The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.
Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the ureter.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.
Formation of stones in the URETER.
High-amplitude compression waves, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. The mechanical force from these shock waves can be used for mechanically disrupting tissues and deposits.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)
A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
A raised flat surface on which a patient is placed during surgical procedures.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.

Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding. (1/366)

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

Profiles in laparoscopy: Mouret, Dubois, and Perissat: the laparoscopic breakthrough in Europe (1987-1988). (2/366)

In the late 1980s, laparoscopy was essentially a gynecologist's tool. One of the French private surgeons, Phillipe Mouret of Lyon, shared his surgery practice with a gynecologist and thus had access to both laparoscopic equipment and to patients requiring laparoscopy. In March of 1987, Mouret carried out his first cholecystectomy by means of electronic laparoscopy. Although he never published anything about this experience, the news on his technique reached Francois Dubois of Paris. Although having no prior laparoscopic experience, Dubois acted immediately. He borrowed the instruments from gynecologists, performed his first animal experiments and, in April 1988, carried out the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Paris. Inspired by Dubois, Jacques Perissat of Bordeaux, introduced endoscopic cholecystectomy in his clinic and presented this technique at a SAGES meeting in Louisville in April 1989. Very soon, news of the French work in LC soon swept beyond the country's borders. Dubois and Perissat spoke enthusiastically about their work at the meetings and were largely responsible for establishing what is today called the French technique.  (+info)

Long term follow up of patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. (3/366)

BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports as to whether pancreatic ductal drainage achieved by endoscopy and lithotripsy improves the clinical outcome of patients with chronic pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the clinical outcome in patients with chronic pancreatitis who received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and were followed up for two to eight years. METHODS: Eighty patients with severe chronic pancreatitis and endoscopically unretrievable obstructive stones underwent ESWL with a piezoelectric lithotripter between 1989 and 1996. Clinical status, relief of symptoms, further endoscopic or surgical interventions, and mortality were defined. RESULTS: Forty three (54%) patients were treated successfully with ESWL. The only feature associated with treatment success was the presence of a single stone rather than multiple stones. Successfully treated patients tended to experience less pain, although this did not reach statistical significance. A slight increase in weight was noted in our patients; however, there was no notable improvement in anomalous stools and diabetes mellitus. Five patients died due to extrapancreatic reasons. No pancreatic carcinomas developed. CONCLUSIONS: ESWL associated with endoscopic drainage is a safe technique that is particularly successful in patients with a single stone. However, pancreatic drainage by endoscopy and ESWL has almost no effect on pain in chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, endoscopic management and ESWL does not prevent or postpone the development of glandular insufficiency.  (+info)

Relationship between kidney size, renal injury, and renal impairment induced by shock wave lithotripsy. (4/366)

The relationship between kidney size and impaired renal function induced by shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) was examined in 6- and 10-wk-old anesthetized pigs. Each pig received 2000 shock waves, 24 kV, or sham SWL to the lower pole calyx of one kidney. Bilateral GFR, renal plasma flow (RPF), and para-aminohippurate extraction was measured 1 h before and 1 and 4 h after SWL. The kidneys were then removed for morphometric analysis. Mean kidney weights were 66.1+/-2.7 g (n = 9) and 103.1+/-3.3 g (n = 8) in the SWL groups, and 60.1+/-2.6 g (n = 9) and 82.3+/-4.0 g (n = 9) in the sham-SWL groups. SWL-induced lesions occupied a significantly greater volume of the small kidneys (6.1+/-1.7 vol % versus 1.5+/-0.2 vol% in the large kidneys). RPF was significantly reduced by SWL in small and large kidneys, but to a significantly greater extent in small kidneys. RPF was also significantly reduced in the contralateral kidneys of both groups, but only at 1 h after SWL. SWL significantly reduced GFR to similar degrees in both kidneys of both groups, regardless of kidney size. Para-aminohippurate extraction was likewise reduced to similar degrees in both groups, but this effect was evident only in the SWL-treated kidneys, and only in the pole to which the shock waves had been applied. The injury induced by SWL affected a larger fraction of small kidneys than large ones, and the renal vasoconstriction induced by SWL was greatest in small kidneys.  (+info)

National trend of the incidence of urolithiasis in Japan from 1965 to 1995. (5/366)

BACKGROUND: A nationwide survey of urolithiasis in Japan was made in order to evaluate the chronological trend of upper urinary tract stones in the Japanese. It succeeded previous studies done in 1955, 1966, 1979, and 1990. METHODS: All outpatient visits to urologists that resulted in a diagnosis of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in the years 1990 and 1995 were enumerated, irrespective of admission and treatment. The study enrolled all of the Japanese Board of Urology-approved hospitals, thereby covering nearly all urologists practicing in Japan. The annual incidence by sex and age was estimated and compared with the incidences in the previous nationwide surveys. RESULTS: The age-adjusted annual incidence of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in 1995 was estimated as 68.9 per 100,000 (100.1 in men and 55.4 in women), a steady increase from 54.2 in 1965. The annual incidence has increased in all age groups, except in those of the first three decades. The peak age for both sexes has shifted in toward the older population's direction. Estimations of longitudinal changes between 1965 and 1995 showed that the annual incidence has more than doubled for the cohort of the 1965 census population (from 43.7 in 1965 to 110.9 in 1995) and that younger generations have had progressively higher annual incidences. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of upper urinary tract stones in Japan has increased steadily over the past 30 years and will continue to do so in the near future, but it still is lower than in the United States.  (+info)

The effect of discharge voltage on renal injury and impairment caused by lithotripsy in the pig. (6/366)

