Liver Function Tests
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Liver Failure, Acute
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
End Stage Liver Disease
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Rats, Inbred Strains
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Liver Abscess, Pyogenic
Disease Models, Animal
Liver Diseases, Parasitic
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Hepatic Stellate Cells
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic
Gene Expression Regulation
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Amino Acid Sequence
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Hepatitis C, Chronic
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Bile Acids and Salts
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Orphan Nuclear Receptors
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Hep G2 Cells
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Tissue and Organ Procurement
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cod Liver Oil
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Biliary Tract Diseases
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Hepatitis B virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Organ Preservation Solutions
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Severity of Illness Index
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 126.96.36.199), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Gene Expression Profiling
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (1/63406)Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed. (+info)
Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (2/63406)Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia. (+info)
Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (3/63406)Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury. (+info)
Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (4/63406)Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed. (+info)
Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (5/63406)The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin. (+info)
Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda). (6/63406)Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. (+info)
Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (7/63406)Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells. (+info)
Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (8/63406)Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions. (+info)
Induction of glutathione S-transferase P-form in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells by co-planar polychlorinated...
Alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells were examined after their exposure to the potent carcinogens, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Co-planar PCB congeners (3,4,5,3′,4′-PCB and 3,4,5,3′,4′,5′-PCB) (10 nM) induced a protein, the Mr of which was 25,000 (25 k protein) under denaturing conditions. However, non-co-planar PCB congeners and several xenobiotics, which induce microsomal proteins, did not induce the 25 k protein. By using immunoblotting, the 25 k protein was identified as glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P, 7-7, EC 188.8.131.52).. ...
Report on liver cell transplantation using human fetal liver cells<...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Report on liver cell transplantation using human fetal liver cells. AU - Pietrosi, Giada. AU - Chinnici, Cinzia. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - In an era of organ shortage, human fetuses donated after medically indicated abortion could be considered a potential liver donor for hepatic cell isolation. We investigated transplantation of fetal liver cells as a strategy to support liver functionality in end-stage liver disease. Here, we report our protocol of human fetal liver cells (hFLC) isolation in fetuses from 17 to 22 gestational weeks, and our clinical procedure of hFLC transplantation through the splenic artery.. AB - In an era of organ shortage, human fetuses donated after medically indicated abortion could be considered a potential liver donor for hepatic cell isolation. We investigated transplantation of fetal liver cells as a strategy to support liver functionality in end-stage liver disease. Here, we report our protocol of human fetal liver cells (hFLC) isolation in fetuses ...
Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells | Biochemical Journal
Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na+-dependent and Na+-independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na+-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent Km values for uridine in the range 8-13 μM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 106 cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na+-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na+-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na+-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is ...
Synthesis rates of total liver protein and albumin are both increased in patients with an acute inflammatory response |...
The general perception that catabolism and inflammation are associated with a high synthesis rate of total liver protein and a low albumin synthesis rate has been challenged in recent years by several studies in man, indicating that the synthesis rate of albumin in response to a catabolic insult is increased rather than decreased. Thus changes in liver protein synthesis rates in conjunction with catabolism and acute inflammation in man need to be characterized better. The aim of the present study was to measure protein synthesis rates of total liver protein and albumin during a state of acute inflammation. Patients (n=10) undergoing acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis were investigated. FSRs (fractional synthesis rates) of total liver protein (liver biopsy specimens) and albumin (plasma samples) were investigated as early as possible during the surgical procedure, using a flooding dose of L-[2H5]phenylalanine. The results were compared with a reference group of patients ...
Liver PF Liver Protection Factors Supports Liver Metabolism 90 Softgels Jarrow Formulas - Compare Price and Reviews at...
VitaDigest offer Liver PF Liver Protection Factors Supports Liver Metabolism 90 Softgels , Product Review For Jarrow Formulas Formula and Information, Exclusive Reivews for Liver PF Liver Protection Factors Supports Liver Metabolism 90 Softgels Jarrow Formulas
Expression of ECM proteins fibulin-1 and -2 in acute and chronic liver disease and in cultured rat liver cells - pdf descargar
Expression of ECM proteins fibulin-1 and -2 in acute and chronic liver disease and in cultured rat liver cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell (Lsec) Isolation Following a Liver Perfusion Technique | IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia...
Introduction: Liver perfusion has been the standard method to digest and isolate liver cells including liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). Poor cannulating skills through portal vein results in a waste of animal resource. Familiarization of both liver perfusion technique and adhering strictly to aseptic technique during cell handling ensure high cell yield, minimum morphology disruption and cell contamination. We aimed to present a method of liver perfusion procedure followed by the isolation of LSEC. Materials and method: The study was conducted with the approval of IACUC committee. Seven Sprague Dawley rats underwent these procedures under anaesthesia. Liver perfusion was done as previously described. Briefly, LSEC were isolated by liberase enzyme perfusion of the liver, isopycnic sedimentation in a two- step Percoll gradient and selective adherence. The purification and cultivation of LSEC was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results: Purity and viability of LSEC after ...
Liver sinusoid - Wikipedia
A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for mixing of the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein. Hepatocytes are separated from the sinusoids by the space of Disse. Kupffer cells are located inside the sinusoids and can take up and destroy foreign material such as bacteria. Hepatic stellate cells are present in the space of Disse and are involved in scar formation in response to liver damage. The sinusoidal endothelial cells are cultured for a variety of research purposes. The utility of these cells are of particular interest. One problem to overcome is the reversing of cellular differentiation that has made these cells highly specialized phenotypically in vitro. Human liver sinusoid A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60. SIU SOM Histology GI Sellaro TL, Ravindra AK, Stolz DB, Badylak SF. (September 2007). Maintenance of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial ...
Isolation and enrichment of two sublobular compartment-specific endothelial cell subpopulations from liver sinusoids - Vidal...
Similar to the well-recognized phenotypical heterogeneity of hepatocytes, in situ sublobular variations have recently been detected in the cell structure, fenestration patterns, filtrating efficiency, surface glycosylation, scavenger function and pathological responses of the sinusoidal lining endothelium. However, unlike other liver cell populations, until now no endothelial cell subpopulations had been isolated or defined with clarity, much less with sublobular/acinar zone-related differential properties. On the basis of our previous studies showing that periportal segments of mouse liver sinusoids express a significantly higher number of wheat germ agglutinin-binding sites than do perivenous ones, we used this differential feature for in vitro labeling of the specific sublobular derivation of isolated sinusoidal lining endothelial cells to correlate their original lobular position with other features determined on flow cytometry, centrifugal elutriation, discontinuous arabinogalactan density ...
SIRT7 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SIRT7 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. AU - Yoshizawa, Tatsuya. AU - Karim, Md Fazlul. AU - Sato, Yoshifumi. AU - Senokuchi, Takafumi. AU - Miyata, Keishi. AU - Fukuda, Takaichi. AU - Go, Chisa. AU - Tasaki, Masayoshi. AU - Uchimura, Kohei. AU - Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi. AU - Tian, Zhe. AU - Smolka, Christian. AU - Sawa, Tomohiro. AU - Takeya, Motohiro. AU - Tomizawa, Kazuhito. AU - Ando, Yukio. AU - Araki, Eiichi. AU - Akaike, Takaaki. AU - Braun, Thomas. AU - Oike, Yuichi. AU - Bober, Eva. AU - Yamagata, Kazuya. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) have attracted considerable attention as regulators of metabolism over the past decade. However, the physiological functions and molecular mechanisms of SIRT7 are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Sirt7 knockout mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced fatty liver, obesity, and glucose intolerance, and that hepatic triglyceride accumulation was also attenuated ...
Lack of Zonal Uptake of Estrone Sulfate in Enriched Periportal and Perivenous Isolated Rat Hepatocytes | Drug Metabolism &...
The marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase, verified that enriched periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were isolated from different lobular origin within the rat liver. Our finding that alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in periportal hepatocytes (with a ratio of 1.9 for periportal to perivenous activities, Table 1) was in agreement with histochemical evidence on the enzyme in rat liver (Gorgens et al., 1988) and what was observed in other studies (Sillau et al., 1996; Tosh et al., 1996). The dramatic difference in glutamine synthetase activity between the perivenous and periportal regions (Table 1) was also shown by Stoll et al. (1991) and provided evidence on the successful preparation of enriched populations of periportal and perivenous cells. In addition, glutamate uptake, mediated by the sodium-dependent transporter, System G, in the perivenous region (Stoll et al., 1991) as well as the sodium-independent system in both periportal and perivenous ...
Smooth Muscle Actin Antibody Review
In chronic active hepatitis, very strong alpha-SMA staining was detected at the site of piecemeal necrosis and adjacent lobules. A-SMA expression was decreased in some cases after interferon treatment. In cases of transplanted liver biopsies, expression of intralobular alpha-SMA was diffusely increased but showed no correlation with degree of acute rejection. Cirrhotic livers revealed strong alpha-SMA positivity in fibrous septae as well as in the perisinusoidal space of intact hepatocytes at the leading edge of fibrosis. Interlobular bile ducts were concentrically circumscribed by alpha-SMA positive cells in cases of intrahepatic cholelithiasis. In trabecular type hepatocellular carcinomas, most sinusoidal lining cells were positive for alpha-SMA. Most intralobular alpha-SMA positive cells represent, if not all, perisinusoidal cells (PSCs) which are involved in intralobular fibrogenesis in various liver diseases. PMID: 8305144. ...
The Effect of Exercise on Hepatic Glucose Metabolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
It is known that obesity and/or physical inactivity greatly increase a persons risk of developing heart disease and other serious health problems. This is partly because diabetes is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Diabetes is also associated with high levels of triglycerides in the blood and tissues such as the liver (known as fatty liver or steatosis). This elevation of fat in the liver is known to cause liver insulin resistance and impair the function of the liver and this impairment contributes to the development of diabetes.. Studies have shown that both aerobic exercise and weight loss have beneficial results on insulin resistance. However, the cause of this benefit remains unclear. We know that both aerobic exercise and/or weight loss can improve how muscle responds to insulin. However, it is also known that aerobic exercise and/or weight loss lowers liver fat content, thereby making it possible that the livers response to insulin is also improved ...
Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells | PNAS
Preparation of Recombinant Adenoviruses. All first-generation recombinant adenoviruses were constructed according to Becker et al. (18). Generation of Ad-RIP-GFP and the bifunctional recombinant Ad-RIP-GFP-CMV-PDX-1 adenoviruses is described in Supporting Methods, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site.. Human Liver Cells. Adult human liver (AHL) tissues were obtained from eight different liver transplantation surgeries from 4- to 10-year-old children and three individuals ,40 years old. Fetal human livers were obtained from four deliberate abortions of 20-22 weeks of gestation. Both adult and fetal liver tissues were used with approval from the Committee on Clinical Investigations (Institutional Review Boards of Sheba Medical Center and Rabin Medical Center).. Cell Harvest and Culture Conditions. Isolation of human liver cells was performed as described (19). Briefly, liver samples were cut into thin slices (1- to 2-mm thickness), and digested by 0.03% collagenase ...
Liver Fat Content in Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship With Hepatic Perfusion and Substrate Metabolism | Diabetes
Although flow through portal vein and hepatic artery is readily accessible using Doppler sonography, (22,23) in vivo studies on human hepatic (parenchymal) perfusion are limited due to the often (highly) invasive methodology required. Indirect methods for measuring hepatic blood flow have been used and include the assessment of clearance or dilution of a dye or marker (gas or microspheres), which have a wider range of clinical applicability than the direct methods (38). Moreover, noninvasive measurements of hepatic perfusion using PET with the freely diffusible flow tracer [15O]H2O have been shown to provide reliable estimates of hepatic blood flow, when taking into account the dual input from hepatic artery and vena porta (27,28). In the current study, decreased hepatic parenchymal perfusion was observed in type 2 diabetic patients with increased liver triglyceride content but not in those type 2 diabetic patients with low liver triglyceride content, as compared with control subjects, implying ...
Munin: Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells represents an important blood clearance system in pigs
Background: Numerous studies in rats and a few other mammalian species, including man, have shown that the sinusoidal cells constitute an important part of liver function. In the pig, however, which is frequently used in studies on liver transplantation and liver failure models, our knowledge about the function of hepatic sinusoidal cells is scarce. We have explored the scavenger function of pig liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), a cell type that in other mammals performs vital elimination of an array of waste macromolecules from the circulation. Results: 125I-macromolecules known to be cleared in the rat via the scavenger and mannose receptors were rapidly removed from the pig circulation, 50% of the injected dose being removed within the first 2-5 min following injection. Fluorescently labeled microbeads (2 μm in diameter) used to probe phagocytosis accumulated in Kupffer cells only, whereas fluorescently labeled soluble macromolecular ligands for the mannose and scavenger receptors ...
Are there prescribed drugs known to increase liver enzymes - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Dec 13, 2017
are there prescribed drugs known to increase liver enzymes. THE LIVER Assessing the Silent Progress of Liver Disease. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and dont ignore the warning signs.
Human Liver Models Market Size To Reach USD 5.5 Billion in 2028 | Top Key Players Emulate Inc., Ascendance Bio, Organovo...
The global human liver models market size is expected to reach USD 5.5 Billion in 2028 and register a CAGR of 13.9% over the forecast period, according to the latest report by Reports and Data. Some key factors such as rising incidence of liver infections, cancer, and increasing research on these liver diseases are driving global market revenue growth. The liver is an essential organ in the human system that performs various functions such as production of bile for digestion, glucose synthesis, detoxification, and production of various proteins. Moreover, it has capability of regenerating the damaged liver tissue. This ability of liver tissues to regenerate has encouraged researchers to develop liver models to help them explore molecular and cellular connectivity of the liver. Liver models, also called organoids, are obtained from single fetal liver progenitor cells to generate a specific environment to mimic liver functioning. Growing focus on developing and introducing alternatives to animal ...
Adaptation of renewal of rat liver proteins to dietary protein with low biological value
Abstract: The study of the dynamics of adaptation to the rations containing casein and wheat protein showed some accumulation of hepatic protein on days 4-9. Evaluation of 14C-Leucine and protein turnover from the kinetics of precursor elimination from the pool and that of incorporation into proteins, demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the rate of endogenous protein synthesis, and the higher protein levels are associated with the lower secretion of these export proteins from the liver. In another experiment after adaptation to the casein feed, the animals were fed a wheat protein-containing feed, there were no changes in protein levels, yet the rate of total liver protein turnover was significantly increased on day 5, as shown by massive label estimation and calculation using the modified equation. Adaptation to new rations is accompanied by the initial accumulation of protein in the liver tissue and the subsequent adaptation to proteins of low biological value may be ...
Bacteria in the bloodstream are trapped in the liver and killed by immigrating neutrophils. | The Journal of Immunology
The critical role of the liver in the resolution of systemic bacterial infections is well documented. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, approximately 60% of bacteria inoculated i.v. into mice are recovered in the liver at 10 min after infection. Here we report that the Listeria recovered at 10 min were distributed equally among the hepatocyte and nonparenchymal liver cell populations. The majority (,/= 75%) of these organisms were bound extracellularly as judged by their sensitivity to gentamicin. In contrast, ,/= 93% of Listeria recovered in the liver at 6 h were located within hepatocytes. The listerial burden of the liver decreased 0.5 to 1.0 log, between 10 min and 6 h after infection. This decrease correlated with a sevenfold increase in the percentage of neutrophils that constituted the nonparenchymal cell population. Mice rendered neutrophil deficient by pretreatment with anti-granulocyte (RB6-8C5) mAb exhibited a significant increase (,300%) rather than a decrease in liver Listeria ...
infectomics-study-of-human-liver-non-parenchymal-c | bfm.hr
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver disease. HCV productively infects hepatocytes to impart liver inflammation and progressive tissue damage leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. These processes underlie liver dysfunction and are thought to drive the onset of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which HCV confers hepatic inflammation are not defined. Now, there is growing evidence that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells (KC), may play key roles in regulating immune responses and facilitating tolerance induction. These cells are playing a pivotal role in blood-borne virus clearance (>90%), leaving only a small fraction of infectious virus that escapes clearance in a manner peculiar to each individual pathogen. The biology of HCV, specifically regarding non-parenchymal liver cells, has been largely neglected. LSEC account for the 20% and KC for 15% of the hepatic cells, and are a unique organ-resident cell population with diverse functions, ...
infectomics-study-of-human-liver-non-parenchymal-c | bfm.hr
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver disease. HCV productively infects hepatocytes to impart liver inflammation and progressive tissue damage leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. These processes underlie liver dysfunction and are thought to drive the onset of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which HCV confers hepatic inflammation are not defined. Now, there is growing evidence that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells (KC), may play key roles in regulating immune responses and facilitating tolerance induction. These cells are playing a pivotal role in blood-borne virus clearance (>90%), leaving only a small fraction of infectious virus that escapes clearance in a manner peculiar to each individual pathogen. The biology of HCV, specifically regarding non-parenchymal liver cells, has been largely neglected. LSEC account for the 20% and KC for 15% of the hepatic cells, and are a unique organ-resident cell population with diverse functions, ...
Liver progenitor cells, Cancer stem cells and hepatocellular carcinoma - Murdoch Research Repository
There is great interest in the biology of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) because of their stem cell-like ability to regenerate the liver when the hepatocyte pool is exhausted. Barely detectable in healthy tissue, they emerge upon chronic insult in periportal regions, proliferate and migrate to injury sites in the parenchyma and eventually differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to restore liver mass, morphology and function. The increasing worldwide shortage of livers for orthotopic transplantation means LPCs have assumed more prominence as candidates for cell therapy as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of various liver diseases. However, an LPC response is usually seen in pre-cancerous liver pathologies and their high proliferation potential makes them possible transformation targets; associations that overshadow their restorative capability. This mandates that we continue to investigate the factors that govern their activation, proliferation and especially their ...
Animal | InSphero
Custom 3D InSight™ Animal Liver Microtissues are available only on request for research partners, who perform translational toxicology studies on a regular basis. We offer fully tested and highly standardized monkey, dog, and rat liver toxicology models produced using species-specific primary hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells. Ideal for studying species-specific effects of liver function and toxicity these custom animal liver toxicology models can be delivered assay-ready to your lab, or used in tailored in vitro toxicology services.. ...
Hepatic histology and expressions of VLDL, L-FABP and F | Open-i
Hepatic histology and expressions of VLDL, L-FABP and FATP4 in liver tissues.(A) Representative images (200×magnification, haematoxylin and eosin stain) of hep
Hepatotoxicity of House Hold Kerosene (HHK) on Liver Enzyme Markers and Its Effect on Hematological and Oxidative Stress...
The exposure of Nigerians to House Hold Kerosene (HHK) is on the increase following carelessness from handling the product and proliferation of sales outlet. Against this backdrop, hepatotoxicity of HHK on liver enzyme markers and its effect on hematological and oxidative stress parameters on wistar albino rats were investigated. Preliminary toxicity study to determine the volume of HHK that could cause toxicity was carried out using 30 healthy albino rats. Another set of 20 albino rats were grouped into two groups and used for the biochemical analysis: Group I animals were the control group and Group II animals were administered with 1ml/kg body weight of HHK. The results of this study shows that HGB, RBC and HCT values were significantly reduced (P,0.05) in the group administered with kerosene compared to the healthy group. WBC, lymphocyte# count, MCV and MCH values were significantly increased (P,0.05) in the treated group compared to the control group. All the liver enzyme markers: AST, ALT, ...
Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrogenesis - A Homage to the Role of Activated Fat-Storing Cells - Abstract - Digestion 1995,...
During the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the dissection of cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. The disease, initiated by hepatocellular damage and perpe
How a single high-fat meal affects liver metabolism
High-fat diets are known to negatively impact liver health and metabolism, but the mechanisms behind it are unclear. A new study takes an in-depth look.
Mst1/2 Signalling to Yap: Gatekeeper for Liver Size and Tumour Development
The mechanisms controlling mammalian organ size have long been a source of fascination for biologists. These controls are needed to both ensure the integrity of the body plan and to restrict inappropriate proliferation that could lead to cancer. Regulation of liver size is of particular interest inasmuch as this organ maintains the capacity for regeneration throughout life, and is able to regain precisely its original mass after partial surgical resection. Recent studies using genetically engineered mouse strains have shed new light on this problem; the Hippo signalling pathway, first elucidated as a regulator of organ size in \(Drosophila\), has been identified as dominant determinant of liver growth. Defects in this pathway in mouse liver lead to sustained liver overgrowth and the eventual development of both major types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In this review, we discuss the role of Hippo signalling in liver biology and the contribution of this pathway ...
