Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Liver Function Tests
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Hepatitis B, Chronic
End Stage Liver Disease
Liver Failure, Acute
Hepatitis B virus
Severity of Illness Index
Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic
Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical
Cholagogues and Choleretics
Hepatic Stellate Cells
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Predictive Value of Tests
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Sensitivity and Specificity
Common Bile Duct
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Disease Models, Animal
Rats, Inbred Strains
Area Under Curve
Portacaval Shunt, Surgical
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
Hepatitis D, Chronic
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/5450)Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas. (+info)
Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (2/5450)Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF. (+info)
Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (3/5450)In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision. (+info)
Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (4/5450)Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed. (+info)
Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal. (5/5450)OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection. (+info)
Factor VII as a marker of hepatocellular synthetic function in liver disease. (6/5450)Factor VII levels have been measured in 100 patients with liver disease following parenteral vitamin K1 therapy. There was good agreement between specific factor VII measurements and the one-stage prothrombin time apart from six patients with compensated cirrhosis in whom the prothrombin time was prolonged despite the presence of normal factor VII levels. A mean activity of 58% was found in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with features of hepatic decompensation had a significantly lower mean level of activity (40%) than the "contrast" patients with surgical obstruction of the major bile ducts (93%). Patients with chronic active liver disease had moderate depression of factor VII levels and those with non-cirrhotic liver damage had mean activities similar to the contrast group. Factor VII levels could not be correlated with BSP retention but there was a correlation with serum albumin concentration. It is concluded that the prothrombin time using Quick test with a standardized thromboplastin showing good sensitivity to factor VII, eg, the Manchester reagent (BCT), provides a reliable index of coagulability in chronic liver disease, and specific factor VII assays are not indicated. (+info)
Contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to glucose production in cirrhosis. (7/5450)Net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were examined in normal (n = 4) and cirrhotic (n = 8) subjects using two independent methods [13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and a 2H2O method]. Rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis were calculated by the change in hepatic glycogen content before ( approximately 11:00 PM) and after ( approximately 7:00 AM) an overnight fast using 13C NMR and magnetic resonance imaging. Gluconeogenesis was calculated as the difference between the rates of glucose production determined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and net hepatic glycogenolysis. In addition, the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production was determined by the 2H enrichment in C-5/C-2 of blood glucose after intake of 2H2O (5 ml/kg body water). Plasma levels of total and free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding proteins-1 and -3 were significantly decreased in the cirrhotic subjects (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Postprandial hepatic glycogen concentrations were 34% lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.007). Rates of glucose production were similar between the cirrhotic and healthy subjects [9.0 +/- 0.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg body wt-1. min-1, respectively]. Net hepatic glycogenolysis was 3.5-fold lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.01) and accounted for only 13 +/- 6% of glucose production compared with 40 +/- 10% (P = 0.03) in the control subjects. Gluconeogenesis was markedly increased in the cirrhotic subjects and accounted for 87 +/- 6% of glucose production vs. controls: 60 +/- 10% (P = 0.03). Gluconeogenesis in the cirrhotic subjects, as determined from the 2H enrichment in glucose C-5/C-2, was also increased and accounted for 68 +/- 3% of glucose production compared with 54 +/- 2% (P = 0.02) in the control subjects. In conclusion, cirrhotic subjects have increased rates of gluconeogenesis and decreased rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis compared with control subjects. These alterations are likely important contributing factors to their altered carbohydrate metabolism. (+info)
Leucocyte migration inhibition with inner and outer membranes of mitochondria and insoluble hepatocyte surface membranes prepared from rat liver in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. (8/5450)Patients with chronic liver disease were tested for delayed hypersensitivity to the outer and the inner membranes of mitochondria (OMM and IMM) and the insoluble hepatocyte-surface membranes (IHSM), prepared from rat livers, by means of leucocyte migration inhibition technique. Positive reaction to OMM was found in 37% of patients with chronic persistent hepatitis and 35% of those with chronic active hepatitis and 43% of those with liver cirrhosis (P less than 0-05). That to IMM was 55%, 43% and 36% (P less than 0-05) and to IHSM was 37%, 47% and 45% respectively (P less than 0-05). IHSM was found to contain liver-specific components and patients with positive response to IHSM did not reveal at all a positive reaction to rat renal cell-surface membranes. The incidence of positive response to IHSM was significantly higher (54-2%) in patients with the present or previous infection with HBAg than in HBAg-non-infected patients (21-4%) (P less than 0-05). And there seemed to be a good correlation between a degree of cellular response to purified HBsAg and that to IHSM in these HBAg-infected patients. No correlation, however, was found between that to purified HBsAg and that to OMM or IMM in the same patients. This suggested that the cellular response to either HBsAg or IHSM, both related closely, may play a role in the perpetuation of chronic liver disease. (+info)
The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.
The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.
In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.
The term "alcoholic" in this context refers to the fact that the damage is caused by excessive alcohol consumption, rather than any other underlying medical condition or disease process. The suffix "-osis" means "condition" or "disease," and "alcoholic" modifies the noun "liver cirrhosis" to indicate the cause of the condition.
The term "LC-ALD" is used in medical literature and research to specifically refer to this type of cirrhosis caused by alcohol consumption, as opposed to other types of cirrhosis that may be caused by viral hepatitis or other factors.
The term "experimental" refers to the fact that this type of cirrhosis is typically induced in animals through the use of certain chemicals, toxins, or viruses, rather than occurring naturally in humans. The goal of studying experimental liver cirrhosis is to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and to develop new treatments for this condition.
Some examples of how experimental liver cirrhosis may be induced include:
* Administering certain chemicals or toxins, such as carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide, to animals in order to damage the liver and trigger the formation of nodules and fibrosis.
* Infecting animals with viruses that can cause liver damage and inflammation, such as hepatitis B or C virus.
* Using genetic models to study the role of specific genes in the development of liver cirrhosis.
Experimental liver cirrhosis is often studied in laboratory animals, such as mice, rats, and pigs, using a range of techniques including histology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The studies may focus on various aspects of the disease, such as the mechanisms of inflammation and fibrosis, the role of specific cell types or signaling pathways, and the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.
The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.
Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.
Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.
There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:
* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss
If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope
Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer
Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.
Note: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver disease, especially cirrhosis. It is characterized by elevated pressure within the portal vein system, which can lead to splanchnic vasodilation, increased blood flow, and edema in the splanchnic organ.
Symptoms: Symptoms of portal hypertension may include ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), encephalopathy (mental confusion or disorientation), gastrointestinal bleeding, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of portal hypertension is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include liver function tests, blood counts, and coagulation studies. Imaging studies may include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Treatment: Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control symptoms, such as beta blockers to reduce portal pressure, antibiotics to treat infection, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain. In severe cases, surgery or shunt procedures may be necessary.
Prognosis: The prognosis for patients with portal hypertension is generally poor, as it is often associated with advanced liver disease. The 5-year survival rate for patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension is approximately 50%.
Treatment options for ascites include medications to reduce fluid buildup, dietary restrictions, and insertion of a catheter to drain the fluid. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Ascites is a serious condition that requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
This condition is most commonly seen in people with advanced liver disease, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. It can also be caused by other conditions that affect the liver, such as hepatitis or portal hypertension.
Symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy can include confusion, disorientation, slurred speech, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or even death.
Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment options include medications to reduce the production of ammonia in the gut, antibiotics to treat any underlying infections, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to improve liver function. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Overall, hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can have significant impact on quality of life and survival in people with advanced liver disease. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Portal hypertension can be caused by several conditions, such as cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and congenital heart disease. When the portal vein is blocked or narrowed, blood flow through the veins in the esophagus and stomach increases, leading to enlargement of these vessels and an increased risk of bleeding.
Esophageal varices are the most common type of variceal bleeding and account for about 75% of all cases. Gastric varices are less common and usually occur in conjunction with esophageal varices.