The present study was designed to determine the effects of shock wave voltage (kV) on lesion size and renal function induced by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 6- to 8-wk-old pig. Each SWL-treated pig received 2000 shock waves at 12, 18, or 24 kV to the lower pole calyx of one kidney. A group of sham SWL pigs served as time controls. Bilateral GFR, renal plasma flow (RPF), and para-aminohippurate (PAH) extraction were measured 1 h before and 1 and 4 h after SWL in all treated and sham animals. The kidneys were removed at the end of each experiment for morphometric analysis. The SWL-induced lesion increased significantly in size as shock wave energy was increased from 12 to 24 kV. PAH extraction, a measure of tubular function, was not significantly affected at 12 kV, was transiently reduced at 18 kV, and was reduced for the duration of the experiment at 24 kV. GFR and RPF, however, were significantly and similarly reduced at the 1 h post-SWL period at all three kilovolt levels. At the 4-h post-SWL period, both GFR and RPF had returned to baseline levels. Lesion size and tubular injury were correlated with changes in kilovoltage, while changes in renal hemodynamics were already maximal at the lowest discharge voltage. These findings suggest that renal microvessels are highly sensitive to shock waves and that frank injury to tubules and vessels may be more closely related to discharge energy than is renal blood flow.  (+info)

Section 4--bioeffects in tissues with gas bodies. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. (7/366)

Several animal models have exhibited thresholds for petechial hemorrhage in lung within the current output of diagnostic ultrasound systems. In addition, thresholds for damage in the mouse intestine due to diagnostic pulses of ultrasound have been explored. The implications for human lung and intestinal exposure to clinical diagnostic ultrasound have not yet been determined. In this section, the data supporting the thresholds of petechial hemorrhage in these organ systems and the morphological observations will be reviewed. The potential mechanical mechanisms of damage to these organs due to diagnostic ultrasound also will be reviewed. Special attention will be given to the occurrence of inertial cavitation both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of ultrasound parameters, age, and species on the threshold for damage in animal models will be explored.  (+info)

Management of gallstones and their complications. (8/366)

The accurate differentiation of gallstone-induced biliary colic from other abdominal disease processes is the most crucial step in the successful management of gallstone disease. Despite the availability of many imaging techniques to demonstrate the presence of gallstones, clinical judgment ultimately determines the association of symptoms with cholelithiasis and its complications. Adult patients with silent or incidental gallstones should be observed and managed expectantly, with few exceptions. In symptomatic patients, the intervention varies with the type of gallstone-induced complication. In this article, we review the salient clinical features, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options employed in the management of gallstones and their complications.  (+info)

Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that uses shock waves or other high-energy sound waves to break down and remove calculi (stones) in the body, particularly in the kidneys, ureters, or gallbladder. The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and does not require any incisions.

During lithotripsy, the patient lies on a cushioned table while a lithotripter, a device that generates shock waves, is positioned around the area of the stone. As the shock waves pass through the body, they break the stone into tiny fragments that can then be easily passed out of the body in urine.

Lithotripsy is generally a safe and effective procedure, but it may not be suitable for everyone. Patients with certain medical conditions, such as bleeding disorders or pregnancy, may not be able to undergo lithotripsy. Additionally, some stones may be too large or too dense to be effectively treated with lithotripsy. In these cases, other treatment options, such as surgery, may be necessary.

Lithotripsy, laser refers to a medical procedure that uses laser energy to break down and fragment stones located in the urinary tract, such as kidney or ureteral stones. The laser energy is delivered through a flexible fiberoptic endoscope, which is inserted into the urinary tract. Once the stone is targeted, the laser energy is focused on it, causing the stone to fragment into tiny pieces that can then be passed naturally through the urine. This procedure is typically performed under anesthesia and may require hospitalization depending on the size and location of the stone. It is a minimally invasive alternative to traditional surgical methods for treating urinary tract stones.

Ureteral calculi, also known as ureteric stones or ureteral stones, refer to the presence of solid mineral deposits (calculi) within the ureters, the tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These calculi can vary in size and composition, and their formation is often associated with conditions such as dehydration, urinary tract infections, or metabolic disorders. Ureteral calculi may cause symptoms like severe pain, hematuria (blood in the urine), and obstruction of urine flow, potentially leading to serious complications if left untreated.

Ureteroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of a ureteroscope, which is a thin, flexible or rigid fiber-optic tube with a light and camera at the end, to visualize the inside of the ureters and kidneys. The ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder, and then up into the ureter to examine it for any abnormalities such as stones, tumors, or structural issues.

During the procedure, the doctor can also remove any small stones or take a biopsy of any suspicious tissue. Ureteroscopy is typically performed under general or regional anesthesia and may require hospitalization depending on the complexity of the procedure. It is a minimally invasive alternative to traditional open surgery for diagnosing and treating ureteral and kidney conditions.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

"Calculi" is a medical term that refers to abnormal concretions or hard masses formed within the body, usually in hollow organs or cavities. These masses are typically composed of minerals such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or magnesium ammonium phosphate, and can vary in size from tiny granules to large stones. The plural form of the Latin word "calculus" (meaning "pebble"), calculi are commonly known as "stones." They can occur in various locations within the body, including the kidneys, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and prostate gland. The presence of calculi can cause a range of symptoms, such as pain, obstruction, infection, or inflammation, depending on their size, location, and composition.

A percutaneous nephrostomy is a medical procedure in which a tube (catheter) is inserted through the skin into the kidney to drain urine. "Percutaneous" means that the procedure is performed through the skin. The term "nephrostomy" refers specifically to the creation of an opening into the kidney.

This procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and imaging guidance, such as ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the catheter. It may be used in cases where there is a blockage in the urinary tract that prevents the normal flow of urine, such as a kidney stone or tumor. By creating a nephrostomy, urine can be drained from the kidney, helping to alleviate pressure and prevent further complications.

Percutaneous nephrostomy is generally a safe procedure, but like any medical intervention, it carries some risks. These may include bleeding, infection, injury to surrounding organs, or failure to properly place the catheter. Patients who undergo this procedure will typically require follow-up care to manage the catheter and monitor their kidney function.

A ureteroscope is a medical instrument used to examine and treat problems in the urinary tract, specifically in the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder). It is a type of endoscope, which is a flexible or rigid tube with a light and camera at the end. The ureteroscope allows doctors to visualize the inside of the ureters and perform procedures such as removing stones or taking tissue samples for biopsy.

