Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Rats, Inbred F344Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningBiotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GalactosamineGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.TriglyceridesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Mice, Inbred BALB CGlutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Orotic AcidMicrobodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (1/63406)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (2/63406)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (3/63406)

Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury.  (+info)

Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (4/63406)

Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed.  (+info)

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (5/63406)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda). (6/63406)

Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness.  (+info)

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (7/63406)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (8/63406)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

*Hy's law

"Use of Hy's law and a new composite algorithm to predict acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury", ... and nR criteria to predict acute liver failure or transplantation in patients with drug-induced liver injury.", ... Hy's law is a rule of thumb that a patient is at high risk of a fatal drug-induced liver injury (DILI) if given a medication ... The law is based on observations by Hy Zimmerman, a major scholar of drug-induced liver injury. Some have suggested the ...

*Acute liver failure

... is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice ... Larsen FS, Wendon J (2002). "Brain edema in liver failure: basic physiologic principles and management". Liver Transpl. 8 (11 ... acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and idiopathic (without an obvious cause). Reye syndrome is acute liver failure in a child with ... "A survey of liver transplantation from living adult donors in the United States". The New England Journal of Medicine. 348 (9 ...

*Liver failure

"Acute on chronic liver failure" is said to exist when someone with chronic liver disease develops features of liver failure. A ... Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as ... "Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Distinct Clinical Condition". Seminars in Liver Disease. 36: 107-108. doi:10.1055/s-0036- ... Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized. Acute ...

*Flavocoxid

No instances of acute liver failure or chronic liver injury have been linked to flavocoxid use and all cases have been self- ... Most cases have been moderate in severity and no instance of acute liver failure or death has been reported. Complete ... However, there have been several reports of clinically apparent acute liver injury attributed to flavocoxid. Most cases have ... both of which have been implicated in causing idiosyncratic acute liver injury, but the mechanism is unknown. ...

*Alcoholic liver disease

... is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, ... Liver transplantation remains the only definitive therapy. Today, survival after liver transplantation is similar for people ... It is the major cause of liver disease in Western countries. Although steatosis (fatty liver) will develop in any individual ... It is usually not until development of advanced liver disease that stigmata of chronic liver disease become apparent. Early ALD ...

*Chronic liver disease

Testing for chronic liver disease involves blood tests, imaging including ultrasound and a biopsy of the liver. The liver ... Liver problems Alternative medicine - 27/01/2007/ Gastroenterology Consultants: Liver Disease Good summary of classes of liver ... "Chronic liver disease" refers to disease of the liver which lasts over a period of six months. It consists of a wide range of ... Chronic liver disease in the clinical context is a disease process of the liver that involves a process of progressive ...

*Liver regeneration

... augmenter of liver regeneration. The ability for the liver to regenerate is central to liver homeostasis. Because the liver is ... Liver regeneration is also critical for patients of liver diseases where the partial removal of the liver due to fibrosis or ... The liver is the only visceral organ that possesses the remarkable capacity to regenerate. The liver can regenerate after ... Liver regeneration involves replication of the liver cells, mainly hepatocytes, followed by other cells such as biliary ...

*Artificial extracorporeal liver support

Devices that support liver function outside the body are: Liver dialysis Bioartificial liver devices Pless, G. (2007). " ... Artificial extracorporeal liver support is measures used to carry out liver function that are outside the body. The Molecular ... "Artificial and bioartificial liver support". Organogenesis. 3 (1): 20-24. doi:10.4161/org.3.1.3635. PMC 2649611 . PMID 19279696 ... Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support. MARS banks on the recycling of ...

*Liver function tests

... at Lab Tests Online Overview at Mayo Clinic Abnormal Liver Function Tests Overview of liver enzymes ... are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only ... The liver is responsible for clearing the blood of unconjugated bilirubin, and about 30% of it is taken up by a normal liver on ... In patients with liver disease, INR can be used as a marker of liver synthetic function as it includes factor VII, which has ...

*United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease

Model for End-Stage Liver Disease MELD-Plus Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease Milan criteria Child-Pugh score "Liver Transplant ... Asrani SK, Kim WR (May 2010). "Organ allocation for chronic liver disease: model for end-stage liver disease and beyond". Curr ... February 2008). "Selection of patients for liver transplantation and allocation of donated livers in the UK". Gut. 57 (2): 252- ... A UKELD score of 49 indicates a 9% one-year risk of mortality, and is the minimum score required to be added to the liver ...

*Liver sinusoid

Human liver sinusoid A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60. SIU SOM Histology GI Sellaro TL, Ravindra AK, Stolz DB, ... "Liver, Gall Bladder, and Pancreas: liver, classic lobule" Histology image: 22103loa - Histology Learning System at Boston ... A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location ... Hepatic stellate cells are present in the space of Disse and are involved in scar formation in response to liver damage. The ...

*Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

They may also include a palpable liver mass. Other presentations include jaundice, ascites, fulminant liver failure, ... Liver resection is the optimal treatment and may need to be performed more than once, since this disease has a very high ... AMA J Dis Child 91(2):168-186 Craig JR, Peters RL, Edmondson HA, Omata M. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver: a tumor of ... Five year survival rates vary between 40-90%. FHCC accounts for 1-10% of primary liver cancers. It typically has a young age at ...

*Fatty liver

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases American Liver Foundation Fatty Liver Disease, Canadian Liver Foundation ... Qian Y, Fan JG (2005). "Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer". Hbpd Int. 4 (2): 173-7. PMID 15908310. "Fatty Liver: Overview, ... Alcoholic liver disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Metabolic syndrome Cirrhosis Focal fatty liver Acute fatty liver of ... Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of ...

*Liver disease

Progression of the disease can lead to liver inflammation from the excess fat in the liver. Scarring in the liver often occurs ... Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) "Liver Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-20. "Liver function ... and liver cancer. In the earlier stages of alcoholic liver disease, fat builds up in the liver's cells due to increased ... and other forms of liver toxicity. Cirrhosis causes chronic liver failure. Primary liver cancer most commonly manifests as ...

*Timeline of liver cancer

"Helicobacter pylori and Liver - Detection of Bacteria in Liver Tissue from Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Laser ... "Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Liver Cancer)". Retrieved 30 September 2016. "Risk Factors for the Rising Rates of Primary Liver ... "Hepatitis G infection: role in cryptogenic chronic liver disease and primary liver cell cancer in the UK. Trent Hepatitis C ... "Liver Transplantation". Retrieved 30 September 2016. Ariel, IM (1965). "Treatment of Inoperable Primary Pancreatic and Liver ...

*Liver transplantation

Virtually all liver transplants are done in an orthotopic fashion, that is, the native liver is removed and the new liver is ... Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another ... The large majority of liver transplants use the entire liver from a non-living donor for the transplant, particularly for adult ... Living donor liver transplantation for pediatric recipients involves removal of approximately 20% of the liver (Couinaud ...

*Liver

Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed (hepatectomy) and ... Liver is often made into spreads. Well-known examples include liver pâté, foie gras, chopped liver, and leverpastej. Liver ... Where is your liver located Liver at the Human Protein Atlas VIRTUAL Liver - online learning resource Liver enzymes. ... Adipose and liver cells produce glycerol by breakdown of fat, which the liver uses for gluconeogenesis. The liver is ...

*Liver (album)

Liver is a live album by Steve Taylor, released in 1995. Its contents cover all of Taylor's career, including his time with ... Liver". CCM Magazine. 18 (1): 69. ISSN 1524-7848. "Steve Taylor (2) - Liver". Discogs. Retrieved October 2, 2017. ...

*Fried Liver

... or fried liver may refer to: Two Knights Defense, Fried Liver Attack, a chess opening Chaogan, a kind of Chinese ...

*Liver injury

A liver injury, also known as liver laceration, is some form of trauma sustained to the liver. This can occur through either a ... Liver injuries are classified on a Roman numeral scale with I being the least severe, to VI being the most severe. Generally ... Liver injuries constitute 5% of all traumas, making it the most common abdominal injury. Generally nonoperative management and ... In the 1880s a severe liver injury would in most cases prove fatal in the first 24 hours after sustaining the injury. Before ...

*Liver Music

... is a collection of songs by the Residents put together by their now-defunct fan club UWEB. The tracks are from an ... Live - Cube N.Y.E.) Information pertains to the tracks in order From the "13th Anniversary Show", San Francisco, CA February, ... assortment of live songs from 1972-1990. Diskomo Numb Erone/Satisfaction/Kick a Cat This Is a Man's World Excerpt from "The ...