Interaktion von T-Zellen mit sinusoidalen Endothelzellen der Leber
The liver plays a major role for the metabolism, but it is also of general importance for the immune system, e.g. for the deletion of activated T cells or the induction of peripheral tolerance. Under physiological conditions T cells and other leukocytes can be found in the liver, in the sinusoids as well as in the parenchyma. This hepatic accumulation of T cells might be due to immunosurveillance, but it would also be a prerequisite for modulation of T cells by hepatic cells. The present study investigated two different aspects of the interaction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), the barrier between the sinusoidal lumen and the hepatic parenchyma, and CD4+ T cells. In the first part of the study it could be demonstrated that LSEC support the spontaneous transmigration of CD4+ T cells as well as their chemotaxis to CXCL12 and CXCL9 more efficiently than other endothelial cells. Whereas a direct endothelial activation by chemokines could be excluded the efficient chemokine presentation ...
Cause of NAFLD: Physical Inactivity - Exercise May Decrease Liver Fat
Cause of NAFLD: physical inactivity: while exercise predominantly enhances muscle insulin sensitivity, studies suggest exercise may decrease liver fat.
Expression and regulation of leukotriene-synthesis enzymes in rat liver cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and regulation of leukotriene-synthesis enzymes in rat liver cells. AU - Shimada, Kazuo. AU - Navarro, Javier. AU - Goeger, Douglas E.. AU - Mustafa, Shamimunisa B.. AU - Weigel, Paul H.. AU - Weinman, Steven A.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The liver plays a major role in metabolism and elimination of leukotrienes (LT). It produces cysteinyl leukotrienes (cLT), and cLT have been implicated in hepatocellular toxicity in several models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)associated liver injury. However, the liver cell types responsible for cLT production are poorly defined, and the expression of the LT-synthesis enzymes, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and LTC4 synthase (LTC4- S), in liver cells has never been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of rat liver cells to produce cLT by determining whether hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoidal endothelial cells express mRNA and enzyme activities of the LT-synthesis enzymes and whether expression is altered ...
Practical Hepatic Pathology: A Diagnostic Approach: A Volume in the Pattern Recognition Series, 2e
A volume in the popular Pattern Recognition Series, Practical Hepatic Pathology: A Diagnostic Approach features completely updated and reorganized content, resulting in a truly practical guide to understanding liver pathology. Dr. Romil Saxena presents interpretation of liver biopsies according to a pattern-based approach that begins with recognition of the predominant histological pattern of injury, followed by identification of secondary features and appropriate work-up that lead you away from pitfalls to the best diagnosis.. ...
Research Brief 313: New Model to Examine PFAS Sheds Light on Lipid Disruption Mechanisms (Superfund Research Program)
The authors concluded that PFOA modulates at least the PPARα, PPARγ and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) pathways in liver of hPPARα mice, as well as multiple genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis. PPARγ is another member of the PPAR subfamily of nuclear receptors and CAR is a transcriptional regulator of certain metabolic functions. They also found that not all effects were PPARα-dependent and that the hepatic response to PFOA exposure is sexually dimorphic.. Essential New Information. The research provides essential new information to understand the mechanism(s) by which PFAS can affect the amount of lipids in blood. The crucial role of hPPARα in basal cholesterol homeostasis, as well as fatty acid homeostasis, and known species differences in ligand binding gene components support the BU researchers conclusion that this model is an important new tool in exploring multiple, interacting mechanisms of PFOA action on cholesterol homeostasis.. Additionally, a ...
ReNeuron and CellSeed announce collaboration using ReNcellTM liver cell lines. 30/11/06 - ReNeuron
Guildford, UK, 30 November 2006: ReNeuron Group plc (LSE: RENE.L) and CellSeed Inc., a privately owned tissue engineering company based in Tokyo, Japan, today announce the signing of a collaboration agreement to develop novel, patented liver cell culture systems for drug safety screening in the pharmaceutical industry. The development work, to be conducted in CellSeeds laboratories in Tokyo, will establish protocols for efficiently developing ReNeurons patented ReNcellTM HEP hepatocyte cell lines in combination with CellSeeds UpCell and HydroCell temperature-sensitive polymer products for 3-dimensional functional liver tissue. 3-D liver culture systems represent the most effective way to assay for human liver toxicity of new drugs. The collaboration will enable the joint development of new, high-value, human cell-based drug discovery products for use in the pharmaceutical industry. If the collaboration is successful, these products are expected to be launched in 2007. ReNeurons ReNcellTM HEP ...
Human Liver Tissue Showing Origins Of The Bile Duct Lm X95 Stock Photo | Getty Images
View Stock Photo of Human Liver Tissue Showing Origins Of The Bile Duct Lm X95. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
IL-10 ameliorates hepatic pathology during PyL and PyNL | Open-i
IL-10 ameliorates hepatic pathology during PyL and PyNL infection.Liver pathology was examined (A) in WT and IL-10−/− mice that were either uninfected or ha
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are responsible for nitric oxide modulation of resistance in the hepatic sinusoids
The mechanisms that regulate vascular resistance in the liver are an area of active investigation. Previously, we have shown that nitric oxide (NO) modulates hepatic vascular tone in the normal rat liver. In this study, the production of NO is examined in further detail by isolating sinusoidal endot …
Sirt1: A metabolic master switch that modulates lifespan<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sirt1. T2 - A metabolic master switch that modulates lifespan. AU - Leibiger, Ingo B.. AU - Berggren, Per Olof. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Sirt1, an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from specific nuclear proteins, has been linked to the regulation of aging. It is now clear that Sirt1 also controls hepatic glucose metabolism by serving as a sensor of the metabolic status in hepatocytes.. AB - Sirt1, an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from specific nuclear proteins, has been linked to the regulation of aging. It is now clear that Sirt1 also controls hepatic glucose metabolism by serving as a sensor of the metabolic status in hepatocytes.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=30044440497&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=30044440497&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/nm0106-34. DO - 10.1038/nm0106-34. M3 - Short survey. C2 - 16397557. AN - SCOPUS:30044440497. VL - 12. SP - 34. EP - 36. JO - Nature Medicine. JF - Nature ...
2D and 3D Multiscale Computational Modeling of Dynamic Microorgan Devices as Drug Screening Platforms | ASME International...
The ability to incorporate three-dimensional (3D) hepatocyte-laden hydrogel constructs using layered fabrication approaches into devices that can be perfused with drugs enables the creation of dynamic microorgan devices (DMDs) that offer an optimal analog of the in vivo liver metabolism scenario. The dynamic nature of such in vitro metabolism models demands reliable numerical tools to determine the optimum process, material, and geometric parameters for the most effective metabolic conversion of the perfused drug into the liver microenvironment. However, there is a current lack of literature that integrates computational approaches to guide the optimum design of such devices. The groundwork of the present numerical study has been laid by our previous study , where the authors modeled in 2D an in vitro DMD of arbitrary dimensions and identified the modeling challenges towards meaningful results. These constructs are hosted in the chamber of the microfluidic device serving as walls of the ...
Chapter 301. Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease | Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e | AccessMedicine |...
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
Steroids Market offers liver protection supplements for a thorough detoxification, higher flux of energy, stronger immune system and weight regulations. Buy now!
JCI - GATA4-dependent organ-specific endothelial differentiation controls liver development and embryonic hematopoiesis
The major findings described here establish that GATA4 is the molecular master regulator that orchestrates specification of discontinuous sinusoidal endothelium during liver development. This GATA4-dependent transcriptional program determines the functional competence of the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. As suggested by the fact that the gene expression signatures of fetal LSECs and ectopically GATA4-expressing cultured continuous ECs only partially overlap, organ-specific vascular functions differ in a context-dependent manner: (a) liver endothelial-associated angiokines such as WNT2, HGF, RSPO3, ANG2, and BMP2 do not seem to play a major role in liver development, while they do in establishing metabolic zonation in adult liver (18, 19) or in regulating adult liver regeneration (10, 11); (b) GATA4-expressing LSECs are permissive for transmigration of HSCs during early fetal development, while they become non-permissive during later fetal development despite continued expression of ...
Size matters | DLiver
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are very thin cells that line the liver sinusoids and separate blood from the hepatocytes. The blood flow through the sinusoid is slow giving LSECs a perfect condition to eliminate macromolecules from the blood. Representing one of the most actively endocytosing cell types in the body the LSEC is regarded as a professional pinocyte and very efficiently eliminates soluble macromolecules and small particles (colloids) from the blood circulation. In fact, the most important site of elimination of nearly all tested soluble waste macromolecules and nanoparticles injected into animals are the LSECs. The LSECs make up only 3,3 % of the total liver volume, but 21 % of the total number of liver cells. ...
Altering GCN5 can control hepatic glucose release
The discovery by researchers in Hopkins Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences and McKusick-Nathans Institute for Genetic Medicine reveals that a protein called GCN5 is critical for controlling a domino-like cascade of molecular events that lead to the release of sugar from liver cells into the bloodstream. Understanding the role of GCN5 in maintaining blood sugar levels is leading to a clearer picture of how the body uses sugar and other nutrients to make, store and spend energy ...
Toxicity Testing With Cultured Liver Cells
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Adult Human Liver Contains CD8pos T Cells with Naive Phenotype, but Is Not a Site for Conventional αβ T Cell Development | The...
In this study we focused on the hepatic αβ T cells found in perfused donor organs. The hepatic αβ-TCRpos population contains more than twice as many CD8pos cells and 4 times as many double-negative cells as the corresponding population in matched peripheral blood. As evidenced by the absence of CD45RO (26), almost half of the peripheral blood and one-third of hepatic αβ T cells have a naive-like phenotype. The majority of αβposCD45ROneg cells in the periphery coexpress CD4, whereas ,5% of αβposCD45ROneg hepatic cells coexpress CD4. This suggests that naive CD4 expressing αβ T cells are rare in the liver and abundant in the periphery. In contrast, CD8 coexpressing αβposCD45ROneg cells are more abundant in the liver than in matched blood. This suggests that the normal liver may contain a significant population of naive αβposCD8pos cells.. However, although CD45RO defines a memory population, up to 20% of CD8posCD45ROneg T cells in the periphery represent a recently activated ...
Health Archives - Spiritself Health
The liver is one of the bodys most important organs which is why you need to eat the best foods for a healthy liver. Your liver helps in flushing out toxins and assisting in digestion but more importantly, the liver is the main part of our body where ingredients are metabolized or processed. Medicines and all harmful substances are metabolized in the liver. Continuous pressure on the liver can lead to number of liver related disease such as fatty liver, jaundice, hepatitis and even liver cirrhosis or liver failure.. Lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver which also converts excess carbohydrates and proteins into fatty acids and triglycerides. These are again stored in adipose tissue. This is also why you need to decrease unhealthy fatty acids in your body by avoiding foods bad for your liver. The liver also synthesizes cholesterol and phospholipids. The key to maintain a healthy liver is diet and eating the right foods for a healthy liver. Here are the 8 best foods for a healthy ...