There are two main types of ureteroscopes: rigid and flexible. Rigid ureteroscopes are straight, stiff tubes that are typically used for simple procedures like removing small stones. Flexible ureteroscopes are longer, thinner, and more flexible, allowing them to navigate the twists and turns of the urinary tract and reach areas that rigid scopes cannot. These are often used for more complex procedures such as removing larger stones or treating tumors in the ureters.

It is important to note that using a ureteroscope requires specialized training, as it involves navigating a narrow and delicate part of the body. As with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, bleeding, and injury to the urinary tract. However, when performed by a qualified practitioner, ureteroscopy can be a safe and effective way to diagnose and treat many urinary tract conditions.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Solid-state lasers are a type of laser that uses solid materials as the gain medium – the material that amplifies the light energy to produce laser emissions. In contrast to gas or liquid lasers, solid-state lasers use a crystal, ceramic, or glass as the gain medium. The active laser medium in solid-state lasers is typically doped with rare earth ions, such as neodymium (Nd), yttrium (Y), erbium (Er), or thulium (Tm).

The most common type of solid-state laser is the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In this laser, neodymium ions are doped into a crystal lattice made up of yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (YAG). The Nd:YAG laser emits light at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers (nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce emissions at 532 nm.

Solid-state lasers have several advantages over other types of lasers, including high efficiency, long lifetimes, and compact size. They are widely used in various applications, such as material processing, medical treatments, scientific research, and military technology.

Urolithiasis is the formation of stones (calculi) in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These stones can be composed of various substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, or struvite. The presence of urolithiasis can cause symptoms like severe pain in the back or side, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine. The condition can be managed with medications, increased fluid intake, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove the stones.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. It's a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In the field of medicine, holmium is used in the form of holmium oxide (HoO) as a component in some medical devices, particularly in laser surgery.

The Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Ho:YAG) laser is commonly used in urology for the treatment of kidney stones and various urological conditions. The holmium laser emits light at a wavelength of 2100 nanometers, which is highly absorbed by water and tissue, making it an effective tool for cutting and coagulating tissues with minimal thermal damage to surrounding areas.

It's important to note that direct medical applications of holmium as an element are not common, but rather its use in the form of compounds or medical devices is more prevalent.

Ureterolithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence or formation of a stone (calculus) in the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. The stone can cause obstruction and/or irritation leading to symptoms such as severe pain, hematuria (blood in the urine), nausea, vomiting, and changes in urinary frequency or urgency. Ureterolithiasis is also known as ureteral stones or ureteric colic.

High-energy shock waves are intense, short pulses of mechanical energy that can be used in medical treatments. They are created by rapidly accelerating and decelerating a substance, such as gas or liquid, to produce a compression wave that travels through a medium. When this compression wave encounters a boundary between tissues with different acoustic impedances, it reflects back and creates a shock wave with high-energy peaks.

In medical terms, high-energy shock waves are often used in the treatment of various conditions, such as kidney stones (lithotripsy), musculoskeletal disorders (extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ESWT), and wound healing. The high-energy peaks of the shock waves can cause cavitation, tissue fracture, and other biological effects that can help break up kidney stones, stimulate tissue regeneration, and improve blood flow to promote healing.

It is important to note that while high-energy shock waves have therapeutic benefits, they can also cause harm if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to receive treatment from a qualified medical professional who has experience in administering shock wave therapy.

Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, refer to the formation of solid mineral deposits within the urinary bladder. These calculi develop when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together, forming a stone. Bladder stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny sand-like particles to larger ones that can occupy a significant portion of the bladder's volume.

Bladder stones typically form as a result of underlying urinary tract issues, such as bladder infection, enlarged prostate, nerve damage, or urinary retention. Symptoms may include lower abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and sudden, strong urges to urinate. If left untreated, bladder stones can lead to complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the stones or using other minimally invasive procedures to break them up and remove the fragments.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

A kidney calculus, also known as a kidney stone or nephrolith, is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation that forms in the kidney from minerals in urine. These calculi can vary in size and location within the urinary tract. They can cause pain, bleeding, infection, or blockage of the urinary system if they become too large to pass through the urinary tract.

Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate are the most common types of kidney calculi. Other less common types include uric acid stones, struvite stones, and cystine stones. The formation of kidney calculi can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, family history, medical conditions (e.g., gout, hyperparathyroidism), and certain medications.

Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the formation of stones or calculi in various organs of the body. These stones can develop in the kidneys (nephrolithiasis), gallbladder (cholelithiasis), urinary bladder (cystolithiasis), or salivary glands (sialolithiasis). The stones are usually composed of minerals and organic substances, and their formation can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, genetic predisposition, and chronic inflammation. Lithiasis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location and size of the stone, including pain, obstruction, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. Treatment may involve medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal of the stones.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

An operating table, also known as an operating room table or surgical table, is a piece of medical equipment specifically designed and used for performing surgical procedures. These tables are typically sturdy, adjustable, and equipped with various accessories to help support and position the patient safely and comfortably during surgery. The design allows surgeons and other medical professionals to access the surgical site easily while maintaining the patient's stability and alignment.

Operating tables come in various types and configurations, depending on the nature of the surgical procedure. Some common features include:

1. Height adjustment: Operating tables can be raised or lowered to accommodate the surgeon's preference and ensure ergonomic working conditions.
2. Tabletop adjustments: The tabletop can be tilted, rotated, or sectioned into different parts to provide optimal access to the surgical site while maintaining patient comfort and safety.
3. Accessories: Operating tables often have attachments such as stirrups, leg supports, arm boards, and headrests to position and support different parts of the body during surgery.
4. Radiolucent materials: Some operating tables are made from radiolucent materials, allowing for easy X-ray imaging during surgery without having to move the patient.
5. Integration with medical equipment: Modern operating tables may have built-in features that allow for seamless integration with other medical devices, such as anesthesia machines and monitoring equipment.

Overall, operating tables are essential tools in the surgical setting, providing a stable, adjustable, and safe platform for performing various medical procedures.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Pancreatic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure and function of the pancreas, a vital organ located in the abdomen. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function, which involves the production of digestive enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine, and an endocrine function, which involves the production of hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as acute pancreatitis, which is characterized by sudden inflammation of the pancreas, and chronic pancreatitis, which is a long-term inflammation that can lead to scarring and loss of function.