Symptoms of esophageal and gastric varices may include:
* Vomiting blood or passing black stools
* Weakness, dizziness, or fainting due to blood loss
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Difficulty swallowing
Treatment for esophageal and gastric varices usually involves endoscopy, which is a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the esophagus and stomach. During endoscopy, the physician may use medications to shrink the varices or apply heat to seal off the bleeding vessels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the varices.
Prevention of esophageal and gastric varices involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. This can include medications to reduce portal pressure, lifestyle changes to improve liver function, and in some cases, surgery to remove the affected liver tissue.
In summary, esophageal and gastric varices are enlarged veins in the lower esophagus and stomach that can develop in people with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or liver cancer. These varices can cause bleeding, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Treatment usually involves endoscopy and may involve medications, heat therapy, or surgery to seal off the bleeding vessels. Prevention involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension.
There are two main types of fatty liver disease:
1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease
Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests
Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)
Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.
Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:
* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.
Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.
Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.
Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:
While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:
* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis
Managing Chronic Hepatitis:
If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:
* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation
Living with Chronic Hepatitis:
Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:
* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits
Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.
There are several types of hepatitis, including:
1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.
Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.
Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.
In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.
There are several types of alcoholic liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This condition occurs when there is an accumulation of fat in the liver cells due to excessive alcohol consumption. It is the earliest stage of alcohol-related liver disease and can be reversed with abstinence from alcohol.
2. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH): This condition is characterized by inflammation of the liver, which can lead to scarring and liver failure. It is more common in individuals who consume heavy amounts of alcohol over a long period.
3. Cirrhosis: This is a chronic condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly. It is often irreversible and can lead to liver failure, heart disease, and other complications.
4. Liver failure: This is the most severe stage of alcoholic liver disease, where the liver fails to function entirely. It can be fatal if not treated promptly with a liver transplant or other medical interventions.
The symptoms of alcoholic liver disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). Treatment for alcoholic liver disease typically involves abstinence from alcohol, medication to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, a liver transplant.
Prevention is key in avoiding alcoholic liver disease. Limiting alcohol intake, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding harmful substances can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Early detection and intervention are also crucial in managing the condition before it progresses to more severe stages.
If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol addiction, there are many resources available to help. Seeking professional assistance from a healthcare provider, therapist, or support group can provide the necessary tools and guidance to overcome alcoholism and prevent alcoholic liver disease.
The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.
Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.
See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus
The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:
* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and dizziness
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:
* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:
* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:
* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:
* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.
The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:
"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."
The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:
1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).
The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.
Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Hydrothorax is a condition where there is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition can occur due to various causes such as heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cancer. The excess fluid in the pleural space can put pressure on the lungs and make it difficult for them to expand and function properly.
Symptoms of hydrothorax may include:
1. Shortness of breath
2. Chest pain
3. Coughing up pink, frothy liquid
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
Hydrothorax can be diagnosed through various tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment options for hydrothorax depend on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, draining the excess fluid from the pleural space may be necessary to relieve symptoms and improve lung function. Medications such as diuretics or oxygen therapy may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.
Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.
Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.
There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.
Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.
Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.
Etiology and Pathophysiology:
HRS is caused by a complex interplay of hemodynamic, metabolic, and neurohormonal derangements that occur in patients with advanced liver disease. The underlying mechanisms include:
1. Portosystemic shunting: Increased blood flow through the portasystemic shunt can lead to a decrease in effective circulating blood volume and renal perfusion, causing hypoxia and acidosis.
2. Vasopressin release: Elevated levels of vasopressin (ADH) can cause vasoconstriction and decreased GFR.
3. Sepsis: Bacterial infections can lead to systemic inflammation, which can impair renal function and worsen HRS.
4. Metabolic derangements: Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis can contribute to the development of HRS.
Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis:
Patients with HRS may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, and edema. Laboratory tests may reveal hypovolemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and elevated serum creatinine levels. Urinalysis may show proteinuria and hematuria. The diagnosis of HRS is based on the presence of oliguria (urine output < 400 mL/day) and/or anuria (urine output < 100 mL/day), in the absence of obstructive uropathy or other causes of acute kidney injury.
The primary goals of HRS treatment are to address the underlying cause, correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and prevent further renal damage. Treatment may include:
1. Fluid management: Administering intravenous fluids to correct hypovolemia and maintain urine output.
2. Electrolyte replacement: Correcting hypokalemia and hyperkalemia with potassium supplements and monitoring serum potassium levels.
3. Vasopressor support: Using vasopressors such as dopamine or norepinephrine to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 65 mmHg.
4. Antibiotics: Administering broad-spectrum antibiotics for suspected sepsis.
5. Dialysis: Initiating dialysis in patients with severe HRS who have failed conservative management or have signs of uremic crisis (e.g., pericarditis, seizures, coma).
Prognosis and Complications:
The prognosis of HRS is highly dependent on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, the mortality rate for HRS is high, ranging from 20% to 80%. Potential complications include:
1. Uremic crisis: A life-threatening condition characterized by seizures, coma, and multisystem organ failure.
2. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can lead to septic shock and death.
3. Cardiovascular complications: Such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.
4. Respiratory complications: Such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
5. Neurological complications: Such as seizures, stroke, and coma.
Preventing HRS requires identifying and addressing the underlying causes of hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalances. Key prevention strategies include:
1. Proper fluid management: Ensuring that patients receive adequate fluids to maintain hydration and avoid hypovolemia.
2. Electrolyte monitoring: Regularly measuring electrolyte levels and correcting any imbalances promptly.
3. Avoiding nephrotoxic medications: Minimizing the use of medications that can harm the kidneys, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Monitoring for signs of volume overload: Closely monitoring patients for signs of volume overload, such as edema or weight gain.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: Managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, to reduce the risk of developing HRS.
The goal of HRS treatment is to correct electrolyte imbalances, manage fluid overload, and address any underlying conditions that may have contributed to the development of the condition. Treatment strategies include:
1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement: Administering intravenous fluids and electrolytes to restore balance and correct hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalances.
2. Diuretics: Using diuretics to help remove excess fluid and reduce pressure on the heart and kidneys.
3. Vasopressors: Administering vasopressors to help raise blood pressure and improve perfusion of vital organs.
4. Hemodialysis: In severe cases, hemodialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: Managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, to reduce the risk of developing HRS.
The prognosis for HRS is generally poor, with a mortality rate of up to 80%. However, with early recognition and aggressive treatment, some patients may recover partially or fully. Factors that influence prognosis include:
1. Timeliness of diagnosis and treatment
2. Severity of electrolyte imbalances and fluid overload
3. Presence of underlying conditions
4. Response to treatment
5. Degree of organ dysfunction and failure
HRS can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Cardiac arrest
2. Heart failure
3. Renal failure
4. Respiratory failure
5. Neurological damage
6. Septic shock
7. Multi-organ failure
Preventing HRS involves managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and avoiding medications that can cause electrolyte imbalances or fluid overload. Additionally, monitoring for early signs of HRS and prompt treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications.
ESLD is a critical stage of liver disease where the liver has failed to regenerate and recover from injury or damage, leading to severe impairment of liver function. This condition can arise due to various causes such as viral hepatitis, alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other forms of liver cirrhosis.
The diagnosis of ESLD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for ESLD are limited and may include liver transplantation, palliative care, and supportive therapies to manage complications.
The prognosis for patients with ESLD is generally poor, with a high mortality rate due to the advanced stage of the disease and the lack of effective treatment options. However, with advances in medical technology and the availability of liver transplantation, some patients with ESLD may have a chance of survival and improved quality of life.
1. Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, or C)
2. Overdose of medications or supplements
3. Toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs, or chemicals)
4. Sepsis or other infections that spread to the liver
5. Certain autoimmune disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease)
6. Cancer that has metastasized to the liver
7. Blood vessel blockage or clotting in the liver
8. Lack of blood flow to the liver
1. Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Abdominal swelling and discomfort
4. Fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite
5. Confusion or altered mental state
6. Seizures or coma
7. Pale or clay-colored stools
8. Dark urine
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Laboratory tests (e.g., liver function tests, blood tests, imaging studies)
3. Biopsy of the liver tissue (to rule out other liver diseases)
1. Supportive care (fluids, nutrition, and medication to manage symptoms)
2. Addressing underlying causes (e.g., stopping alcohol or drug use, treating infections)
3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), a procedure that creates a new pathway for blood to flow through the liver
4. Liver transplantation (in severe cases where other treatments have failed)
The prognosis for acute liver failure depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the liver damage. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome. However, acute liver failure can be a life-threatening condition, and the mortality rate is high, especially in cases where there is severe liver damage or no available donor liver for transplantation.
Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.
The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.
Please note that some of the information provided may not be medically accurate or up-to-date, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. It is important to consult a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Hepatitis, Alcoholic: A type of hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) caused by excessive alcohol consumption over a long period of time. It is characterized by fatty degeneration of liver cells, inflammation, and fibrosis (scarring). The condition can progress to cirrhosis if left untreated.
The term "alcoholic hepatitis" does not refer only to alcohol-related liver disease but also includes other conditions such as fatty liver disease caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
Causes: The exact cause of alcoholic hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed that long-term heavy drinking can damage liver cells and lead to inflammation.
Symptoms: Symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis can range from mild to severe and include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.
Treatment: Treatment for alcoholic hepatitis typically involves stopping drinking altogether, nutritional support, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.
Prevention: Preventing alcoholic hepatitis involves avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and seeking medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Prognosis: The prognosis for alcoholic hepatitis depends on the severity of the condition and how well the individual responds to treatment. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition can occur in people of all ages, although it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 40.
Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). If left untreated, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death.
Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
There are several causes of liver failure, including:
1. Alcohol-related liver disease: Prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually liver failure.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to liver failure.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
4. Drug-induced liver injury: Certain medications can cause liver damage and failure, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain inherited conditions, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause liver damage and failure.
6. Acute liver failure: This is a sudden and severe loss of liver function, often caused by medication overdose or other toxins.
7. Chronic liver failure: A gradual decline in liver function over time, often caused by cirrhosis or NAFLD.
Symptoms of liver failure can include:
1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain
6. Confusion and altered mental state
7. Easy bruising and bleeding
Diagnosis of liver failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to check for liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the liver.
Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to manage symptoms, such as nausea and pain, and supportive care to maintain nutrition and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat complications.
Prevention of liver failure is important, and this can be achieved by:
1. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
3. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
4. Avoiding exposure to toxins, such as certain medications and environmental chemicals
5. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
6. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of hepatitis B and C.
The symptoms of carbon tetrachloride poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but may include:
* Respiratory problems, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain and diarrhea
* Headaches and dizziness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Slurred speech and loss of coordination
* Seizures and coma
If you suspect that you or someone else has been exposed to carbon tetrachloride, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and hydration, as well as medications to manage symptoms and remove the toxin from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key when it comes to carbon tetrachloride poisoning. If you work with or are exposed to CTC, it is important to take safety precautions such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, using proper ventilation, and following all safety protocols. It is also essential to handle the chemical with care and store it in a safe location.
In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride poisoning can be a serious and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate medical attention. If you suspect exposure to CTC, it is crucial to seek medical help right away. By taking safety precautions and being aware of the risks associated with this chemical, you can prevent carbon tetrachloride poisoning and protect your health.
A type of pancreatitis that is caused by heavy and prolonged alcohol consumption. It is characterized by inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to scarring and impaired pancreatic function. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea.
* Heavy and prolonged alcohol consumption (more than 4 drinks per day for men and more than 2 drinks per day for women)
* Binge drinking
* Poor nutrition
* Genetic predisposition
* Alcohol causes pancreatic enzymes to activate prematurely, leading to autodigestion of the pancreas and inflammation
* Inflammation can lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the pancreas
* Chronic pancreatitis can lead to exocrine and endocrine insufficiency
Signs and Symptoms:
* Abdominal pain (midline, epigastric)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Weight loss
* Medical history and physical examination
* Laboratory tests (e.g., lipase, amylase, trypsinogen activation)
* Imaging studies (e.g., CT scan, MRI)
* Alcohol withdrawal and cessation
* Pain management (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], opioids)
* Nutritional support
* Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy
* Antibiotics for infected pancreatitis
* Chronic pancreatitis can lead to long-term impairment of pancreatic function and malnutrition
* Alcoholic pancreatitis is a leading cause of pancreatic cancer
* Avoid heavy and prolonged alcohol consumption
* Follow a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Pancreatic cancer
* Chronic pancreatitis
* Pancreatic insufficiency
* Infections (e.g., pseudocysts, abscesses)
* Alcoholic pancreatitis is the most common form of acute pancreatitis
* The incidence of alcoholic pancreatitis has increased in recent years, possibly due to increased alcohol consumption and improved diagnostic tools
* Chronic pancreatitis affects approximately 5-10% of patients with alcoholic pancreatitis
* Alcohol (ethanol) consumption is the primary risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis
* Other risk factors include gallstones, smoking, obesity, and certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids, NSAIDs)
* Alcohol consumption can damage the pancreatic tissue and trigger an inflammatory response
* The pancreas is a vital organ that produces hormones (insulin, glucagon) and digestive enzymes. Damage to the pancreas can lead to impaired glucose metabolism and malnutrition.
* Clinical evaluation (history of alcohol consumption, symptoms, physical examination)
* Laboratory tests (blood tests, lipase levels)
* Imaging studies (CT scan, MRI)
* Supportive care (pain management, fluid replacement)
* Withdrawal of alcohol
* Anti-inflammatory medications (e.g., corticosteroids)
* Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy
* Surgical intervention (e.g., pancreatectomy, cholecystectomy)
* Acute pancreatitis has a high mortality rate if left untreated (approximately 20-30%)
* Chronic pancreatitis can lead to long-term morbidity and impaired quality of life
* Infection (e.g., pneumonia, sepsis)
* Organ failure (e.g., respiratory, cardiovascular)
* Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies)
* Psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety)
There are several types of cholestasis, including:
1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.
Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.
The exact prevalence of HPS is not well-established, but it is believed to affect approximately 30% to 50% of individuals with cirrhosis. Risk factors for developing HPS include alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
The diagnosis of HPS typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate liver function. Treatment options for HPS depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications to manage portal hypertension, lung fibrosis, or other complications. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for individuals with HPS is generally poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%. However, early diagnosis and appropriate management can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
The term "melena" comes from the Greek word for "black," and it is used to describe the characteristic dark color of the stools in these patients. The stools may be black, tarry, and have a distinctive odor, and they may also be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of melena is typically made through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC) and a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Imaging studies, such as an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, may also be performed to identify the site of the bleeding.
Treatment of melena depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, and it may involve medications, endoscopic therapy, or surgery. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient. Prognosis for melena is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
There are several symptoms associated with hepatomegaly, including:
* Abdominal pain or swelling
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Loss of appetite
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools.
In order to diagnose hepatomegaly, a doctor may perform a physical examination to feel the size of the liver, as well as order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans to confirm the diagnosis. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of the enlarged liver, such as blood tests to check for liver function and liver biopsy to examine liver tissue under a microscope.
Treatment for hepatomegaly depends on the underlying cause of the condition. If the cause is reversible, treatment may involve addressing that condition, such as managing alcohol consumption or treating an infection. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to relieve symptoms or slow the progression of liver damage. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. It is important for individuals with hepatomegaly to follow their doctor's recommended treatment plan and make lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcohol to help manage the condition.
Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.
There are many different types of fibrosis, including:
* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.
Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:
* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.
There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:
* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.
It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.
The symptoms of peritonitis can vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, but they may include:
* Abdominal pain and tenderness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Loss of appetite
* Low blood pressure
Peritonitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as a CT scan, MRI or ultrasound. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove any infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Prompt medical attention is essential for effective treatment and prevention of complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:
1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.
The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH):
Hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb iron. It is caused by a genetic mutation in the HFE gene, which codes for a protein involved in iron absorption. The mutated protein leads to excessive iron accumulation in the body, especially in the liver, pancreas, and other organs.
Symptoms of HH typically appear in adulthood and may include:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Joint pain and swelling
3. Abdominal discomfort and weight loss
4. Skin bronzing or darkening
5. Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
6. Heart problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
7. Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer
8. Infertility and sexual dysfunction
Acquired Hemochromatosis (AH):
Acquired hemochromatosis is a condition that develops in people who have chronic iron overload due to blood transfusions or other medical conditions that cause excessive iron accumulation. It can also occur in people with certain genetic mutations that affect iron metabolism.
Symptoms of AH may include:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Joint pain and swelling
3. Abdominal discomfort and weight loss
4. Skin bronzing or darkening
5. Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
6. Heart problems, such as arrhythmias and heart failure
7. Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer
8. Infertility and sexual dysfunction
Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis:
Hemochromatosis can be diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
1. Serum iron and transferrin saturation: These tests measure the levels of iron in the blood and how well it is bound to transferrin, a protein that carries iron throughout the body. High levels of iron and low transferrin saturation can indicate hemochromatosis.
2. Ferritin: This test measures the level of ferritin, a protein that stores iron in the body. High levels of ferritin can indicate hemochromatosis.
3. Transferrin receptor gene analysis: This test can identify specific genetic mutations that cause hemochromatosis.
1. Ultrasound: An ultrasound of the liver can show signs of cirrhosis or other liver damage caused by hemochromatosis.
2. CT or MRI scans: These tests can provide detailed images of the liver and other organs and tissues, helping doctors identify any damage caused by excessive iron accumulation.
1. Liver biopsy: A liver biopsy involves removing a small sample of liver tissue for examination under a microscope. This test can help diagnose hemochromatosis and assess the extent of liver damage.
2. Biopsy of other organs: Biopsies of other organs, such as the pancreas or joints, may be performed to assess damage caused by hemochromatosis in these tissues.
It's important to note that not everyone with hemochromatosis will require all of these tests, and your healthcare provider will determine which tests are appropriate for you based on your symptoms and medical history.
Jaundice is typically diagnosed through physical examination and laboratory tests such as blood tests to measure bilirubin levels. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce bilirubin production or increase its excretion, or surgery to remove blockages in the bile ducts.
Here are some of the synonyms for Jaundice:
1. Yellow fever
2. Yellow jaundice
6. Obstruction of the bile ducts
7. Biliary tract disease
9. Sickle cell anemia
10. Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Here are some of the antonyms for Jaundice:
2. Normal skin color
3. Healthy liver function
4. Bilirubin levels within normal range
5. No signs of liver disease or obstruction of bile ducts.
Causes of Hyperammonemia:
1. Liver disease or failure: The liver is responsible for filtering out ammonia, so if it is not functioning properly, ammonia levels can rise.
2. Urea cycle disorders: These are genetic conditions that affect the body's ability to break down protein and produce urea. As a result, ammonia can build up in the bloodstream.
3. Inborn errors of metabolism: Certain inherited disorders can lead to hyperammonemia by affecting the body's ability to process ammonia.
4. Sepsis: Severe infections can cause inflammation in the body, which can lead to hyperammonemia.
5. Kidney disease or failure: If the kidneys are not functioning properly, they may be unable to remove excess ammonia from the bloodstream, leading to hyperammonemia.
Symptoms of Hyperammonemia:
1. Lethargy and confusion
6. Decreased appetite
7. Weight loss
10. Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Hyperammonemia:
1. Blood tests: Measurement of ammonia levels in the blood is the most common method used to diagnose hyperammonemia.
2. Urine tests: Measurement of urea levels in the urine can help determine if the body is able to produce and excrete urea normally.
3. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans may be ordered to look for any underlying liver or kidney damage.
4. Genetic testing: If the cause of hyperammonemia is suspected to be a genetic disorder, genetic testing may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of Hyperammonemia:
1. Dietary changes: A low-protein diet and avoiding high-aminogram foods can help reduce ammonia production in the body.
2. Medications: Medications such as sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, and ribavirin may be used to reduce ammonia production or increase urea production.
3. Dialysis: In severe cases of hyperammonemia, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess ammonia from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases where the cause of hyperammonemia is liver disease, a liver transplant may be necessary.
5. Nutritional support: Providing adequate nutrition and hydration can help support the body's metabolic processes and prevent complications of hyperammonemia.
Complications of Hyperammonemia:
1. Brain damage: Prolonged elevated ammonia levels in the blood can cause brain damage, leading to cognitive impairment, seizures, and coma.
2. Respiratory failure: Severe hyperammonemia can lead to respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening.
3. Cardiac complications: Hyperammonemia can cause cardiac complications such as arrhythmias and heart failure.
4. Kidney damage: Prolonged elevated ammonia levels in the blood can cause kidney damage and failure.
5. Infections: People with hyperammonemia may be more susceptible to infections due to impaired immune function.
In conclusion, hyperammonemia is a serious condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of hyperammonemia and provide appropriate treatment to prevent complications. Early detection and management of hyperammonemia can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
1. Peptic ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers can cause bleeding, which may lead to hematemesis.
2. Esophageal varices: These are enlarged veins in the esophagus that can rupture and cause bleeding. This condition is often seen in people with liver cirrhosis or other liver diseases.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors: Tumors in the GI tract, such as stomach cancer or colon cancer, can cause bleeding that leads to hematemesis.
4. Mallory-Weiss syndrome: This is a condition in which the esophagus and stomach are injured due to violent vomiting, leading to bleeding.
5. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can cause bleeding in the GI tract, leading to hematemesis.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as aspirin or warfarin, can thin the blood and increase the risk of bleeding.
7. Trauma: Injuries to the head, neck, or torso can cause internal bleeding that may lead to hematemesis.
8. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy to the chest or abdomen can damage the GI tract and cause bleeding.
9. Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia: This is a rare condition in which abnormal blood vessels in the GI tract cause bleeding.
Symptoms of hematemesis may include vomiting blood, which may be bright red or have a coffee ground consistency, depending on the location of the bleeding. Other symptoms may include abdominal pain, weakness, and dizziness. Treatment for hematemesis will depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to stop bleeding, endoscopy to locate the source of the bleeding, or surgery if necessary.
Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.
Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:
1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.
If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.
The exact cause of cholangiocarcinoma is not known, but there are several risk factors that have been linked to the development of the disease. These include:
1. Chronic inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis)
2. Infection with certain viruses, such as hepatitis B and C
3. Genetic conditions, such as inherited syndromes that affect the liver and bile ducts
4. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium dioxide
5. Obesity and metabolic disorders
The symptoms of cholangiocarcinoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
2. Itching all over the body
4. Loss of appetite
5. Abdominal pain and swelling
6. Weight loss
7. Nausea and vomiting
If cholangiocarcinoma is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:
1. Imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans
2. Blood tests to check for certain liver enzymes and bilirubin levels
3. Endoscopic ultrasound to examine the bile ducts
4. Biopsy to collect a sample of tissue from the suspected tumor
Treatment for cholangiocarcinoma depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the tumor and a portion of the bile ducts. In more advanced cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to relieve symptoms.
