A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (1/3136)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (2/3136)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

Noncompetitive expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for different antigens during bacterial infection. (3/3136)

Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterium that elicits complex cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in infected mice. The responses of CTL populations that differ in antigen specificity range in magnitude from large, dominant responses to small, subdominant responses. To test the hypothesis that dominant T-cell responses inhibit subdominant responses, we eliminated the two dominant epitopes of L. monocytogenes by anchor residue mutagenesis and measured the T-cell responses to the remaining subdominant epitopes. Surprisingly, the loss of dominant T-cell responses did not enhance subdominant responses. While mice immunized with bacteria lacking dominant epitopes developed L. monocytogenes-specific immunity, their ability to respond to dominant epitopes upon rechallenge with wild-type bacteria was markedly diminished. Recall responses in mice immunized with wild-type or epitope-deficient L. monocytogenes showed that antigen presentation during recall infection is sufficient for activating memory cells yet insufficient for optimal priming of naive T lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that T-cell priming to different epitopes during L. monocytogenes infection is not competitive. Rather, T-cell populations specific for different antigens but the same pathogen expand independently.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (4/3136)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

Infrarenal endoluminal bifurcated stent graft infected with Listeria monocytogenes. (5/3136)

Prosthetic graft infection as a result of Listeria monocytogenes is an extremely rare event that recently occurred in a 77-year-old man who underwent endoluminal stent grafting for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The infected aortic endoluminal prosthesis was removed by means of en bloc resection of the aneurysm and contained endograft with in situ aortoiliac reconstruction. At the 10-month follow-up examination, the patient was well and had no signs of infection.  (+info)

Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. (6/3136)

The performances of five automated microbial identification systems, relative to that of a reference identification system, for their ability to accurately and repeatedly identify six common food-borne pathogens were assessed. The systems assessed were the MicroLog system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, Calif.), the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI Inc., Newark, Del.), the VITEK system (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the MicroScan WalkAway 40 system (Dade-MicroScan International, West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Replianalyzer system (Oxoid Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada). The sensitivities and specificities of these systems for the identification of food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were determined with 40 reference positive isolates and 40 reference negative isolates for each pathogen. The sensitivities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 42.5 to 100%, and the specificities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 32.5 to 100%. Some of the systems had difficulty correctly identifying the reference isolates when the results were compared to those from the reference identification tests. The sensitivity of MIS for the identification of S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and C. jejuni, for example, ranged from 47.5 to 72. 5%. The sensitivity of the Microlog system for the identification of E. coli was 72.5%, and the sensitivity of the VITEK system for the identification of B. cereus was 42.5%. The specificities of four of the five systems for the identification of all of the species tested with the available databases were greater than or equal to 97.5%; the exception was MIS for the identification of C. jejuni, which displayed a specificity of 32.5% when it was tested with reference negative isolates including Campylobacter coli and other Campylobacter species. All systems had >80% sensitivities for the identification of Salmonella species and Listeria species at the genus level. The repeatability of these systems for the identification of test isolates ranged from 30 to 100%. Not all systems included all six pathogens in their databases; thus, some species could not be tested with all systems. The choice of automated microbial identification system for the identification of a food-borne pathogen would depend on the availability of identification libraries within the systems and the performance of the systems for the identification of the pathogen.  (+info)

The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes. (7/3136)

The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling modulates bacterial entry into J774 macrophage-like cells. (8/3136)

Listeria monocytogenes secretes several proteins that have been shown to contribute to virulence. Among these is listeriolysin O (LLO), a pore-forming hemolysin that is absolutely required for virulence. Two other virulence factors are phospholipases: a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC [plcA]) and a broad-range PLC (plcB). Although mutations in plcA or plcB resulted in small increases in mouse 50% lethal dose (LD50), deletions in both genes resulted in a 500-fold increase in LD50. We have examined the role of these secreted proteins in host intracellular signaling in the J774 macrophage-like cell line. Measurements of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) have revealed a rapid spike upon exposure of these cells to wild-type L. monocytogenes. This is followed by a second peak at 5 min and a third prolonged peak with a maximal [Ca2+]i of 800 to 1,000 nM. The pattern of calcium changes was greatly altered by deletion of any of the three virulence factors. An LLO mutant produced none of these elevations in [Ca2+]i; however, a transient elevation was observed whenever these bacteria entered the cell. A PI-PLC mutant produced a diminished single elevation in [Ca2+]i at 15 to 30 min. A broad-range PLC mutant produced only the first calcium spike. Studies with inhibitors suggested that the first elevation arises from influx of calcium from the extracellular medium through plasma membrane channels and that the second and third elevations come from release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. We observed that internalization of wild-type bacteria and the broad-range PLC mutant was delayed for 5 to 10 min, but the LLO and PI-PLC mutants were internalized rapidly upon infection. Inhibitors that affected calcium signaling changed the kinetics of association of wild-type bacteria with J774 cells, the kinetics of entry, and the efficiency of escape from the primary phagosome.  (+info)

"Listeria monocytogenes" is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of foodborne illness. It is widely distributed in the environment and can be found in water, soil, vegetation, and various animal species. This pathogen is particularly notable for its ability to grow at low temperatures, allowing it to survive and multiply in refrigerated foods.

In humans, Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection known as listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The bacterium can cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream, and spread to the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis. Pregnant women infected with Listeria monocytogenes may experience mild flu-like symptoms but are at risk of transmitting the infection to their unborn children, which can result in stillbirth, premature delivery, or severe illness in newborns.

Common sources of Listeria monocytogenes include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood; unpasteurized dairy products; and ready-to-eat foods like deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. Proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent listeriosis.

Listeriosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. It primarily affects older adults, individuals with weakened immune systems, pregnant women, and newborns. The bacteria can be found in contaminated food, water, or soil. Symptoms of listeriosis may include fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions. In severe cases, it can lead to meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or bacteremia (bacterial infection in the bloodstream). Pregnant women may experience only mild flu-like symptoms, but listeriosis can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or serious illness in newborns.

It's important to note that listeriosis is a foodborne illness, and proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent infection. High-risk individuals should avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products, raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk.

"Listeria" is actually the name of a genus of bacteria, but when people use the term in a medical context, they're usually referring to a foodborne illness called listeriosis, which is caused by ingesting certain species of this bacterium, most commonly Listeria monocytogenes. This infection can cause serious complications, particularly for pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. It's often associated with unpasteurized dairy products, raw fruits and vegetables, and prepared foods that have been contaminated after cooking.

"Listeria meningitis" is a type of bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogen *Listeria monocytogenes*. This gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacillus can cause severe invasive infections, particularly in pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. When the bacteria reach the central nervous system, they can cause meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms may include fever, severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Listeria meningitis and preventing potential complications.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Peptide termination factors, also known as release factors, are proteins involved in the process of protein biosynthesis in cells. Specifically, they play a crucial role in the termination step of translation, which is the process by which the genetic code in messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into a specific sequence of amino acids to form a protein.

During translation, ribosomes move along the mRNA and read the codons (three-nucleotide sequences) to add the corresponding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain. When the ribosome encounters a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA), peptide termination factors recognize it and bind to the ribosome. The specific factor that recognizes each stop codon is called a class 1 release factor.