*Liver fluke

... the lancet liver fluke) Dicrocoelium hospes Fasciola hepatica (the sheep liver fluke) Fascioloides magna (the giant liver fluke ... Species of liver fluke include: Clonorchis sinensis (the Chinese liver fluke, or the Oriental liver fluke) Dicrocoelium ... Southeast Asian liver fluke) Opisthorchis felineus (Cat liver fluke) Opisthorchis guayaquilensis Lotfy, WM; Brant, SV; DeJong, ... The body of liver flukes is leaf-like, and flattened. The body is covered with a tegument. They are hermaphrodites having ...

*Mariya Liver

Liver is the current Ukrainian record holder in 50m breaststroke. London 2012 Archived 2013-05-23 at the Wayback Machine.. ... Maria Liver (Ukrainian: Марія Володимирівна Лівер; born 11 November 1990) is a Ukrainian swimmer. She competed for Ukraine at ...

*Liver spot

... liver spots) Prime Health Channel: Solar Lentigo(Liver Spots). ... Liver spots (also known as age spot, solar lentigo, "lentigo ... From the age of 40 onward the skin is less able to regenerate from sun exposure, and liver spots are very common in this age ... The spots derive their name from the fact that they were once incorrectly believed to be caused by liver problems, but they are ... "Age spots (liver spots) Treatments and drugs". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-02-12. Mansouri, P.; Farshi, S.; Hashemi, Z.; ...

*Liver (disambiguation)

