A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (1/3136)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (2/3136)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

Noncompetitive expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for different antigens during bacterial infection. (3/3136)

Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterium that elicits complex cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in infected mice. The responses of CTL populations that differ in antigen specificity range in magnitude from large, dominant responses to small, subdominant responses. To test the hypothesis that dominant T-cell responses inhibit subdominant responses, we eliminated the two dominant epitopes of L. monocytogenes by anchor residue mutagenesis and measured the T-cell responses to the remaining subdominant epitopes. Surprisingly, the loss of dominant T-cell responses did not enhance subdominant responses. While mice immunized with bacteria lacking dominant epitopes developed L. monocytogenes-specific immunity, their ability to respond to dominant epitopes upon rechallenge with wild-type bacteria was markedly diminished. Recall responses in mice immunized with wild-type or epitope-deficient L. monocytogenes showed that antigen presentation during recall infection is sufficient for activating memory cells yet insufficient for optimal priming of naive T lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that T-cell priming to different epitopes during L. monocytogenes infection is not competitive. Rather, T-cell populations specific for different antigens but the same pathogen expand independently.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (4/3136)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

Infrarenal endoluminal bifurcated stent graft infected with Listeria monocytogenes. (5/3136)

Prosthetic graft infection as a result of Listeria monocytogenes is an extremely rare event that recently occurred in a 77-year-old man who underwent endoluminal stent grafting for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The infected aortic endoluminal prosthesis was removed by means of en bloc resection of the aneurysm and contained endograft with in situ aortoiliac reconstruction. At the 10-month follow-up examination, the patient was well and had no signs of infection.  (+info)

Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. (6/3136)

The performances of five automated microbial identification systems, relative to that of a reference identification system, for their ability to accurately and repeatedly identify six common food-borne pathogens were assessed. The systems assessed were the MicroLog system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, Calif.), the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI Inc., Newark, Del.), the VITEK system (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the MicroScan WalkAway 40 system (Dade-MicroScan International, West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Replianalyzer system (Oxoid Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada). The sensitivities and specificities of these systems for the identification of food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were determined with 40 reference positive isolates and 40 reference negative isolates for each pathogen. The sensitivities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 42.5 to 100%, and the specificities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 32.5 to 100%. Some of the systems had difficulty correctly identifying the reference isolates when the results were compared to those from the reference identification tests. The sensitivity of MIS for the identification of S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and C. jejuni, for example, ranged from 47.5 to 72. 5%. The sensitivity of the Microlog system for the identification of E. coli was 72.5%, and the sensitivity of the VITEK system for the identification of B. cereus was 42.5%. The specificities of four of the five systems for the identification of all of the species tested with the available databases were greater than or equal to 97.5%; the exception was MIS for the identification of C. jejuni, which displayed a specificity of 32.5% when it was tested with reference negative isolates including Campylobacter coli and other Campylobacter species. All systems had >80% sensitivities for the identification of Salmonella species and Listeria species at the genus level. The repeatability of these systems for the identification of test isolates ranged from 30 to 100%. Not all systems included all six pathogens in their databases; thus, some species could not be tested with all systems. The choice of automated microbial identification system for the identification of a food-borne pathogen would depend on the availability of identification libraries within the systems and the performance of the systems for the identification of the pathogen.  (+info)

The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes. (7/3136)

The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling modulates bacterial entry into J774 macrophage-like cells. (8/3136)

Listeria monocytogenes secretes several proteins that have been shown to contribute to virulence. Among these is listeriolysin O (LLO), a pore-forming hemolysin that is absolutely required for virulence. Two other virulence factors are phospholipases: a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC [plcA]) and a broad-range PLC (plcB). Although mutations in plcA or plcB resulted in small increases in mouse 50% lethal dose (LD50), deletions in both genes resulted in a 500-fold increase in LD50. We have examined the role of these secreted proteins in host intracellular signaling in the J774 macrophage-like cell line. Measurements of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) have revealed a rapid spike upon exposure of these cells to wild-type L. monocytogenes. This is followed by a second peak at 5 min and a third prolonged peak with a maximal [Ca2+]i of 800 to 1,000 nM. The pattern of calcium changes was greatly altered by deletion of any of the three virulence factors. An LLO mutant produced none of these elevations in [Ca2+]i; however, a transient elevation was observed whenever these bacteria entered the cell. A PI-PLC mutant produced a diminished single elevation in [Ca2+]i at 15 to 30 min. A broad-range PLC mutant produced only the first calcium spike. Studies with inhibitors suggested that the first elevation arises from influx of calcium from the extracellular medium through plasma membrane channels and that the second and third elevations come from release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. We observed that internalization of wild-type bacteria and the broad-range PLC mutant was delayed for 5 to 10 min, but the LLO and PI-PLC mutants were internalized rapidly upon infection. Inhibitors that affected calcium signaling changed the kinetics of association of wild-type bacteria with J774 cells, the kinetics of entry, and the efficiency of escape from the primary phagosome.