Non-inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as pancreatic cancer, which is a malignant tumor that can arise from the cells of the pancreas, and benign tumors such as cysts or adenomas. Other non-inflammatory conditions include pancreatic insufficiency, which can occur when the pancreas does not produce enough digestive enzymes, and diabetes mellitus, which can result from impaired insulin production or action.

Overall, pancreatic diseases can have serious consequences on a person's health and quality of life, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal outcomes.

A gastroscope is a type of endoscope that is used to examine the inside of the stomach. It is a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, which allows doctors to view the lining of the stomach in detail on a screen. Gastroscopes are commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as gastritis, ulcers, and stomach cancer. They can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to perform certain treatments, such as removing polyps or cauterizing bleeding vessels.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

A cystoscope is a medical instrument used to examine the inside of the bladder and urethra, which are part of the urinary system. It consists of a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, allowing doctors to visualize these areas in detail. Cystoscopes come in different sizes and types, including flexible and rigid scopes, and can be used for diagnostic purposes or for performing surgical procedures within the bladder.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Operative time, in medical terms, refers to the duration from when an incision is made in the surgical procedure until the closure of the incision. This period includes any additional time needed for re-exploration or reopening during the same operation. It does not include any time spent performing other procedures that may be necessary but are carried out at a later stage. Operative time is an essential metric used in surgery to assess efficiency, plan resources, and determine costs.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Electromagnetic phenomena refer to the interactions and effects that occur due to the combination of electrically charged particles and magnetic fields. These phenomena are described by the principles of electromagnetism, a branch of physics that deals with the fundamental forces between charged particles and their interaction with electromagnetic fields.

Electromagnetic phenomena can be observed in various forms, including:

1. Electric fields: The force that exists between charged particles at rest or in motion. Positive charges create an electric field that points away from them, while negative charges create an electric field that points towards them.
2. Magnetic fields: The force that exists around moving charges or current-carrying wires. Magnets and moving charges produce magnetic fields that exert forces on other moving charges or current-carrying wires.
3. Electromagnetic waves: Self-propagating disturbances in electric and magnetic fields, which can travel through space at the speed of light. Examples include visible light, radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays.
4. Electromagnetic induction: The process by which a changing magnetic field generates an electromotive force (EMF) in a conductor, leading to the flow of electric current.
5. Faraday's law of induction: A fundamental principle that relates the rate of change of magnetic flux through a closed loop to the induced EMF in the loop.
6. Lenz's law: A consequence of conservation of energy, which states that the direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the change in magnetic flux causing it.
7. Electromagnetic radiation: The emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves by charged particles undergoing acceleration or deceleration.
8. Maxwell's equations: A set of four fundamental equations that describe how electric and magnetic fields interact, giving rise to electromagnetic phenomena.

In a medical context, electromagnetic phenomena can be harnessed for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Nephrolithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of stones or calculi in the kidney. These stones can form anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Nephrolithiasis is also commonly known as kidney stones.

Kidney stones are hard deposits made up of minerals and salts that crystallize in the urine. They can vary in size from tiny sand-like particles to larger pebble or even golf ball-sized masses. Kidney stones can cause pain, bleeding, and infection if they block the flow of urine through the urinary tract.

The formation of kidney stones is often associated with a variety of factors such as dehydration, high levels of calcium, oxalate, or uric acid in the urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions like gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment for nephrolithiasis depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake, while larger stones may require medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal.