Liver is an organ in animals. Liver may also refer to: Liver (food) Liver (Chinese medicine) Liver (color) Liver bird, the ... a collection of songs by the Residents Liver (album), an album by Steve Tyler Liver punch, a boxing move Liver spot, a blemish ... symbol of the city of Liverpool, England Liver Music, ...
Alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells were examined after their exposure to the potent carcinogens, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Co-planar PCB congeners (3,4,5,3′,4′-PCB and 3,4,5,3′,4′,5′-PCB) (10 nM) induced a protein, the Mr of which was 25,000 (25 k protein) under denaturing conditions. However, non-co-planar PCB congeners and several xenobiotics, which induce microsomal proteins, did not induce the 25 k protein. By using immunoblotting, the 25 k protein was identified as glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P, 7-7, EC 2.5.1.18).. ...
Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na+-dependent and Na+-independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na+-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent Km values for uridine in the range 8-13 μM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 106 cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na+-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na+-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na+-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is ...
This micrograph was acquired by means of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SEM) comprising 610 sequential images. The hepatic parenchymal cells (blue, binucleate; gold, mononucleate) and the bile canaliculi (green) were generated by means of manual segmentation; a highly labour intensive process taking three months to complete for a single model. The bile canaliculi represent the smallest branch of the biliary tree, formed by the opposing plasma membranes of adjacent hepatic parenchymal cells. These fine channels measure between 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter and transport bile - an exocrine secretion of hepatic parenchymal cells - to the gall bladder via ductules of increasing diameter.. ...
Xu, F., Zhen, P., Zheng, Y., LIjuan, F., Aiting, Y., Min, C., Hong, Y. and Jidong, J. (2013), Preparation of Kupffer cell enriched non-parenchymal liver cells with high yield and reduced damage of surface markers by a modified method for flow cytometry. Cell Biology International, 37: 284-291. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10035 ...
Expression of ECM proteins fibulin-1 and -2 in acute and chronic liver disease and in cultured rat liver cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for mixing of the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein. Hepatocytes are separated from the sinusoids by the space of Disse. Kupffer cells are located inside the sinusoids and can take up and destroy foreign material such as bacteria. Hepatic stellate cells are present in the space of Disse and are involved in scar formation in response to liver damage. The sinusoidal endothelial cells are cultured for a variety of research purposes. The utility of these cells are of particular interest. One problem to overcome is the reversing of cellular differentiation that has made these cells highly specialized phenotypically in vitro. Human liver sinusoid A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60. SIU SOM Histology GI Sellaro TL, Ravindra AK, Stolz DB, Badylak SF. (September 2007). "Maintenance of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial ...
Similar to the well-recognized phenotypical heterogeneity of hepatocytes, in situ sublobular variations have recently been detected in the cell structure, fenestration patterns, filtrating efficiency, surface glycosylation, scavenger function and pathological responses of the sinusoidal lining endothelium. However, unlike other liver cell populations, until now no endothelial cell subpopulations had been isolated or defined with clarity, much less with sublobular/acinar zone-related differential properties. On the basis of our previous studies showing that periportal segments of mouse liver sinusoids express a significantly higher number of wheat germ agglutinin-binding sites than do perivenous ones, we used this differential feature for in vitro labeling of the specific sublobular derivation of isolated sinusoidal lining endothelial cells to correlate their original lobular position with other features determined on flow cytometry, centrifugal elutriation, discontinuous arabinogalactan density ...
Cell transplantation-induced hepatic ischemia and recruitment of vasoconstrictors (e.g., endothelin-1; Edn1) leads to clearance of transplanted cells and poses problems for liver repopulation. Therefore, we determined whether darusentan (DAR), which potently blocks Edn1 receptor type A, could benefit cell engraftment. We transplanted primary F344 rat hepatocytes with or without DAR in dipeptidyl peptidase IV-deficient rats. Analysis of microcirculatory events included hepatic ischemia, endothelial injury, including with gene expression arrays, and activations of Kupffer cells (KCs), neutrophils, or hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The retrorsine-partial hepatectomy model was used for liver repopulation studies. Whether DAR was directly cytoprotective was examined in cultured rat hepatocytes or CFSC-8B rat HSCs. We found that DAR induced hepatic sinusoidal vasodilation, caused more transplanted cells to be deposited in liver parenchyma, and decreased hepatic ischemia and endothelial injury. This ...
The marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase, verified that enriched periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were isolated from different lobular origin within the rat liver. Our finding that alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in periportal hepatocytes (with a ratio of 1.9 for periportal to perivenous activities, Table 1) was in agreement with histochemical evidence on the enzyme in rat liver (Gorgens et al., 1988) and what was observed in other studies (Sillau et al., 1996; Tosh et al., 1996). The dramatic difference in glutamine synthetase activity between the perivenous and periportal regions (Table 1) was also shown by Stoll et al. (1991) and provided evidence on the successful preparation of enriched populations of periportal and perivenous cells. In addition, glutamate uptake, mediated by the sodium-dependent transporter, System G, in the perivenous region (Stoll et al., 1991) as well as the sodium-independent system in both periportal and perivenous ...
In chronic active hepatitis, very strong alpha-SMA staining was detected at the site of piecemeal necrosis and adjacent lobules. A-SMA expression was decreased in some cases after interferon treatment. In cases of transplanted liver biopsies, expression of intralobular alpha-SMA was diffusely increased but showed no correlation with degree of acute rejection. Cirrhotic livers revealed strong alpha-SMA positivity in fibrous septae as well as in the perisinusoidal space of intact hepatocytes at the leading edge of fibrosis. Interlobular bile ducts were concentrically circumscribed by alpha-SMA positive cells in cases of intrahepatic cholelithiasis. In trabecular type hepatocellular carcinomas, most sinusoidal lining cells were positive for alpha-SMA. Most intralobular alpha-SMA positive cells represent, if not all, perisinusoidal cells (PSCs) which are involved in intralobular fibrogenesis in various liver diseases. PMID: 8305144. ...
It is known that obesity and/or physical inactivity greatly increase a persons risk of developing heart disease and other serious health problems. This is partly because diabetes is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Diabetes is also associated with high levels of triglycerides in the blood and tissues such as the liver (known as fatty liver or steatosis). This elevation of fat in the liver is known to cause liver insulin resistance and impair the function of the liver and this impairment contributes to the development of diabetes.. Studies have shown that both aerobic exercise and weight loss have beneficial results on insulin resistance. However, the cause of this benefit remains unclear. We know that both aerobic exercise and/or weight loss can improve how muscle responds to insulin. However, it is also known that aerobic exercise and/or weight loss lowers liver fat content, thereby making it possible that the livers response to insulin is also improved ...
Preparation of Recombinant Adenoviruses. All first-generation recombinant adenoviruses were constructed according to Becker et al. (18). Generation of Ad-RIP-GFP and the bifunctional recombinant Ad-RIP-GFP-CMV-PDX-1 adenoviruses is described in Supporting Methods, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site.. Human Liver Cells. Adult human liver (AHL) tissues were obtained from eight different liver transplantation surgeries from 4- to 10-year-old children and three individuals ,40 years old. Fetal human livers were obtained from four deliberate abortions of 20-22 weeks of gestation. Both adult and fetal liver tissues were used with approval from the Committee on Clinical Investigations (Institutional Review Boards of Sheba Medical Center and Rabin Medical Center).. Cell Harvest and Culture Conditions. Isolation of human liver cells was performed as described (19). Briefly, liver samples were cut into thin slices (1- to 2-mm thickness), and digested by 0.03% collagenase ...
Although flow through portal vein and hepatic artery is readily accessible using Doppler sonography, (22,23) in vivo studies on human hepatic (parenchymal) perfusion are limited due to the often (highly) invasive methodology required. Indirect methods for measuring hepatic blood flow have been used and include the assessment of clearance or dilution of a dye or marker (gas or microspheres), which have a wider range of clinical applicability than the direct methods (38). Moreover, noninvasive measurements of hepatic perfusion using PET with the freely diffusible flow tracer [15O]H2O have been shown to provide reliable estimates of hepatic blood flow, when taking into account the dual input from hepatic artery and vena porta (27,28). In the current study, decreased hepatic parenchymal perfusion was observed in type 2 diabetic patients with increased liver triglyceride content but not in those type 2 diabetic patients with low liver triglyceride content, as compared with control subjects, implying ...
Background: Numerous studies in rats and a few other mammalian species, including man, have shown that the sinusoidal cells constitute an important part of liver function. In the pig, however, which is frequently used in studies on liver transplantation and liver failure models, our knowledge about the function of hepatic sinusoidal cells is scarce. We have explored the scavenger function of pig liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), a cell type that in other mammals performs vital elimination of an array of waste macromolecules from the circulation. Results: 125I-macromolecules known to be cleared in the rat via the scavenger and mannose receptors were rapidly removed from the pig circulation, 50% of the injected dose being removed within the first 2-5 min following injection. Fluorescently labeled microbeads (2 μm in diameter) used to probe phagocytosis accumulated in Kupffer cells only, whereas fluorescently labeled soluble macromolecular ligands for the mannose and scavenger receptors ...
