LithuaniaLatviaEstoniaBaltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Europe, EasternCommunism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Perilla: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is a source of perilla alcohol and the oil is rich in alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-18:3).Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Raccoon Dogs: The lone species in the genus Nyctereutes, family CANIDAE. It is found in the woodland zone from southeastern Siberia to Vietnam and on the main islands of Japan.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)EuropeAnimal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Bibliotherapy: A form of supportive psychotherapy in which the patient is given carefully selected material to read.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.BerlinHistory of MedicineHistoriography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Famous PersonsBulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.National Health Insurance, United StatesAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.

Towards evidence-based health care reform. (1/357)

Health care reform in Europe is discussed in the light of the Ljubljana Charter, with particular reference to progress made in Estonia and Lithuania.  (+info)

Molecular genetic study of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Lithuanian patients. (2/357)

Lithuanian patients with visual problems were clinically examined for retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A total of 33 unrelated families with autosomal dominant RP (adRP) were identified. Screening for mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) and peripherin/RDS (RDS) genes was performed using DNA heteroduplex analysis. Direct DNA sequencing in the cases of heteroduplex formation showed the presence of the following mutations and polymorphisms in 14 adRP patients: RHO gene - Lys248Arg (1 case), and Pro347Leu (2 cases); RDS gene - Glu304Gln (12 cases), Lys310Arg (5 cases), and Gly338Asp (12 cases). The presence of these mutations (except Lys248Arg in the RHO gene) was confirmed by relevant restriction enzyme digestion. The frequency of the RDS gene mutations Glu304Gln and Gly338Asp was estimated to be 36.4%, while mutation Lys310Arg was less frequent (15.2%). These 3 RDS gene mutations appear to be polypeptide polymorphisms not related to adRP.  (+info)

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study. (3/357)

OBJECTIVES: In Lithuania, there is little awareness of the notion that chronic symptoms may result from rear end collisions via the so-called whiplash injury. After most such collisions no contact with the health service is established. An opportunity therefore exists to study post-traumatic pain without the confounding factors present in western societies. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled inception cohort study, 210 victims of a rear end collision were consecutively identified from the daily records of the Kaunas traffic police. Neck pain and headache were evaluated by mailed questionnaires shortly after the accident, after 2 months, and after 1 year. As controls, 210 sex and age matched subjects were randomly taken from the population register of the same geographical area and evaluated for the same symptoms immediately after their identification and after 1 year. RESULTS: Initial pain was reported by 47% of accident victims; 10% had neck pain alone, 18% had neck pain together with headache, and 19% had headache alone. The median duration of the initial neck pain was 3 days and maximal duration 17 days. The median duration of headache was 4.5 hours and the maximum duration was 20 days. After 1 year, there were no significant differences between the accident victims and the control group concerning frequency and intensity of these symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In a country were there is no preconceived notion of chronic pain arising from rear end collisions, and thus no fear of long term disability, and usually no involvement of the therapeutic community, insurance companies, or litigation, symptoms after an acute whiplash injury are self limiting, brief, and do not seem to evolve to the so-called late whiplash syndrome.  (+info)

Increased plasma 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol concentrations in a population with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. (4/357)

The mortality in coronary heart disease among 50- to 54-year-old men is 4 times higher in Lithuania than in Sweden. It was recently suggested that traditional risk factors could not explain this mortality difference. LDL of Lithuanian men showed, however, a lower resistance to oxidation than that of Swedish men. In addition, the plasma concentration of gamma-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene were lower in Lithuanian men. In the present investigation, we determined plasma oxysterols in men from Lithuania and Sweden and found that the plasma concentration of 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol was higher in Lithuanian men, 12+/-5 versus 9+/-8 (SD) ng/mL (P=0.0011). This oxysterol is a cholesterol autoxidation product and there is no indication that it should have an enzymatic origin. Mean LDL oxidation lag time was shorter in Lithuanian men (75+/-14 versus 90+/-13 minutes, P<0.0001) and the concentration of LDL linoleic acid was lower (249+/-56 versus 292+/-54 microgram/mg of LDL protein, P<0.0001). Lipid corrected gamma-tocopherol was 0.07+/-0.02 mg/mL in Vilnius men and 0.12+/-0. 04 mg/mL (P<0.0001) in Linkoping men. There was a negative correlation between the concentration of 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol and lag time (R=-0.31, P=0.0023). It is suggested that the higher 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol concentration in Lithuanian men is an indication of an increased in vivo lipid peroxidation.  (+info)