It's important for patients with cholangiocarcinoma to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and to monitor their condition regularly. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients with cholangiocarcinoma may experience long-term survival and a good quality of life.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The term splenomegaly is used to describe any condition that results in an increase in the size of the spleen, regardless of the underlying cause. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, or genetic disorders.
Splenomegaly can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where the doctor may feel the enlarged spleen during an abdominal palpation. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the extent of the splenomegaly.
Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause. For example, infections such as malaria or mononucleosis are treated with antibiotics, while cancerous conditions may require surgical intervention or chemotherapy. In some cases, the spleen may need to be removed, a procedure known as splenectomy.
In conclusion, splenomegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the spleen that can be caused by various factors and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The exact cause of FNH is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to hormonal factors, genetic mutations, or chronic liver injury. The lesion usually grows slowly over time, and it can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
The symptoms of FNH are generally non-specific and can include abdominal pain, fatigue, and mild elevations in liver enzymes. However, many patients with FNH may not experience any symptoms at all. The lesion is typically detected incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical conditions.
The diagnosis of FNH is based on a combination of imaging studies and pathological examination of a liver biopsy specimen. Imaging studies, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can help to identify the size and location of the lesion. However, the only way to definitively diagnose FNH is by performing a liver biopsy, which involves inserting a needle into the liver and withdrawing a small sample of tissue for pathological examination.
The treatment of FNH depends on the size and location of the lesion, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small lesions that are less than 3 cm in diameter may not require any treatment, while larger lesions may be treated with liver ablation therapies, such as radiofrequency ablation or laser ablation. In some cases, surgical resection of the affected liver lobe may be necessary.
In summary, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion that is characterized by a focal proliferation of hepatocytes and bile ducts within a well-defined nodule. Imaging studies and liver biopsy are essential for diagnosis, and treatment options depend on the size and location of the lesion.
Symptoms of iron overload can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment for iron overload usually involves reducing iron intake and undergoing regular phlebotomy (blood removal) to remove excess iron from the body. In severe cases, iron chelation therapy may be recommended to help remove excess iron from tissues and organs.
In addition to these medical definitions and treatments, there are also some key points to keep in mind when it comes to iron overload:
1. Iron is essential for human health, but too much of it can be harmful. The body needs a certain amount of iron to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. However, excessive iron levels can damage organs and tissues.
2. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common cause of iron overload. This genetic disorder causes the body to absorb too much iron from food, leading to its accumulation in organs and tissues.
3. Iron overload can increase the risk of certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and heart disease. It can also lead to a condition called hemosiderosis, which is characterized by the deposition of iron in tissues and organs.
4. Phlebotomy is a safe and effective treatment for iron overload. Regular blood removal can help reduce excess iron levels and prevent complications such as liver damage, heart failure, and anemia.
5. Iron chelation therapy may be recommended in severe cases of iron overload. This involves using drugs to remove excess iron from tissues and organs, but it is not always necessary and can have potential side effects.
Chronic hepatitis D can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to scarring and cirrhosis. It can also increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis D are limited and may include antiviral medications, pegylated interferon, and liver transplantation in severe cases.
Prevention of chronic hepatitis D primarily involves avoiding exposure to HBV, which is the primary risk factor for HDV infection. This can be achieved through vaccination against HBV, safe sex practices, and avoiding sharing of needles or other injection equipment.
The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune condition, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy bile duct cells, leading to inflammation and scarring.
Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis can include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching all over the body
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
If sclerosing cholangitis is not treated, it can lead to complications such as:
* Bile duct cancer
* Intestinal obstruction
* Sepsis (a potentially life-threatening infection of the bloodstream)
Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications used to treat the condition include:
* Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which helps to dissolve bile stones and reduce inflammation
* Antibiotics, which help to prevent or treat infections
* Immunosuppressive drugs, which help to suppress the immune system and prevent further damage to the bile ducts
Surgery may be necessary to remove damaged or blocked bile ducts. In some cases, a liver transplant may be required if the condition is severe and there is significant liver damage.
Types of Cholangitis:
There are two types of cholangitis:
1. Acute cholangitis: This type of cholangitis occurs suddenly and is usually caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, such as a gallstone or a tumor.
2. Chronic cholangitis: This type of cholangitis develops gradually over time and can be caused by recurring inflammation or scarring of the bile ducts.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The most common cause of cholangitis is a blockage in the bile ducts, which allows bacteria to grow and multiply, leading to infection. Other causes include:
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Trauma to the abdomen
* Inflammatory bowel disease
The symptoms of cholangitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
* Nausea and vomiting
Cholangitis is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests to determine the presence of infection. A liver biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
The treatment of cholangitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics to treat bacterial or fungal infections
* Supportive care, such as fluids and nutrition, to manage symptoms
* Surgical drainage of the bile ducts to relieve blockages
* Endoscopic therapy, such as stent placement or laser lithotripsy, to remove gallstones or other obstructions
* Liver transplantation in severe cases
The prognosis for cholangitis depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying cause. If treated promptly and effectively, the prognosis is generally good. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the prognosis can be poor.
Preventing cholangitis involves managing any underlying conditions that may increase the risk of infection, such as gallstones or liver disease. Other preventive measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause cholangitis
* Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease
Cholangitis can lead to several complications, including:
* Bile duct damage, which can lead to bile leaking into the abdomen and causing an infection called peritonitis
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or lungs
* Sepsis, a severe and life-threatening reaction to the infection
* Organ failure, particularly liver and kidney failure
It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of cholangitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Distal renal tubular acidosis
List of Albert Einstein College of Medicine people
Seán Ó Riada
Tod Sloan (jockey)
Deaths in December 2014
Giorgio De Lullo
Deaths in February 1995
King's College London
University of East Anglia
Heart rate variability
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Dental pulp stem cell
Michael Houghton (virologist)
Edwin A. Miller
City of the Living Dead
Fikret Mualla Saygı
John Langdon Bonython
The Gallery of Lost Species
List of EastEnders characters (1985)
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
Familial partial lipodystrophy
Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco
Distal splenorenal shunt procedure
Harold R. Atteridge
FastStats - Chronic Liver Disease or Cirrhosis
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People with cirrhosis4
- 1 Researchers believe the actual numbers may be higher than that because many people with cirrhosis are not diagnosed. (nih.gov)
- A small number of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
- People with cirrhosis should also exercise as much as possible, although this may be difficult because of the fatigue that this disease causes. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- A new way to measure physical frailty in people with cirrhosis of the liver may help to better identify patients who are most at risk of dying while waiting for a transplant, according to a new study. (nih.gov)
- PDQ Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention. (nih.gov)
- The most dreaded complication of cirrhosis is hepatocellular carcinoma, a highly fatal cancer that arises in 1 to 3% of persons with cirrhosis yearly. (nih.gov)
- Alcoholism and Hepatitis C are the two most common causes of cirrhosis in the U.S. Obesity, anabolic steroid abuse, exposure to certain chemicals, and Hepatitis B have also been linked to hepatocellular carcinoma. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Patients with cirrhosis of hepatocellular origin (alcoholic liver cirrhosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis) had the greatest disturbances in substrate metabolism, depressed dietary intakes and poorest nutritional status when compared with patients with biliary cirrhosis and control subjects. (bl.uk)