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes, a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen, was recognized over 70 years ago. It is the source of the human disease listeriosis. The majority of Listeria monocytogenes that have been isolated from food product or human cases are of the serotypes ½ a, ½ b and 4b. Due to the recent outbreaks, recalls and deaths associated with Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) on October 2, 2003 issued a directive for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat products. The ready-to-eat food industry must impose a post-lethality treatment and/or growth inhibitor for Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat products. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of different antimicrobial treatments for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of food products. The utilization of natural ingredients such as cranberries as well as chemicals such as acidified sodium
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is shown to exploit efferocytosis-the process by which dead or dying cells are removed by phagocytosis-to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection. This study of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a significant cause of foodborne illness, shows that it exploits the hosts efferocytosis system to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection. Efferocytosis is the process by which dead or dying cells are removed by phagocytosis and it relies in part on the receptors that bind to exofacial phosphatidylserine on the surface of cells or cellular debris following the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry. Listerial actin-based motility leads to the formation of protrusions at the cell surface of infected cells, eventually leading to uptake of bacteria by adjacent cells. These findings identify phosphatidylserine as a possible drug target in infections by L. monocytogenes and other bacteria using similar strategies of cell-to
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria Spp Food Microbiology Fapas Proficiency Tests Biofront Technologies. LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES/LISTERIA SPP. IN MILK POWDER Distribution Date: 07/03/2017 LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES/LISTERIA SPP. IN CHICKEN Distribution Date: 11/27/2017 LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES/LISTERIA SPP. IN BEEF Distribution Date: 01/29/2018 LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES/LISTERIA SPP. IN SPONGE SWAB Distribution Date: 02/08/2018
The goal of Health Canadas Policy on Listeria monocytogenes, in Ready-to-Eat Foods (the Policy) is to protect the health of Canadian consumers, to provide guidance to industry and regulatory authorities regarding the verification and control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat foods.
Listeria monocytogenes can adhere to different types of food contact surfaces within a food processing environment. Therefore, environmental sampling devices should be capable of detecting unacceptable contamination. In this study, a sponge-stick, foam spatula and an environmental swab were evaluated on their ability to detect low concentrations of L. monocytogenes on different types of food contact surfaces. A cocktail of four L. monocytogenes serotypes was inoculated with a concentration of 100 CFU/250 cm2 onto stainless steel (SS), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and rubber surfaces in a 250 cm2 area. Immediately after inoculation and after 1 h exposure, the surfaces were swabbed with the different swabbing devices. The results of the study show only minor differences in the ability of the swabbing devices to detect L. monocytogenes. All devices were capable to detect the contamination immediately after inoculation. However, when the surfaces were allowed to air-dry for 1 h, L. monocytogenes was
Human E-cadherin promotes entry of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into mammalian cells by interacting with internalin (InlA), a bacterial surface protein. Here we show that mouse E-cadherin, although very similar to human E-cadherin (85% identity), is not a receptor for internalin. By a series of domain-swapping and mutagenesis experiments, we identify Pro16 of E-cadherin as a residue critical for specificity: a Pro--|Glu substitution in human E-cadherin totally abrogates interaction, whereas a Glu--|Pro substitution in mouse E-cadherin results in a complete gain of function. A correlation between cell permissivity and the nature of residue 16 in E-cadherins from several species is established. The location of this key specificity residue in a region of E-cadherin not involved in cell-cell adhesion and the stringency of the interaction demonstrated here have important consequences not only for the understanding of internalin function but also for the choice of the animal model to be used
Although infection with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can result in severe illnesses such as sepsis and meningitis in immunocompromised people, a much more common outcome is control and clearance of the organism without serious malady. L. monocytogenes is able to infect common laboratory animals such as the mouse, immunologists have been able to dissect this host-pathogen interplay and elucidate the immune functions required to contain and eliminate L. monocytogenes infection. Importantly, the mouse model of L. monocytogenes infection has yielded discoveries that are not only specific to this host-pathogen interaction but also help define fundamental concepts of innate and adaptive immunity. The natural route of L. monocytogenes infection in humans is via the gut after consumption of contaminated food products. However, infection of mice in this manner requires an extremely large inoculum and often results in asynchronous systemic infections, which complicate experimental design.