In eukaryotic cells, there are two main class 1 release factors: eRF1 (eukaryotic release factor 1) and eRF3. eRF1 recognizes all three stop codons and promotes the hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA bond, releasing the completed polypeptide chain from the ribosome. eRF3 acts as a GTPase and interacts with eRF1 to facilitate its binding to the ribosome.

Once the polypeptide is released, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA, allowing for another round of translation or degradation of the mRNA. Peptide termination factors are essential for accurate protein synthesis and preventing errors due to premature termination or readthrough of stop codons.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of conserved proteins that are produced by cells in response to stressful conditions, such as increased temperature, exposure to toxins, or infection. They play an essential role in protecting cells and promoting their survival under stressful conditions by assisting in the proper folding and assembly of other proteins, preventing protein aggregation, and helping to refold or degrade damaged proteins. HSPs are named according to their molecular weight, for example, HSP70 and HSP90. They are found in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans, indicating their fundamental importance in cellular function and survival.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Nisin is not a medical term, but a bacteriocin, which is a type of antimicrobial peptide produced by certain bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is specifically produced by some strains of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and has been shown to be effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including those that cause foodborne illnesses.

Nisin is commonly used as a food preservative to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in processed foods such as dairy products, meats, and canned goods. It is also being studied for its potential use in medical applications, such as wound healing and the treatment of bacterial infections. However, it is not currently approved for use as a drug or medical treatment in many countries, including the United States.

Medical definitions typically do not include terms like "meat products" as they are too broad and not specific to medical conditions or treatments. However, in a general food science or nutrition context, "meat products" could be defined as:

Processed or unprocessed foods that contain meat or meat derivatives as the primary ingredient. This can include various types of muscle tissue from mammals, birds, fish, and other animals, along with any accompanying fat, skin, blood vessels, and other tissues. Meat products may be fresh, cured, smoked, or cooked, and they may also contain additional ingredients like salt, sugar, preservatives, and flavorings. Examples of meat products include beef jerky, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and canned meats.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. The "food processing industry" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the branch of manufacturing that involves transforming raw agricultural ingredients into food products for commercial sale.

The food-processing industry includes activities such as:

1. Cleaning and grading raw food materials
2. Preservation through canning, freezing, refrigeration, or dehydration
3. Preparation of food by chopping, cooking, baking, or mixing
4. Packaging and labeling of the final food product

While not a medical term, it is still relevant to the medical field as processed foods can impact human health, both positively and negatively. For example, processing can help preserve nutrients, increase food safety, and make certain foods more accessible and convenient. However, overly processed foods often contain high levels of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to various health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

Caco-2 cells are a type of human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research, particularly in the field of drug development and toxicology. These cells are capable of forming a monolayer with tight junctions, which makes them an excellent model for studying intestinal absorption, transport, and metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds.

Caco-2 cells express many of the transporters and enzymes that are found in the human small intestine, making them a valuable tool for predicting drug absorption and bioavailability in humans. They are also used to study the mechanisms of drug transport across the intestinal epithelium, including passive diffusion and active transport by various transporters.

In addition to their use in drug development, Caco-2 cells are also used to study the toxicological effects of various compounds on human intestinal cells. They can be used to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity, as well as to evaluate the potential for drugs and other compounds to induce intestinal damage or inflammation.

Overall, Caco-2 cells are a widely used and valuable tool in both drug development and toxicology research, providing important insights into the absorption, transport, metabolism, and toxicity of various compounds in the human body.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

A sigma factor is a type of protein in bacteria that plays an essential role in the initiation of transcription, which is the first step of gene expression. Sigma factors recognize and bind to specific sequences on DNA, known as promoters, enabling the attachment of RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing RNA.

In bacteria, RNA polymerase is made up of several subunits, including a core enzyme and a sigma factor. The sigma factor confers specificity to the RNA polymerase by recognizing and binding to the promoter region of the DNA, allowing transcription to begin. Once transcription starts, the sigma factor is released from the RNA polymerase, which then continues to synthesize RNA until it reaches the end of the gene.

Bacteria have multiple sigma factors that allow them to respond to different environmental conditions and stresses by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes. For example, some sigma factors are involved in the regulation of genes required for growth and metabolism under normal conditions, while others are involved in the response to heat shock, starvation, or other stressors.

Overall, sigma factors play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in bacteria, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions and maintain cellular homeostasis.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Active immunity is a type of immunity that occurs when the body's own immune system produces a response to an antigen. This can happen in two ways: naturally or artificially.

Natural active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, and their immune system mounts a response to fight off the infection. As part of this response, the immune system produces specific proteins called antibodies that recognize and bind to the antigen, neutralizing it and preventing future infections by the same pathogen. This type of immunity can last for years or even a lifetime, as memory cells are created that remain on alert for future encounters with the same antigen.

Artificial active immunity, also known as vaccination, involves introducing a weakened or killed form of a pathogen into the body, or pieces of the pathogen such as proteins or sugars, to stimulate an immune response. This triggers the production of antibodies and the creation of memory cells, providing protection against future infections by the same pathogen. Vaccines are a safe and effective way to induce active immunity and prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

Macrophage activation is a process in which these immune cells become increasingly active and responsive to various stimuli, such as pathogens or inflammatory signals. This activation triggers a series of changes within the macrophages, allowing them to perform important functions like phagocytosis (ingesting and destroying foreign particles or microorganisms), antigen presentation (presenting microbial fragments to T-cells to stimulate an immune response), and production of cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response).

There are two main types of macrophage activation: classical (or M1) activation and alternative (or M2) activation. Classical activation is typically induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to a proinflammatory response, enhanced microbicidal activity, and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Alternative activation, on the other hand, is triggered by cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, resulting in an anti-inflammatory response, tissue repair, and the promotion of wound healing.

It's important to note that macrophage activation plays a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes, including immune defense, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and even cancer progression. Dysregulation of macrophage activation has been implicated in several diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, and cancer.

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in various foods such as beets, spinach, and whole grains. In the body, betaine functions as an osmolyte, helping to regulate water balance in cells, and as a methyl donor, contributing to various metabolic processes including the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

In medical terms, betaine is also used as a dietary supplement and medication. Betaine hydrochloride is a form of betaine that is sometimes used as a supplement to help with digestion by providing additional stomach acid. Betaine anhydrous, on the other hand, is often used as a supplement for improving athletic performance and promoting liver health.

Betaine has also been studied for its potential role in protecting against various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

"Hemolysin factors" is not a standard medical term, and it seems there might be some confusion in the question. However, I can provide information on hemolysins, which are substances that cause lysis (rupture) of red blood cells, resulting in the release of their contents into the surrounding fluid.

Hemolysins can be produced by various sources, such as:

1. Bacterial hemolysins: Some bacteria produce hemolysins as a virulence factor to aid in infecting the host. These hemolysins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins (secreted by the bacterium) and endotoxins (integral components of the bacterial cell membrane). Examples include streptolysin O and streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, hemolysin from Escherichia coli, and α-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus.
2. Complement system: The complement system is a part of the immune response that can cause hemolysis through the membrane attack complex (MAC). This complex forms pores in the red blood cell membrane, leading to lysis.
3. Autoimmune disorders: In some autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the body produces antibodies against its own red blood cells, causing complement-mediated hemolysis.
4. Medicines and chemicals: Certain medications or chemicals can cause hemolysis as a side effect. These include some antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins), chemotherapeutic agents, and snake venoms.