- These findings suggest that aberrant metabolism may contribute to anorexia and impact on nutritional status in patients with hepatocellular cirrhosis. (bl.uk)
- Analysis of serum haptoglobin fucosylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis of different etiologies. (nih.gov)
- We have developed herein a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze the etiology-related alterations in fucosylation degree of serum haptoglobin in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nih.gov)
- Cirrhosis increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. (differencebetween.com)
- Thus, this report does not break out cause-specific liver disease other than viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (nih.gov)
- Portal hypertension is a serious problem caused by cirrhosis and can lead to some of the most common complications of cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- Portal hypertension occurs when scar tissue in the liver slows the normal flow of blood, which causes high blood pressure in the portal vein . (nih.gov)
- As fibrosis accumulates it causes distortion of the architecture of liver, portal hypertension and compromise of liver function. (nih.gov)
- Patients with refractory ascites and poor liver function and/or renal dysfunction, should be referred for liver transplant, as this will eliminate the portal hypertension and liver dysfunction. (lww.com)
- Blood pressure medications ARE GIVEN TO control increase pressure in the veins that supply the liver (portal hypertension) and prevent severe bleeding. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- Cirrhosis of liver may lead to portal hypertension (increased pressure of the blood in portal circulation). (org.bd)
- This can cause a range of complications, including liver failure, portal hypertension , and liver cancer. (differencebetween.io)
- As cirrhosis progresses, complications such as portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy, and liver cancer may occur. (differencebetween.io)
- What are the complications of cirrhosis? (nih.gov)
- As the liver fails, complications may develop. (nih.gov)
- In some people, complications may be the first sign they have cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- Once cirrhosis is present, treatment of the underlying liver disease can impede further progress and deterioration but it does not eliminate all risk of complications. (nih.gov)
- The study authors suspect that frailty is likely an end manifestation of cirrhosis-related liver dysfunction, accompanied by muscle wasting and inadequate nutrition, and is sometimes made worse by related hypertension and other complications. (nih.gov)
- Liver damage is permanent, so the goal is to stop further deterioration and eliminate complications. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- The main aim of liver disease treatment is to slow the progression of scar tissue in the liver and to prevent or treat symptoms and complications of liver cirrhosis. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- This alters the blood flow within the liver causing other pathways to open thus resulting in various complications. (org.bd)
- Treatment of cirrhosis often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the disease and managing complications. (differencebetween.io)
- Early detection and treatment of cirrhosis can prevent or delay complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, and death . (differencebetween.io)
- Similarly, early detection and prompt treatment of liver failure can improve the chances of survival and prevent further complications. (differencebetween.io)
- Many people are not aware they have cirrhosis, because they may not have any signs or symptoms until their liver is badly damaged. (nih.gov)
- Many people with early stages of cirrhosis may not be diagnosed if they have few symptoms or do not feel ill. (nih.gov)
- What are the symptoms of cirrhosis? (nih.gov)
- You may have no symptoms in the earliest stage of cirrhosis . (nih.gov)
- Symptoms of cirrhosis may not appear until the liver is badly damaged. (nih.gov)
- Why Know Symptoms of Cirrhosis of the Liver? (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver can be the indication that a serious medical condition exists where the liver has been damaged. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver should be understood because the liver is one of the most vital organs in the human body. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- One particular cause of having symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver that can be stopped, however, is the irresponsible intake of large amounts of alcohol over time. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- The absolute truth is - the more alcohol you drink, the more likely you are to eventually develop symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- There is great news to persons having symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Having a supportive family member who can help or attending an Alcoholics Anonymous program is essential for people who want to reverse or survive the consequences symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver related articles. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Progressed symptoms: anemia, edema, spider-shaped bruises (i.e., internal bleeding) and heaviness throughout the liver area. (wewant2live.com)
- The booklet explains the common symptoms of cirrhosis, the various medical tests people living with cirrhosis can expect, and treatment options. (catie.ca)
- Liver Cirrhosis often has no signs or symptoms until liver damage is extensive. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- The doctor often can diagnosis cirrhosis from the individual's symptoms and from laboratory tests. (org.bd)
- Since the liver has great resources, symptoms first appear when over 80 per cent of its cells are already inoperative. (org.bd)
- What are the symptoms of chronic infection and cirrhosis? (org.bd)
- Cirrhosis often has no symptoms until it is in its advanced stages. (differencebetween.io)
- Preventing cirrhosis involves avoiding or reducing risk factors such as excessive alcohol consumption, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting vaccinated for hepatitis B. If you have any concerns or symptoms related to cirrhosis, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. (differencebetween.io)
- It is often the result of cirrhosis, but can also be caused by other liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B or C. Symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and fluid buildup in the abdomen and legs. (differencebetween.io)
- Preventing liver failure involves avoiding or reducing risk factors such as excessive alcohol consumption, avoiding the use of illicit drugs , and getting vaccinated for hepatitis B. It is important to seek medical attention if you have any symptoms or concerns related to liver health. (differencebetween.io)
- Using the Liver Frailty Index may help identify the most vulnerable on transplant waitlists and help guide those people and their caregivers to consider accelerated transplant options, such as living donor liver transplantation (receiving a portion of healthy liver donated by a friend or family member), accepting higher-risk donated livers, or considering alternate transplant centers. (nih.gov)
- The investigators will next seek to test how the LFI might inform development of physical activity and nutrition interventions that could help reduce physical frailty and the risk of adverse outcomes for people on waitlists for liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
- This study examined factors associated with the anorexia of chronic liver disease and obesity following liver transplantation. (bl.uk)
- A sub-group of 23 patients who underwent liver transplantation were reviewed every three months on three occasions. (bl.uk)
- Following liver transplantation, patients weight exceeded pre-illness values by 7% and this increase in body weight was accounted for by fat mass but not lean tissue. (bl.uk)
- These findings suggest that the liver transplant procedure per se is implicated in the energy economy and fat hyperphagia observed following liver transplantation which may be a result of denervation and the loss of afferent input and efferent outflow. (bl.uk)
- After long times of fighting now, doctors said it's going the way of liver cirrhosis and now transplantation is the last chance to survive. (milaap.org)
- We studied safety and clinical efficacy of transplantation of autologous bone marrow cell in complex therapy of 158 patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver . (bvsalud.org)
- The ideal treatment of decompensated cirrhosis is liver transplantation. (org.bd)
- Other forms of treatment like liver dialysis may serve as temporary supportive measures and as a bridge to transplantation. (org.bd)
- In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary. (differencebetween.io)
- People who suffer from hepatitis, particularly from the most serious form hepatitis C, need to be very careful with consuming alcohol , taking aspirin or doing other activities that can negatively affect the liver. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- This elimination of alcohol is essential because as cirrhosis progresses, the liver becomes less and less resistant to the effects of alcohol to the point where one drink could make someone completely inebriated. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Participants Adult patients (aged 18 years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology. (bmj.com)
- Interventions A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE). (bmj.com)
- Patients with common lifestyle-related risk factors for chronic liver disease (including hazardous alcohol use and type 2 diabetes) were identified using a widely utilised prospective primary care database in the UK, from two general practices with an adult population of 10 479 patients. (bmj.com)
- However, the doctor can undoubtedly warn the patient who already has any form of alcoholic liver disease that continued alcohol use virtually guarantees that the disease will persist and likely worsen. (healthtap.com)