Hepatic protein synthesis rate of liver specimens as a predictor of viability in rat cold ischemia liver transplantation model<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic protein synthesis rate of liver specimens as a predictor of viability in rat cold ischemia liver transplantation model. AU - Matsui, Yoshifumi. AU - Asano, Takehide. AU - Nakagohri, Toshio. AU - Yokoro, Yoshiharu. AU - Kainuma, Osamu. AU - Kenmochi, Takashi. AU - Isono, Kaich. PY - 1997/11. Y1 - 1997/11. N2 - Background/Aims: We have previously reported that the hepatic protein synthesis rate, calculated as the uptake rate of L-[4.5 3H] leucine by the fraction during a 10-min incubation of a 16-G needle biopsy specimen of liver tissue, represents a high level of liver function and is therefore useful for evaluating liver function. We investigated the hepatic protein synthesis rate level in a pretransplant liver to learn if it might predict the outcome in a rat orthotopic liver transplantation model. Methods: Grafts were stored, liver specimens were obtained using a 21-G Chiba type II skinny needle, and the hepatic protein synthesis rate was calculated. Subsequently, liver ...
Superoxide is involved in the pathogenesis of paraquat-induced injury in cultured rat liver slices - Togashi - 1991 -...
We examined whether superoxide is a factor responsible for paraquat-induced liver injury in terms of superoxide dismutase using cultured rat liver slices exposed to various concentrations of paraquat. The degree of liver injury was assessed by measurement of percentage of lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the medium and lipid hydroperoxides in the liver slices and by direct histopathological observation. Paraquat produced concentration- and time-related liver injury in the cultured rat liver slices. Notably, after exposure to 5 mmol/L paraquat, a significant increase of the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase leakage occurred from 4 hr (p , 0.05 vs. control group), and this gradually increased up to 8 hr (p , 0.01 and p , 0.001 vs. control group at 6 and 8 hr, respectively). Changes in lipid hydroperoxides in the liver slices were similar to those in percentage of lactate dehydrogenase leakage (p , 0.05 and p , 0.01 vs. control group at 6 and 8 hr, respectively). Liver injury was located around ...
The repopulation potential of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells in mice exceeds that of their adult bone marrow counterparts...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The repopulation potential of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells in mice exceeds that of their adult bone marrow counterparts. AU - Rebel, Vivienne I.. AU - Miller, Cindy L.. AU - Eaves, Connie J.. AU - Lansdorp, Peter M.. PY - 1996/4/15. Y1 - 1996/4/15. N2 - Varying, limiting numbers of unseparated or purified cells (Ly-5.1), either from 14.5-day-old fetal liver (FL) or from adult bone marrow (BM) were coinjected with 105 unseparated BM cells (Ly-5.2) into lethally irradiated adult C57B1/6 recipients (Ly-5.2). The kinetics of donor cell repopulation of the lymphoid and myeloid compartments by Ly-5.1+ donor hematopoietic stem cells (ie, competitive repopulation units [CRU]) were monitored at various time points after the transplantation by Ly-5 analysis of the peripheral white blood cells (WBC). Recipients that had received on average less than 2 adult BM or FL CRU did not show a significant difference in the level of donor-reconstitution when analyzed 4 weeks after the ...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Diagnosis and management<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. T2 - Diagnosis and management. AU - Wilkins, Thad. AU - Tadkod, Altaf. AU - Hepburn, Iryna. AU - Schade, Robert R.. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves the development of insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Screening is not recommended in the general population. The diagnosis is usually made after an incidental discovery of unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels or when steatosis is noted on imaging (e.g., ultrasonography). Patients are often asymptomatic and the physical examination is often unremarkable. No single ...
Causes of high liver levels you were not aware of | Digestive Diseases
If your recent blood test results showed signs of elevated liver enzymes or if you want to know about high liver levels out of curiosity, you should first learn about the possible causes of high liver levels.
Recent Concepts in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent Concepts in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. AU - Adams, Leon. AU - Angulo, P.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in up to one-third of the general population and in the majority of patients with metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor resulting in hepatic fat accumulation. Recent evidence demonstrates NAFLD in turn exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and often precedes glucose intolerance. Once hepatic steatosis is established, other factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut-derived lipopolysaccharide and adipocytokines, may promote hepatocellular damage, inflammation and progressive liver disease. Confirmation of the diagnosis of NAFLD can usually be achieved by imaging studies, however, staging the disease requires a liver biopsy. NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death, probably because of complications of insulin ...
Cellular stress in the brain may contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News
Youngs research team demonstrated that UPR activation in the brain, specifically in the forebrain, is causally linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Also known as hepatic steatosis, the research shows that brain ER stress can cause the disease independent of changes in body weight, food intake, and other factors.. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease impairs normal liver function and is linked to other diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The next step is to determine how and why ER stress occurs in the brain and how it causes fat build up in the liver.. Further research may give us another possible avenue for targeting fatty liver disease, said Young. The field has been focused on how we can improve the liver, for example, by developing drugs that target the liver. Our research suggests that we may also need to think about targeting the brain to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.. ###. The study, Obesity-induced Hepatic Steatosis is Mediated by Endoplasmic ...
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) - Lori Ryan AEP - Vision Exercise Physiology
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a condition in which there is excess fat stored in the liver, not because of heavy alcohol use. There are two forms of NAFLD: non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). People will generally be diagnosed with one form or the other, however, it is possible for someone to be diagnosed with one and then later, the other.. Non-alcoholic fatty liver:. A form of NAFLD in which there is fat stored in the liver, however, there is little or no inflammation. This form of NAFLD typically will not progress to cause liver damage or complications, though enlargement of the liver can cause pain.. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis:. A form of NAFLD where in addition to fat stored in the liver, there is also inflammation and liver damage. This inflammation and tissue damage can result in fibrosis or scarring of the liver. NASH may lead to permanent scarring of the liver, known as cirrhosis.. Risk Factors:. ...
Massive hepatic necrosis legal definition of massive hepatic necrosis
Definition of massive hepatic necrosis in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is massive hepatic necrosis? Meaning of massive hepatic necrosis as a legal term. What does massive hepatic necrosis mean in law?
Controlled attenuation parameter is correlated with actual hepatic fat content in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver...
AIM: Non-invasive steatosis-quantifying methods are required for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients in order to monitor disease severity and assess therapeutic efficacy. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) evaluated with vibration-controlled transient elastography can predict the presence of steatosis, but its application to absolute hepatic fat quantitation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether CAP is correlated with real hepatic fat content in NAFLD patients. METHODS: Eighty-two NAFLD patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were enrolled. CAP was measured using FibroScan(R) just before liver biopsy. The percentage of fat droplet area to hepatocyte area in biopsied specimen was determined morphometrically using computerized optical image analyzing system. The correlation between CAP and liver histology was examined. RESULTS: CAP showed an excellent correlation with actual liver fat percentage in the NAFLD patients with body mass index ...
Updated thresholds for serum alanine aminotransferase level in a large-scale population study composed of 34 346 subjects<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Updated thresholds for serum alanine aminotransferase level in a large-scale population study composed of 34 346 subjects. AU - Wu, W. C.. AU - Wu, C. Y.. AU - Wang, Y. J.. AU - Hung, H. H.. AU - Yang, H. I.. AU - Kao, W. Y.. AU - Su, C. W.. AU - Wu, J. C.. AU - Chan, W. L.. AU - Lin, H. C.. AU - Lee, F. Y.. AU - Lee, S. D.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Background: The sensitivity of current upper limit of normal (ULN) of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for detecting chronic liver disease has been challenged recently. Aim: To identify modulating factors for serum ALT levels and to refine its ULN threshold. Methods: We enrolled 34 346 consecutive subjects who completed the health check-up at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. ULN was set for healthy ALT level to the 95th percentile of the reference healthy population. Results: A group of 21 282 subjects were used as a training set to define an ULN with the highest sensitivity; afterwards, this ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment
Species-specific regulation of PXR/CAR/ER-target genes in the mouse and rat liver elicited by o , p -DDT | BMC Genomics | Full...
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a persistent estrogenic organochlorine pesticide that is a rodent hepatic tumor promoter, with inconclusive carcinogenicity in humans. We have previously reported that o, p-DDT elicits primarily PXR/CAR-mediated activity, rather than ER-mediated hepatic responses, and suggested that CAR-mediated effects, as opposed to ER-mediated effects, may be more important in tumor promotion in the rat liver. To further characterize species-specific hepatic responses, gene expression analysis, with complementary histopathology and tissue level analyses were investigated in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice treated with 300 mg/kg o, p-DDT, and compared to Sprague-Dawley rat data. Rats and mice exhibited negligible histopathology with rapid o, p-DDT metabolism. Gene expression profiles were also similar, exhibiting PXR/CAR regulation with the characteristic induction of Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11. However, PXR-specific target genes such as Apoa4 or Insig2 exhibited more
Early changes in hepatic energy metabolism and lipid content in recent-onset type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. | OnMedica
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with abnormal mitochondrial capacity. While oxidative capacity can be increased in steatosis, hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) descreases in long-standing diabetes. However, longitudinal studies of diabetes-related NAFLD and its relationship to hepatic energy metabolism are lacking.This prospective study comprised volunteers with type 1 (T1DM, n=30) and type 2 (T2DM, n=37) diabetes. At diagnosis and 5 years later, they underwent 1H/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measurements of hepatic lipid (HCL), γATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations and imaging for adipose tissue volumes. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.At diagnosis, T2DM individuals had higher HCL and adipose tissue volumes, but lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than T1DM, despite comparable glycemic control. NAFLD was present in 38% of T2DM and 7% of T1DM. After 5 years, only persons with T2DM had increased their visceral ...
Metabolic Studies of Hepatic Response to Diabetes Drugs. - Tufts Digital Library
Abstract: A major concern in drug development is the potential for chemical injury to the liver. Drugs account for 1/3~1/2 of acute liver failures, yet underlying toxicity mechanisms are poorly understood. Adverse reactions are often detected too late, as with troglitazone, an antidiabetic drug introduced in 1997 and withdrawn in 2000 after several cases of liver failure. Predictions are more limi... read moreted with multi-drug interactions, common among patients with chronic ailments like diabetes. Here we develop a microfluidic reactor for the culture of HepG2 cells and the establishment of a steady state drug gradient. Traditional in vitro experiments explore the metabolic effects of troglitazone on HepG2 cells and the interactions between rosiglitazone and metformin (common antidiabetic compounds). LC-MS methods are developed for the detection of drugs and key metabolites. This research expands our knowledge drug metabolism in the liver and introduces a physiologically relevant platform for ...