If you meant to ask about something else related to "hemolysin factors," please provide more context so I can give a more accurate answer.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Pediococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that typically occur in pairs or tetrads. These bacteria are catalase-negative and non-motile. They are commonly found in various environments such as plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. Some species of Pediococcus can cause food spoilage, while others are used in the production of fermented foods like sauerkraut and certain cheeses due to their ability to produce lactic acid. They are not typically associated with human diseases, but rarely can cause infection in immunocompromised individuals.

Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid component of the cell membrane, into two second messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG).

IP3 is responsible for triggering the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, while DAG remains in the membrane and activates certain protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. These second messengers then go on to modulate various cellular processes such as gene expression, metabolism, secretion, and cell growth or differentiation. PI-PLC exists in multiple isoforms, which are classified based on their structure and activation mechanisms. They can be activated by a variety of extracellular signals, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors, making them important components in signal transduction cascades.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

In the context of medical definitions, "refrigeration" typically refers to the process of storing or preserving medical supplies, specimens, or pharmaceuticals at controlled low temperatures, usually between 2°C and 8°C (35°F and 46°F). This temperature range is known as the "cold chain" and is critical for maintaining the stability, efficacy, and safety of many medical products.

Refrigeration is used to prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause spoilage or degradation of medical supplies and medications. It also helps to slow down chemical reactions that can lead to the breakdown of active ingredients in pharmaceuticals.

Proper refrigeration practices are essential for healthcare facilities, laboratories, and research institutions to ensure the quality and safety of their medical products and specimens. Regular monitoring and maintenance of refrigeration equipment are necessary to maintain the appropriate temperature range and prevent any deviations that could compromise the integrity of the stored items.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Immunologic memory, also known as adaptive immunity, refers to the ability of the immune system to recognize and mount a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposure to a pathogen or antigen that it has encountered before. This is a key feature of the vertebrate immune system and allows for long-term protection against infectious diseases.

Immunologic memory is mediated by specialized cells called memory T cells and B cells, which are produced during the initial response to an infection or immunization. These cells persist in the body after the pathogen has been cleared and can quickly respond to future encounters with the same or similar antigens. This rapid response leads to a more effective and efficient elimination of the pathogen, resulting in fewer symptoms and reduced severity of disease.

Immunologic memory is the basis for vaccines, which work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of a pathogen or its components, inducing an initial response and generating memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections.

Alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid alanine between its two stereoisomeric forms, D-alanine and L-alanine. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. In humans, alanine racemase is found in the cytosol of many tissues, including the liver, kidneys, and brain. It is also an important enzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and has been implicated in various disease processes, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Ribotyping is a molecular technique used in microbiology to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their specific PCR-amplified ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This method involves the use of specific DNA probes or primers to target conserved regions of the rRNA operon, followed by hybridization or sequencing to analyze the resulting patterns. These patterns, known as "ribotypes," are unique to different bacterial species and strains, making ribotyping a valuable tool in epidemiological studies, outbreak investigations, and taxonomic classification of bacteria.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The peritoneal cavity is the potential space within the abdominal and pelvic regions, bounded by the parietal peritoneum lining the inner aspect of the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the visceral peritoneum covering the abdominal and pelvic organs. It contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the gliding of organs against each other during normal physiological activities such as digestion and movement. This cavity can become pathologically involved in various conditions, including inflammation, infection, hemorrhage, or neoplasia, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, distention, or tenderness.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Listeria grayi, Listeria immobilis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, Listeria marthii, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ... Listeria aquatica, Listeria booriae, Listeria cornellensis, Listeria cossartiae, Listeria costaricensis, Listeria farberi, ... Listeria portnoyi, Listeria riparia, Listeria rocourtiae, Listeria rustica, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria thailandensis, ... Most Listeria monocytogenes strains are pathogenic to some degree.[citation needed] Listeria monocytogenes has been associated ...
Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e strain was used in these studies EMBL accession AL591824.1 Mandin P, Repoila F, Vergassola M, ... Listeria monocytogenes is a gram positive bacterium and causes many food-borne infections such as Listeriosis. This bacteria is ... Burke TP, Loukitcheva A, Zemansky J, Wheeler R, Boneca IG, Portnoy DA (2014). "Listeria monocytogenes is resistant to lysozyme ... Burke TP, Portnoy DA (2016). "SpoVG Is a Conserved RNA-Binding Protein That Regulates Listeria monocytogenes Lysozyme ...
"Listeria monocytogenes". meatpoultryfoundation.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. "Salmonella". ... coli Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Campylobacter Diet and Health Sodium Nitrite Other Food Safety Foundation, AMI. "AMI ...
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium. It is closely related to Bacillus and Staphylococcus. It is a rod-shaped, ... Some notable mesophiles include Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Other examples of species ... Magalhã£Es, R. (2014). Listeria monocytogenes. 450-461. Todd, E. (2014). Staphylococcus Aureus. 530-534 Robinson, Richard K.. ( ... L. monocytogenes motility is limited from 20 °C to 25 °C. At the optimal temperature, it loses its motility. This bacterium is ...
A total of 15 deaths with strains of Listeria monocytogenes were reported by The Danish Ministry of Health. The outbreak has ... The killer -- Listeria monocytogenes. "Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, ... A total of 146 persons infected with any of the four outbreak-associated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were reported to CDC ... "Listeria monocytogenes outbreak". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2009-03-12. Archived from the original on 2009-02-07. ...
"Listeria monocytogenes Press Release". dakotastyle.com. 5 May 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 31 ... due to potential contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. Later that month, the recall was extended to include 15,158 cases, ...
"Monocyte-mediated immune defense against murine Listeria monocytogenes infection". Immunity to Listeria Monocytogenes. Advances ... stimulation of CCR2 chemokine receptors on monocytes is participating in the elimination of Listeria monocytogenes infections ...
The killer - Listeria monocytogenes. "Witnesses Clash Over Blame For Deaths From Bad Cheese". The New York Times. Associated ... Publix Super Markets issued a voluntary recall for spinach dip because it may have been adulterated with Listeria monocytogenes ... Hickory Harvest Foods announced a recall of organic nut mix, potentially infected by Listeria monocytogenes in May 2018. A ... nearly 3,000 cases of Dole Food Company salad bags were recalled after a random test found the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes ...
... monocytogenes is commonly found in soil, stream water, sewage, plants, and food. Listeria is responsible for ... Assignment of Listeria grayi and Listeria murrayi to a single species, Listeria grayi, with a revised description of Listeria ... "Food Safety - Listeria". Retrieved 11 May 2016. "CDC - Listeria - Home". cdc.gov/listeria. Retrieved 15 June 2019. Temple, M. E ... Gombas D. E.; Chen Y.; Clavero R. S.; Scott V. N. (2003). "Survey of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods". Journal of ...
Listeria monocytogenes Kocks C, Gouin E, Tabouret M, Berche P, Ohayon H, Cossart P (February 1992). "L. monocytogenes-induced ... "Actin-based motility and cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes". In Goldfine, Howard; Shen, Hao (eds.). Listeria ... March 1999). "Role of Proteins of the Ena/VASP Family in Actin-based Motility of Listeria monocytogenes". The Journal of Cell ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ...
"Listeria monocytogenes - Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial Agents". www.antimicrobe.org. Listeriosis in Cattle Description ... Listeriosis is an infectious but not contagious disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, far more common in ...
Listeria monocytogenes has demonstrated such an effect. At high concentrations, cyclic di-AMP binds to receptor and target ... March 2015). "Structural and biochemical analysis of the essential diadenylate cyclase CdaA from Listeria monocytogenes". The ... "Cyclic di-AMP is critical for Listeria monocytogenes growth, cell wall homeostasis, and establishment of infection". mBio. 4 (3 ...
In Listeria monocytogenes, virulence genes are maximally expressed at 37 °C (human body temperature) but are almost silent at ... Freitag, NE; Port, GC; Miner, MD (September 2009). "Listeria monocytogenes - from saprophyte to intracellular pathogen". Nature ... "An RNA thermosensor controls expression of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes". Cell. 110 (5): 551-561. doi:10.1016/ ...
Among those bacteria are Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., C. perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter species. ...
Listeria monocytogenes). Requiring the USDA to establish performance standards to reduce the presence of these pathogens in ...
In the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes for instance a multi-drug efflux transporter was found that could export both metals and ... Mata, M.T.; Baquero, F.; Pérez-Díaz, J.C. (2000). "A multidrug efflux transporter in Listeria monocytogenes". FEMS Microbiology ...
Meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes should be treated with a combination of ampicillin and gentamicin because it is ... and Listeria monocytogenes. Although there is a low mortality rate in developed countries, there is a 50% prevalence rate of ...
Murray, E. G. D.; Ghosh, B. K.; Murray, R. G. E. (1966). "The Interaction of Guanofuracin and Listeria Monocytogenes". Canadian ...
ListShield targets Listeria monocytogenes which causes listeriosis. Used to treat ready-to-eat foods (e.g., meat, cheese, and ... which targets Listeria monocytogenes contamination of foods. It received FDA/USDA approval in 2006. Two years later, ListShield ... ListPhage targets L. monocytogenes in pet food. These food safety-related products are designed to be applied to live animals ...
Takahashi H, Suda T, Tanaka Y, Kimura B (June 2010). "Cellular hydrophobicity of Listeria monocytogenes involves initial ... Many different bacteria form biofilms, including gram-positive (e.g. Bacillus spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus spp, ... "Rhamnolipid and surfactin inhibit Listeria monocytogenes adhesion". Food Research International. 44 (1): 481-488. doi:10.1016/j ...
... s are surface proteins found on Listeria monocytogenes. They exist in two known forms, InlA and InlB. They are used ... Cadherin Pascale Cossart Lecuit M, Ohayon H, Braun L, Mengaud J, Cossart P (1997). "Internalin of Listeria monocytogenes with ... Structure of Internalin InlK from the Human Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Babinet, Charles, et al. "Conjugated action of two ... Listeria poses a particular threat to pregnant women because of its ability to cross the placental blood barrier through the ...
Mansooreh Jami; Mahdi Ghanbari; Marija Zunabovic; Konrad J. Domig; Wolfgang Kneifel (2014). "Listeria monocytogenes in Aquatic ... and listeria. There is a (rare) risk of harmful bacteria from eating raw herring eggs. Herring has been a staple food source ...
... can be distinguished from L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species by culturing it on sheep or horse blood ... Listeria ivanovii is a species of bacteria in the genus Listeria. The listeria are rod-shaped bacteria, do not produce spores, ... Batt CA (January 2014), "LISTERIA , Listeria monocytogenes", in Batt CA, Tortorello ML (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food ... Until 2010, this bacteria was thought to only infect ruminants (sheep), and its sister bacteria Listeria monocytogenes was ...
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the strains of the genus Listeria, which is a food-borne pathogen and can cause a grave and ... Jemmi, T; Stephan, R (1 August 2006). "Listeria monocytogenes: food-borne pathogen and hygiene indicator". Revue Scientifique ... "Listeria (Listeriosis) , Listeria , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-25. Keba, Abdi; Rolon, M. Laura; Tamene, ... Many animal species can be infected with Listeria but listeriosis can be rarely observed in clinical animals. Listeria spp. can ...