Listeria monocytogenes can cause a life-threatening illness when the foodborne pathogen spreads beyond the intestinal tract to distant organs. Many aspects of the intestinal phase of L. monocytogenes pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we present a foodborne infection model using C57BL/6 mice that have been pretreated with streptomycin. In this model, as few as 100 L. monocytogenes CFU were required to cause self-limiting enterocolitis, and systemic dissemination followed previously reported routes. Using this model, we report that listeriolysin O (LLO) and actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA), two critical virulence determinants, were necessary for intestinal pathology and systemic spread but were dispensable for intestinal growth. Sequence tag-based analysis of microbial populations (STAMP) was used to investigate the within-host population dynamics of wild-type and LLO-deficient strains. The wild-type bacterial population experienced severe bottlenecks over the course of infection, and by 5 ...
In this study, we studied the effects of some plant hydrosols obtained from bay leaf, black cumin, rosemary, sage, and thyme in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of fresh-cut apple cubes. Adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN), and multiple linear regression (MLR) models were used for describing the behavior of L. monocytogenes against the hydrosol treatments. Approximately 1-1.5 log CFU/g decreases in L. monocytogenes counts were observed after individual hydrosol treatments for 20 min. By extending the treatment time to 60 min, thyme, sage, or rosemary hydrosols eliminated L. monocytogenes, whereas black cumin and bay leaf hydrosols did not lead to additional reductions. In addition to antibacterial measurements, the abilities of ANFIS, ANN, and MLR models were compared with respect to estimation of the survival of L. monocytogenes. The root mean square error, mean absolute error, and determination coefficient statistics were used as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Listeria monocytogenes isolates carrying virulence-attenuating mutations in internalin A are commonly isolated from ready-to-eat food processing plant and retail environments. AU - Van Stelten, A.. AU - Roberts, A. R.. AU - Manuel, C. S.. AU - Nightingale, K. K.. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that may cause an invasive disease known as listeriosis in susceptible individuals. Internalin A (InlA; encoded by inlA) is a virulence factor that facilitates crossing of host cell barriers by L. monocytogenes. At least 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inlA that result in a premature stop codon (PMSC) have been described worldwide. SNPs leading to a PMSC in inlA have been shown to be causally associated with attenuated virulence. L. monocytogenes pathogens carrying virulence-attenuating (VA) mutations in inlA have been commonly isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods but rarely have been associated with human disease. This ...
Human listeriosis is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In humans, this pathogen has the ability to cross the intestinal, placental and blood-brain barriers, leading to gastroenteritis, maternofetal infections and meningoencephalitis, respectively. The entry of L. monocytogenes into cultured human epithelial cells is mediated by the interaction of an L. monocytogenes surface protein, internalin, with its human receptor, E-cadherin. The internalin-E-cadherin interaction is species-specific, and relies on the nature of a single amino-acid in the E-cadherin molecule, which is proline in permissive species such as humans, and glutamic acid in non-permissive species such as the mouse. In a transgenic mouse model that expresses human E-cadherin in enterocytes, internalin allows L. monocytogenes to cross the intestinal barrier. Epidemiological evidence also supports a role for internalin in human listeriosis, not only for crossing the intestinal barrier, but also for targeting and
Crude rRNA was isolated from Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. ivanovii and sequenced by a reverse transcriptase method. Only two sequence regions were found to differ for L. monocytogenes versus L. innocua or L. ivanovii. Two oligonucleotide probes (RL-1 and RL-2) complementary to these two regions of rRNA of L. monocytogenes were synthesized. The RL-1 probe had one base while the RL-2 probe had two bases which differed for L. monocytogenes versus L. innocua and L. ivanovii. Use of a dried gel hybridization in place of Northern (RNA) hybridization or dot blot hybridization indicated that the RL-2 probe hybridized with all 36 strains of L. monocytogenes tested but not with 6 other Listeria species and 11 other bacteria tested. The RL-2 probe is specific for L. monocytogenes, while the RL-1 probe showed some cross-reactions with other Listeria species. An alkaline phosphatase-labeled RL-2 probe could be used in a dot blot hybridization test and gave good results, but a 32P-labeled RL-2 ...