The miR-148a alleviates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via targeting CaMKIIα]. - Semantic Scholar
Objective To evaluate the impact of miR-148a on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via inhibiting Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα), and analyze the potential mechanism. Methods Liver I/R model was built in mice. Expression of CaMKIIα was detected in the hepatic tissues by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of miR-148a, CaMKIIα, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). HE staining was performed to observe morphological changes of the livers in each group. TUNEL was used to evaluate the degree of hepatocellular apoptosis in each group. Results After hepatic I/R injury, the expression of miR-148a increased, and it was negatively correlated with CaMKIIα. After therapy with exogenous miR-148a mimics, the protein expression of CaMKIIα, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and liver cell necrosis, and the level of hepatocellular apoptosis were all
Role of exercise in the mechanisms ameliorating hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Hepatic steatosis is an abnormal lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, generally present in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, a starting-point pathology currently associated with other clinical manifestations such as metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic steatosis in NAFLD may be induced by mechanisms such as insulin resistance, increased fatty acid uptake, a higher de novo lipogenesis from glucose or acetate, lower fatty acids oxidation and a decrease in fatty acid mobilization from liver. Among different therapeutic strategies appropriate for these patients, exercise has shown to be effective in reversing hepatic steatosis. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this response remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this review is (1) to describe the mechanisms whereby exercise reverts hepatic steatosis, and (2) review the clinical outcomes of different exercise modalities in NAFLD ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Inhibition of Neutrophil Recruitment
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major problem in organ transplantation, which represents the main cause of graft dysfunction posttransplantation. Hepatic IRI is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response within the liver. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be immunomodulatory cells and have the therapeutic action on IRI in several organs. However, the mechanism of regulatory effect of MSCs on IRI remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the impact of MSCs on hepatic inflammatory response such as neutrophil influx and liver damage in a rat model of 70% hepatic IRI. Treatment with MSCs protected rat against hepatic IRI, with significantly decreased serum levels of liver enzymes, attenuated hepatic neutrophil infiltration, reduced expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, and ameliorated liver pathological injury. MSCs also significantly enhanced the intracellular activation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which led to decreased expression of CXCR2 on the
An Assessment of Serum Metabolites, Liver Enzymes Activities and Relative Organ Characteristics in Rabbits Fed Varying Levels...
Abstract: An Assessment of Serum Metabolites, Liver Enzymes Activities and Relative Organ Characteristics in Rabbits Fed Varying Levels of Chromolaena Odorata
HIV-infected individuals at high risk of NAFLD and progressive liver disease
The increasing burden and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with HIV infection have today been highlighted in two studies presented at The International Liver Congress 2019 in Vienna, Austria. These studies found that, whilst prevalence and mortality rates associated with viral hepatitis in HIV-infected individuals have been declining, rates associated with NAFLD are increasing, leading to a risk of progressive liver disease.
Isolation of CD133+ liver stem cells for clonal expansion<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of CD133+ liver stem cells for clonal expansion. AU - Bart Rountree, C.. AU - Ding, Wei. AU - Dang, Hein. AU - van Kirk, Colleen. AU - Crooks, Gay M.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Liver stem cell, or oval cells, proliferate during chronic liver injury, and are proposed to differentiate into both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In addition, liver stem cells are hypothesized to be the precursors for a subset of liver cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma. One of the primary challenges to stem cell work in any solid organ like the liver is the isolation of a rare population of cells for detailed analysis. For example, the vast majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes (parenchymal fraction), which are significantly larger than non-parenchymal cells. By enriching the specific cellular compartments of the liver (i.e. parenchymal and non-parenchymal fractions), and selecting for CD45 negative cells, we are able to enrich the starting population of stem cells by over ...
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: 10 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Symptoms
Do you know what non-alcoholic fatty liver disease symptoms look like? Discover 10 common non-alcoholic fatty liver disease symptoms at 10FAQ Health and stay better informed to make healthy living decisions.
Tor Gjøen - School of Pharmacy
1. R. Blomhoff, T. Gjøen, G. Skretting, H.K. Blomhoff, K.R. Norum and T. Berg (1986). Uptake of retinol and retinol binding protein in hepatic parenchymal cells and perisinusoidal stellate cells. In Cells of the hepatic sinusoid (A. Kirn, D.L. Knook and E. Wisse eds.) Pasmans, Netherlands.. 2. Kaare R. Norum, Rune Blomhoff, Michael H. Green, Joanne B. Green, karl-Olof Wathne, Tor Gjøen, Marie Botilsrud and Trond Berg (1986). Metabolism of retinol in the intestine and liver. In Proceedings from 618th Meeting of Biochemical Society Transactions: Biological Roles of Retinol and other Retinoids.. 3. T. Gjøen, R. Seljelid and S.O. Kolset 1989. Binding of metastatic colon carcinoma cells to liver macrophages. In Cells of the hepatic sinusoid Vol 2 (E. Wisse, D.L. Knook and K. Decker eds) The Kupffer cell foundation. Rijswijk, The Netherlands pp245-246.. 4. Gjøen, T., Holtz, E., Strande, P., Klaveness, J., Leander, P. and Berg, A. Particulate biodegradable contrast medium for CT of the liver. 1991. ...
Effects of In Vivo Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury on the Hepatobiliary Disposition of Rhodamine 123 and its Metabolites in...
Effects of In Vivo Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury on the Hepatobiliary Disposition of Rhodamine 123 and its Metabolites in Isolated Perfused Rat Livers
Spiral: Improved hepatic physiology in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN™) mice dosed orally with fenclozic acid
Hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase null (HRN™) mice exhibit no functional expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) when compared to wild type (WT) mice, but have normal hepatic and extrahepatic expression of other biotransformation enzymes. We have assessed the utility of HRN™ mice for investigation of the role of metabolic bioactivation in liver toxicity caused by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) fenclozic acid. In vitro studies revealed significant NADPH-dependent (i.e. P450-mediated) covalent binding of [14C]-fenclozic acid to liver microsomes from WT mice and HRN™ mice, whereas no in vitro covalent binding was observed in the presence of the UDP-glucuronyltransferase cofactor UDPGA. Oral fenclozic acid administration did not alter the liver histopathology or elevate the plasma liver enzyme activities of WT mice, or affect their hepatic miRNA contents. Livers from HRN™ mice exhibited abnormal liver histopathology (enhanced lipid accumulation, bile duct ...
AAV8-mediated Sirt1 gene transfer to the liver prevents high carbohydrate diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - AAV8-mediated Sirt1 gene transfer to the liver prevents high carbohydrate diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. AU - Vilà, Laia. AU - Elias, Ivet. AU - Roca, Carles. AU - Ribera, Albert. AU - Ferré, Tura. AU - Casellas, Alba. AU - Lage, Ricardo. AU - Franckhauser, Sylvie. AU - Bosch, Fatima. PY - 2014/1/8. Y1 - 2014/1/8. N2 - © 2014 American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic disease worldwide, and evidence suggests that it promotes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Caloric restriction (CR) is the only available strategy for NAFLD treatment. The protein deacetylase Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), which is activated by CR, increases catabolic metabolism and decreases lipogenesis and inflammation, both involved in the development of NAFLD. Here we show that adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated liver-specific Sirt1 gene transfer prevents the development of NAFLD induced by a high carbohydrate ...
Focal necrosis synonyms, focal necrosis antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Synonyms for focal necrosis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for focal necrosis. 3 synonyms for necrosis: gangrene, mortification, sphacelus. What are synonyms for focal necrosis?
Total Liver Cell Population | Creative Bioarray
Bioarray offers an assortment of various human and non-human hepatic derived cells. These include Hepatocytes, Total Liver Cell Population (TLC), Stellates, Progenitors and Intra-hepatic biliary epithelial cells. We offer these as cryopreserved cells for convenience. Cryopreserved cells are suitable for a variety of assays including induction, toxicity, drug metabolism and systems biology. Both adherent and suspension cells are available. Custom configurations are available upon request ...
Can Mitotane/Lysodren cause liver damage in dogs? - Questions & Answers | VetInfo/QA
Replied on 04/19/2011 Liver changes are one of the known side effects of Lysodren (generically known as mitotane). According to the prescriberinformation for Lysodren, liver changes associated with the drug are not usually symptomatic. Usually these changes occur in dogs that have been receiving Lysodren on a long term basis, which implies a course of treatment generally longer than two months. Liver changes can also be seen in dogs that had preexisting liver problems. Even if bloodwork done before the treatment was started showed normal liver enzymes, this is no guarantee that the liver did not have the beginnings of disease. Lysodren is not known to cause liver cancer. The symptom of poor appetite that you mention is also a common side effect of Lysodren therapy, but is usually a separate problem from the liver changes. As Lysodren is intended to kill parts of the adrenal gland in the treatment of Cushings, it will lower the levels of cortisone (a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal ...
ARE Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Starter Kit | ax3722 | Axol Bioscience
Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line with tailored liver endothelial cell culture medium. Cryopreserved liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.
AID 1340971 - Hepatic extraction ratio in mouse liver microsomes at 1 uM in presence of NADPH by LC-MS/MS method - PubChem
BioAssay record AID 1340971 submitted by ChEMBL: Hepatic extraction ratio in mouse liver microsomes at 1 uM in presence of NADPH by LC-MS/MS method.
Effects Of Exenatide On Liver Biochemistry, Liver Histology And Lipid Metabolism In Patients With Fatty Liver Disease - Full...
Preliminary evidence suggests that exenatide (Byetta®) may have several beneficial direct and indirect effects on NAFLD and liver lipid metabolism. Ad hoc analysis of phase III studies has shown that exenatide treatment is associated with improvement and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, and that this effect is most pronounced in those with the greatest weight loss. In addition, treatment of leptin deficient ob/ob mice with exenatide reduced weight, liver lipid content, serum ALT and liver lipid peroxidation. Additional evidence suggests that the effects of exenatide on the liver are not simply a result of weight loss, but rather due to direct effects on the liver. Hepatocytes express GLP-1 receptors that are responsive to both GLP-1 and exenatide. Furthermore, exenatide treatment of ob/ob mice or isolated hepatocytes reduces mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and SREBP-1c, which would be expected to reduce DNL.. Based upon this data, we ...