Zhang, W.; Jayarao, B. M.; Knabel, S. J. (2004). "Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing of Listeria monocytogenes". Applied and ... approach has been developed using Listeria monocytogenes . MVLST broadens the benefits of MLST but targets virulence genes, ...
Listeria monocytogenes > 6.9 at 65.5 °C (149.9 °F) Salmonella ser. Typhimurium > 6.9 at 61.5 °C (142.7 °F) (A log10 reduction ... Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, among others. Prior to ...
reviewed the use of plants as the realized niche for the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. This paper focuses on how this ... "Plants as a realized niche for Listeria monocytogenes". MicrobiologyOpen. 10 (6): e1255. doi:10.1002/mbo3.1255. ISSN 2045-8827 ...
N6-lipoyl-L-lysine In the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes the enzyme takes part in a pathway for scavenging of lipoic acid. ... "A complex lipoate utilization pathway in Listeria monocytogenes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (36): 31447-56. doi: ...
PETRAN, RUTH L.; SWANSON, KATHERINE M. J. (July 1993). "Simultaneous Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua". ... CURIALE, MICHAEL S.; LEWUS, CATHERINE (December 1994). "Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Samples Containing Listeria ... "Natural Atypical Listeria innocua Strains with Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenicity Island 1 Genes". Applied and Environmental ... in contrast to Listeria monocytogenes, it does not readily cause disease in mammals. Another Listeria species, L. seeligeri, ...
Carvacrol Cymene Thymol Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes.[clarification needed] "The Plant List: A Working ...
Listeria grayi, Listeria immobilis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, Listeria marthii, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ... Listeria aquatica, Listeria booriae, Listeria cornellensis, Listeria cossartiae, Listeria costaricensis, Listeria farberi, ... Listeria portnoyi, Listeria riparia, Listeria rocourtiae, Listeria rustica, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria thailandensis, ... Most Listeria monocytogenes strains are pathogenic to some degree.[citation needed] Listeria monocytogenes has been associated ...
The potential for contamination was noted after routine testing by the company revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes ... because it has the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes ... food treats because they have the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious ... Listeria infection can cause miscarriages and stillbirths among pregnant women. ...
Patients with cancer, particularly those of blood, are also at high risk for listeria infection. ... Listeria monocytogenes, although an uncommon cause of illness in the general population, is an important pathogen in pregnant ... encoded search term (Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis)) and Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) What to ... Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis). Updated: Aug 10, 2022 * Author: Karen B Weinstein, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: ...
Outbreak of Listeria Infection Linked to Pork Productsplus icon *Outbreak of Listeria Infection Linked to Pork Products ở Việt ... People infected with the outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes, by state of residence, as of November 7, 2019 (n=24). ... People infected with the outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes, by state of residence, as of August 23, 2019 (n=24). ... Outbreak of Listeria Infections Linked to Deli Hamplus icon *Brote de infecciones por Listeria vinculado a jamón ...
Putative heme-dependent peroxidase lmo2113(4S)-2-METHYL-2,4-PENTANEDIOL1,3,5,8-TETRAMETHYL-PORPHINE-2,4,6,7-TETRAPROPIONIC ACID FERROUS COMPLEXSODIUM IONharderoheme (III)
Best Practices Guidance for Controlling Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens Guideline ID FSIS-GD-2023-0004 ...
Listeria monocytogenes associated with pyogenic spondylitis in a 92-year-old woman. Kento Furuya and Naoya Itoh ... Bactérie Listeria monocytogenes associée à une spondylite pyogène chez une femme de 92 ans ... Listeria monocytogenes associated with pyogenic spondylitis in a 92-year-old woman ... Listeria monocytogenes associated with pyogenic spondylitis in a 92-year-old woman ...
immDCs were either infected with the listeria mutants Δhly or prfA. or incubated with hk L. monocytogenes. for 30 minutes, ... Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to Listeria monocytogenes infection and was also observed in other ... Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection ... Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection ...
Quebec-based Laiterie Coaticook Ltée is recalling certain Coaticook brand cheddar cheese because of possible Listeria ... Tags: Canada, CFIA, cheese, Laiterie Coaticook Ltée, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes. Print:. Email this postTweet this post ... About Listeria infections. Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still cause ... Coaticook brand Cheddar cheese recalled due to possible Listeria monocytogenes. By News Desk on December 17, 2019. ...
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, food-borne pathogen of humans and animals. L. monocytogenes is considered to be a ... "Identification of Listeria monocytogenes Determinants Required for Biofilm Formation." PLoS ONE 9 (12): e113696. doi:10.1371/ ... monocytogenes genome. To identify genes necessary for L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, we performed a transposon mutagenesis ... Approximately 10,000 transposon mutants within L. monocytogenes strain 10403S were screened for biofilm formation in 96-well ...
Wisconsin Firm Recalls Meat and Poultry Salad Products Due To Potential Listeria Monocytogenes Contamination. Garden Fresh ... due to possible contamination with Listeria monocytogenes, the U.S. Department of Agricultures Food Safety and Inspection ...
Find proteins for Q8Y6D1 (Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a (strain ATCC BAA-679 / EGD-e)) ... The crystal structure of a sex pheromone precursor (lmo1757) from Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. Tan, K., Makowska-Grzyska, M., ... The crystal structure of a sex pheromone precursor (lmo1757) from Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/ ...
Listeria Distribution: Ontario See the affected products and product photos for this recall SOURCE Canadian Food Inspection ...
In this study, we identify a protein thermosensor, GmaR, in the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes that senses the ... This thermo-sensing mechanism aids L. monocytogenes pathogenesis by turning OFF flagellar motility genes upon entering a ...
... spectroscopy for monitoring metabolic adaptations of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to specific host genotypes ... Three different mouse genotypes, showing different susceptibility to L. monocytogenes infections, were challenged with L. ... monocytogenes and re-isolated bacteria were subjected to FTIR spectroscopy. The bacteria from mice with different survival ... Listeria monocytogenes Is the Subject Area "Listeria monocytogenes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The Johnston County Hams Listeria monocytogenes outbreak has ended with four people sick, all four hospitalized, and one in ... Johnston County Hams Listeria Monocytogenes Outbreak Ends With 4 Sick. December 19, 2018 by News Desk ... Filed Under: Featured, News, Outbreaks Tagged With: Attorneys, Ham, Listeria Monocytogenes Outbreak, North Carolina, Virginia ... Officials found Listeria monocytogenes in deli ham that was collected from Johnston County Farms facility in 2016 and 2018. ...
Listeria monocytogenes were detectable in Gram stains of CSF and isolated from CSF cultures. The patient started antibiotic ... Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen affecting especially the CNS and applying for ~30% of all ... 6] Pagliano P, Ascione T, Boccia G, De Caro F, Esposito S. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in the elderly: Epidemiological, ... 3] Morosi S, Francisci D, Baldelli F. A case of rhombencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes successfully treated with ...
Detection of viable and dead Listeria monocytogenes in gouda-like cheeses by real-time PCR. ... Detection of viable and dead Listeria monocytogenes in gouda-like cheeses by real-time PCR. ... Detection of viable and dead Listeria monocytogenes in gouda-like cheeses by real-time PCR ...
Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. Symptoms can include ... Various Gordon Choice brand frozen, diced chicken products recalled due to Listeria monocytogenes ... Certain sandwiches and in-store made chicken salads recalled due to Listeria monocytogenes ... Various Gordon Choice brand frozen, diced chicken products recalled due to Listeria monocytogenes ...
Efficiency of electrolyzed oxidizing water on reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing gloves. Liu C ... Efficiency of electrolyzed oxidizing water on reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing gloves. *by ... This study investigated the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on gloves and determined the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing ... Presence of shrimp meat residue on gloves enhanced the survival of L. monocytogenes. Cells of L. monocytogenes were detected on ...
Evaluation of consumer reheating methods for destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in frankfurters. K-REx Repository. Search K- ... Keywords: Beef; Listeria monocytogenes; Frankfurters; Reheating. Conference: Cattlemens Day, 2003, Kansas State University, ... Service has issued a "zero tolerance" for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. The Food Safety and ... Evaluation of consumer reheating methods for destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in frankfurters. Ortega, M.T.; Thippareddi, ...
Not to consume a kind of French cheese suspected to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Issue Date. 10.2.2023. ... the European Commission that the above-mentioned batch of the product might have been contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes ...
Dive into the research topics of A detailed view of Listeria monocytogenes adaptation and survival under cold temperature ... A detailed view of Listeria monocytogenes adaptation and survival under cold temperature stress. ...
... een hindernis kunnen vormen voor de groei van uitzonderlijk aanwezige ziekmakende bacteriën zoals Listeria monocytogenes. ... Listeria mono…?. Listeria monocytogenes is net zoals Salmonella spp. een ziekteverwekkende bacterie die op voeding kan ... Listeria monocytogenes wordt hierdoor gelinkt aan een hoog sterftecijfer, voornamelijk bij risicogroepen zoals jonge kinderen, ... "The bad, of de slechte bacteriën, zoals Listeria monocytogenes, kunnen infectie en ziekte veroorzaken. The Ugly, of ...