Electrohydraulic lithotripsy Mechanical lithotripsy Ultrasonic lithotripsy : safer for small stones (. 2 cm: a systematic ... endoscopic lithotripsy): Laser lithotripsy : effective for larger stones (> 2 cm) with good stone-free and complication rates. ... "Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for Kidney Stones". WebMD. Retrieved 2017-01-14. Rebuck DA, Macejko A, Bhalani V, ... Lithotripsy is a procedure involving the physical destruction of hardened masses like kidney stones, bezoars or gallstones, ...
... (LL) has been evaluated against Extracorporeal Shock Wave lithotripsy (ESWL), finding both to be safe and ... Holmium laser lithotripsy had superior initial success and re-treatment rate compared to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ... Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy". Urol. Ann. 5 (2): 88-92. doi: ... YAG lithotripsy yields smaller fragments than lithoclast, pulsed dye laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy". J. Urol. 159 (1): ...
Begun, F. P. (February 16, 1994). "Modes of intracorporeal lithotripsy: ultrasound versus electrohydraulic lithotripsy versus ... Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy (EHL) is a medical procedure which uses targeted shockwaves to break up kidney stones and ... "Lithotripsy". National Kidney Foundation. 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2022-12-30. Tefekli, A.; Cezayirli, F. (2013). "The History of ... This form of extracorporeal lithotripsy is unique in that the shockwaves are produced by a vaporization bubble expanding and ...
On lithotripsy. Quelques considérations sur l'étude de l'anatomie. Thèse. 33 pages. Paris, 1826, No. 186. - On the use of ... 1827 - On lithotripsy and lithotomy. Torsion des artères; Archives générales de médecine, Paris, 1829, 20: 606-610. "Amussat's ... He was also an early practitioner of lithotripsy, which was a "minimally invasive" surgery to crush stones inside the bladder ...
... on lithotripsy (n. LXXX); the various teratological observations are also important. Furthermore, other interesting ...
Laser lithotripsy "Shockwave Therapy". Revolve Physiotherapy. Milton, Ontario. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 2022-02-22. Setthawong V ... The most common use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is for lithotripsy to treat kidney stones (urinary calculosis) ... "Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for calcific tendonitis (tendinopathy) of the shoulder". Interventional procedures ... Srisubat A, Potisat S, Lojanapiwat B, Pattanittum P (August 2023). "Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus ...
Shock Wave Lithotripsy Task Force (2009). "Current Perspective on Adverse Effects in Shock Wave Lithotripsy" (PDF). Clinical ... These treatments also appear to be useful in addition to lithotripsy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a ... Laser lithotripsy is another technique, which involves the use of a holmium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Ho:YAG) laser to fragment ... 28: Q-effects of Shock Wave Lithotripsy". In Coe FL, Favus MJ, Pak CY, Parks JH, Preminger GM (eds.). Kidney Stones: Medical ...
Louis: Mosby, 1970:997 Konigsberger R, Feyh J, Goetz A et al.: [Endoscopic controlled laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ... Endoscopic-controlled laser lithotripsy of salivary calculi. In vitro studies and initial clinical use]. Hno 1990;38:247 Katz P ...
Shock wave therapy (Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). Minimally invasive: Sialendoscopy Surgical: An ENT or oral/ ...
Porta wrote a monograph on lithotripsy in 1859. He also contributed specimens and models of surgical instruments to the museum ...
"Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for obstructing pancreatic duct calculi". The Journal of Urology. 158 (2): 522-5. doi: ...
... such as shockwave lithotripsy, laser lithotripsy, ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Patients can also be treated ... In most cases, people with renal colic are advised to drink more water to facilitate passing; in other instances, lithotripsy ...
Lithotripsy, also known as "shock wave" treatment, is best known for its use breaking up kidney stones. Lithotripsy can now be ...
Lithotripsie : mémoires sur la lithotripsie par percussion, 1833 - Lithotripsy: memoirs of lithotripsy with percussion. ... He is credited for making improvements to instruments used in lithotripsy. Among his inventions was a lithotrite known as a ...
Endoscopic laser lithotripsy is a safer modality compared to electrohydraulic lithotripsy. The CO2 laser is used in oral and ... used in intraluminal lithotripsy Surgical laser systems, sometimes called "laser scalpels", are differentiated not only by the ...
... may be used to dissolve kidney stones by lithotripsy. Ultrasound may be used for cataract treatment by ...
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a non-invasive method to manage gallstones that uses high-energy sound waves to ... In rare cases when surgery is not possible, medication can be used to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy can be used to break ... Side effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy include biliary pancreatitis and liver haematoma. The term is derived ... Paumgartner, Gustav; Sauter, Gerd H. (2005). "Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones: 20th anniversary of the ...
... extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endourology at Hamburg and Munich; in 1990, ESWL in Beijing and Shanghai, and ...
On 21 March, he underwent ureteral lithotripsy and was discharged on 24 March. He was readmitted to hospital with a fever and ...
Comparison of laser and pneumatic lithotripsy and intracorporeal lithotripsy with the Swiss lithoclast". British Journal of ...
Documented iatrogenic causes include: intra-abdominal surgery, lithotripsy, renal biopsy, and percutaneous endopyelotomy. The ...
He was also the first to introduce extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to the UK. Wickham's impact across specialties is ... He introduced extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and laparoscopic nephrectomy to the UK. The ... insisting that National Health Service patients and urology trainees have access to the secured Dornier HM1 Lithotripsy machine ...
Combination ERCP and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Pancreatic Duct Stones". Southern Medical Journal. 103 (6): 505- ...
ESWL (Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) is often not effective because of the hardness of the stones that do not fragment ... Once renal stones have formed, however, the first-line treatment is endoscopic laser lithotripsy. ...
... for shock wave lithotripsy monitoring, disease detection in cancellous bone and needle free injection; for sonar systems that ... "Prediction of far-field acoustic emissions from cavitation clouds during shock wave lithotripsy for development of a clinical ... "The development of a passive acoustic device for monitoring the effectiveness of shockwave lithotripsy in real time" (PDF). ... "A passive acoustic device for real-time monitoring of the efficacy of shockwave lithotripsy treatment". Ultrasound in Medicine ...
He developed from these investigations an electromagnetic shock wave generator for lithotripsy of kidney stones. corresponding ...
Los Angeles Lakers head coach Phil Jackson underwent a lithotripsy procedure to treat a kidney stone in 2003. It was the first ... He used tranquillizers during the games, then underwent a lithotripsy to break up the stone. Golfer Bubba Watson passed two ...
The hospital has facilities for MRI and CT scan, a gamma camera and lithotripsy device. The operations ward contains 11 ...
Lithotripsy and endourology setup.[citation needed] Facilities are also available for Cosmetic surgery.[citation needed] A new ...
... plays an important role for the destruction of kidney stones in shock wave lithotripsy. Currently, tests are being ... emulsify tissue for cataract surgery or kidney stone lithotripsy, or homogenize fluids). It is very often specifically ...
Electrohydraulic lithotripsy Mechanical lithotripsy Ultrasonic lithotripsy : safer for small stones (. 2 cm: a systematic ... endoscopic lithotripsy): Laser lithotripsy : effective for larger stones (> 2 cm) with good stone-free and complication rates. ... "Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for Kidney Stones". WebMD. Retrieved 2017-01-14. Rebuck DA, Macejko A, Bhalani V, ... Lithotripsy is a procedure involving the physical destruction of hardened masses like kidney stones, bezoars or gallstones, ...