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause illness when consumers eat refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods contaminated with this micro-organism. Eating foods contaminated with L. monocytogenes normally causes flu-like symptoms in healthy adults. This disease is more serious for elderly adults and adults with compromised immune systems and can cause menin-gitis. In pregnant women, the disease may cause spontaneous abortions or stillborn babies.. From July 1998 to January 1999, four U.S. companies recalled ready-to-eat meats after L. monocytogenes was found in their products. Two major recalls involved 30 million pounds each. According to the Centers for Disease Control, tainted meat traced to a Michigan plant was responsible for 16 deaths, six miscarriages and 100 illnesses. As a result of this outbreak, the U.S. Department of Agricultures Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) addressed the problem of L. monocytogenes contamination in a directive published in the Federal Register in ...
The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as an important human food-borne pathogen, causing manifestations ranging from mild febrile gastroenteritis to severe invasive infections. High mortality rates are associated with systemic infections, which occur predominantly among pregnant women, the immunocompromised, and the elderly (19, 24). In animals, L. monocytogenes infections can result in a variety of manifestations, including abortion, encephalitis, septicemia, and, less commonly, keratoconjunctivitis and mastitis (43).. A variety of L. monocytogenes surface proteins, including several members of the internalin family (11), are important for facilitating interactions between this pathogen and mammalian host cells. For example, internalin A (InlA) promotes invasion of human nonphagocytic cells that express the host cell receptor E-cadherin, such as the Caco-2 epithelial cell line (45). InlB mediates entry into several host cell types, including hepatocytes and several ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of an unusual strain of Listeria monocytogenes infection in North-East Scotland. AU - Okpo, Emmanuel. AU - Leith, Jayne. AU - Smith-Palmer, Alison. AU - Bell, John. AU - Parks, Duncan. AU - Browning, Fiona. AU - Byers, Lynn. AU - Corrigan, Helen. AU - Webster, Diana. AU - Karcher, Anne M. AU - Murray, Andrew. AU - Storey, Tom. N1 - Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Kerry Parrott and Pauline Fuchs from the Aberdeen Scientific Services Laboratory (ASSL) for the analysis and testing of food and environmental samples. We also thank Corinne Amar, Craig Swift and Adedoyin Awofisayo from PHE Foodborne Pathogens Reference Services, London, for providing expert advice and molecular typing results in a timely manner. Funding No funding sources.. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. N2 - Listeria monocytogenes infection is an important cause of illness and hospitalization in vulnerable individuals. In the present study, we describe a community outbreak of Listeria ...
Listeriolysin O (LLO, hly-encoded) is a major virulence factor secreted by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The amino acid sequence of LLO shows a high degree of similarity with that of ivanolysin O (ILO), the cytolysin secreted by the ruminant pathogen Listeria ivanovii. Here, it was tested whether ILO could functionally replace LLO by expressing the gene encoding ILO under the control of the hly promoter, in an hly-deleted strain of L. monocytogenes. It is shown that ILO allows efficient phagosomal escape of L. monocytogenes in both macrophages and hepatocytes. Moreover, expression of ILO is not cytotoxic and promotes normal intracellular multiplication. In vivo, the ILO-expressing strain can multiply and persist for several days in the liver of infected mice but is unable to survive in the spleen. This work underscores the key role played by the cytolysin in the virulence of pathogenic Listeria.
This book provides readers with the latest developments in Listeria Monocytogenes research. Topics covered include its growth in biofilms in the food industry; molecular mechanisms involved in the food-related subsistence of Listeria Monocytogenes; an epidemiological update and the control possibilities for outbreaks of L. Monocytogenes; how to control L. Monocytogenes biofilms on food contact surfaces; methods for killing activities of macrophages against L. Monocytogenes infection; and a review of some of the most exciting developments in the analysis of the interaction between L. Monocytogenes and the host GI tract ...
Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4a 30S ribosomal protein S19 (rpsS) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
1. Maertens de Noordhout C, Devleesschauwer B, Angulo FJ, Verbeke G, Haagsma J, Kirk M, et al. The global burden of listeriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(11):1073-82. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70870-9 25241232. 2. Charlier C, Perrodeau É, Leclercq A, Cazenave B, Pilmis B, Henry B, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors of listeriosis: the MONALISA national prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(5):510-9. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30521-7 28139432. 3. Orsi RH, Bakker HC de., Wiedmann M. Listeria monocytogenes lineages: Genomics, evolution, ecology, and phenotypic characteristics. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301(2):79-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2010.05.002 20708964. 4. Kamisango K, Saiki I, Tanio Y, Okumura H, Araki Y, Sekikawa I, et al. Structures and biological activities of peptidoglycans of Listeria monocytogenes and Propionibacterium acnes. J Biochem. 1982;92(1):23-33. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a133918 6811573. 5. Brown S, ...
The Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes uses a wide range of virulence factors for its pathogenesis. The majority of its virulence genes are encoded on a 9-kb pathogenicity island and are controlled by the transcriptional activator PrfA. Expression of these genes is maximal at 37°C and minimal at 30°C in a mechanism involving an RNA thermosensor. This thesis brings up different aspects of RNA-mediated regulation, including regulatory RNA structures within coding mRNA controlling expression to 5-untranslated RNA (5´-UTR) that controls downstream genes (cis-acting) as well as small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that bind other target RNA (trans-acting).. We investigated the importance of the coding region of the prfA-mRNA for its expression. Various lengths of prfA-mRNA were fused with reporter genes. Our finding suggested that the first 20 codons of prfA-mRNA were essential for efficient translation in Listeria monocytogenes. Translation of the shorter constructs was shown to be ...
The rates of the US hospitalization and mortality caused by Listeria monocytogenes was estimated to be the highest of 31 food-borne pathogens including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Clostridium. This pathogen has an ability to survive under extreme conditions widely found in the natural environment and food. Among 13 serovars L. monocytogenes serovar 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b are mainly associated with human listeriosis outbreaks. The deadliest outbreaks of human listeriosis and massive product recalls in multi-states were associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products such as mexican-style cheese, turkey deli meat, cabbage, and cantaloupes contaminated with the bacterium. Thus, contamination of food products with L. monocytogenes is a major concern for the food industry, regulatory agents and consumers. This study used oligonucleotide probe-based DNA array, quantitative real time RT-PCR, gene manipulation, biochemical assays, and electron microscopy techniques to better understand the
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 23737746. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(5):e1003381. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an invasive foodborne pathogen that leads to severe central nervous system and maternal-fetal infections. Lm ability to actively cross the intestinal barrier is one of its key pathogenic properties. Lm crosses the intestinal epithelium upon the interaction of its surface protein internalin (InlA) with its host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). InlA-Ecad interaction is species-specific, does not occur in wild-type mice, but does in transgenic mice expressing human Ecad and knock-in mice expressing humanized mouse Ecad. To study listeriosis in wild-type mice, InlA has been murinized to interact with mouse Ecad. Here, we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, murinized InlA (InlA(m)) mediates not only Ecad-dependent internalization, but also N-cadherin-dependent internalization. Consequently, InlA(m)-expressing Lm targets not only goblet cells expressing luminally-accessible Ecad, as does Lm in humanized mice, ...