...  Metadata Field. Value. Language. ... Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a psychrotrophic bacterium with serious consequences to human health. Listeriosis causes an ... Survival of LIsteria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Roast Beef During Refrigeration Storage. en_US. ...
Human illness due to Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis) has been mostly frequently attributed to highly processed, cold- ... Listeria monocytogenes: Epidemiological facts and trends. Even though new species of Listeria continue to be recognised, L. ... Listeria monocytogenes, a down-to-earth pathogen.Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013 Nov 28;3:87. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00087. ... Listeria-specific phage has shown promise in experimental studies. However, certain L. monocytogenes strains exhibit resistance ...
Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three Listeria monocytogenes isolates from fresh leaves collected in Nigeria, ... Draft genome sequences of Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from fresh leaf vegetables in Owerri City, Nigeria ... Draft genome sequences of Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from fresh leaf vegetables in Owerri City, Nigeria. Genome ...
Identifikasi Listeria monocytogenes pada Susu Kambing di Kabupaten Purworejo Jawa Tengah ...
  • Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An outbreak of listeriosis in Halifax, Nova Scotia, involving 41 cases and 18 deaths, mostly in pregnant women and neonates, was epidemiologically linked to the consumption of coleslaw containing cabbage that had been contaminated with L. monocytogenes-contaminated sheep manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, anyone who has eaten any of the recalled products should monitor themselves for symptoms during the coming weeks because it can take up to 70 days after exposure to Listeria for symptoms of listeriosis to develop. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • L. monocytogenes is considered to be a potential public health risk by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as this bacterium can easily contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and cause an invasive, life-threatening disease (listeriosis). (harvard.edu)
  • Human illness due to Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis) has been mostly frequently attributed to highly processed, cold-stored, ready-to-eat foods such as deli meats, seafood, soft cheeses and other dairy products. (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • However, the first outbreak of listeriosis to confirm foodborne transmission of L. monocytogenes (Maritime Provinces outbreak, 1977-1981) involved produce (coleslaw). (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • Even though new species of Listeria continue to be recognised, L. monocytogenes is the only species in the genus Listeria with consistent ability to cause human disease (listeriosis). (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, which can be a serious and sometimes fatal infection in young children, cancer patients, elderly people and others with weakened immune systems. (ny.gov)
  • A large, multi-province outbreak of listeriosis associated with ready-to-eat meat products contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a occurred in Canada in 2008. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PFGE has been adopted by PulseNet as the internationally standardized method for molecular subtyping of L . monocytogenes and has been essential in the detection and investigation of listeriosis outbreaks in Canada and worldwide [ 18 - 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listeria he kitakita anaerobic aromahara hei matakite mo te listeriosis. (ballyabio.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, the causative agent of listeriosis. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen causing listeriosis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. (who.int)
  • Listeriosis is a series of diseases caused by the bacteria L. monocytogenes , outbreaks of which occur in all countries. (who.int)
  • Listeriosis, a serious infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, has recently become an important public health problem in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • You get listeriosis by eating food contaminated with Listeria. (cdc.gov)
  • Emily Cartwright] Listeriosis is an infection with bacteria called Listeria monocytogenes . (cdc.gov)
  • Listeriosis is an infection caused by the gram-positive motile bacterium Listeria monocytogenes . (medscape.com)
  • The potential for contamination was noted after routine testing by the company revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 5 ounce packages of "Snackies. (fda.gov)
  • Quebec-based Laiterie Coaticook Ltée is recalling certain Coaticook brand cheddar cheese because of possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The salads contain diced onions that are the subject of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recall by Gill Onions, due to possible contamination with Listeria monocytogenes , the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today. (usda.gov)
  • Ottawa, October 1, 2019 - Les aliments Deli Chef is recalling sandwiches from the marketplace due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (canada.ca)
  • This study investigated the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on gloves and determined the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for reducing L. monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing gloves. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • EO water could be used as a sanitizer to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on gloves and reduce the possibility of transferring L. monocytogenes from gloves to RTE seafoods. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • Ottawa, August 30, 2021 - T-Brother Food & Trading Ltd. is recalling Soo brand Enoki Mushrooms from the marketplace due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (canada.ca)
  • New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets Commissioner Richard A. Ball today warned consumers in Orange County and the surrounding area not to consume unpasteurized raw milk from Pennings Farm due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (ny.gov)
  • Around 10% of silage contain L. monocytogenes , sometimes in high quantities in poor-quality silage, which can be a source of ruminant contamination. (anses.fr)
  • The frequency of contamination with L. monocytogenes , along with the level of contamination, vary depending on the food category, whether raw foods or processed foods are involved. (anses.fr)
  • L. monocytogenes can be introduced into food processing facilities and food products due to cross-contamination with environmental sources or from the feces of food production animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, methodologies combining phenotypic and molecular analyses provide the necessary information on the prevalence, contamination level, antibiotic resistance profiles, genetic relatedness and ecological preferences of Listeria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ottawa, May 7, 2021 - Goldenway International Trade Co., Ltd. is recalling Golden Mushroom brand Enoki Mushroom from the marketplace due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (canada.ca)
  • The Thogersen Family Farm (Thogersen) is recalling several varieties of raw, ground pet food due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (germz.ca)
  • Poppies International Inc. is recalling tubs of their "Delizza Belgian Custard Cream Mini Eclairs" after tests showed contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially deadly foodborne pathogen. (germz.ca)
  • Hom/Ade Foods Inc. is the latest food company to recall biscuits because of potential Listeria contamination. (germz.ca)
  • Contamination of cold-smoked salmon by Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern for the seafood industry. (illinois.edu)
  • Listeria is also a common veterinary pathogen, being associated with abortion and encephalitis in sheep and cattle. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, food-borne pathogen of humans and animals. (harvard.edu)
  • Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen affecting especially the CNS and applying for ~30% of all LM infections (1,2). (eurorad.org)
  • Fresh produce such as cantaloupe, leafy greens and sprouts represent challenging food matrices with limited post-harvest mitigations to reduce L. monocytogenes adherence and growth, underscoring a need for new pathogen control strategies. (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • L. monocytogenes is well known for remarkable, highly specialised adaptations mediating its interactions with intestinal epithelial cells, macrophages and other animal cell types and associated with its ability to function as a facultative intracellular pathogen. (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause severe disease in humans, other mammals and birds [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a notorious food-borne pathogen that is capable of switching between saprophytic and intracellular parasitic life styles [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reason for which Listeria monocytogenes it is a pathogen that represents a threat for world-wide the public health. (researchbib.com)
  • L. monocytogenes was also evaluated on fresh-cut 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes stored at 4, 12, 20 ± 2°C. Whole mangoes were spot inoculated with rifampicin -resistant pathogen cocktails (6 log CFU/ mango ) onto the midsection of whole fruit (n = 6). (bvsalud.org)
  • L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 35% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two newly identified genetic loci, dltABCD and phoPR, were selected for deletion analysis and both ΔdltABCD and ΔphoPR bacterial strains displayed biofilm formation defects in the PVC microtiter plate assay, confirming these loci contribute to biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods and results: A lab‐scale study was initially carried out to test the efficacy of eleven biocidal products against a cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that were grown to three‐day biofilms on stainless steel coupons. (ucc.ie)
  • The behaviour of L. monocytogenes is relatively variable depending on the strains, irrespective of the factor studied (T°C, pH, aw) and the type of food matrix. (anses.fr)
  • There are 13 known serotypes of L. monocytogenes but the vast majority of human disease cases are caused by strains belonging to serotypes 4b, 1/2a, and 1/2b, severely limiting the utility of this subtyping method for differentiating L. monocytogenes [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes in addition to being a paradigm for the immunological investigation has become in an appropriate model system to the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the intracellular parasitism of other bacteria strains. (researchbib.com)