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Abstract: The study of the dynamics of adaptation to the rations containing casein and wheat protein showed some accumulation of hepatic protein on days 4-9. Evaluation of 14C-Leucine and protein turnover from the kinetics of precursor elimination from the pool and that of incorporation into proteins, demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the rate of endogenous protein synthesis, and the higher protein levels are associated with the lower secretion of these export proteins from the liver. In another experiment after adaptation to the casein feed, the animals were fed a wheat protein-containing feed, there were no changes in protein levels, yet the rate of total liver protein turnover was significantly increased on day 5, as shown by massive label estimation and calculation using the modified equation. Adaptation to new rations is accompanied by the initial accumulation of protein in the liver tissue and the subsequent adaptation to proteins of low biological value may be ...
The critical role of the liver in the resolution of systemic bacterial infections is well documented. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, approximately 60% of bacteria inoculated i.v. into mice are recovered in the liver at 10 min after infection. Here we report that the Listeria recovered at 10 min were distributed equally among the hepatocyte and nonparenchymal liver cell populations. The majority (,/= 75%) of these organisms were bound extracellularly as judged by their sensitivity to gentamicin. In contrast, ,/= 93% of Listeria recovered in the liver at 6 h were located within hepatocytes. The listerial burden of the liver decreased 0.5 to 1.0 log, between 10 min and 6 h after infection. This decrease correlated with a sevenfold increase in the percentage of neutrophils that constituted the nonparenchymal cell population. Mice rendered neutrophil deficient by pretreatment with anti-granulocyte (RB6-8C5) mAb exhibited a significant increase (,300%) rather than a decrease in liver Listeria ...
The experiments reported in this study describe, for the first time, the expression and function of NaCT in intact liver cells. We investigated the characteristics of the transporter in human and rat liver cell lines and in primary hepatocytes from the rat liver. Comparative experiments with human and rodent cell lines were necessitated because of the marked differences observed in substrate affinity and the Li+ effect between cloned human and rodent NaCTs. These experiments showed that NaCT is expressed and functional in human and rat liver cell lines and in rat primary hepatocytes. The characteristics of NaCT, examined in human liver cell lines, are similar to those of the cloned human NaCT for the most part, with a notable exception. The transporter in liver cell lines is Na+ dependent, interacts with two or more Na+ per transport cycle, shows a preference for citrate over other intermediates of the citric acid cycle, and is stimulated by Li+. The Li+-induced activation of the transport ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver disease. HCV productively infects hepatocytes to impart liver inflammation and progressive tissue damage leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. These processes underlie liver dysfunction and are thought to drive the onset of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which HCV confers hepatic inflammation are not defined. Now, there is growing evidence that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells (KC), may play key roles in regulating immune responses and facilitating tolerance induction. These cells are playing a pivotal role in blood-borne virus clearance (>90%), leaving only a small fraction of infectious virus that escapes clearance in a manner peculiar to each individual pathogen. The biology of HCV, specifically regarding non-parenchymal liver cells, has been largely neglected. LSEC account for the 20% and KC for 15% of the hepatic cells, and are a unique organ-resident cell population with diverse functions, ...
When isolated livers from starved rats are perfused with lactate at constant perfusate pH and Pco2, there is a marked gradient of cell pH (pHi) along the length of the lobular radius, with periportal cells being substantially more alkaline than perivenous cells. In the present studies, the perivenous 21% of the lobular volume was destroyed by retrograde digitonin perfusion, and antegrade perfusion restored. pHi was determined by 31P-NMR. The remaining periportal cells, the site of gluconeogenesis from lactate, had a substantially higher mean pHi (7.42) than did the intact liver (7.23). When lactate was removed from the perfusate, mean pHi decreased to 7.25. The corresponding concentration of cell bicarbonate fell with a half-time of approximately 5min. When lactate was re-introduced mean pHi rose to 7.34. We conclude that a major contributor to periportal alkalinity under these conditions is proton consumption during gluconeogenesis from lactate ions.. ...
There is great interest in the biology of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) because of their stem cell-like ability to regenerate the liver when the hepatocyte pool is exhausted. Barely detectable in healthy tissue, they emerge upon chronic insult in periportal regions, proliferate and migrate to injury sites in the parenchyma and eventually differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to restore liver mass, morphology and function. The increasing worldwide shortage of livers for orthotopic transplantation means LPCs have assumed more prominence as candidates for cell therapy as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of various liver diseases. However, an LPC response is usually seen in pre-cancerous liver pathologies and their high proliferation potential makes them possible transformation targets; associations that overshadow their restorative capability. This mandates that we continue to investigate the factors that govern their activation, proliferation and especially their ...
It is accepted that acetominiphen (APAP) hepatocellular injury requires bioactivation by cytochromes P450 (P450s), but this remains unproven in primary mouse hepatic parenchymal cells (HPCs). The present study evaluated APAP cytotoxicity and APAP-protein adducts (a biomarker of metabolic bioactivation) using primary mouse HPCs in the presence and absence of a broad-spectrum inhibitor of P450s, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT). 1-ABT abolished formation of APAP-protein adducts at all concentrations tested, but eliminated cytotoxicity only at the low concentrations, indicating the presence of a P450-independent mechanism at larger APAP concentrations. P450-independent cell death was delayed in onset relative to toxicity observed at smaller concentrations and was related to p-aminophenol formation. In conclusion, APAP hepatocellular injury in vitro occurs by at least two mechanisms, and these findings should be considered when interpreting results from APAP cytotoxicity studies in vitro and in ...
Hepatic histology and expressions of VLDL, L-FABP and FATP4 in liver tissues.(A) Representative images (200×magnification, haematoxylin and eosin stain) of hep
The exposure of Nigerians to House Hold Kerosene (HHK) is on the increase following carelessness from handling the product and proliferation of sales outlet. Against this backdrop, hepatotoxicity of HHK on liver enzyme markers and its effect on hematological and oxidative stress parameters on wistar albino rats were investigated. Preliminary toxicity study to determine the volume of HHK that could cause toxicity was carried out using 30 healthy albino rats. Another set of 20 albino rats were grouped into two groups and used for the biochemical analysis: Group I animals were the control group and Group II animals were administered with 1ml/kg body weight of HHK. The results of this study shows that HGB, RBC and HCT values were significantly reduced (P,0.05) in the group administered with kerosene compared to the healthy group. WBC, lymphocyte# count, MCV and MCH values were significantly increased (P,0.05) in the treated group compared to the control group. All the liver enzyme markers: AST, ALT, ...
During the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the dissection of cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. The disease, initiated by hepatocellular damage and perpe
High-fat diets are known to negatively impact liver health and metabolism, but the mechanisms behind it are unclear. A new study takes an in-depth look.
The mechanisms controlling mammalian organ size have long been a source of fascination for biologists. These controls are needed to both ensure the integrity of the body plan and to restrict inappropriate proliferation that could lead to cancer. Regulation of liver size is of particular interest inasmuch as this organ maintains the capacity for regeneration throughout life, and is able to regain precisely its original mass after partial surgical resection. Recent studies using genetically engineered mouse strains have shed new light on this problem; the Hippo signalling pathway, first elucidated as a regulator of organ size in \(Drosophila\), has been identified as dominant determinant of liver growth. Defects in this pathway in mouse liver lead to sustained liver overgrowth and the eventual development of both major types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In this review, we discuss the role of Hippo signalling in liver biology and the contribution of this pathway ...
The liver plays a major role for the metabolism, but it is also of general importance for the immune system, e.g. for the deletion of activated T cells or the induction of peripheral tolerance. Under physiological conditions T cells and other leukocytes can be found in the liver, in the sinusoids as well as in the parenchyma. This hepatic accumulation of T cells might be due to immunosurveillance, but it would also be a prerequisite for modulation of T cells by hepatic cells. The present study investigated two different aspects of the interaction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), the barrier between the sinusoidal lumen and the hepatic parenchyma, and CD4+ T cells. In the first part of the study it could be demonstrated that LSEC support the spontaneous transmigration of CD4+ T cells as well as their chemotaxis to CXCL12 and CXCL9 more efficiently than other endothelial cells. Whereas a direct endothelial activation by chemokines could be excluded the efficient chemokine presentation ...
Cause of NAFLD: physical inactivity: while exercise predominantly enhances muscle insulin sensitivity, studies suggest exercise may decrease liver fat.
A volume in the popular Pattern Recognition Series, Practical Hepatic Pathology: A Diagnostic Approach features completely updated and reorganized content, resulting in a truly practical guide to understanding liver pathology. Dr. Romil Saxena presents interpretation of liver biopsies according to a pattern-based approach that begins with recognition of the predominant histological pattern of injury, followed by identification of secondary features and appropriate work-up that lead you away from pitfalls to the best diagnosis.. ...
Guildford, UK, 30 November 2006: ReNeuron Group plc (LSE: RENE.L) and CellSeed Inc., a privately owned tissue engineering company based in Tokyo, Japan, today announce the signing of a collaboration agreement to develop novel, patented liver cell culture systems for drug safety screening in the pharmaceutical industry. The development work, to be conducted in CellSeeds laboratories in Tokyo, will establish protocols for efficiently developing ReNeurons patented ReNcellTM HEP hepatocyte cell lines in combination with CellSeeds UpCell and HydroCell temperature-sensitive polymer products for 3-dimensional functional liver tissue. 3-D liver culture systems represent the most effective way to assay for human liver toxicity of new drugs. The collaboration will enable the joint development of new, high-value, human cell-based drug discovery products for use in the pharmaceutical industry. If the collaboration is successful, these products are expected to be launched in 2007. ReNeurons ReNcellTM HEP ...