With an outbreak of sickness linked to bacteria-tainted cantaloupe now reported in more than a dozen states, heres a quick backgrounder on listeria monocytogenes. What is it? Listeria monocytogenes is a
With an outbreak of sickness linked to bacteria-tainted cantaloupe now reported in more than a dozen states, heres a quick backgrounder on listeria monocytogenes. What is it? Listeria monocytogenes is a
Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The secreted cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, listeriolysin O (LLO), mediates phagosomal escape and allows bacterial growth in the cytosol of infected cells. In order to identify new LLO determinants participating in bacterial pathogenesis, this study focused on a major target of LLO proteolytic cleavage in vitro, the CTL epitope region (residues 91-99). Mutations were generated by site-directed mutagenesis in the epitope or in the two clusters of positive charges flanking the epitope. Two LLO mutants (a single mutation K103A and a double mutation R89G, K90G) were normally and stably secreted by L. monocytogenes. In contrast, a mutant carrying four amino acid substitutions in the epitope itself (Y92K, D94A, E97K, Y98F) was highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation. While these three LLO mutant proteins showed a reduced haemolytic activity, they all promoted
Listeria Monocytogenes: Its discovery and naming. Eben van Tonder 16 December 2017 Cape Town Introduction The discovery and naming of the Listeria monocytogenes are instructive with a very interesting South African connection and a controversy associated with it in that there is disagreement in terms of who is being honoured in the name. Monocytogenes The…
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause febrile gastroenteritis in healthy subjects and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the high prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the environment and frequent contamination of uncooked meat and poultry products, infections with this pathogen are relatively uncommon, suggesting that protective defenses in the general population are effective. In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, a variety of defense mechanisms prevent L. monocytogenes growth, epithelial penetration and systemic dissemination. Among these defenses, colonization resistance mediated by the gut microbiota is crucial in protection against a range of intestinal pathogens, including L. monocytogenes. Here we review defined mechanisms of defense against L. monocytogenes in the lumen of the gastro-intestinal tract, with particular emphasis on protection conferred by the autochthonous microbiota. We suggest that selected probiotic species derived from the
Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, an infection that gives rise to bacteremia and meningitis that can be propagated to humans via food contamination. The chicken-meat and derivatives processing industries are common sites of this pathogen, and the great challenge is in controlling this hazard to avoid economic and public health losses. A literature review on L. monocytogenes and implications to the chicken supply chain, poultry slaughterhouses, and public health was conducted. The review was compiled with the main papers published around the world in the last 15 years containing the key words Listeria monocytogenes, poultry, meat, chicken, broilers, and listeriosis, using the main publishers of online journals. The collected information was discussed and it was concluded that poultry can be asymptomatic carriers of L. monocytogenes and introduce contamination in slaughterhouses, which can become a persistent problem in poultry slaughterhouses due to its capacity to form
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC ® BAA-679D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Listeria monocytogenes Strain EGDe TypeStrain=False Application: Enteric Research
In contrast to obligate intracellular pathogens that can remain in relatively stable host-associated environments, the soil-living bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has to sense and respond to physical and chemical cues in a variety of quite different niches. In particular, the bacterium has to survive the dramatic transition from its saprophytic existence to life within the host where nutritional stress, increased temperature, acidity, osmotic stress and the host defences present a new and challenging landscape. This review focuses on the sB and PrfA regulatory systems used by L. monocytogenes to sense the changing environment and implement survival mechanisms that help to overcome the disparate conditions within the host, but also to switch from a harmless saprophyte to an impressively effective pathogen.. ...
Of at least 400 Listeria phages, only a few have been characterized as having wide host range among listeriae and no phages have been isolated from the environment of food processing plants, where contamination of highly processed, ready to eat foods is likely to occur. To understand the ecology of listeriaphage and Listeria monocytogenes in processing plant environments, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey-processing plants in the United States. Nine of twelve isolated phages showed wide host range and the majority of L. monocytogenes of the serotype 4b complex (serotypes 4b, 4d, 4e) could be readily infected by these wide host range phages, but many isolates of other serotypes (1/2a or 3a, and 1/2b or 3b), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection. L. monocytogenes epidemic clone II (ECII) has been responsible for two multistate outbreaks in the United ...
Oxaran, V.; Dittmann, K.Kiesbye.; Lee, S.H.I.; Chaul, Líza.Toubas.; Fernandes de Oliveira, C.Augusto.; Corassin, C.Humberto.; Alves, Vínia.Farias.; De Martinis, E.Cristina.Pereira.; Gram, L., 2018: Behavior of Foodborne Pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed-Species Biofilms Exposed to Biocides
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC ® 19115D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Listeria monocytogenes strain Li 2 TypeStrain=False Application:
Today, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it found Listeria monocytogenes in samples of Jensen Farms? Rocky Ford-brand cantaloupe taken from a Denver-area store and on samples taken from equipment and cantaloupe at the Jensen Farms? packing facility. Tests confirmed that the...
Examination of food chain-derived Listeria monocytogenes strains of different serotypes reveals considerable diversity in inlA genotypes, mutability, and adaptation to cold temperatures.