Association of serum ferritin with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis | Lipids in Health and Disease | Full Text
A growing number of studies reported the connection between the level of serum ferritin (SFL) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, such connection was still disputable. The aim of our meta-analysis was to estimate SFL between the groups as below: patients with NAFLD against control group; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients against control group; non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients against a control group and NASH patients vs NAFL patients. We screened the studies in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database and the Cochrane Central register controlled trials from the beginning to July 10, 2016 to find the studies indicated the connection between SFL and NAFLD (NAFL and/or NASH). Fourteen published studies which evaluate the SFL in NAFLD patients were selected. Higher SFL was noticed in NAFLD patients against control group (standardized mean difference [SMD] 1.01; 95% CI 0.89, 1.13), NASH patients against control group (SMD 1.21; 95% CI 1.00, 1.42), NAFL patients against
Kupffer cell activation and portal hypertension | Gut
Kupffer cells (KC), the resident liver macrophages, constitute the liver sinusoids together with other cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, liver-specific natural killer cells and dendritic cells. KC account for approximately 10-15% of the total liver cell population and represent 80-90% of tissue macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. KC represent an important component of innate immunity.1 2 One characteristic of innate immunity is the rapid response to potentially dangerous stimuli. This suggests a central role of the liver in systemic and regional immune response, because KC come in contact with all the microbiological debris from the gastrointestinal tract reaching the liver via the portal vein.3. KC express the scavenger receptor CD163; CD163 is involved in the clearance and endocytosis of the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex.4 Once erythrocytes or the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex has been taken up by KC, the heme delivered from haemoglobin is ...
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis: sublethal hepatocyte injury as a driver of liver inflammation | Gut
A subset of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease develop an inflammatory condition, termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by hepatocellular injury, innate immune cell-mediated inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis. The mechanisms whereby hepatic inflammation occurs in NASH remain incompletely understood, but appear to be linked to the proinflammatory microenvironment created by toxic lipid-induced hepatocyte injury, termed lipotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the signalling pathways induced by sublethal hepatocyte lipid overload that contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. Furthermore, we will review the role of proinflammatory, proangiogenic and profibrotic hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as disease biomarkers and pathogenic mediators during lipotoxicity. We also review the potential therapeutic strategies to block the feed-forward loop between sublethal hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. ...
Lack of therapeutic improvement of liver fibrosis in rats by dexamethasone in spite of ascites amelioration<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of therapeutic improvement of liver fibrosis in rats by dexamethasone in spite of ascites amelioration. AU - Ki, Sung Hwan. AU - Choi, DalWoong. AU - Kim, Choon Won. AU - Kim, Sang Geon. PY - 2005/2/28. Y1 - 2005/2/28. N2 - Pathophysiology of liver fibrosis (LF) includes hepatic parenchymal cell destruction and connective tissue formation. Although dexamethasone has been used in the liver diseases, there is controversy over the beneficial effects of dexamethasone on LF. Previous studies showed that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) activation contributes to hepatocyte regeneration and dissolution of fibrosis and that dexamethasone activates C/EBPβ whereas C/EBPβ-mediated gene induction by dexamethasone is antagonized by a corepressor. The present study investigated the possible therapeutic effect of dexamethasone for the treatment of LF in rats. We injected rats with multiple doses of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for 4 weeks and then used the LF rats to determine ...
Lipometabolism and Glycometabolism in Liver Diseases
The liver is the main metabolic organ in the body especially in lipometabolism and glycometabolism. Carbohydrates and fats disorders can result in insulin resistance in the liver. Metabolic imbalance can even lead to life-threatening conditions. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the normal metabolic function of the liver. When the liver is in a pathological state, liver metabolism homeostasis is damaged, and metabolic disorders will further aggravate liver disease. Consequently, it is essential to determine the relationship between liver diseases and metabolic disorders. Here we review a lot of evidence that liver diseases are closely related to lipometabolism and glycometabolism. Although the disorder of the liver metabolism is caused by different liver diseases, the break of metabolic balance is determined by changes in the state of the liver. We discuss the relationship between liver disease and metabolic changes, outline the process of how metabolic changes are regulated by liver diseases, and
Investigation of salicylate hepatic responses in comparison with chemical analogues of the drug - Projects - Discovery -...
Amy Cameron, Lisa Logie, Kashyap Patel, Sandra Bacon, Calum Forteath, Jean Harthill, Adam Roberts, Calum Sutherland, Derek Stewart, Benoit Viollet, Kei Sakamoto, Gordon McDougall, Marc Foretz, Graham Rena ...
MR spectroscopy of the liver - a reliable non-invasive alternative for evaluating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease | RJME
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common conditions worldwide that targets the liver parenchyma. NAFLD represents an intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other diseases that affect the liver parenchyma. The current gold standard for evaluating the amount of intrahepatic fat is represented by liver biopsy, but many patients are reluctant and hardly accept undergoing this procedure due to its invasive nature. The current study addresses this aspect by evaluating the reliability of liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in diagnosing NAFLD, compared to the traditional invasive liver biopsy. The present study included a total of 38 patients based on several well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used the same NAFLD grading system for both liver MRS and liver biopsy: grade 0 ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Hepatoprotective Effect of Herb Formula KIOM2012H against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H) and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators.
97-98 WSC Conference 10
ALT: 15,360 (rat normal 29-65). Contributors Diagnosis and Comments: Moderate to severe, acute, multifocal to coalescing centrilobular hepatic necrosis.. Acute coagulative necrosis of the centrilobular region (Zone 3 of the liver acinus) is present throughout this section of rat liver. The necrosis of hepatocytes is most severe in zone 3, with complete dissolution of cytoplasmic components, karyorrhexis and karyolysis, and breakdown of sinusoidal endothelium with blood-filled lakes in the immediate vicinity of central veins. Phagocytosis by large cells assumed to be Kupffer cells is evident in the centrilobular region, and by Kupffer cells and intact hepatocytes at the periphery of the necrotic zones. Large numbers of neutrophils and lesser numbers of other mononuclear cells are abundant in or at the periphery of the necrotic zone (often approximating the Zone 2-3 boundary). Increased homogeneity of the hepatocytic cytoplasm with increased finely granular basophilia exists in the midzonal to ...
Sinusoidal endothelial cells direct traffic at the intersection of regeneration and fibrosis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sinusoidal endothelial cells direct traffic at the intersection of regeneration and fibrosis. AU - Huebert, Robert C.. AU - Shah, Vijay H.. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - Chemical or traumatic damage to the liver is frequently associated with aberrant healing (fibrosis) that overrides liver regeneration. The mechanism by which hepatic niche cells differentially modulate regeneration and fibrosis during liver repair remains to be defined. Hepatic vascular niche predominantly represented by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells deploys paracrine trophogens, known as angiocrine factors, to stimulate regeneration. Nevertheless, it is not known how pro-regenerative angiocrine signals from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells is subverted to promote fibrosis. Here, by combining an inducible endothelial-cell-specific mouse gene deletion strategy and complementary models of acute and chronic liver injury, we show that divergent angiocrine signals from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells ...
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment in Chennai | Fatty Liver Treatment in India
Get the best treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chennai, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common liver disease that results in fat accumulation in the liver. Dr.Rela Institute and Medical Centre is the most sought after destination for Fatty Liver Treatment and all medical problems concerning liver.
KEGG PATHWAY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH may further lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This map shows a stage-dependent progression of NAFLD. In the first stage of NAFLD, excess lipid accumulation has been demonstrated. The main cause is the induction of insulin resistance, which leads to a defect in insulin suppression of free fatty acids (FAAs) disposal. In addition, two transcription factors, SREBP-1c and PPAR-alpha, activate key enzymes of lipogenesis and increase the synthesis of FAAs in liver. In the second stage, as a consequence of the progression to NASH, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enhanced due to oxidation stress through mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and endoplamic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to lipid peroxidation. The lipid peroxidation can further ...
Re: IH on Liver Tissue
There is a peroxidase quench that will block ALL forms of peroxidase, totally. This is the glucose oxidase method. Hsu H-M, et al Am J Pathology 188:209-217,1984 Andrew SM and Jasani G Histchem J 19:426-430, 1987 Vector provided me with the exact protocol ,Date: Mon, 10 Jul 2000 14:43:03 -0400 ,From: Jeff Crews ,[email protected], ,Subject: Re: IH on Liver Tissue ,To: [email protected], [email protected] , , With extremely bloody tissue like spleen or liver, it is sometimes , impossible to quench all of the peroxidase present in the blood. Try , an alkaline-phoshatase detection system. , , Jeffrey Crews, HTL (ASCP) , Organogenesis, Inc. , , ,______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________ ,Subject: IH on Liver Tissue ,Author: ,[email protected], at internet ,Date: 07/10/2000 11:03 AM , , ,How can you successfully perform immunohistochemistry on slides of liver ,tissue using horse-radish peroxidase and DAB? How do you quench the ,endogenous peroxidase ...
Dynamics of proglycogen and macroglycogen in hepatocytes of normal and cirrhotic rat liver at various stages of glycogenesis |...
The content and structure of glycogen in hepatocytes of normal and cirrhotic rat liver were examined at different time intervals after glucose administration to starving animals. We used an original...
Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed (hepatectomy) and ... Liver at the Human Protein Atlas VIRTUAL Liver - online learning resource Liver enzymes "Liver" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol ... Animal livers are rich in iron, vitamin A and vitamin B12; and cod liver oil is commonly used as a dietary supplement. Liver ... Adipose and liver cells produce glycerol by breakdown of fat, which the liver uses for gluconeogenesis. Liver also does ...
... was a Paris based contemporary art duo created in 1999 by David Liver (born in 1977 in Le Havre) and Rugiada Cadoni ( ... Their first real solo exhibition was in Rome in 2001, at the Pino Casagrande Studio, in which Y Liver closed off the exhibition ...
Liver (web) (#534B4F) #534B4F At right is displayed the color dark liver (web). This is the shade of dark liver that is the ... Liver-colored moray eel Liver-colored horses List of colors Shades of brown Liver Chestnut (coat) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary ... A pink nose has nothing to do with liver dilution, and will not help determine if a dog is liver or not. Liver will also dilute ... so a Liver dog will have a Liver colored nose. If the nose is black, the dog is not a liver. ...