IL-10 ameliorates hepatic pathology during PyL and PyNL infection.Liver pathology was examined (A) in WT and IL-10−/− mice that were either uninfected or ha
The American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology publishes papers on digestion, secretion, absorption, metabolism, motility, microbiology and colonization, growth and development, and neurobiology relevant to these organs as well as those dealing with neural, endocrine, and circulatory control mechanisms. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts dealing with growth and development, digestion, secretion, absorption, metabolism, and motility relative to these organs, as well as research reports dealing with immune and inflammatory processes and with neural, endocrine, and circulatory control mechanisms that affect these organs. Reports of research utilizing molecular biological, cell biological, immunological, biochemical, and morphological approaches that contribute to knowledge of normal physiology or pathophysiology of these organs are especially welcomed. Research ranging from molecular and cellular events to whole animal studies and translational studies in human ...
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are very thin cells that line the liver sinusoids and separate blood from the hepatocytes. The blood flow through the sinusoid is slow giving LSECs a perfect condition to eliminate macromolecules from the blood. Representing one of the most actively endocytosing cell types in the body the LSEC is regarded as a professional pinocyte and very efficiently eliminates soluble macromolecules and small particles (colloids) from the blood circulation. In fact, the most important site of elimination of nearly all tested soluble waste macromolecules and nanoparticles injected into animals are the LSECs. The LSECs make up only 3,3 % of the total liver volume, but 21 % of the total number of liver cells. ...
The discovery by researchers in Hopkins Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences and McKusick-Nathans Institute for Genetic Medicine reveals that a protein called GCN5 is critical for controlling a domino-like cascade of molecular events that lead to the release of sugar from liver cells into the bloodstream. Understanding the role of GCN5 in maintaining blood sugar levels is leading to a clearer picture of how the body uses sugar and other nutrients to make, store and spend energy ...
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In this study we focused on the hepatic αβ T cells found in perfused donor organs. The hepatic αβ-TCRpos population contains more than twice as many CD8pos cells and 4 times as many double-negative cells as the corresponding population in matched peripheral blood. As evidenced by the absence of CD45RO (26), almost half of the peripheral blood and one-third of hepatic αβ T cells have a naive-like phenotype. The majority of αβposCD45ROneg cells in the periphery coexpress CD4, whereas ,5% of αβposCD45ROneg hepatic cells coexpress CD4. This suggests that naive CD4 expressing αβ T cells are rare in the liver and abundant in the periphery. In contrast, CD8 coexpressing αβposCD45ROneg cells are more abundant in the liver than in matched blood. This suggests that the normal liver may contain a significant population of naive αβposCD8pos cells.. However, although CD45RO defines a memory population, up to 20% of CD8posCD45ROneg T cells in the periphery represent a recently activated ...
The liver is one of the bodys most important organs which is why you need to eat the best foods for a healthy liver. Your liver helps in flushing out toxins and assisting in digestion but more importantly, the liver is the main part of our body where ingredients are metabolized or processed. Medicines and all harmful substances are metabolized in the liver. Continuous pressure on the liver can lead to number of liver related disease such as fatty liver, jaundice, hepatitis and even liver cirrhosis or liver failure.. Lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver which also converts excess carbohydrates and proteins into fatty acids and triglycerides. These are again stored in adipose tissue. This is also why you need to decrease unhealthy fatty acids in your body by avoiding foods bad for your liver. The liver also synthesizes cholesterol and phospholipids. The key to maintain a healthy liver is diet and eating the right foods for a healthy liver. Here are the 8 best foods for a healthy ...
Background/Aims Certain liver diseases have been associated with depletion of glutathione (GSH) the major antioxidant in liver. and attenuated mitochondrial damage accompanied with diminished hepatic steatosis; however abnormal liver biochemical tests hepatocytes death and hepatic oxidative stress persisted in the rescued mice. At age 50 days the liver from rescued mice started to display characteristics of fibrosis and at age 120 days macronodular cirrhosis was observed. Immunohistostaining for liver-specific markers and the expression profile of hepatic cytokines indicated that the repopulation of hepatocytes in the cirrhotic nodules involves the expansion of oval cells. Conclusions Replenishment of mitochondrial GSH and restoration of mitochondrial function by NAC prevent mortality caused by loss of hepatocyte GSH synthesis allowing the progression of steatosis to a chronic stage. Thus with NAC supplementation mice provide a model for the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. ...
Background/Aims Certain liver diseases have been associated with depletion of glutathione (GSH) the major antioxidant in liver. and attenuated mitochondrial damage accompanied with diminished hepatic steatosis; however abnormal liver biochemical tests hepatocytes death and hepatic oxidative stress persisted in the rescued mice. At age 50 days the liver from rescued mice started to display characteristics of fibrosis and at age 120 days macronodular cirrhosis was observed. Immunohistostaining for liver-specific markers and the expression profile of hepatic cytokines indicated that the repopulation of hepatocytes in the cirrhotic nodules involves the expansion of oval cells. Conclusions Replenishment of mitochondrial GSH and restoration of mitochondrial function by NAC prevent mortality caused by loss of hepatocyte GSH synthesis allowing the progression of steatosis to a chronic stage. Thus with NAC supplementation mice provide a model for the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. ...
Worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases, including liver steatosis, are associated with an increased frequency of malignancies, showing the highest positive correlation for liver cancer. The heterogeneity of liver cancer represents a clinical challenge. In liver, the transcription factor PPARγ promotes metabolic adaptations of lipogenesis and aerobic glycolysis under the control of Akt2 activity, but the role of PPARγ in liver tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we have combined preclinical mouse models of liver cancer and genetic studies of a human liver biopsy atlas with the aim of identifying putative therapeutic targets in the context of liver steatosis and cancer. We have revealed a protumoral interaction of Akt2 signaling with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and PPARγ, transcription factors that are master regulators of hepatocyte and adipocyte differentiation, respectively. Akt2 phosphorylates and inhibits HNF1α, thus relieving the suppression of hepatic PPARγ expression and ...
Worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases, including liver steatosis, are associated with an increased frequency of malignancies, showing the highest positive correlation for liver cancer. The heterogeneity of liver cancer represents a clinical challenge. In liver, the transcription factor PPARγ promotes metabolic adaptations of lipogenesis and aerobic glycolysis under the control of Akt2 activity, but the role of PPARγ in liver tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we have combined preclinical mouse models of liver cancer and genetic studies of a human liver biopsy atlas with the aim of identifying putative therapeutic targets in the context of liver steatosis and cancer. We have revealed a protumoral interaction of Akt2 signaling with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and PPARγ, transcription factors that are master regulators of hepatocyte and adipocyte differentiation, respectively. Akt2 phosphorylates and inhibits HNF1α, thus relieving the suppression of hepatic PPARγ expression and ...
Leading a healthy life is a dream of many. However, to lead a healthy life one needs to sacrifice on a lot of unhealthy things that one is feeding their body with. In todays world of fast foods and harmful beverages, people often find it difficult to keep themselves away from consuming items that can severely cause damage to their health, especially the liver.. Its a no brainer that a healthy liver is a secret to good health while an unhealthy one can become the rooting cause for life altering health issues that may lead to liver failure and possibly a reason for liver transplant in the future. So, now is the time to take good care of your liver instead of constantly treating it for granted. We at Max Healthcare, care for your health have listed five easy and useful lifestyle changes that will slowly improve the health of your liver. Take a look.. Start Eating Healthy. One of the best ways to give your liver a healthy life is by opting for a balanced and a healthy diet. We at Max Healthcare, ...
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Because the liver can regenerate, you can treat or even prevent liver cancer beginning with detoxing, improved immune system health, and eating wisely.
We have previously shown that 2-acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP), an enolate-forming 1,3-dicarbonyl compound, provides protection in cell culture and animal models of oxidative stress. The pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) involves oxidative stress and, therefore, we determined the ability of 2-ACP to prevent this injury in a rat liver model. IRI was induced by clamping the portal vasculature for 45 min (ischemia phase) followed by re-circulation for 180 min (reperfusion phase). This sequence was associated with substantial derangement of plasma liver enzyme activities, histopathological indices and markers of oxidative stress. 2-ACP (0.80-2.40mmol/kg), administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 10 min prior to reperfusion, provided dose-dependent cytoprotection as indicated by normalization of the IRI-altered liver histological and biochemical parameters. 2-ACP (2.40mmol/kg) was also hepatoprotective when injected before clamping the circulation (ischemia phase). In ...
Targeting hepatic CREB to reduce glucose output as a treatment option for diabetes is a highly controversial notion. Inhibition of CREB activity in the liver us...
In 1976, we reported that the spleen was the most suitable location for the survival of hepatocytes isolated from a normal adult rat liver. The transplanted hepatocytes proliferated markedly in the...
Alcohol Effects On Liver Best Image causes of cirrhosis of liver healthy liver and cancer so it moves to a state of chronic inflammation, which increases