Cold shock proteins (Csps) are multifunctional nucleic acid binding proteins used to regulate a wide range of gene expression responses in bacteria. We report here that Csps regulate the production of the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin (LLO) and hemolysis phenotypes in Listeria monocytogenes. A triple csp gene deletion mutant incapable of producing any Csps, as well as double csp gene deletion mutants only producing either CspA or CspD, caused less hemolysis and produced lower LLO concentration. On the other hand, another double csp gene deletion mutant that produces CspB retained hemolysis and LLO production levels that are similar to the parental wild-type strain. Transcription analysis showed that in absence of all three csp genes or cspB alone, L. monocytogenes cells have decreased levels of hly gene transcripts, which code for the synthesis of LLO proteins. A comparative examination of mRNA stability showed that hly transcripts were more rapidly degraded in L. monocytogenes triple csp ...
The gene encoding the general stress transcription factor ςB in the gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes was isolated with degenerate PCR primers followed by inverse PCR amplification. Evidence for gene identification includes the following: (i) phylogenetic analyses of reported amino acid sequences for ςB and the closely related ςFproteins grouped L. monocytogenes ςB in the same cluster with the ςB proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, (ii) the gene order in the 2,668-bp portion of the L. monocytogenes sigBoperon is rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sigB-rsbX and is therefore identical to the order of the last five genes of the B. subtilis sigB operon, and (iii) an L. monocytogenesςB mutant had reduced resistance to acid stress in comparison with its isogenic parent strain. The sigB mutant was further characterized in mouse models of listeriosis by determining recovery rates of the wild-type and mutant strains from livers and spleens following intragastric or intraperitoneal ...
It is the investigators intention to investigate whether a specially designed vaccine, based on a genetically modified strain of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and called ADXS11-001 is safe to use and is able to boost the immune system of patients presenting with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC). It is hoped that the vaccine will boost the immune system so that immune cells with cell killing properties are able to attack any cancer cells remaining after the patients have been treated. However, the vaccine is so novel the investigators are not sure whether it is able to do this and before they can answer that question in a larger group of patients they need to make sure that the vaccine is safe to use and has some effect on the immune system in the patients for whom they intend its ultimate use. In a previous study, patients with incurable cervix cancer which is caused by the same virus, were vaccinated with ADXS11-001. Although all patients vaccinated ...
Listeria Monocytogenes: Factory Cleaning, Thermal Inactivation and Acid Tolerance Response By Eben van Tonder 6 January 2018 (Update: 2/2018) Summary In light of the unprecedented listeria outbreak in South Africa, we examine processes and procedures at the cutting plant, factory cleaning, thermal inactivation and acid tolerance response of Listeria monocytogenes. We question everything we do…
BackgroundMilk is an essential human nutrient, and the monitoring of its sanitation is vital during transportation and storage. The present study aimed to assess bacteriological contamination with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes in the raw milk samples of the dairy farms in Golestan province, Iran. MethodsIn total, 100 samples were collected from dairy farms in hot and cold seasons. The frequency of E. coli and L. monocytogenes was determined using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ResultsThe biochemical tests indicated that 28% and 27% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on the culture-dependent methods, respectively. In addition, 35 and 40 samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on PCR, respectively. PCR had higher sensitivity compared to the biochemical tests (P ˂ 0.05). E. coli and L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly higher in traditional dairy farms than industrial dairy farms (P ˂ 0.05).
This study shows that neutrophils are critical for combating experimental systemic infections of mice by the bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It shows that mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with the granulocyte-depleting monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 are far more susceptible than immunocompetent mice to infection with each of these three pathogens. Compared to immunocompetent mice, neutropenic mice exhibit several defects in their antibacterial capabilities. Firstly, the immediate inactivation of Listeria, Salmonella, or Yersinia that initially implants in the livers and spleens that occurs in immunocompetent mice is abolished in these organs in neutropenic mice. Secondly, unlike immunocompetent mice, neutropenic mice neither control the subsequent proliferation of the inoculated bacteria in the livers and spleens nor prevent dissemination of infection to other organs. Thirdly, mice rendered neutropenic develop a generalized ...
1. Murray, E.G.D., R.A. Webb, and M.B.R. Swann. 1926. A disease of rabbits characterized by large mononuclear leucocytosis caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus Bacterium monocytogenes. J. Path. Bact.; 29:407-0439.. 2. Monk, J.D., R.S. Clavero, L.R. Beuchat, M.P. Doyle and R.E. Brackett. 1994. Irradiation inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in low- and high-fat, frozen and refrigerated ground beef. J. Food Prot.; 57:969-974.. 3. Wehr, H.M. 1987. Listeria monocytogenes - a current dilemma special report. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem.; 70:769-772.. 4. Bremer, P.J., and C.M. Osborne. 1995. Thermal-death times of Listeria monocytogenes in green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus) prepared for hot smoking. J. Food Prot.; 58:604-608.. 5. Grau, F.H., and P.B. Vanderlinde. 1992. Occurrence, numbers, and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on some vacuum-packaged processed meats. J. Food Prot.; 55:4-7.. 6. Patel, J.R., C.A. Hwang, L.R. Beuchat, M.P. Doyle, and R.E. Brackett. ...