Mucolipidosis type IV: the origin of the disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. (5/357)

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease in which most of the patients diagnosed hitherto are Ashkenazi Jews. The basic metabolic defect causing this disease is still unknown and the relevant gene has not yet been mapped or cloned. Seventeen Israel Ashkenazi families with MLIV patients had been interviewed to study their family origin. Although the families immigrated to Israel from various European countries they all could trace their roots three to four generations back to northern Poland or the immediate neighbouring country, Lithuania. Furthermore, there are only one or two ultraorthodox families among the 70-80 Ashkenazi families with MLIV patients worldwide, a marked under-representation of this group which constitutes at least 10% of the Ashkenazi population. This data indicate that MLIV mutation occurred only around the 18th and 19th centuries, after the major expansion of this population, in a founder in this defined European region belonging to a more modern, secular family.  (+info)

Work related risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in the spinning industry in Lithuania. (6/357)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal complaints in the back, arms or neck, and legs among workers in the spinning industry, and to investigate the relations between these complaints and work related variables. METHODS: An interview based questionnaire survey was carried out in two spinning industry factories in Lithuania. RESULTS: The study group consisted of all workers in production (n = 363). Symptoms of the legs were the musculoskeletal symptom reported most often (61%). Many subjects had arms or neck (55%) or back problems (28%). 20% had experienced pain from all three sites. Almost 25% had had musculoskeletal pain every day and 16% had experienced constant pain during previous year. Packers had the highest risk of arms or neck problems whereas spinners had the highest risk of back or leg problems. Working in a strained posture (bending, work with arms raised up above shoulder level, and repetitive movements of the fingers) was associated with all three complaints. Only arms or neck complaints were associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among workers producing gobelin or synthetic thread in Lithuania and working in a strained posture is a risk factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders in three body sites: legs, arms or neck, and back. To better understand the different aspects of physical load as risk factors, a more detailed study of the frequency of postural changes as well as an observation of individually adopted postures would be necessary. This applies to intervention studies in factories of the spinning industry to prevent complaints of the legs and shoulders.  (+info)

Benefits of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of recurrent diabetic foot ulceration in Lithuania: a prospective study. (7/357)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of a multidisciplinary approach to diabetic foot care to reduce the incidence of recurrent ulceration and amputations compared with standard care in a 2-year prospective study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 145 patients with a past history of neuropathic foot ulcers but no evidence of peripheral vascular disease entered the study. Subjects were screened for their neuropathic and vascular status at baseline, and all received identical foot care education. The intervention group (n = 56) was followed by the multidisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, and podiatrists with regular podiatry and reeducation every 3 months and the provision of specialty footwear as required. The standard treatment group was followed in local clinics on a trimonthly basis and received identical screening and education at baseline. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at baseline in age (intervention 59.2+/-13.4, standard treatment 58.5+/-11.5 years), duration of diabetes (14.0+/-7.1 vs. 15.6+/-7.8 years), or neuropathic status (vibration perception threshold [VPT]: 31.1+/-12.1 vs. 33.9+/-11.3 V, neuropathy disability score [NDS]: 8.1+/-1.4 vs. 7.9+/-1.7). All patients had an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) of >0.9 and at least one palpable foot pulse. Significantly fewer recurrent ulcers were seen in the intervention group than in the standard treatment group during the 2-year period (30.4 vs. 58.4%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach to diabetic foot care together with the provision of specialty footwear in the long-term management of high-risk patients with a history of neuropathic foot ulcers.  (+info)

