once they are harmed. (livescience.com)
  • Specifically, the solution damaged the tiny, hair-like structures called stereocilia on the surfaces of those cells in the way that loud noise would. (livescience.com)
  • In the first stage, fatty liver, abnormally large amounts of fat accumulate inside liver cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Scarring may gradually build up in the liver, causing cells to die and reducing the liver's blood supply. (wisegeek.com)
  • As long as sufficient numbers of liver cells remain, the liver continues to function. (wisegeek.com)
  • The liver splits the molecules and sends the glucose on out into the body for all cells to metabolise but keeps the fructose and metabolises it itself! (cancer.org)
  • Once at the liver, the macrophages dismantled the nuclei of dead cells, releasing DNA into the injured area, which could possibly protect the area from infection by trapping microbes, Kubes says. (the-scientist.com)
  • The liver cells can make glucose out of protein and fat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This may also work in reverse: the liver cells can convert excess sugar into fat and send it for storage to other parts of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fat deposition in the cells of the liver in Stage 1 - this dire consequence of excess alcohol intake can be reversed provided the patient stops drinking. (health24.com)
  • 2. Temporal and functional relationship between mitochondrial GSH and SAM depletion by alcohol: Role of Kupffer cells and liver steatosis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use gene targeting to replace Brca2 (a cancer suppressor protein essential for DNA repair) with a functional enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged form, followed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure Brca2-EGFP diffusion in the nucleoplasm of living cells exposed to DNA breakage. (pnas.org)
  • We have combined somatic gene targeting with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) [a method successfully applied to the analysis of fluorescent particles in solution ( 5 ) or within cells ( 6 )] to directly measure the diffusion of EGFP-tagged Brca2 expressed natively in the nucleoplasm of living cells. (pnas.org)
  • According to the Research conducted by the scientists at the University of Edinburgh, it is understood that nanoparticles present in the air may have an adverse// effect on the liver cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is still not identified whether these particles are safely eliminated by specialized cells in the liver or whether they enter the liver cells and disrupt their normal functioning. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Within a few weeks to months of taking it, damage to the liver cells can be observed. (edrugsearch.com)
  • The liver is a very important organ in our body as it removes all the poisonous substances and toxicants from the blood and the digestive system . (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • The liver is a hardy organ and carries much responsibility. (naturalnews.com)
  • Bottom line, the liver is an organ we should bow to and treat with as much respect as possible. (naturalnews.com)
  • An image of the magnets removed from the boy's body, and how they caused damage to the bowels by pulling together different parts of the organ. (livescience.com)
  • Organ packing was used before World War II to control bleeding from liver wounds. (intechopen.com)
  • "They can't say which caused what, but what you have is an association - the group treated with a little Roundup had a lot of organ damage and the gene expression findings supported that," he added. (infowars.com)
  • The liver is the one organ in the body that is most intimately involved with the detoxification of the body after excessive alcohol intake, and it is, therefore, the organ that often suffers the most damage. (health24.com)
  • Based on the outcome of the serum biochemistry evaluation, the horses were assigned into 3 groups namely: apparently healthy horses (Group 1), horses with biochemical markers of acute liver damage (Group 2) and horses with biochemical markers of chronic liver damage (Group 3). (doaj.org)
  • Metabolism of alcohol in liver generates excessive free radicals and increased peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acid, which would ultimately affect functionality of the antioxidant systems to eliminate ROS in the body [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although all antioxidants are able to remove cell- and DNA-damaging free radicals from the body, astaxanthin possesses several properties that make it more potent than the typical antioxidant. (naturalnews.com)
  • The team used paracetamol as the basis for the study: research indicates that paracetamol can place temporary stress on the liver in around a third of people who take a normal dose (4g per day) but the liver returns to normal when the drug has left the system. (redorbit.com)
  • It's also important to note that coffee isn't powerful enough to counteract lifestyle choices that can severely damage the liver, said Samantha Heller, a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York who wasn't involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • Here, the study team found several strains of the gut bacterium Klebsiella pneumonia , which can ferment carbohydrates into high levels of alcohol and cause liver damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The other study, published in the "Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology" in October 2003, also found that consuming water-based extracts of kava did not cause liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • It occurred to me that if any animal could recover from damage to its hair bundles, anemones would be the ones," study author Glen Watson, a biology professor at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, said in the statement. (livescience.com)
  • Fluoride in drinking water damages children's liver and kidney functions, according to a new study in 'Environmental Research'(1), reports the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF). (prisonplanet.com)
  • Cites a study showing that contraceptive pills can damage women's gums. (ebscohost.com)
  • Long-term intake of the Monsanto's most popular Roundup herbicide, even in very small amounts lower than permissible in US water, may lead to kidney and liver damage, a new study claims. (infowars.com)
  • In our study, it was aimed to reveal three types of liver retractors in our hospital in different cases and to reveal the type of trocar that causes the least amount of liver damage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A new study from China, meanwhile, has detected evidence of kidney and liver disturbances in children drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride -- half the level of fluoride currently deemed safe by the EPA. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Dr Yinxian Wen, study co-author, said: "Our results indicate that prenatal caffeine causes an excess of stress hormone activity in the mother, which inhibits IGF-1 activity for liver development before birth. (belfasttelegraph.co.uk)
  • Most importantly, they conducted a comprehensive study of the liver genome in order to establish how it evolved in line with the consumption of the different oils. (ugr.es)
  • The authors undertook a study to look at the prevalence of kidney and liver abnormalities and the pattern of changes over time among HIV-positive children. (aidsmap.com)
  • The liver also gets rid of toxins and other "bad" things so I didn't want to add an additional burden to it. (cancer.org)