MAP kinase phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) is a negative regulator of ERK signaling. Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that MKP-3 plays an important role in obesity-related hyperglycemia by promoting hepatic glucose output. In this study, we show that MKP-3 deficiency attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain and protects mice from developing obesity-related hepatosteatosis. Triglyceride (TG) contents are dramatically decreased in the liver of MKP-3-/- mice fed on a HFD compared to wild type controls. Absence of MKP-3 also reduces adiposity, possibly through repressing adipocyte differentiation. In addition, MKP-3-/- mice display increased energy expenditure, enhanced peripheral glucose disposal, and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Global phosphoproteomic studies were performed to search for downstream mediators of MKP-3 action in liver lipid metabolism. Our results reveal that MKP-3 deficiency increases phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) on serine 393 by 3.3 fold ...
Your dogs liver performs many important functions. In one sense, it acts like a filter for the blood, to strain out harmful particles and bacteria. A major portion of the blood is carried through the liver. When it becomes swollen due to infection or more serious conditions such as cancer, it cant filter the blood efficiently. That forces some of the fluid portion of the blood to seep out into the abdomen. Chronic (long term) scarring of the liver does the same thing. The fluid in your dogs abdomen (called ascites) could be caused by other problems as well.. These are very grave symptoms, which is why maintaining good liver health in your dog can be a real life saver.. You can look for early symptoms of liver problems by examining your dogs gums on a regular basis. If you notice changes in the colour of the gums (yellowish colouring indicates jaundice) this can be an early warning sign that your dogs liver is getting behind in its work.. The plumbing inside your dogs liver may be swollen ...
The researchers, led by Zhiping Li of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, obtained wild-type mice and fed them commercial diets with different nutritional contents for four to twelve weeks. The mice were then sacrificed to obtain liver and serum tissue. The researchers isolated hepatic mononuclear cells, which they then incubated and evaluated by flow cytometry. They also isolated total hepatic RNA for analysis. Finally, they measured levels of serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT), a marker of liver injury ...
This is a multi-center, open-label, parallel-arm study in 1 group of subjects with normal hepatic function and 3 groups of subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment (mild, moderate, and severe). Subjects will be confined to the clinic from Day -1 to Day 8. Subjects will be contacted via telephone 30 days (+ 2 days) after the last dose of study medication to assess any new or ongoing AEs and to record concomitant medications. All groups will receive a single oral 2-mg OPC-34712 dose on Day 1 with 240 mL room temperature still water. Subjects will be administered the OPC-34712 dose in the fasted state (at least 8 hours of fasting) and no food will be allowed for 4 hours postdose ...
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This is a histology slide of the liver. The hepatic lobule is defined as having a central vein (CV) at its center with its edges defined by portal canals (PC ...
Healthy liver Liver, the largest and the most important detoxification organ in our body. When we eat, we consume lots of toxic substances through artificial preservatives, additives and others. These harmful toxins which are not water-soluble, must be neutralized by liver, become water-soluble and passed to the kidney or bowel for excretion. If the liver…
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vinzent N Spetzler, Nicolas Goldaracena, Juan Echiverri, J Moritz Kaths, Kristine S Louis, Oyedele A Adeyi, Paul M Yip, David R Grant, Nazia Selzner, Markus Selzner].
The ultimate fate of drugs and chemicals in the body is largely regulated by hepatic uptake, metabolism, and excretion. The liver acquires the functional ability to metabolize and transport chemicals during the perinatal period of development. Research using livers from fetal and juvenile rodents and humans has begun to reveal the timing, key enzymes and transporters, and regulatory factors that are responsible for the establishment of hepatic phase I and II metabolism as well as transport. The majority of this research has been limited to relative mRNA and protein quantification. However, the recent utilization of novel technology, such as RNA-Sequencing, and the improved availability and refinement of functional activity assays, has begun to provide more definitive information regarding the extent of hepatic drug disposition in the developing fetus. The goals of this review are to provide an overview of the early regulation of the major phase I and II enzymes and transporters in rodent and human
Researchers say they can now grow liver cells that maintain their functions long enough to test potential treatments for hepatitis C.
Having a healthy liver is crucial for a healthy life. But in this modern world, we are at a higher risk of developing a liver disorder. So, here ar...
Upon gross examination, we observed significant enlargement and darkening of the liver after 150 days of DDC feeding in both KO check details and WT livers (Fig. 2A). However, we noted the formation of hepatic nodules in 7 out of 7 KOs after 150 days of DDC diet feeding; however, no nodules were observed in the WT (Fig. 2A). We previously reported that our β-catenin KO mice have smaller livers than WT.9 However, after 80 days of DDC feeding the liver weight / body weight ratio equalized, with. a modest increase in the KO liver at 150 days of DDC feeding (Fig. 2B). It has been previously reported that DDC feeding induces activation of stellate cells, which results in fibrosis in the mouse liver as a function of atypical ductular proliferation.2 We performed trichrome staining to analyze the amount of fibrosis in our study. KO livers showed greater fibrosis after 80 and 150 days of DDC feeding than the WT controls at the same stages of DDC exposure. (Fig. 2C). Overall, the percentage of area of ...
Having a healthy liver is very important for people especially as they age. Find out how alcohol and viral infections can elevate liver levels and more with information from a doctor in this free video series on liver health.
In light of the detrimental effect of normal Bcl-xL levels in terms of tumor growth, we wanted to carefully assess the proteins beneficial effect, its ability to deal with typical cellular toxins," Weintraub says.. The research team looked at sets of the same type of mice as in the previous experiments, this time examining liver cell damage resulting from a regimen that mimicked a three-day alcoholic binge. In this case, wild-type mice fared better than transgenic mice. Transgenic mice showed higher serum levels of a marker for liver injury and greater evidence of damage in tissue examined microscopically.. Bcl-xLs broader potential for protecting the liver became apparent in experiments that measured the effect of TNF-alpha, an immune-system substance that plays a role in development of a wide variety of liver disorders. TNF-alpha induced severe liver damage in the transgenic, Bcl-xL-impaired mice but not in the wild-type mice.. "The human Bcl-xL protein is functionally identical to the mouse ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Killian on healthy liver diet: To revert your fatty liver, read these 2 short articles: 1.https://www.kaushikmd.com/fatty-liver-on-a-rise-with-diabetes-and-obesity-epidemics/ 2. https://www.kaushikmd.com/get-started/
Abigael Muchenditsi, Haojun Yang, James P. Hamilton, Lahari Koganti, Franck Housseau, Lisa Aronov, Hongni Fan, Hannah Pierson, Ashima Bhattacharjee, Robert Murphy, Cynthia Sears, James Potter, Clavia R. Wooton-Kee, Svetlana Lutsenko ...
A sow’s liver is commonly under stress. A number of actions can help protect the liver and support healthy animals, write André Van Lankveld, Swine Technical Manager and Karin Nährer, Mycotoxin Risk Management Product Manager.
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What is hypoechoic nodule on liver lobe - U/s liver findings-7mm L lobe nodule.& 2.1x2 cm mixed echogenicity nodule subcapsular portion of the inferior aspect R lobe. Concerning? Rest liver ok. LIVER LESION EVAL. A Liver Lesion identified on ultrasound needs to be followed closely. You need to have LABS monitered and evaluation for hepatitis. A repeat Ultrasound or potentially Abdominal MRI may be needed. Also Consult with a GI specialist, to insure that a biopsy is not warranted.
A human liver showing cirrhosis. The cause, as in half the cases of cirrhosis, is unknown, although the disease is associated with alcoholism, hepatitis & malaria. Cirrhosis is a chronic disease, in which the liver cells are progressively destroyed & replaced by fatty or fibrous strands of tissue (broad bands visible here). Between the fibrous tissue, islands of regenerating cells form into nodules, which gives the liver a knobby appearance. It also appears tawny, as is seen in this picture. - Stock Image M130/0822
The tincture contains herbs that regenerate liver cells, promote the flow of bile and assist liver functions in particular, digestion and detoxification. It is recommended for liverish conditions such as irritably, melancholia, nausea, feeling sluggish and particular disorders of the liver. This tincture is designed to assist the liver function. The liver plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including;Glycogen storage,Decomposition of red blood cells, Plasma protein synthesis, Hormone production, Detoxification, Bile production (an alkaline compound which aids in digestion, via the emulsification of lipids)
PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) has been shown to regulate glycemic levels via interactions with both pancreatic islets and the liver. Although PANDER is predominantly expressed from the endocrine pancreas, recent work has provided sufficient evidence that the liver may also be an additional tissue source of PANDER production. At physiological levels, PANDER is capable of disrupting insulin signaling and promoting increased hepatic glucose production. As shown in some animal models, strong expression of PANDER, induced by viral delivery within the liver, induces hepatic steatosis. However, no studies to date have explicitly characterized the transcriptional regulation of PANDER from the liver. Therefore, our investigation elucidated the nutrient and hormonal regulation of the hepatic PANDER promoter. Initial RNA-ligated rapid amplification of cDNA ends identified a novel transcription start site (TSS) approximately 26 bp upstream of the PANDER translational start codon not previously revealed
The Fastest and Best Liver Detox - The Best Liver Detox After more than two years of recovery, I am still amazed by the liver. This amazing organ, hiding in the right side of the abdomen, has more than earned its name, which comes from an Old English word for
Synonyms for Fetal liver in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Fetal liver. 1 synonym for liver: liver-colored. What are synonyms for Fetal liver?
Principal Investigator:UCHIDA Koji, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:食品科学・栄養科学
Reference: Klimenko A.I., Age-related characteristics of the concentration of RNA, DNA and proteins in the nuclei of rat liver cells following hydrocortisone induction, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 615-619 ...
Study Flashcards On Liver Pathology at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Differences in the levels of two key metabolic enzymes may explain why some people are more susceptible to liver damage, according to a study in the October 17 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology (www.jcb.org).