- Alcohol makes your liver work extra hard, causing additional scarring. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- Even if your cirrhosis was not caused by drinking alcohol, you should stop altogether to prevent further damage. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- When combined with alcohol or consumed in large doses, these drugs can be extremely damaging to your liver. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- This surveillance report, prepared biennially by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), presents trends in liver cirrhosis mortality in the United States. (nih.gov)
- Sex differences in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis mortality across ages reflected the consequences of a consistent but narrowing gender gap in alcohol consumption. (nih.gov)
- The crude death rate from all cirrhosis was 14.6 deaths per 100,000 population, up 3.8 percent from 2018, and the rate from alcohol-related cirrhosis was 7.3, slightly higher than the 2018 estimate of 7.1. (nih.gov)
- Among all cirrhosis deaths, 50.3 percent were alcohol related. (nih.gov)
- The proportion of alcohol-related cirrhosis was highest (80.9 percent) among decedents ages 25 to 34, followed by decedents ages 35 to 44, at 75.4 percent. (nih.gov)
- The gender gap in the proportion of alcohol-related cirrhosis was smaller among those who died before reaching age 55 than among those in older age groups. (nih.gov)
- The age-adjusted death rate from alcohol-related liver cirrhosis increased by 47.0 percent-from 4.3 deaths per 100,000 population in 2000 to 6.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 2019. (nih.gov)
- Alcohol abuse, CHRONIC LIVER infection like hepatitis B & C, Fatty liver associated with obesity and diabetes are the most common causes of cirrhosis of the liver. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- For Treatment of liver cirrhosis, reduce alcohol dependency through support groups in case of addiction or refraining from alcohol. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- Is cirrhosis only caused by alcohol abuse? (org.bd)
- It is a popular misconception that cirrhosis only affects people who drink too much alcohol over the years. (org.bd)
- How does alcohol cause Cirrhosis of liver? (org.bd)
- Ethanol in alcohol causes inflammation of the liver cells (hepatitis). (org.bd)
- The most common causes of cirrhosis include chronic hepatitis B or C infection , excessive alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (differencebetween.io)
- The most common causes of acute liver failure include viral hepatitis, drug overdose, and acute alcohol poisoning. (differencebetween.io)
- Alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury were responsible for the majority of the burden of alcohol-attributable mortality in 1990 and 2010. (nih.gov)
- The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 for both genders. (nih.gov)
- In addition, the rates of deaths and PYLL per 100,000 people from alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 (with the exception of liver cirrhosis rates for women). (nih.gov)
- This article outlines the alcohol-attributable mortality burden from three major causes: cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury. (nih.gov)
- Cirrhosis from these diseases is almost always the result of chronic injury with persistent inflammation and cell damage that results in faulty healing and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- Patients were investigated utilising simple and cheap blood-based biomarkers followed by transient elastography (a validated biomarker of liver fibrosis). (bmj.com)
- The scarring process , known as fibrosis , can occur over many years and gradually replace healthy liver tissue with scar tissue. (differencebetween.io)
- The following are highlights of liver cirrhosis mortality in 2019 and its trends from 2000 through 2019. (nih.gov)
- In 2019, liver cirrhosis was the 11th leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for a total of 47,919 deaths-1,947 more than in 2018. (nih.gov)
- Although the age-adjusted all-cause mortality rate declined by 18.3 percent from 2000 to 2019, the age-adjusted death rate from all liver cirrhosis increased over the same period by 26.4 percent-from 9.7 to 12.2 deaths per 100,000 population. (nih.gov)
- From 2000 to 2019, the age-specific death rates from all liver cirrhosis increased for ages 25-34 (127 percent), 35-44 (9.4 percent), 45-54 (14.8 percent), 55-64 (48.8 percent), 65-74 (23.7 percent), 75-84 (21.7 percent), and 85 or older (27.1 percent). (nih.gov)
- Between 2000 and 2019, changes in the age-adjusted death rate from all liver cirrhosis included increases in 47 States and decreases in 3 States and the District of Columbia. (nih.gov)
- You see people who suffer from hepatitis typically have problems in relation to the liver. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- It is not uncommon for a non-alcoholic with hepatitis C to be diagnosed with cirrhosis. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- 9 years since being diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis developed in 5% (125 of 2417) of patients with CHB and 11% (120 of 1127) of those with CHC. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
- Multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards model identified certain risk factors for liver cirrhosis among patients with psoriasis and chronic viral hepatitis. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
- A longer interval between psoriasis diagnosis and development of chronic viral hepatitis was linked with a lower risk for liver cirrhosis. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
- Psoriatic patients with chronic viral hepatitis do not have an increased risk of liver cirrhosis despite long-term methotrexate use: real-world data from a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan [published online May 9, 2018]. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
- Hepatitis is deadly to a damaged liver, so make sure to get vaccines for hepatitis A and B. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- Experimental and clinical hepatology : proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Italian National Programme on Liver Cirrhosis and Viral Hepatitis, San Miniato (Pisa, Italy, 9-11 January 1992 / editors, Paolo Gentilini, Mario Umberto Dianzani. (who.int)
- The incidence of liver cirrhosis varies according to the prevalence of various types of viral and non viral hepatitis in a community. (org.bd)
- Which hepatitis viruses can cause cirrhosis? (org.bd)
- The viruses known to cause cirrhosis are hepatitis types B, C and D. Hepatitis B &C virus may cause cirrhosis after many years of carriage of the virus. (org.bd)
- If combined with the 3.5 million visits with a diagnosis of viral hepatitis, then liver disease would have been the third leading diagnosis, after GERD and chronic constipation. (nih.gov)
- Combined with 475,000 viral hepatitis diagnoses, liver disease would have been the second leading diagnosis, with 1.2 million. (nih.gov)
- In the appropriate patients with reasonable liver reserve, the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) can be considered, especially if the patient is relatively young and has no previous hepatic encephalopathy or anatomical contraindications, and no past history of renal or cardiopulmonary disease. (lww.com)
- There may be an alteration in levels of consciousness with tremors, forgetfulness (hepatic encephalopathy) because of the toxins which are not being cleared by the liver. (org.bd)
- Trends in characteristics, mortality, and other outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed cirrhosis [published correction appears in JAMA Network Open . (nih.gov)
- To estimate vascular changes in chronic liver disease, we quantitated intrahepatic arteriovenous and portal-systemic shunts in 12 patients with cirrhosis and arteriovenous shunts alone in 4 patients with cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- In the 12 patients with cirrhosis in whom both shunts were measured, intrahepatic arteriovenous shunting was significantly lower compared with intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting (1.4% +/- 1.1% vs. 36.0% +/- 29.0%, p less than 0.001). (nih.gov)
- Thus, it seems that in patients with cirrhosis, the development of intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts is not as great as that of portal-systemic shunts, which were found in this study to be considerable and variable in degree. (nih.gov)
- Ascites, a common complication of liver cirrhosis, eventually becomes refractory to diuretic therapy and sodium restriction in ∼10% of patients. (lww.com)
- Sixty-seven patients with chronic liver disease and a group of 18 healthy volunteers were recruited. (bl.uk)
- This phase II trial studies how well simvastatin works in preventing liver cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis. (cancer.gov)
- Acute decompensation is the term used for one or more significant consequences of liver disease in a short time and is the most common reason for hospital admission in cirrhotic patients. (wjgnet.com)
- The European Association for the Study of Liver-Chronic-Liver Failure (EASL-CLIF) Group modified the intensive care Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score into CLIF-SOFA, which detects the presence of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with or without acute decompensation (AD), classifying it into three grades. (wjgnet.com)
- Objectives To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting. (bmj.com)
- Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. (bmj.com)
- Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. (bmj.com)
- We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population. (bmj.com)
- Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis. (bmj.com)
- The current study provides an alternative diagnostic algorithm to the usual flawed concept of investigating patients for liver disease on the basis of elevated liver function enzymes. (bmj.com)
- Quantitative analysis indicated that the increased fucosylation degree was highly associated with HBV- and ALC-related HCC patients compared to that of the corresponding cirrhosis patients. (nih.gov)
- Notably, the bifucosylation degree was distinctly increased in HCC patients versus that in cirrhosis of all etiologies. (nih.gov)
- The elevated bifucosylation degree of haptoglobin can discriminate early stage HCC patients from cirrhosis in each etiologic category, which may be used to provide a potential marker for early detection and to predict HCC in patients with cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- in patients with class C liver cirrhosis , the positive response was achieved in 42.5% cases. (bvsalud.org)