Intravascular lithotripsy proved highly effective, safe, and user friendly as an adjunct to stenting for severely calcified ... Transient lithotripsy-induced left ventricular capture occurred in 41% of patients, but they were benign events with no lasting ... Intravascular lithotripsy proved highly effective, safe, and user friendly as an adjunct to stenting for severely calcified ... The technology is basically the same as in extracorporeal lithotripsy, used for the treatment of kidney stones for more than 30 ...
Nomograms, Outcomes, Shock wave lithotripsy, Ureteral stones, Validation. in Urolithiasis. volume. 51. issue. 1. article number ... Finding the optimal candidate for shock wave lithotripsy : external validation and comparison of five prediction models. *Mark ... for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) single-session outcomes in patients with a solitary stone in the upper ureter. The validation ... for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) single-session outcomes in patients with a solitary stone in the upper ureter. The validation ...
... by Susan 5 ... View Laser Lithotripsy: Clinical Use And Technical Aspects 1988. Aviation & Travel Photography. ...
Local patient Kevin John Casey, a beneficiary of this cutting-edge procedure, extols the seamless experience and minimal disruption to his life. His swift recovery, echoed by Dr. Zhangs optimism, underscores the procedures success and potential for broader adoption in regional healthcare centres across Australia.. ...
... and the price range for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in India. ... Looking for the lowest cost and top doctors and hospitals for Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in India? Here is a list of ... Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ahmedabad Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ahmedabad Extracorporeal Shock Wave ... Lithotripsy in Ahmedabad Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Bangalore Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Chennai ...
Bleed monitoring during IVL with Shockwave is possible with the Early Bird.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy can be used for renal and ureteral calculi. Intracorporeal lithotripsy using ... Lithotripsy. The principles of surgical management in patients with stones who also have hyperoxaluria do not differ from the ... Calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi are one of the hardest stone types to fragment with current lithotripsy modalities and may ... Surgical interventions that may be indicated include lithotripsy and kidney-liver transplantation. ...
Shockwave Medical Announces That CMS Has Created New Codes for Intravascular Lithotripsy. Shockwave Medical, Inc. announced ... Shockwave Medical, Inc (Nasdaq: SWAV), a pioneer in the development and commercialization of Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL) to ... Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Issues New Codes for Peripheral Intravascular Lithotripsy Performed in Hospital ... which they refer to as Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL). IVL is a minimally invasive, easy-to-use and safe way to significantly ...
"The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during the biliary lithotripsy procedure." J Stone Dis, vol. 4, no. 1, ... "The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during the biliary lithotripsy procedure." J Stone Dis 4, no. 1 (January ... The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during the biliary lithotripsy procedure.. Publication , Journal Article ... The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during the biliary lithotripsy procedure. J Stone Dis. 1992 Jan;4(1):41- ...
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The noninvasive treatment uses hydraulic shocks to dissolve kidney stones. If you ...
We assessed the efficacy of using an alpha-1A-specific blocker for improving the success rate in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) ... Adjunctive medical therapy with an alpha-1A-specific blocker after shock wave lithotripsy of lower ureteral stones. ... α-1 Blocker , Renal colic , Shock wave lithotripsy , Tamsulosin , Terazosin , Ureteral stone. ...
Conlin, Michael J. / Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater, is this the new ... Conlin, M. J. (2008). Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater, is this the new ... Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater, is this the new frontier? Commentary. ... Conlin, MJ 2008, Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater, is this the new ...
Database Lithotripsy. *Cevik B et al, 2017: Procedural sedation and analgesia for pediatric shock wave lithotripsy: a 10 year ... Cevik B et al, 2017: Procedural sedation and analgesia for pediatric shock wave lithotripsy: a 10 year experience of single ... The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia practice for pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) according ...
High-output ultrasonics and lithotripsy. The use of high-output devices, such as an electrohydraulic lithotriptor, may cause ... High-output ultrasonics and lithotripsy. The use of high-output devices, such as an electrohydraulic lithotriptor, may cause ... High-output ultrasonics and lithotripsy. The use of high-output devices, such as an electrohydraulic lithotriptor, may cause ... If lithotripsy must be used, do not focus the energy near the IPG. ...
View other providers who treat Lithotripsy Orchiectomy * View other providers who treat Orchiectomy ...
Effects of Thermal Insulation on Recovery and Comfort of Patients Undergoing Holmium Laser Lithotripsy Med Sci Monit In Press; ...
If medicine and lithotripsy do not help, and you are unable to have intercourse because of the curve of the penis, surgery may ...
MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 60 patients with renal stones who were scheduled for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy. These ... versus verbal information on anxiety levels among 60 patients with renal stones slated for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy. ... Video-Based Education on Anxiety Levels in Patients with Renal Stones Scheduled for Flexible Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy: A ...
Lithotripsy. Malaria Parasite Test. Measles and diphtheria immunity requirements. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Nuclear ...
It can take several weeks to determine if lithotripsy will be successful. Renal stones that do not respond to lithotripsy can ... Stones ,10 mm in the proximal and mid-ureter can also be managed by lithotripsy, but distal ureteric stones of whatever size ... If the stone is small, single, and unilateral, and/or can be easily treated by lithotripsy, and the estimated future stone risk ... Contraindications to lithotripsy are pregnancy or taking anticoagulants such as warfarin and clopidogrel (aspirin should be ...
Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy - A narrow, tube-like instrument is passed through a small incision in the back to the ... Laser lithotripsy - A laser breaks up stones in the ureter. The stones then pass on their own. ... Extracorporeal lithotripsy - Shock waves applied externally break kidney stones into smaller fragments. The fragments are then ...
Saline irrigation for reducing the recurrence of common bile duct stones after lithotripsy: a randomized controlled trial. ... Could saline irrigation clear all residual common bile duct stones after lithotripsy? A self-controlled prospective cohort ... Could saline irrigation clear all residual common bile duct stones after lithotripsy? A self-controlled prospective cohort ... Could saline irrigation clear all residual common bile duct stones after lithotripsy? A self-controlled prospective cohort ...
Cranfield A, Mathavakkannan S. Goodpastures disease following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a case report & ...
Advancements in Thulium Laser Lithotripsy: The Future of Kidney Stone Surgery 9 months ago ... Advancements in Thulium Laser Lithotripsy: The Future of Kidney Stone Surgery July 27, 2023 ...
Lithotripsy (Kidney Stone Removal Surgery). $3,500 - $10,800 Free Quote Angioplasty (PTCA). $25,300 - $79,300 Free Quote ...