In a test of liver function, the researchers gave the mice two drugs to see how they would be metabolized by the animals. The result was "similar to that of a human adult liver" and different from the iPS cells the researchers started with, they reported. The authors were particularly excited by this finding, because it suggested the livers could be used to test drugs in humans without having to put any actual people -- or their livers -- at risk. ...
India may soon become the liver disease capital of the world, with the current lifestyle. Know the facts and protect yourself from being the next victim.
All the blood from the gastrointestinal tract (from the slag or not) passes through the liver. During the years of our lives by gravity, it so clogged that it ceases to function normally, and blood flow. Arises portal hypertension, which leads to stagnation of venous blood and the extinction of the functions of all bodies that this stagnation is observed. The liver must need cleaning. 5. The next body, which suffered from the toxic and unnatural about the contents of blood are the kidneys. The kidneys must cleanse and strengthen. Described five components, I believe the main cleansing the body. Undergo major cleaning procedures must be in the following sequence: 1. Getting clean field form of life. 2. Simultaneously with the purification of the field form of life to conduct a softening of the body. " After all, before cleaning physical body, you need to shake up slag sticking in every cell, otkvasit scum of the mucous membranes and bring it all to the excretory organs. Without this effect ...
Dr. Vergheses Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator is a proprietary blend of herbs and nutrients designed to support healthy liver function.
The average liver in a woman is 7 centimeters in length and 1200 to 1400 grams in weight, while the average male liver weighs 1400 to 1500 grams and has a span of 10.5 centimeters, according to the...
Your liver produces bile, which breaks down fats and aids in digestion, as well as removes toxins from your body. Every food you eat passes through the...
Liver: You may not know much about your liver. It is the largest organ in human body second to human skin. Here are some interesting facts about human liver.
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The natural cleanse of a healthy liver is efficient. However having a toxic liver today with so many pollutants surrounding us, compromises it. Thankfully you can help your liver!
It doesnt get the fanfare of the heart, but the liver does hundreds of jobs to keep your body healthy. Test how much you know about this organ.
hello, i have been suffering from liver area pains,tiredness, even allergy like symptoms alot too, my alt has been mildly raised in the 90 100s somtimes drops in the 60s to 80s for over 7 years,...
The liver is made up of six lobes. Often if a tumor has developed, the removal of the entire lobe where it is located is the safest course of action to prevent the spread of cancer. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
I recently had to stop a 10 week cycle of test/tren and winny at week 5 because my cholesterol and liver enzymes went through the roof. I was planning
The incorporation of 3H-cytidine (RNA synthesis) into liver explants under standardized in vitroconditions was measured during hepatocarcinogenesis by continuous oral administration of...
Hyperglycemia is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose [sugar] circulates in the blood. I have a horrible sweet tooth. As I type here, I am munching on some Tootsie Rolls I swiped from a friends desk. Im not sure how many Ive eaten. Usually, when you eat a number of cookies or…
Next up is the dungeons themselves. I already mentioned that they are bland, empty and repetitive, but Im not gonna lie, some of the dungeons were really tiresome to go through. I especially hated those levels where you have to repeat the whole dungeon again after collecting a key or boss key. It takes forever to go through these dungeons, and making me go through them again is just a really big turn off. Another thing I noticed is the excessive amount of dungeons. I dont mind more than 9 dungeons, as long as they actually have like their own theme and use it well. This quest... didnt do that too well. Many of the dungeons have the same themes, so it felt like I was repeating some of the earlier dungeons. I also found quite a few layering bugs (cant be bothered to find them now though, since I dont remember where they are), so that looked a bit weird ...
The blot is prepared using total protein extracted from a variety of species, where whole species is not available the whole liver lysate is used. These blots can be used to identify similar pro... ...
If your recent blood test results showed signs of elevated liver enzymes or if you want to know about high liver levels out of curiosity, you should first learn about the possible causes of high liver levels.
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 5. List of Figures 6. Introduction 7. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 7. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Overview 8. Therapeutics Development 9. Pipeline Products for Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Overview 9. Pipeline Products for Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Comparative Analysis 10. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 11. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 13. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Pipeline Products Glance 14. Late Stage Products 14. Clinical Stage Products 15. Early Stage Products 16. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Products under Development by Companies 17. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 18. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Companies Involved in Therapeutics Development ...
Coexposure to small, noninjurious doses of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid phytotoxin monocrotaline (MCT) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in synergistic hepatotoxicity. Both centrilobular and midzonal liver lesions occur and are similar to those seen from large, toxic doses of MCT and LPS, respectively. The nature of the lesions in vivo and results from studies in vitro suggest that injury is mediated indirectly rather than from a simple interaction of MCT and LPS with hepatic parenchymal cells. Accordingly, the role of inflammatory factors, such as Kupffer cells and TNF-α, in the development of MCT/LPS-induced liver injury was investigated. In Sprague-Dawley rats, MCT (100 mg/kg, ip) was administered 4 h before LPS (7.4 × 106 EU/kg, iv). Pretreatment of these animals with gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of Kupffer cell function, attenuated liver injury 18 h after MCT administration. An increase in plasma TNF-α preceded the onset of hepatic parenchymal cell injury, raising the ...
Define glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase synonyms, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase pronunciation, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase translation, English dictionary definition of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Noun 1. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - an enzyme involved in transamination glutamic oxalacetic transaminase aminopherase, aminotransferase,...
In vitro, the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mimics the positive effects of insulin on hepatic genes involved in glucose utilization, such as glucokinase (GK) and enzymes of the lipogenic pathway, suggesting that it is a key factor in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Decreased glucose utilization and increased glucose production by the liver play an important role in the development of the hyperglycemia in diabetic states. We thus reasoned that if SREBP-1c is indeed a mediator of hepatic insulin action, a hepatic targeted overexpression of SREBP-1c should greatly improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. This was achieved by injecting streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA of the mature, transcriptionally active form of SREBP-1c. We show here that overexpressing SREBP-1c specifically in the liver of diabetic mice induces GK and lipogenic enzyme gene expression and represses the expression of
A B ST R A CT The effect of equal (1.1±0.1 g/kg body wt) amounts of glucose administered orally, or by peripheral intravenous or intraportal infusion on hepatic glucose uptake and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was studied in conscious dogs with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery and catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, carotid artery, and superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein and hepatic vein plasma flow increased only after oral glucose administration. Arterial plasma glucose increased equally to 150-160 mg/100 ml after all three routes of glucose administration. Portal vein glucose was similar after oral (195±15 mg/100 ml) and intraportal glucose infusion (215±11 mg/100 ml) and significantly higher than after peripheral intravenous glucose. Hepatic glucose uptake after oral (68±4%) and intraportal glucose administration (65±7%) significantly exceeded that after peripheral intravenous glucose infusion (23±5%). The amount
Looking for online definition of Congenital hepatic fibrosis in the Medical Dictionary? Congenital hepatic fibrosis explanation free. What is Congenital hepatic fibrosis? Meaning of Congenital hepatic fibrosis medical term. What does Congenital hepatic fibrosis mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the effect of post-heparin and pre-heparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase on remnant lipoprotein metabolism. AU - Shirakawa, Takashi. AU - Nakajima, Katsuyuki. AU - Shimomura, Younosuke. AU - Kobayashi, Junji. AU - Stanhope, Kimber. AU - Havel, Peter J. AU - Machida, Tetsuo. AU - Sumino, Hiroyuki. AU - Murakami, Masami. PY - 2015/2/2. Y1 - 2015/2/2. N2 - Background: A comparison of post-heparin and pre-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) on the metabolism of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) has not been reported yet. Methods: Healthy volunteers were injected with heparin for LPL and HTGL determination in the fasting (8:00) and postprandial (20:00) plasma on the same day. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, small dense LDL (sdLDL)-C, remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-C, RLP-TG, the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio, adiponectin and apoCIII were measured. Results: LPL activity and concentration in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenytoin liver glutathione depletion. A possible mechanism of liver injury. AU - Snodgrass, W. R.. AU - Whitfield, S.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Phenytoin produces significant liver glutathione depletion in vivo in mice. Pretreatment with inducers and inhibitors of drug metabolism show enhancement of phenytoin-induced glutathione depletion following phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment, inhibition of glutathione depletion following piperonyl butoxide, cobaltous chloride and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate pretreatment (all drug metabolism inhibitors), and prevention of glutathione depletion following butylated hydroxytoluene pretreatment (both inducers of epoxide hydrolase). These data suggest that phenytoin-induced liver glutathione depletion may occur via a reactive metabolite and that this reactive metabolite possibly may be an epoxide.. AB - Phenytoin produces significant liver glutathione depletion in vivo in mice. Pretreatment with inducers and inhibitors of ...