  • 100% Tested with 94 nontarget strains composed of 51 strains of non Listeria monocytogenes and 43 strains of non-Listeria. (thermalindo.com)
  • Homologues of ADI and AgDI systems have been found in L. monocytogenes lineages I and II strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Transcriptomic and phenotypic responses of Listeria monocytogenes strains possessing different growth efficiencies under acidic conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • L. monocytogenes outbreak related to cantaloupe, which are representative of the 4 pulsed-field get electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles (identified at the time the research was performed) associated with the outbreak analyzed in the current study. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC, several states, and federal partners investigated a multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The Johnston County Hams Listeria monocytogenes outbreak has ended with four sick, according to a notice posted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • High-throughput pyrosequencing of two L. monocytogenes isolates was used to rapidly provide the genome sequence of the primary outbreak strain and to investigate the extent of genetic diversity associated with a change of a single restriction enzyme fragment during PFGE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the widespread occurrence of L. monocytogenes , subtyping of clinical and food isolates is required to establish epidemiologic links during routine surveillance, outbreak investigations, and for source tracking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A grocery store specializing in Asian food remains closed as Canadian officials continue to investigate a Listeria outbreak that has hospitalized at least six people, one of whom has died. (germz.ca)
  • During an outbreak investigation, information from PulseNet and the Listeria Initiative are used together. (cdc.gov)
  • Produce-related outbreaks and sporadic illness are most often attributed to Escherichia coli and Salmonella, but an increasing number of high profile produce outbreaks and product recalls have occurred due to Listeria monocytogenes. (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • To accomplish this, we use a surveillance system specifically designed for investigating Listeria outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is net zoals Salmonella spp. (scriptieprijs.be)
  • Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are among the top ranking pathogens causing such losses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fate and Growth Kinetics of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on Mangoes During Storage. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this research was to evaluate the persistence and growth kinetics of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on the intact surface of whole 'Ataulfo', 'Kent', and 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes stored at three different temperatures . (bvsalud.org)
  • Chen, C. & Sebranek, J. G. & Dickson, J. S. & Mendonca, A. F., (2004) "Processing Treatments for Control of Listeria monocytogenes on Frankfurters", Iowa State University Animal Industry Report 1(1). (iastatedigitalpress.com)
  • The proper execution of physico-chemical analyses that are important for the control of Listeria monocytogenes is not as easy as it may seem. (listeria.eu)
  • Schneider G, Steinbach A, Putics �, Solti-Hodován �, Palkovics T. Essential Oils in the Control of Listeria monocytogenes . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Essential Oils in the Control of Listeria monocytogenes " Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/45186 (accessed November 28, 2023). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This approach has resulted in the development of an extensive range of high-quality services in recent years, providing a thoroughly founded solutions for difficult dilemmas in the management of microbiological food safety risks, like for example Listeria monocytogenes risk management. (listeria.eu)
  • Motile via flagella at 30 °C and below, but usually not at 37 °C, L. monocytogenes can instead move within eukaryotic cells by explosive polymerization of actin filaments (known as comet tails or actin rockets). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although L. monocytogenes is actively motile by means of peritrichous flagella at room temperature (20−25 °C), the organism does not synthesize flagella at body temperatures (37 °C). The genus Listeria belongs to the class Bacilli and the order Bacillales, which also includes Bacillus and Staphylococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • L monocytogenes is a motile, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus that has aerobic and facultatively anaerobic characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • L monocytogenes is a gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment. (medscape.com)
  • Murray referred to the organism as Bacterium monocytogenes before Harvey Pirie changed the genus name to Listeria in 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • Company Name of City, State is recalling Quantity and/or type of Product , because it has the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. (fda.gov)
  • XYZ Inc. of Anywhere, MS, is recalling its 5 ounce packages of "Snackies" food treats because they have the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. (fda.gov)
  • The 13 serotypes of L. monocytogenes can cause disease, but more than 90% of human isolates belong to only three serotypes: 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three Listeria monocytogenes isolates from fresh leaves collected in Nigeria, belonging to sequence types ST5 and ST155 (sublineages SL5 and SL155, respectively). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Notably, these two isolates were found to harbor a 50 kbp putative mobile genomic island encoding translocation and efflux functions that has not been observed in other Listeria genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to Listeria monocytogenes infection and was also observed in other granulomatous infections with intracellular bacteria, such as Bartonella henselae. (jci.org)
  • Whole genome sequencing performed on the bacteria found that it was closely related genetically to Listeria from ill persons. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Listeria are relatively undemanding environmental bacteria that are widespread, e.g. (laborveritas.ch)
  • In this study, broth cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented milk were tested for production of substances capable of inhibiting L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis in co-culture with LAB by assessment of colony-forming units (CFU) and live:dead cell populations by flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. (who.int)
  • The relevance of the profile of lactic acid bacteria found in this type of cheese was assessed, and the antimicrobial activity of these identified bacteria against Salmonel a enterica, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still cause serious and sometimes life-threatening infections. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Specific laboratory tests are required to diagnose Listeria infections, which can mimic other illnesses. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Beyond the neonatal period, most children with Listeria infections have an underlying immunodeficiency or are immunocompromised. (medscape.com)
  • Older children with Listeria infections frequently develop meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • Surveillance of listeria infections in Europe reported an incidence varying between 0.3 (Greece) and 7.5 (Sweden) cases per year. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria infections occur most often in newborns and elderly patients. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, animal-associated infections (caused by, for example, Toxoplasma gondii , Listeria monocytogenes ) have been reported in people at increased risk because of deficiencies in the normal immune response as a result of immunosuppressive drugs, cancer or HIV infection. (who.int)
  • Hei whakamaumaharatanga ki te papa o te pokanga whakaahurutanga hou, te tohunga tuuroro o Ingarangi a Joseph Lister (1827-1912), i te tau 1940, i tapaina ko Listeria monocytogenes i te 3 International Congress of Microbiology. (ballyabio.com)
  • Applying predictive microbiology in recipe development allows us to make a reliable estimate of the growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in a product at an early stage of the development process. (listeria.eu)
  • We evaluated L. monocytogenes survival on inoculated frankfurters after reheating using common, in-home consumer practices. (k-state.edu)
  • Frankfurters were inoculated with a six-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes to an initial level of approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU)/gram. (k-state.edu)
  • Frankfurters were surface inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes then treated with a pediocin (ALTATM 2341), post-packaging pasteurization with heat or post-packaging irradiation.All treatments effectively reduced L. monocytogenes numbers but combinations, particularly pediocin with heat or with irradiation were most effective for both reducing L. monocytogenes and suppressing growth of survivors. (iastatedigitalpress.com)
  • Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters treated with lactic acid solutions of various temperatures. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • L. denitrificans, previously thought to be part of the genus Listeria, was reclassified into the new genus Jonesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species of the genus Listeria (L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi) are not pathogenic for humans. (anses.fr)
  • Listeria is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food such as seafood, meat, and vegetables. (eurorad.org)
  • Three types of reusable gloves (natural rubber latex, natural latex, and nitrile) and two types of disposable gloves (latex and nitrile) were cut into small pieces (4 x 4 cm(2)) and inoculated with 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail (5.1 x 10(7) CFU/cm(2)) with and without shrimp meat residue attached to surfaces. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • Presence of shrimp meat residue on gloves enhanced the survival of L. monocytogenes. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • Service has issued a "zero tolerance" for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. (k-state.edu)