Extracorporeal shock Wave Lithotripsy ( ESWL.... Citrus fruits like lemon, lime, and make sure you get kidney stones and help ... Extracorporeal shock Lithotripsy... A recent hypoglycemic episode pave the way for the formation of new or recurrent stones ...
Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater--is this the new frontier? J Urol 2008 ... Flexible ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy has been used with increased frequency to treat patients with contraindications to ... Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for multiple unilateral intrarenal stones. Eur Urol 2009;55(5):1190-1196. ... 10) Rigid and flexible nephroscopy with lithotripsy and stone extraction. Lithoclast ultra, holmium laser, or combination. ...
  • What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)? (hattiesburgclinic.com)
  • Laser lithotripsy offers several advantages over traditional lithotripsy methods, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). (hmsdesk.com)
  • NIHR HTA (13/152/02) The clinical and cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stones in the lower pole calyces of the kidney: the PUrE RCT - Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL), Flexible Ureterorenoscopy (FURS) and Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for lower pole calyceal kidney stones. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been suggested as a means to reduce the amount of intravenous analgesia/sedation in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). (duke.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia practice for pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) according to the age groups and discuss the anesthetic management of these patients. (storzmedical.com)
  • Intravascular lithotripsy proved highly effective, safe, and user friendly as an adjunct to stenting for severely calcified coronary lesions at 30 days of follow-up in the pivotal Disrupt CAD III study aimed at gaining U.S. regulatory approval. (medscape.com)
  • In Disrupt CAD III, intravascular lithotripsy far exceeded the procedural success and 30-day freedom from major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) performance targets set in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration. (medscape.com)
  • In so doing, the intravascular lithotripsy device developed by Shockwave Medical successfully addressed one of the banes of contemporary interventional cardiology: heavily calcified coronary lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Intravascular lithotripsy was used to prepare these severely calcified lesions for stenting. (medscape.com)
  • The primary safety endpoint of freedom from cardiac death, MI, or target vessel revascularization at 30 days was achieved in 92.2% of patients in the intravascular lithotripsy trial, versus 84.4% in ORBIT II. (medscape.com)
  • Shockwave Medical, Inc (Nasdaq: SWAV), a pioneer in the development and commercialization of Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL) to treat complex calcified cardiovascular disease, announced today that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services(CMS) has issued new codes for IVL procedures performed in peripheral arteries in both the hospital outpatient and inpatient settings. (sofinnovapartners.com)
  • The company aims to establish a new standard of care for medical device treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through their differentiated and proprietary local delivery of sonic pressure waves for the treatment of calcified plaque, which they refer to as Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL). (sofinnovapartners.com)
  • In a cross-sectional study adjusting for age, gender, and catchment area, the prevalence of thyroid antibodies was assessed in 51 consecutive subjects with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis and in 112 control subjects admitted for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy treatment for renal stones. (lu.se)
  • Lithotripsy is a procedure involving the physical destruction of hardened masses like kidney stones, bezoars or gallstones, which may be done non invasively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lithotripsy is a non-invasive procedure used to break up hardened masses like kidney stones, bezoars or gallstones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology is basically the same as in extracorporeal lithotripsy, used for the treatment of kidney stones for more than 30 years: namely, transmission of pulsed acoustic pressure waves in order to fracture calcium. (medscape.com)
  • Generally, lithotripsy is recommended for patients who have small kidney stones that can be seen on an X-ray. (hattiesburgclinic.com)
  • Not all kidney stones can be removed using lithotripsy. (bombayhospitalindore.com)
  • Laser lithotripsy is a medical procedure that uses laser energy to break kidney stones. (hmsdesk.com)
  • Laser lithotripsy is a cutting-edge medical procedure used to treat urinary stones, also known as urinary calculi or kidney stones. (hmsdesk.com)
  • Laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive procedure used to break down kidney stones or ureteral stones using laser energy. (hmsdesk.com)
  • Lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up large kidney stones into smaller pieces. (dailygram.com)
  • Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for single intrarenal stones 2 cm or greater, is this the new frontier? (elsevierpure.com)
  • Lithotripsy is performed under light sedation or, occasionally, general anesthesia, so the procedure itself is not painful. (hattiesburgclinic.com)
  • Lithotripsy is an alternate procedure other than surgery to get rid of Kidney, Uretor and Gall Bladder stones. (bombayhospitalindore.com)
  • Lithotripsy is a procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). (bombayhospitalindore.com)
  • The lithotripsy procedure should take about 45 minutes to 1 hour. (bombayhospitalindore.com)
  • However, as with any medical procedure, there are potential risks associated with laser lithotripsy, such as urinary tract injury or infection. (hmsdesk.com)
  • During the laser lithotripsy procedure, patients may feel discomfort or mild pain, especially when the laser energy is directed toward the stone. (hmsdesk.com)
  • After the laser lithotripsy, patients may encounter common post-procedure symptoms. (hmsdesk.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during the biliary lithotripsy procedure. (duke.edu)
  • Therapeutic Interventions for Stones of the Ureter (TISU): a multicentre randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, as first treatment option, compared with direct progression to ureteroscopic retrieval, for ureteric stones. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Impact of Preoperative Video-Based Education on Anxiety Levels in Patients with Renal Stones Scheduled for Flexible Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy: A Comparative Study Using APAIS and STAI. (bvsalud.org)
  • In light of this, our study aimed to examine the effects of preoperative video-based information versus verbal information on anxiety levels among 60 patients with renal stones slated for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 60 patients with renal stones who were scheduled for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Rigid Endoscopic Lithotripsy Devices Market in 2023. (coda.io)
  • Cevik B et al, 2017: Procedural sedation and analgesia for pediatric shock wave lithotripsy: a 10 year experience of single institution. (storzmedical.com)
  • Patients are advised to consult with a urologist to determine if laser lithotripsy is the most appropriate treatment option for their specific case. (hmsdesk.com)
  • However, it can also be adapted for lithotripsy procedures, especially when combined with a laser fiber that allows precise targeting of stones. (hmsdesk.com)
  • Transient lithotripsy-induced left ventricular capture occurred in 41% of patients, but they were benign events with no lasting consequences. (medscape.com)
  • How can I find treatment of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy? (marham.pk)
  • Here is the list of best Urologists for Treatment for Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in Pakistan. (marham.pk)
  • How can I book appointment with specialist of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy? (marham.pk)