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Diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess by abdominal ultrasonography in the emergency department | Emergency Medicine JournalDiagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess by abdominal ultrasonography in the emergency department | Emergency Medicine Journal

Results: Of the 268 patients admitted via the ED who were discharged or died with a diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess, there ... Location of the abscess in segments 4 and 5 of the liver raised the sensitivity of ultrasound for diagnosis, while location in ... Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasono-graphy in the diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess in patients presenting to ... Conclusions: The size and location of the liver abscess and the underlying comorbid diseases may affect the diagnostic ...
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Cod Liver Oil Capsules | Benefits of Cod Liver Oil | Myvitamins
				
				
			

		

		
		
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  • Vitamin World's version of this classic tonic comes in a rapid-release softgel and features Nor-Gold Premium™ Cod Liver Oil, sourced from the finest deep sea cold water fish. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Your Grandma was right - Cod Liver Oil is a great way to support daily health! (vitaminworld.com)
  • Rated 1 out of 5 by Jay51 from I bought this without a close inspection and was disappointed to see that this was mainly corn oil with little cod liver oil with no source indication Product is not really cod liver oil it is mainly corn oil. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Liver transplants can be an option for those with tumors that cannot be removed with surgery, either because of the location of the tumors or because the liver is too diseased for the patient to withstand removing part of it. (cancer.org)
  • It was the Greeks who first abandoned superstition in favour of an approach to the understanding of the body based on anatomy and physiology, and it is in the writings of Aristotle where the first attempts to describe animals' livers based on dissection are to be found. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rather than denigrate the importance of the liver, however, advances in anatomy and physiology over the years have instead highlighted how important the liver is for normal bodily function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For understanding the variable effects of environmental xenobiotic exposures in children, a basic review of liver anatomy, physiology, and development is necessary. (aappublications.org)
  • The caudate lobe or process is the name given to the liver tissue running from the lower end of the Spigelian lobe to the right lobe. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Riedel's lobe is the name given to an abnormal, tongue -like projection of liver tissue from its anterior edge, which may extend downward either over the gall-bladder or external to it. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Because of the severity of this medical condition, the examination of liver tissue is highly recommended. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • The lobules are held together by a fine dense irregular fibroelastic connective tissue layer which extends from the fibrous capsule covering the entire liver known as Glisson's capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • These centers flourished across the United States and are a huge part of why Ed Roberts was so instrumental in the start of the Independent Living Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, independent living centers are codified in law throughout the US, and offer a variety of "professional services" (i.e., independent living) under government payment structures in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver carries out a large number of critical functions, including manufacture of essential proteins, and metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This controversy is problematic because some cellular organisms are also incapable of independent survival (but are capable of independent metabolism and procreation) and live as obligatory intracellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is continuous exchange between hepatocytes and the perfusing blood, as various chemicals delivered to the liver from elsewhere in the body by the bloodstream are taken up for degradation and further metabolism, whilst others produced by the liver are, conversely, exported from it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The liver is the main site for the metabolism of a vast range of chemical substances produced as a result of the digestion of food in the intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Association of coffee intake with reduced incidence of liver cancer and death from chronic liver disease in the US multiethnic cohort. (nih.gov)
  • The American Cancer Society is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to preventing cancer, saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer through research, education, advocacy, and service. (kidshealth.org)
  • At this time, surgery, either with resection (removal of the tumor) or a liver transplant, offers the only reasonable chance to cure liver cancer. (cancer.org)
  • If all cancer in the liver is successfully removed, you will have the best outlook. (cancer.org)
  • Often the cancer is in too many different parts of the liver, is too large, or has spread beyond the liver. (cancer.org)
  • Because people with liver cancer usually have other liver problems besides the cancer, surgeons have to remove enough of the liver to try to get all of the cancer, yet leave enough behind for the liver to function adequately. (cancer.org)
  • Another concern is that because the remaining liver still has the underlying disease that led to the cancer, sometimes a new liver cancer can develop afterward. (cancer.org)
  • In most cases, the patients had liver cancer but some had bile duct cancer. (cancer.org)
  • With a transplant, not only is the risk of a second new liver cancer significantly reduced, but the new liver will function normally. (cancer.org)
  • Only a small number of them are for patients with liver cancer. (cancer.org)
  • People needing a transplant must wait until a liver is available, which can take too long for some people with liver cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Throughout the text, experience from the paradigms of colorectal cancer metastases treatment strategies are used to point to new directions in the management of liver metastases from other cancers. (springer.com)
  • The liver is located just below the diaphragm (the muscular membrane separating the chest from the abdomen), primarily in the upper right part of the abdomen, mostly under the ribs. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • During inspiration (breathing in), the liver is pushed down by the diaphragm and the lower edge of the liver descends below the margin of the lowest rib (costal margin). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Situated in the upper abdomen, beneath the right rib cage and separated from the chest cavity by the diaphragm , the upper border of the liver lies approximately at the level of the nipples. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On the diaphragmatic surface, apart from a triangular bare area where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered by a thin double-layered membrane, the peritoneum, that helps to reduce friction against other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coffee consumption has been proposed to reduce risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD), but few data are available from prospective, US multiethnic populations. (nih.gov)
  • An irregularly shaped, dome-like solid structure, the liver consists of two main parts (a larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe) and two minor lobes. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The liver is grossly divided into two parts when viewed from above - a right and a left lobe, and four parts when viewed from below (left lobe, right lobe, caudate and quadrate lobes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver failure is a severe medical condition characterized by the incapacity of the liver to do its normal metabolic and synthetic functions in relation to physiology. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • Largely composed of cells known as hepatocytes, which are involved in a multiplicity of synthetic, metabolic, and biotransformatory processes, the liver is unusual in that it is perfused with a dual blood supply. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The developmental changes that occur in the liver determine the rate and metabolic pathways used in the disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics. (aappublications.org)
  • The resultant metabolic intermediates may in themselves be toxic to the liver but may also cause detrimental effects to other organs of the body. (aappublications.org)
  • An alternative pathway for dispersal of substances produced in the liver is through secretion into an extensive system of minute canals which eventually form the bile ducts draining into the intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • to the right of the median line and thence over the top of the liver to near its posterior edge, where it blends in front of the vena cava on the right side with the coronary ligament and on the left with the triangular ligament. (chestofbooks.com)
  • View of the posterior and inferior surfaces of the liver. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The falciform ligament functions to attach the liver to the posterior portion of the anterior body wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • CASL is a multidisciplinary group of scientists and healthcare providers whose expertise focuses on the liver, and provides national leadership in all aspects of research, education and patient care as they pertain to the liver. (canadianlivermeeting.ca)
  • Liver metastases addresses the contemporary multidisciplinary management of liver metastases. (springer.com)
  • The liver rises to the fourth costal interspace on the right side, to or slightly above the xiphosternal junction in the midline, and the lower border of the fifth rib on the left side, to its extremity, just beyond the apex of the heart , at the lower border of the sixth rib. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The liver forms and secretes bile that contains bile acids to aid in the digestion and intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • liver The concept that certain organs, such as the liver, brain, and heart, enjoyed a higher status than others was first proposed and accepted in the earliest days of medical thought. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are several impressions on the surface of the liver which accommodate the various adjacent structures and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver has a multitude of important and complex functions. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A multitude of functions of the liver have already been well described, and there are many more of which relatively little is currently known. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This program led to the first independent living center in America being made, the Berkeley Center for Independent Living. (wikipedia.org)
  • CASL is a non-profit organization that seeks to eliminate liver disease through research, education and advocacy. (canadianlivermeeting.ca)
  • Four key features of this organization of the liver are as follows. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This nonprofit organization promotes liver health and disease prevention. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common argument in support of viruses as living organisms is their ability to undergo evolution and replicate through self-assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver serves a wide variety of body functions, including detoxifying blood and producing bile that aids in digestion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But thanks to better treatments, people with HIV/AIDS are now living longer, and have a better quality of life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here is a closer look at the different liver failure symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • In many cases a person may get other treatments, such as embolization or ablation (described in following sections), while waiting for a liver transplant. (cancer.org)
  • 20% of the hepatocytes that are present in the adult liver, and liver growth continues after birth until it reaches its mature size. (aappublications.org)
  • An acknowledged driver of chronic disease, urbanisation and urban living must become a stage for good health rather than its opposite. (theconversation.com)
  • The Childhood Liver Disease Research Network (ChiLDReN) is a collaborative team of doctors, scientists, nurses, research coordinators, medical facilities, patient support organizations and the National Institutes of Health. (childrennetwork.org)
  • The meeting program offers a forum for presentation and discussion of basic science, translational and clinical aspects of liver disease. (canadianlivermeeting.ca)
  • Liver disease can be caused by alcoholism, fatty liver, and hepatitis. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Making this all-important move can actually aid physicians in identifying the real cause of the disease, particularly why the liver is failing. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • Definition of Liver Disease Liver disease or hepatic disease describes any disease that affects the liver. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • The diagnosis of toxin-induced liver disease requires a high index of suspicion and often entails the exclusion of other causes of liver disease in children. (aappublications.org)
  • Drug or environmental xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered in the setting of identified exposure or when other causes of childhood liver disease are excluded. (aappublications.org)
  • Featuring state-of-the-art reviews, key points, treatment algorithms and clear, concise illustrations this book provides the ultimate companion to anyone interested or working in the area of liver disease. (springer.com)
  • and consultant and trainee radiologists with an interest in liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Conducting blood tests on patients can actually check if the liver is functioning properly. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • For acute liver failure patients, doctors usually prefer the use of the so-called transjugular liver biopsy. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • This condition is so serious that patients suffering from liver failure are treated inside the intensive care units of hospitals. (medicalsymptomsguide.com)
  • It is only an option in patients with good liver function who are healthy enough for surgery. (cancer.org)
  • Patients in class A are most likely to have enough liver function to have surgery. (cancer.org)
  • But some patients receive part of a liver from a living donor (usually a close relative) for transplant. (cancer.org)
  • This book overviews current understanding of the biology of liver metastases, and reviews current methods of detection and diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • With this arrangement, the liver can readily process (metabolize) nutrients absorbed from food as well as other contents of the portal blood. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Hepatology nursing is a specialized area of client-centered nursing that focus on the promotion of liver health, prevention of illness, and the care of clients. (canadianlivermeeting.ca)
  • First seen as poisons, then as life-forms, then biological chemicals, viruses today are thought of as being in a gray area between living and nonliving: they cannot replicate on their own but can do so in truly living cells and can also affect the behavior of their hosts profoundly. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Indeed, because of its numerous biochemical functions, the liver is considered the biochemical factory of the body. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Further, the liver is organized strategically to coordinate its structure, including its blood circulation, with its functions. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The falciform ligament starts near the umbilicus , passes to the umbilical notch of the liver 2.5 to 4 cm. (1 to 1 1/2 in. (chestofbooks.com)
  • A lot of blood passes through the liver, and bleeding after surgery is a major concern. (cancer.org)
  • More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct . (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the liver (both before the surgery and during the surgery itself) can add to potential bleeding problems. (cancer.org)
  • The liver can regenerate some of its lost function over time if part of it is removed. (cancer.org)
  • The liver undergoes dramatic changes in structure and function during development. (aappublications.org)
  • The Canadian Liver Meeting is a collaborative effort of the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL) , the Canadian Network on Hepatitis C (CanHepC) and the Canadian Association of Hepatology Nurses (CAHN) . (canadianlivermeeting.ca)
  • For people living with thalassemia, it is especially important to know that a healthy lifestyle means "managing the disorder", as well as making healthy choices. (cdc.gov)
  • For people living with thalassemia, because too much iron may build up in the blood, foods high in iron may need to be limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Independent living , as seen by its advocates , is a philosophy , a way of looking at society and disability , and a worldwide movement of people with disabilities working for equal opportunities , self-determination , and self-respect . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first Independent Living ideologists and organizers were people with extensive disabilities (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, the movement's message seems most popular among people whose lives depend on assistance with the activities of daily living and who, in the view of the IL Movement, are most exposed to custodial care, paternalistic attitudes and control by professionals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Independent Living philosophy postulates that people with disabilities are the best experts on their needs, and therefore they must take the initiative, individually and collectively, in designing and promoting better solutions and must organize themselves for political power. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Independent Living philosophy, people with disabilities are primarily seen as citizens and only secondarily as consumers of healthcare, rehabilitation or social services. (wikipedia.org)
  • People may not know that the liver is also the largest gland in the body. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Most livers used for transplants come from people who have just died. (cancer.org)
  • In the context of eldercare , independent living is seen as a step in the continuum of care, with assisted living being the next step. (wikipedia.org)
  • These images have consequences for disabled people's opportunities for raising families of their own, getting education and work , which may result in persons with disabilities living in poverty. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also work in special schools, where music can make a huge difference to the lives of children and their families. (livemusicnow.org.uk)
  • Families and individuals working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to meet minimum standards given the local cost of living. (mit.edu)
  • Simultaneously, the world is rapidly urbanising - over half the world's population now lives in urban settings. (theconversation.com)
  • The management of colorectal liver metastases has evolved rapidly over the last decade with the introduction of newer and effective chemotherapies and a redefinition for cure. (springer.com)
  • Because they were clearly biological themselves and could be spread from one victim to another with obvious biological effects, viruses were then thought to be the simplest of all living, gene-bearing life-forms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This extends into the structure of the liver, by accompanying the blood vessels (veins and arteries), ducts and nerves at the hepatic hilum. (wikipedia.org)