  • Pediocin and irradiation treatments were synergistic and achieved the greatest control of L. monocytogenes of all the treatments studied.These treatments offer meat processors alternatives to improve control of L. monocytogenes on processed meats. (iastatedigitalpress.com)
  • While whole genome sequencing has led to the identification of biofilm synthesis gene clusters in many bacterial species, bioinformatics has not identified the biofilm synthesis genes within the L. monocytogenes genome. (harvard.edu)
  • To identify genes necessary for L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, we performed a transposon mutagenesis library screen using a recently constructed Himar1 mariner transposon. (harvard.edu)
  • Approximately 10,000 transposon mutants within L. monocytogenes strain 10403S were screened for biofilm formation in 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microtiter plates with 70 Himar1 insertion mutants identified that produced significantly less biofilms. (harvard.edu)
  • The identification of mutants bearing insertions within several flagellar motility genes previously known to be required for the initial stages of biofilm formation validated the ability of the mutagenesis screen to identify L. monocytogenes biofilm-defective mutants. (harvard.edu)
  • Aims: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of new and currently used biocides in the mushroom industry for inactivating L. monocytogenes biofilm. (ucc.ie)
  • Conclusions: Biocides that are used in the mushroom industry and potential alternative biocides were determined to be effective against L. monocytogenes biofilm in both lab‐scale and pilot‐scale experiments. (ucc.ie)
  • Both L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes are pathogenic in mice, but only L. monocytogenes is consistently associated with human illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of enrichrnent and selective culture media that enable distinction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species have been formulated for isolation of Listeria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • L. monocytogenes has been isolated in numerous animal species, generally asymptomatic intestinal carriers. (anses.fr)
  • Influence of L. monocytogenes virulence factors on IDO induction. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, Lmo0036 played a possible role in Listeria virulence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Public health officials from Vancouver Coastal Health told CBC News on Monday that they had not yet determined if Listeria monocytogenes infection caused the death. (germz.ca)
  • Due to its frequent pathogenicity, causing meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally), pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, feta, and queso blanco fresco, which may be contaminated with and permit growth of L. monocytogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its specificability to multiply at refrigeration temperatures explains why L. monocytogenes is usually associated with refrigerated foods with a long shelf-life: in terms of L. monocytogenes , a high-risk food is a food consumed as is, able to support the growth of L. monocytogenes and stored for a certain length of time at refrigeration temperatures. (anses.fr)
  • L. monocytogenes populations were measured at 7°C over 60days, and initial cell density (N 0 ), maximum initial log reduction (N r ), lag phase (λ), maximum growth rate (μ max ), and maximum cell density (N max ) over 60days storage were estimated. (illinois.edu)
  • PLSDA alone or in combination with 20ppm NIS was most effective at delaying growth of L. monocytogenes. (illinois.edu)
  • Comparison of T initial indicated that PLSDA with NIS can effectively retard growth of L. monocytogenes to its initial level (following initial reduction) and offers a cost benefit over using high concentrations of NIS alone. (illinois.edu)
  • In summary, the combined application of NIS (for a bactericidal effect) and PLSDA (for a bacteriostatic effect) proved to be an effective treatment option to reduce initial levels as well as minimize subsequent growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the expected shelf-life of cold-smoked salmon. (illinois.edu)
  • Consistently, absence of this enzyme impaired the growth of Listeria under mild acidic conditions (pH 4.8) and reduced its survival in synthetic human gastric fluid (pH 2.5), and corresponded to a loss in ammonia production, indicating that Lmo0036 was responsible for acid tolerance at both sublethal and lethal pH levels. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Positive sera were tested against 12 serovars of Listeria l1Iollocytogelles separately. (ac.ir)
  • To define the lowest EO concentration which inhibits proliferation and which kills L. monocytogenes , the terms minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) are used. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • An ideal tool for a fast and reliable Amplification and Detection of specific DNA fragments from Listeria monocytogenes by the real-time PCR method . (thermalindo.com)
  • immDCs were either infected with the listeria mutants Δhly or prfA or incubated with hk L. monocytogenes for 30 minutes, washed, and subsequently cultured for 2, 6, or 24 hours Alternatively, DCs were treated with purified LTA derived from L. monocytogenes and cultured for 72 hours. (jci.org)
  • Newborns acquire Listeria transplacentally, by ascending infection via ruptured amniotic membranes or upon exposure during vaginal delivery. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, in the phylum Bacillota, named after Joseph Lister. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes can infect the brain, spinal-cord membranes and/or the bloodstream of the host through the ingestion of contaminated food such as unpasteurized dairy or raw foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria accounts for 19% of all deaths due to food-borne infection. (medscape.com)
  • Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. (canada.ca)
  • The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) received a notification from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Commission that the above-mentioned batch of the product might have been contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and is being recalled. (gov.hk)
  • L. monocytogenes can persist within food processing environments for long periods of time, due in part to its ability to grow at wide-ranging temperatures and pH (0.4°C to 45°C, pH 4 to 9.6) and the ability to form biofilms promoting adherence to food processing surfaces [ 8 - 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes risk management results in a better guarantee of food safety. (listeria.eu)
  • One in three Australians could be at risk of Listeria infection, according to the Food Safety Information Council. (germz.ca)
  • The FDA reported that Frozen Food Development recalled imported Lidl 12-ounce packages of Frozen Chopped Spinach because the product can be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Eating contaminated food with high numbers of L. monocytogenes is the main route of infection. (who.int)
  • How does Listeria get into food? (cdc.gov)
  • Persons at risk can prevent Listeria infection by avoiding certain high- risk foods and by handling food properly. (cdc.gov)
  • L monocytogenes is acquired via the ingestion of contaminated food products. (medscape.com)
  • however, the principal route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. (medscape.com)
  • PulseNet and the Listeria Initiative to help quickly identify cantaloupe as the source of illness and get the contaminated cantaloupe off the market. (cdc.gov)
  • Summary of characteristics (with images) that can be used to identify listeria monocytogenes. (cdc.gov)
  • L. monocytogenes are ubiquitous in nature and found in soil, water and animal digestive tracts. (who.int)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is found in soil and water. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the most effective bactericidal treatment for L. monocytogenes on salmon and (ii) optimize bactericidal and bacteriostatic treatment combinations to identify cost-effective treatments against L. monocytogenes on salmon. (illinois.edu)
  • Nevertheless, clinical diseases due to L. monocytogenes are more frequently recognized by veterinarians, especially as meningoencephalitis in ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although clinical descriptions of L. monocytogenes infection in both animals and humans were published in the 1920s, it was not recognized as a significant cause of neonatal infection, sepsis, and meningitis until 1952 in East Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • Officials found Listeria monocytogenes in deli ham that was collected from Johnston County Farms facility in 2016 and 2018. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Three people who ate deli sandwiches from a restaurant in Canada's largest cancer-care center have been infected with Listeria. (germz.ca)
  • Te wa-roa PCR fluorescent i te kitenga vitro o Listeria monocytogenes. (ballyabio.com)
  • I te wa o te uruparenga, ko te Listeria monocytogenes-motuhake te whakamatau i te uiui hukahuka me te waikawa ngongo ngongo, me te wa ano Taq whākōkī Hydrolysis ki te wehe i te roopu fluorescent mai i te roopu tarai i runga i te tirotiro Tuhinga o mua. (ballyabio.com)
  • L. monocytogenes did not survive well on clean reusable gloves and its populations decreased rapidly to non-detectable levels within 30 min at room temperature. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • However, when tested on salmon, only NIS significantly decreased initial L. monocytogenes populations by approximately 2logCFU/g, and reduced N max by approximately 1.5logCFU/g compared to untreated control (CTRL). (illinois.edu)
  • populations decreased up to 1.6 log CFU/ mango on 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Ataulfo' at 12°C. Populations of L. monocytogenes on whole and fresh-cut mangoes declined regardless of temperature and storage period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Such trends highlight the significance of prevention and control measures for Listeria on fresh produce. (newfoodmagazine.com)
  • A pilot‐scale trial was then carried out on a subset of biocides against L. monocytogenes on concrete floors in a mushroom growing room and it was found that biocide efficacy in lab‐scale did not translate well in pilot‐scale. (ucc.ie)
  • Although healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, Listeria infection can cause miscarriages and stillbirths among pregnant women. (fda.gov)
  • The frequency of L monocytogenes infection is 2.9 cases per million population, with higher incidences in elderly individuals and pregnant women. (medscape.com)
  • [ 13 ] Many pregnant women can carry Listeria asymptomatically in their GI tract or vagina. (medscape.com)