- Use in Patients with Hypothyroidism or Liver Cirrhosis: May result in an enhanced effect. (nih.gov)
- In the study, the research team examined 1,044 adults on liver transplant waitlists at nine transplant centers across the United States. (nih.gov)
- Mortality due to liver disease remains a significant public health burden in the United States, currently ranked 11th overall and ranking 6th in persons below the age of 65 years. (nih.gov)
- Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a syndrome characterized by decompensation in individuals with chronic liver disease, and is generally secondary to one or more extra-hepatic organ failures, implying an elevated mortality rate. (wjgnet.com)
- Death from liver disease was most common among persons aged 45-64 years, although the mortality rate from liver disease was highest at age 65 years and older. (nih.gov)
- Beginning in 1970, through 2004, mortality from liver disease declined slowly but steadily (Figure 2). (nih.gov)
- 21 Between 1979 and 2004, liver disease mortality fell 30 percent. (nih.gov)
- Cirrhosis may eventually lead to liver failure, also called end-stage liver disease. (nih.gov)
- Cirrhosis represents not a single disease, but rather the consequence and major serious outcome of many chronic liver diseases, caused by a wide range of conditions. (nih.gov)
- and toxic causes such as alcoholic liver disease and chronic liver injury from medications such as methotrexate and amiodarone. (nih.gov)
- Other signs of liver disease are quite extensive, however, and they can also be caused by a host of other illnesses, conditions, diseases and even viruses. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Cirrhosis is a common liver disease, affecting about 1 in 400 adults in the United States annually. (nih.gov)
- Cirrhosis can lead to liver failure or end-stage liver disease, which requires a liver transplant for survival. (nih.gov)
- Re: liver pain: no disease. (curezone.org)
- We introduced a novel algorithm that targets established risk factors for chronic liver disease in a primary care setting. (bmj.com)
- Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis deaths were identified with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes K70 and K73-K74. (cdc.gov)
- From 2000 to 2015, death rates for chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the United States increased 31% (from 20.1 per 100,000 to 26.4) among persons aged 45-64 years. (cdc.gov)
- Cirrhosis is a disease that destroys healthy liver tissue, leaving behind scar tissue that hinders liver functions. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- Often, cirrhosis is a silent disease until severe liver damage has occurred. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- Cirrhosis signifies the end stage of a progressive liver disease. (differencebetween.com)
- But with the disease progression, the compensatory mechanisms become inadequate and the clinical features of liver failure start to appear gradually. (differencebetween.com)
- Liver Cirrhosis is a liver disease where the normal healthy tissue is replaced by scar tissue. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- The disease is a slow progressing and blood flow is blocked in the liver, hampering the production of vital substance, from the liver affecting the overall health status of an individual. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- Before treatment of liver disease, the doctor will carry out investigations for diagnosis and progress of the disease. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- This will help to plan out the liver disease treatment. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- Cirrhosis occurs when the liver has been chronically unwell for many years, typically 20-30 years and it does not relate to any particular cause of liver disease. (org.bd)
- Cirrhosis is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of irreversible scarring of the liver and diffuse nodule (constituted of regenerating liver cells). (org.bd)
- The purpose of these tests is to find out if liver disease is present. (org.bd)
- Cirrhosis is the final stage of chronic liver disease. (org.bd)
- Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that results from the progressive scarring of liver tissue. (differencebetween.io)
- Chronic liver failure, also known as end-stage liver disease, occurs gradually over a long period of time . (differencebetween.io)
- Early detection and treatment can make a significant difference in the outcome of liver disease. (differencebetween.io)
- Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that results in the scarring of liver tissue, while liver failure is a serious condition that occurs when the liver is no longer able to function properly. (differencebetween.io)
- There are many causes of liver disease, and the underlying cause is not always clear from administrative data sets. (nih.gov)
- Because ICD-10 does not separate acute from chronic liver disease, ICD-9 codes for acute and chronic liver disease were combined to achieve consistency for time trend data (Appendix 1). (nih.gov)
- In 2004, liver disease was the ninth leading diagnosis at ambulatory care visits, with 2.4 million visits (Table 1). (nih.gov)
- All-listed visit rates for liver disease were highest at age 45-64 years. (nih.gov)
- When listed as a hospital discharge, liver disease was first-listed diagnosis on only 24.4 percent of records. (nih.gov)
- In 2004, liver disease was the third leading diagnosis on hospital discharge records, after only GERD and diverticular disease. (nih.gov)
- 20 Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of hospitalization with a diagnosis of liver disease increased by more than a third. (nih.gov)
- In 2004, there were 36,000 deaths with liver disease listed as underlying cause, which was half the number of deaths with liver disease listed as underlying or other cause (Table 2). (nih.gov)
- Among all digestive diseases, liver disease was the second leading cause of death, after colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
- According to the Verispan database of retail pharmacy prescriptions (Appendix 2), only three drugs (spironolactone, lactulose, and furosemide) were commonly prescribed for liver disease in 2004, for a total of 731,000 prescriptions at a cost of $16 million (Table 3). (nih.gov)
- 7 Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (nih.gov)
- The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is seeking applications to establish the Liver Cirrhosis Network. (nih.gov)
- To know about liver cirrhosis, liver transplant surgery, treatment option for liver diseases or any digestive care condition, please contact our centres at Wockhardt Hospital. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- When specific diseases cause the liver to become permanently injured and scarred, the condition is called cirrhosis. (org.bd)
- Cirrhosis is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). (org.bd)
Lead to liver failure1
- While cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, not all cases of cirrhosis progress to liver failure. (differencebetween.io)
- This booklet will help people newly diagnosed with cirrhosis understand the basics of this serious form of liver damage. (catie.ca)
- Cirrhosis increases your chance of getting bacterial infections , such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia . (nih.gov)
- Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does - make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. (medlineplus.gov)
- A damaged liver can lead to a suppressed immune system, so it is important to protect yourself against infections. (newhealthadvisor.org)
Healthy liver tissue1
- Scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and prevents the liver from working normally. (nih.gov)
- and in conjunction with RFA-DK-20-004 seeking a single Scientific Data Coordination Center, in order to promote clinical and translational research on cirrhosis of the liver in adults. (nih.gov)
- In clinical medicine, this is recognized as compensated cirrhosis. (differencebetween.com)
- Liver Cirrhosis is the most common reason for a liver transplant and at Wockhardt Hospital we can provide this option having the infrastructure, clinical expertise and a transplant coordination team to assist in various organ donation protocols (liver donor or cadaver donor). (wockhardthospitals.com)
- Treatment of cirrhosis generally depends on the clinical manifestation and underlying liver function. (org.bd)
- Renal dysfunction prior to liver transplant largely improves after transplant without affecting post-transplant survival. (lww.com)
Condition that affects the liver1
- Cirrhosis is a condition that affects the liver. (org.bd)
- This is a yellowing of the skin which occurs because the liver does not remove toxins properly. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- AS PART OF treatment for cirrhosis hospitalization maybe recommended. (wockhardthospitals.com)
Treatment of Liver1
- Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. (differencebetween.io)
- Cirrhosis increases the chance of getting liver cancer . (nih.gov)
- Fatigue is a common symptom of liver cirrhosis, that is being tired all the time even upon waking up or shortly thereafter. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- How common is cirrhosis? (nih.gov)
- The portal vein is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the stomach , intestines , spleen , gallbladder , and pancreas to the liver. (nih.gov)
- For further information or any gastroenterology services or liver transplant related query visit our experts at Wockhardt Hospital. (wockhardthospitals.com)
Diagnosis of liver1
- definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. (bmj.com)
- Researchers estimate that about 1 in 400 adults in the United States have cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
- Treatment for liver cirrhosis depends on the cause and extent of liver damage. (wockhardthospitals.com)
- A liver transplant may be your only option if all other treatments are unsuccessful. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- The procedure is intensive, requiring the removal of your damaged liver and exchanging it with a live and healthy donor liver. (newhealthadvisor.org)
- There are two types of primary liver tumors or cancers. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- This can be a sign of liver cirrhosis as the liver is responsible for effectively moving fluids out of the body. (safemenopausesolutions.com)