1990 live albums, Fan-club-release albums, The Residents live albums). ... Liver Music is a collection of songs by the Residents put together by their now-defunct fan club UWEB. The tracks are from an ... Live - Cube N.Y.E.) Information pertains to the tracks in order From the "13th Anniversary Show", San Francisco, CA February, ... assortment of live songs from 1972-1990. Diskomo Numb Erone/Satisfaction/Kick a Cat This Is a Man's World Excerpt from "The ...
... is the branch of cytology that studies the liver cells and its functions. The liver is a vital organ, in charge ... Liver cytology specializes in the study of liver cells. The main liver cells are called hepatocytes; however, there are other ... which are not exactly characteristic of the liver, but are present in the liver samples. Histologically speaking, hepatocytes ... In the adult liver, most of the cells are binucleated, and most of the hepatocytes are tetraploid, which means that they have ...
The liver span is a measurement performed during physical examination to determine the size of the liver and identify possible ... "Examination of the Liver". "Evaluation of the Size, Shape, and Consistency of the Liver". Clinical Methods: The History, ... and the upper border of the liver in the mid-clavicular line detected by percussion (the upper border of the liver lies behind ... Depending on the physician's technique, estimates of the same liver span can vary by 8 cm (3.1 in), on average. Gosink, BB; ...
"Liver King Might Be The Biggest Bro Influencer We Have Ever Seen". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 3 December 2022. "How the Liver ... Liver King is the Internet alias of fitness social media personality Brian Johnson. He is known for adhering to and promoting ... "The Liver King, an influencer who eats raw meat and preaches a primal lifestyle, admits to lying about steroid use". Insider. ... "The Liver King Wants You to Dominate Your Health Like a Caveman". Office for Science and Society. McGill University. Retrieved ...
Liver is a live album by Steve Taylor, released in 1995. Its contents cover all of Taylor's career at the time (up through ... Liver". CCM Magazine. 18 (1): 69. ISSN 1524-7848. "Steve Taylor (2) - Liver". Discogs. Retrieved October 2, 2017. (Use mdy ...
... is a soup in Chinese cuisine that has been dated back to the Han Dynasty. It was a favorite food of many poor ... The liver is placed in the solution and left to cook for a while. Sesame oil and pepper are often used as condiments in this ... Liver soup is a very healthy food, packed with nutrition that gives people energy and keeps their bodies in tip-top shape. Some ... List of Chinese soups List of soups "What Is Liver Soup? (with pictures)". Delighted Cooking. Retrieved 2022-07-20. v t e v t e ...
"Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF)" is said to exist when someone with chronic liver disease develops features of liver ... a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized. Acute liver ... Liver failure is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic functions as part of normal ... "Coagulopathy of acute liver failure". Clinics in Liver Disease. 13 (1): 95-107. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2008.10.001. ISSN 1089-3261. ...
There are four lobes of the liver. The Couinaud classification of liver anatomy then further divides the liver into eight ... A liver segment is one of eight segments of the liver as described in the widely used Couinaud classification (named after ... Sibulesky, Lena (March 2013). "Normal liver anatomy". Clinical Liver Disease. 2 (S1): S1-S3. doi:10.1002/cld.124. PMC 6448666. ... This system divides the lobes of the liver into eight segments based on a transverse plane through the bifurcation of the main ...
... is a Filipino canned spread product made from pureed pork, beef, or chicken liver mixed with cereal and/or offal ... Liver spread is usually eaten as a filling for sandwich bread and an accompaniment to crackers but it is also used as an ... Food portal Banana ketchup Mama Sita's Holding Company "Taste Test: We Try Canned Liver Spreads from Reno, Argentina, CDO, and ... Liver (food), Offal, Spreads (food), Ground meat). ...
A liver shot or liver punch is a punch, kick, or knee strike to the right side of the ribcage that damages the liver. Blunt ... Notable examples of liver shots in combat sport include: Vitali Klitschko knocked out Tony Bradham with a liver shot during the ... Thus, in combat sports, liver shots often result in technical knockouts (TKOs). Because in humans the liver is located in the ... Stipe Miocic used repeated liver shots in the 4th round of his second fight against Daniel Cormier. The liver shots weakened ...
Alcoholic liver disease and tuberculosis of the liver may be diagnosed through biopsy. Direct biopsy of tumors of the liver may ... from the liver. It is a medical test that is done to aid diagnosis of liver disease, to assess the severity of known liver ... Liver biopsy is often required for the diagnosis of a liver problem (jaundice, abnormal blood tests) where blood tests, such as ... Non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis in alcoholic, nonalcoholic and viral liver diseases are likely to become more widely used ...
Liver is the Ukrainian record holder in 50m breaststroke. London 2012 Archived 2013-05-23 at the Wayback Machine v t e ( ... Maria Liver (Ukrainian: Марія Володимирівна Лівер; born 11 November 1990) is a Ukrainian swimmer. She competed for Ukraine at ... Living people, Sportspeople from Poltava, Female breaststroke swimmers, Universiade medalists in swimming, Universiade gold ...
... or fried liver may refer to: Fried Liver Attack, a chess opening Chaogan, a kind of Chinese cuisine. Liver (food) ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Fried Liver. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
... A chopped liver meal on bagels with sour cream herring and onions Chopped liver is high in protein, but also high ... Chopped liver (Yiddish: געהאַקטע לעבער, gehakte leber) is a liver pâté popular in Ashkenazic cuisine. This dish is a common ... Since eating chopped liver may not be appreciated by everyone, the Jewish English expression "What am I, chopped liver?" ... "Great Chopped Liver". Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved 25 January 2020. "This Mock 'Chopped Liver' Is Even Better Than the ...
Media related to Liver birds at Wikimedia Commons The oldest Stained Glass Liver Bird Mersey Maritime Museum The Liver Building ... This prominent display of two liver birds rekindled the idea that the liver was a mythical bird that once haunted the local ... "Everton FC fan calls for liver bird to be reinstated by club" Liver Birds Inc. Website (All articles with dead external links, ... The stone liver bird is now displayed at the Museum of Liverpool. Though nowadays the bird is inseparable in the public mind ...
Chicken liver is often used so that the cake will taste light and tender, although beef or pork liver are also viable options. ... There are cakes other than liver cake in which liver is used but not mixed in the batter; one unusual version of medovik, a ... The liver is mixed in the batter of the cake, rather than served as the filling of the cake. Cream cheese or mayonnaise is ... Liver cake (Ukrainian: печінковий торт; Russian: торт печеночный) is a savoury layer cake found in the cuisines of Ukraine, ...
... is the process by which the liver is able to replace lost liver tissue. The liver is the only visceral organ ... The liver can rapidly regenerate damaged tissue, thereby preventing liver failure. However, the speed of liver regeneration ... The liver can regenerate after partial surgical removal or chemical injury. As little as 51% of the original liver mass is ... Scarring in the liver is very dangerous and can lead to further complications and liver disease. Complications increase when ...
... is a pâté and meat spread popular in Northern and Eastern Europe. Made from finely or coarsely ground pork liver and ... Liver pâté is a popular food item in Scandinavia, where it is known as leverpostej (Denmark), leverpostei (Norway) and ... The liver is usually finely ground, but coarsely ground variations are also made. Typical spices includes allspice and some ... Chopped liver Liverwurst Braunschweiger (sausage) Foie gras List of spreads Offal Bettina Buhl, curator of the Danish Museum of ...
... starts in liver) or secondary (meaning cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis). Liver ... Liver cancer can come from the liver parenchyma as well as other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood ... Liver transplantation and chemotherapy are not effective for angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas of the liver. Globally, liver ... embryomal sarcoma of liver, infantile choriocarcinoma of liver, and biliary rhabdomyosarcoma. Increased risk for liver cancer ...
Species of liver fluke include: Clonorchis sinensis (the Chinese liver fluke, or the Oriental liver fluke) Dicrocoelium ... the sheep liver fluke) Fascioloides magna (the giant liver fluke) Fasciola gigantica Fasciola jacksoni Metorchis conjunctus ... The body of liver flukes is leaf-like and flattened. The body is covered with a tegument. They are hermaphrodites having ... Liver fluke is a collective name of a polyphyletic group of parasitic trematodes under the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are ...
Treatment for liver spots is almost never done for health-related reasons, though it is sometimes done for aesthetic ones. Skin ... Liver spots (also known as age spot, solar lentigo, "lentigo senilis",: 686 "old age spot", "senile freckle") are blemishes on ... From the age of 40, the skin is less able to regenerate from sun exposure, and liver spots are very common in this age group, ... Liver spots can also be frozen off with liquid nitrogen; that is, via cryosurgery. Freckle Lentigo List of cutaneous conditions ...
A liver injury, also known as liver laceration, is some form of trauma sustained to the liver. This can occur through either a ... Liver injuries are classified on a Roman numeral scale with I being the least severe, to VI being the most severe. Generally ... Given its anterior position in the abdominal cavity and its large size, the liver is prone to gun shot wounds and stab wounds. ... Liver injuries constitute 5% of all traumas, making it the most common abdominal injury. Generally nonoperative management and ...
"Liver X receptor α is essential for the capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver injury". Scientific ... Human liver sinusoid A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60. SIU SOM Histology GI Brunt, EM; et al. (June 2014). " ... DeLeve, LD (November 2007). "Hepatic microvasculature in liver injury". Seminars in Liver Disease. 27 (4): 390-400. doi:10.1055 ... "Liver, Gall Bladder, and Pancreas: liver, classic lobule" Histology image: 22103loa - Histology Learning System at Boston ...
... s (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Liver cysts are common. They are fluid-filled contained structures within the liver. Simple liver cysts are seen most commonly ... Notably, liver pseudotumors can be confused for a liver tumor on initial imaging studies when diagnostically working up a liver ... or some other liver dysfunction. Treatment varies and is highly specific to the type of liver tumor. Liver tumors can be ...
... , or hepatic disease, is any of many diseases of the liver. If long-lasting it is termed chronic liver disease. ... Progression of the disease can lead to liver inflammation from the excess fat in the liver. Scarring in the liver often occurs ... Fibrinolysis generally proceeds faster with acute liver failure and advanced stage liver disease, unlike chronic liver disease ... Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) "Liver Diseases". MedlinePlus. MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Liver function tests "NHS ...
Virtually all liver transplants are done in an orthotopic fashion; that is, the native liver is removed and the new liver is ... Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another ... The large majority of liver transplants use the entire liver from a non-living donor for the transplant, particularly for adult ... Living donor liver transplantation for pediatric recipients involves removal of approximately 20% of the liver (Couinaud ...