  • Pregnant patients are not a candidate for lithotripsy. (hattiesburgclinic.com)
  • Thulium laser lithotripsy is particularly advantageous for treating smaller stones, and its reduced thermal effect can be beneficial for patients with specific medical conditions or those prone to complications from excessive heat exposure. (hmsdesk.com)
  • The blast wave lithotripsy can be done without the need for patients to be anesthetized," says study developer Harper. (eshraag.com)
  • Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive avec une collecte rétrospective des données des patients hospitalisés et/ou reçus en consultation dans le service de Néphrologie du CHU de Yopougon à Abidjan entre Janvier 1991 et Décembre 2015. (bvsalud.org)
  • L'ectopie rénale croisée a été notée chez deux patients et l'ectopie bilatérale chez quatre dont un cas de fusion en fer à cheval. (bvsalud.org)
  • Le contrôle radiologique effectué chez les patients ayant présenté un traumatisme au stade IV a montré une reconstruction du rein et une absence d'extravasion de produit de contraste.Conclusion :Les traumatismes du rein sont de plus en plus fréquents. (bvsalud.org)
  • Find Laser lithotripsy in India along with best hospitals and doctors. (hmsdesk.com)
  • What is Laser Lithotripsy? (hmsdesk.com)
  • Holmium laser lithotripsy offers exceptional precision, reducing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues. (hmsdesk.com)
  • This type of laser lithotripsy is reserved for specific stone compositions and may not be as widely used as other laser types. (hmsdesk.com)
  • The high power densities of a pulsed laser produce nonthermal interactions with tissue, which is a useful adjunct to the primary purpose for which the laser is used (eg, in lithotripsy procedures). (medscape.com)
  • The mechanical effects of laser are utilized in the removal of tattoos and in lithotripsy procedures (eg, the removal of salivary stones). (medscape.com)
  • If medicine and lithotripsy do not help, and you are unable to have intercourse because of the curve of the penis, surgery may be done to correct the problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We assessed the efficacy of using an alpha-1A-specific blocker for improving the success rate in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for lower ureteral stones. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • The other days later, he underwent extracorpo- cline, sulfamethoxazole, trimetho- genomic group of CDC group F-1 is real shock wave lithotripsy treatment, prim, fusidic acid, ciprofloxacin, and represented by strain CDC G5911 and empiric antimicrobial drug thera- norfloxacin and resistant to erythro- (sequence X81904). (cdc.gov)
  • A 41-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of hematuria three days status post extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. (medscape.com)
  • In such cases, the doctor may opt for treatment of kidney stones thru ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy-lithotripsy (PCN), and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • This study aimed to compare the outcomes of vacuum-assisted dedusting lithotripsy (VADL) using flexible vacuum-assisted ureteral access sheath (FV-UAS) versus traditional flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (fURL) in patients with kidney or proximal ureteral calculi less than 3 cm in size. (nih.gov)
  • Impact of Preoperative Video-Based Education on Anxiety Levels in Patients with Renal Stones Scheduled for Flexible Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy: A Comparative Study Using APAIS and STAI. (bvsalud.org)
  • In light of this, our study aimed to examine the effects of preoperative video-based information versus verbal information on anxiety levels among 60 patients with renal stones slated for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 60 patients with renal stones who were scheduled for flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Contact these Urology specialist hospitals , ask how they can take care of you and ask about the total cost of the Laser lithotripsy medical services in Thailand. (2015medicaltourism.com)
  • Shock wave lithotripsy is the treatment used most often for kidney stones, according to the Urology Care Foundation. (reference.com)
  • Treatment for residual stones using flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy after the management of complex calculi with single-tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy. (medscape.com)
  • Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for endoscopic lithotripsy. (medscape.com)
  • Endoscopic lithotripsy and the FREDDY laser: initial experience. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment is with analgesics, antibiotics for infection, medical expulsive therapy, and, sometimes, minimally invasive surgical procedures (shock wave lithotripsy or endoscopic stone removal). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment of mid- and lower ureteric calculi: extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy vs laser ureteroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • Lower caliceal stone clearance after shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy: the impact of lower pole radiographic anatomy. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who undergo shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy procedures are able to return to normal activities within two to three days. (reference.com)
  • Alken P. Intracorporeal lithotripsy. (medscape.com)
  • The Swiss Lithoclast: a new device for intracorporeal lithotripsy. (medscape.com)
  • Lithotripsy is a procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney and parts of the ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Not all kidney stones can be removed using lithotripsy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the time, lithotripsy removes all the stones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kidney stones may be treated with lithotripsy, a technique for breaking up kidney stones using shock waves or laser beams. (nih.gov)
  • Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of renal and ureteral calculi. (medscape.com)
  • Not all renal calculi are easily broken with shock wave lithotripsy. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with coronary intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) was feasible in the vast majority of lesions and less than one third of lesions had a final stenosis ≥20% despite 49% of lesions considered undilatable prior to IVL. (acc.org)
  • What is the performance of coronary intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) in calcified coronary lesions in a real-life, all-comers, setting? (acc.org)
  • Variation in clinical outcome following shock wave lithotripsy. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • The lithotripsy procedure should take about 45 minutes to 1 hour. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This may be done before or after your lithotripsy treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The other days later, he underwent extracorpo- cline, sulfamethoxazole, trimetho- genomic group of CDC group F-1 is real shock wave lithotripsy treatment, prim, fusidic acid, ciprofloxacin, and represented by strain CDC G5911 and empiric antimicrobial drug thera- norfloxacin and resistant to erythro- (sequence X81904). (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro comparison of fragmentation efficiency of flexible pneumatic lithotripsy using 2 flexible ureteroscopes. (medscape.com)
  • Both EMLA and placebo cream reduced pain during extracorporeal piezoelectric shock wave lithotripsy with the piezolith 2300. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Comparison of erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy. (medscape.com)
  • Patient controlled analgesia for shock wave lithotripsy: The effect of self-administered alfentanil on pain intensity and drug requirement. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Comparison of three analgesics for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • A Prospective, Multicenter, Real-World Registry of Coronary Lithotripsy in Calcified Coronary Arteries: The REPLICA-EPIC18 Study. (acc.org)
  • Beloeil H, Corsia G, Coriat P, and Riou B. Remifentanil compared with sufentanil during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with spontaneous ventilation: a Double-blind, Randomized Study. (tci-thaijo.org)