Diphtheria in Lithuania, 1986-1996. (8/357)

Diphtheria reappeared in Lithuania in 1986 and rose to epidemic levels by 1992. Between 1991 and 1996, 110 cases of diphtheria were registered, with an incidence of 0.03-1.15/100,000 population. Most cases (84%) and all 17 deaths occurred among persons >/=15 years, most of whom had never been vaccinated. Persons 40-49 years old had the highest average annual age-specific morbidity (1.70/100,000) and mortality (0.53/100,000) rates. Low levels of immunity among individuals 40-49 years old and migration to epidemic areas in Russia and Belarus contributed to the epidemic's occurrence. Between 1991 and 1995, toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains were isolated from 84 of all registered patients (76%), and nontoxigenic strains were isolated from 13 (12%). By 1996, two mass vaccination campaigns, which provided one dose of vaccine to individuals 25-30 years old and three doses of vaccine to persons 31-60 years old, helped reduce the number of cases. The first campaign achieved 69% coverage; the second achieved 48% coverage.  (+info)

  • VILNIUS - INTERPOL is to send a team of experts to Lithuania to assist in deploying instant automated access to its global databases such as Stolen and Lost Travel Documents to all law enforcement throughout the country.The decision was announced following a meeting between INTERPOL Secretary General Ronald K. Noble and Minister of the Interior Raimondas. (
  • In Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, is a historic stop on any Lithuanian vacation. (
  • In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. (
  • Alongside the troops some 26 tanks and 170 other military vehicles - including Marder armored vehicles and Leopard 2 tanks - are planned to be stationed in the Baltic state, a mere 100km away from Russia's westernmost exclave of Kaliningrad, which is squeezed between Poland and Lithuania. (
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  • Medvedev told George W. Bush at their one-to-one meeting that the idea of creating a missile base in Lithuania as an alternative to plans for Poland would be 'absolutely unacceptable' to Russia. (
  • The Via Baltica connecting Lithuania with other Baltic states and Poland is a major route through the country. (
  • Throughout 2016 economic growth in Lithuania has continued to be dampened by the slump in external demand both from the CIS economies and for oil products. (
  • Please note that Lithuania Methanol Market Outlook 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to changes and additions. (
  • A 500-strong military contingent of NATO troops, mostly from Germany, held a farewell parade before their deployment to Lithuania as part of the bloc's 'Enhanced Forward Presence' in the Baltic nation. (
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  • Lithuania is a Baltic country nestled in northeastern Europe. (
  • On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). (
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  • Hitachi's nuclear joint venture had been lined up to supply a nuclear energy plant to Lithuania under the country's previous government, which lost power in October. (
  • The symbol of medieval Lithuania is the country's most famous castle. (
  • This is the official account of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. (
  • over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. (
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  • For Lithuania, which essentially grows grain for export and only consumes a small portion of it domestically, 2020 began favourably. (
  • Any U.S. citizen who wishes to travel to Lithuania for any purpose other than tourism or business negotiations (e.g. work, study, adoption, immigration, or stays longer than stipulated in the entry requirements) should contact directly, the embassy or nearest consulate. (
  • I consider the case of Lithuania, which had the highest share of emigrants relative to its workforce among all ten new member states. (
  • At the moment, in addition to official information about coronavirus, the situation in Lithuania and in the world, fake news is spreading. (
  • By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. (
  • Once the largest country in Europe during the Middle Ages, Lithuania is a beautiful country to explore by road. (
  • Caplinskas, S , Strujeva, O & Uzdaviniene, V 2007, ' The Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Lithuania ', Epinorth : journal of the network for communicable disease control in Northern and Eastern Europe , vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 19-26. (
  • Euromonitor International's Hair Care in Lithuania report provides a thorough outline of the market magnitude and design at a national level. (
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  • Based on the report data, conclusions about present market situation in Lithuania will be made. (
  • Law enforcement services in Lithuania are provided by the National Police which is part of the Ministry of the Interior. (
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