Liver may also refer to: Liver (album), an album by Steve Taylor Liver (Chinese medicine) Liver (color) Liver (food) Liver bird ... Look up liver or Liver in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The liver is an organ in animals. ... a collection of songs by the Residents Liver punch, a boxing move Liver spot, a blemish on the skin associated with aging and ... Livre (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Liver. If an internal link led you ...
Congregate Living Settings | Mpox | Poxvirus | CDC
Mpox in Congregate Living Facilities. If an mpox case has been identified in a congregate living facility, consider the ... Some congregate living facilities may be able to provide isolation on-site while others may need to move residents off-site to ... For the purposes of this document, congregate living settings are facilities or other housing where people who are not related ... In this document, a "resident" refers to anyone living in a congregate setting, including students, guests, people who are ...
More Freedom Is the Whole Point of Vaccines - The Atlantic
"The truth is that if I thought I was going to be living the way Im living now for another 10 months," the New York Times ... Seeing those inequities, some commentators have suggested that vaccinated people should patiently wait to expand their lives ... "I did it because I want us to live normally again," says the chief coronavirus adviser in Romania. ... health officials from across the European Union stress that vaccination will help people get their lives back. "Ill do it to ...
What Does 'Black Lives Matter' Actually Mean? - Why Saying 'All Lives Matter' Is Problematic
... stating that black lives matter doesnt insinuate that other lives dont matter. ... "Stating black lives matter doesnt insinuate that other lives dont.". Let me be clear: our stating that black lives matter ... Black lives did not matter when they were lynched by the hundreds at the hands of the KKK. Black lives did not matter when they ... My personal message to those committed to saying "all lives matter" in the midst of the justice-driven work of the Black Lives ...
Best Hearing Aids of 2022 (With Reviews) | Retirement Living
Retirement Living Hi Pat, Check out the second question in our FAQs section on this guide. It details the best types of hearing ... Retirement Living Thanks for the feedback, Kim. We hope youll get some soon if you need them. Please dont wait too long - ... Retirement Living Jean,. Sounds like its time to get a second opinion. Our advice is to start by finding another audiologist ... Thrive Care allows you to live independently by sharing fitness information and fall detection warnings with your family. ...
Living on Earth: Climate Spending Czar
Donate to Living on Earth!. Living on Earth is an independent media program and relies entirely on contributions from listeners ... Living on Earth offers a weekly delivery of the shows rundown to your mailbox. Sign up for our newsletter today! Sailors For ... Contribute to Living on Earth and receive, as our gift to you, an archival print of one of Mark Seth Lenders extraordinary ... Living on Earth wants to hear from you!. P.O. Box 990007. Prudential Station. Boston, MA, USA 02199. Telephone: 1-617-287-4121 ...
From Yoga to Movie Nights: How Cemeteries Are Trying to Attract the Living | Travel| Smithsonian Magazine
Living Income vs. Living Wage - Global Living Wage Coalition
... "living income" and explain how it differs from "living wage." ... Living Income. What is the Difference Between Living Income and ... Definition of Living Income. The living income community of practice has agreed to a definition of living income that aligns ... The concepts of "living wage" and "living income" are both about achieving a decent standard of living for households. The idea ... The Anker Methodology is designed to estimate a living wage, but it can also be applied to living income, as the cost of living ...
Alzheimer's Association | Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia Help
Whether you are living with Alzheimers or caring for someone with the disease, information and resources are available. ... We offer in-person and virtual support groups for caregivers and individuals living with Alzheimers or other dementia. ... The holidays can be challenging for families living with Alzheimers or another dementia. With some planning and adjusted ... COVID-19 Vaccine: Answers for Dementia Caregivers and People Living with Alzheimers ...
Liver function tests - Wikipedia
Bright liver syndrome (bright liver on ultrasound suggestive of fatty liver) with raised ALT is suggestive of metabolic ... Alcoholic liver disease, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), fat accumulation in liver during childhood obesity, ... Other causes include: infiltrative liver diseases, granulomatous liver disease, abscess, amyloidosis of the liver and ... are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases ...
Covenant Living Communities and Services | Covenant Living Communities and Services
Assisted Living, Skilled Nursing, Memory Care and Rehabilitation. ... From Coast to Coast Covenant Living Communities and Services provides Independent Living, ... Senior Living Options * Residential Living * Assisted Living * Skilled Nursing * Rehabilitation * In-Home Services * Hospice * ... For Residential Living Sales or Assisted Living Care: (888) 401-6459. Hours: Residential Living 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.. Assisted ...
Liver Disease | MedlinePlus
Know your risk and what you can do to prevent liver problems. ... Get the facts about liver diseases, such as hepatitis, cancer, ... Benign Liver Tumors (American Liver Foundation) * Enlarged Liver (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in ... 25 Ways to Love Your Liver Health (American Liver Foundation) * Fighting Fatty Liver: Steps Against a Silent Disease (National ... Tests such as imaging tests and liver function tests can check for liver damage and help to diagnose liver diseases. ...
Liver Abscess Differential Diagnoses
Bacterial abscess of the liver is relatively rare; however, it has been described since the time of Hippocrates (400 BC), with ... encoded search term (Liver Abscess) and Liver Abscess What to Read Next on Medscape ... Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of liver lesions related to arterial thrombosis in adult liver transplantation. J Clin Ultrasound ... Liver Abscess Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Jul 06, 2022 * Author: Ruben Peralta, MD, FACS, FCCM, FCCP; Chief Editor: John ...
The Liver Meeting | AASLD
... discuss new developments in liver treatment and transplantation, and network with leading experts in the field of hepatology. ... The Liver Meeting brings together clinicians, associates, and scientists from around the world to exchange information on the ... Attendees of The Liver Meeting and The Liver Meeting Digital Experience can claim enduring and live credits by logging into the ... The Liver Meeting. Mark your calendars - TLM23 will be held at the Hynes Convention Center in Boston, Nov 10-14, 2023. ...
Research related to liver diseases
Liver | Animated Toxicology Tool | ATSDR
Since the liver is working to breakdown TCE, high dose exposures will cause an increase in some liver enzymes in the blood. ... Drinking alcohol increases these effects because the liver works to break down alcohol in a similar way as it breaks down TCE. ... No clinical effects on the liver are seen at low level exposures. ...
Flukes, Liver | CDC Yellow Book 2024
cause liver disease in cattle and sheep (definitive hosts) but can be transmitted to humans who consume watercress or other ... Liver flukes are trematode flatworms, including Clonorchis sinensis; Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; Opisthorchis felineus ... Infection with other liver flukes can be prevented by avoiding ingestion of raw or undercooked, pickled, salted, or smoked ... Travelers to liver fluke-endemic areas can become infected by ingesting contaminated foods. The risk for infection increases ...
AAOS Courses: Live and OnDemand Events
Both live webinars and Webinars OnDemand cover a wide range of topics, including clinical topics, practice management, and ... Virtual: AAOS Outpatient and Rapid Recovery in Total Joint Replacement, Presented Live November 18. ... Live & Virtual Courses Webinars Education By Specialty Area Resources for Residents All Education Resources ...
Acute Liver Failure Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination
Acute liver failure often affects young people and carries a very high mortality. ... is an uncommon condition in which rapid deterioration of liver function results in coagulopathy and alteration in the mental ... The liver span may be small, indicative of significant loss of volume due to hepatic necrosis. An enlarged liver may be seen ... Risk of acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury: evaluation of Hys law and a new prognostic model. Clin ...
Symptoms of Liver Disease in Cats - Petfinder
Learn about the symptoms of liver disease in cats here. ... The indicators of liver disease in cats can be a bit ambiguous ... Symptoms of Liver Disease in Cats. The indicators of liver disease in cats can be a bit ambiguous because they are similar to ... Cats with Liver Disease Find out what causes liver disease in cats and how to prevent it. ... Even if all signs point toward liver disease, your veterinarian cant provide a definitive diagnosis without a blood test. ...
... - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Liver Cancer, Liver Disease, Liver Failure, Viral Hepatitis ... Viral hepatitis is the term that describes inflammation of the liver that is caused by a virus. There are actually five types ...
Browsing by Subject "Liver"
Effect of dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate on normal and chemically-injured liver El Sawy, S.A.; El Shafey, A.M.; El Bahrawy, ... This study evaluates the effect of DDB on normal and chemically-injured liver. When given to normal rats DDB had no significant ... Biometric study of spleen and liver weights in Africans and Europeans with special reference to endemic malaria / by Jan Bruce- ... effect on liver enzymes, but in chemically-injured rats there was a significant decrease in ... ...
Home - Live Nation Entertainment
Empowered by Live Nation. Take a look at all the ways Live Nation is helping others. around the world through the power of live ... Empowered by Live Nation. Take a look at all the ways Live Nation is helping others. around the world through the power of live ... We are live nation. As the worlds leading live entertainment company, we are privileged to work with artists to bring their ... Work at Live Nation. Get one step closer to becoming part of our team by. exploring open roles and career opportunities. ...
Add to Cart - Active Living
Fora Outdoor Living Events | Eventbrite
Check out Fora Outdoor Livings events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... Fora Outdoor Living is using Eventbrite to organize 4 upcoming events. ... Join us at Fora Outdoor Living Norwich OR Fora Outdoor Living Ancaster for our Easter Planter workshops! ... Fora Outdoor Living is Ancaster & Norwichs newest garden centre and backyard showroom. ...
Saturday Night Live (TV Series 1975- ) - IMDb
With The Saturday Night Live Band, Don Pardo, Darrell Hammond, Lenny Pickett. A famous guest host stars in parodies and ... What was the official certification given to Saturday Night Live (1975) in Brazil? ... Saturday Night Live: Created by Lorne Michaels. ... Live television is largely exempt from the usual rules of goofs ...
Hepatic (Liver) | Health Effects of Exposure to Substances and Carcinogens | Toxic Substance Portal | ATSDR
Golf Talk Live Online Radio | BlogTalkRadio
Welcome to Golf Talk Live! Tune in LIVE Thursday at 6:00 PM Central On the season finale, Im excited to be joined by two great ... Welcome to Golf Talk Live! Tune in LIVE Thursday at 6:00 PM Central Joining me this week on the Coaches Corner Panel: Pete ... Welcome to Golf Talk Live! Tune in LIVE Thursday at 6:00 PM Central Excited to welcome three special guests to the show this ... Welcome to Golf Talk Live! Tune in LIVE Thursday at 6:00 PM Central Joining me on the Coaches Corner Panel: Jon Decker. Plus ...