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. Immunoassay method in samples of fresh cow cheese, and from the obtained positive samples with Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of cells and biochemical prove the presence of species Listeria monocytogenes. Also is need to compare the results obtained by Immunoassay method and by Horizontal method. It research involve a total of 30 randomly selected samples of fresh cow cheese that are available in Zagreb on markets. The results obtained are compared with the criteria set forth in the applicable legislation of the Republic of Croatian. In one of the 30 samples is showed presence of Listeria monocytogenes, and in three samples was determined by the presence of Listeria innocua ...
Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O, alters lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells but not in macrophages. Listeriolysin O induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of lysosomal content, such as cathepsins proteases, which remain transiently active in the host cytosol. We furthermore show that other bacterial pore-forming toxins, such as perfringolysin O and pneumolysin, also induce lysosomes alteration. Together, our data unveil a novel activity of bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.
Five grams of seafood products were inoculated with one to 500 viable or 10(9) heat-killed cells of Listeria monocytogenes. The presence of the pathogen was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for fragments of the listeriolysin O (hly) gene (two sets) and for the invasion-associated protein (iap) gene (one set). For DNA preparation, boiling, either alone or in combination with lysozyme and proteinase K treatment, was not always sufficient to lyse L. monocytogenes, while treatment with Triton X-100 produced consistently good DNA suitable for amplification. To avoid false-negative and false-positive results, 48 h incubations were necessary and a subculturing step after an initial 24 h incubation greatly improved the results. The primers that amplified regions of the listeriolysin O gene gave clearer and stronger products than primers for the invasion-associated protein gene. Using this method we were able to detect one to five L. monocytogenes cells in 5 g of ...
Five grams of seafood products were inoculated with one to 500 viable or 10(9) heat-killed cells of Listeria monocytogenes. The presence of the pathogen was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for fragments of the listeriolysin O (hly) gene (two sets) and for the invasion-associated protein (iap) gene (one set). For DNA preparation, boiling, either alone or in combination with lysozyme and proteinase K treatment, was not always sufficient to lyse L. monocytogenes, while treatment with Triton X-100 produced consistently good DNA suitable for amplification. To avoid false-negative and false-positive results, 48 h incubations were necessary and a subculturing step after an initial 24 h incubation greatly improved the results. The primers that amplified regions of the listeriolysin O gene gave clearer and stronger products than primers for the invasion-associated protein gene. Using this method we were able to detect one to five L. monocytogenes cells in 5 g of ...
In the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) method for Listeria detection, a 25-g composite food sample is enriched in 225 ml of University of Vermont medium (UVM), giving a detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g. However, in a recent large-scale four-state deli meat survey for L. monocytogenes, 125-g samples enriched in 1,125 ml of UVM were requested to increase the detection limit to 0.008 CFU/g. To circumvent problems associated with large volumes of UVM, the impact on L. monocytogenes growth of lower dilution ratios used for enrichment and most-probable-number (MPN) detection was compared with the results obtained using the conventional 1:10 dilution. In this study, 125-g samples of cured turkey, uncured turkey, ham, and roast beef were inoculated with a six-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail to contain approximately 1 x 10(3) CFU/g. This cocktail was then diluted 1:3, 1:5, or 1:10 in UVM, homogenized, enriched at 30 degrees C, and periodically plated on modified Oxford agar to determine generation times
Frankfurters inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes were treated with 1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or with 1% CPC followed by a water rinse at various combinations of spray temperatures (25, 40, and 558C), spray pressures (20, 25, and 35 psi), and times of exposure (30, 40, and 60 s). No significant differences (P , 0.05) were observed in the reductions achieved by 1% CPC + water wash and those achieved with 1% CPC treatment alone. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced by ca. 1.7 log CFU/g immediately following treatment, with no differences (P , 0.05) observed for different spray temperatures, pressures, or exposure times. The effectiveness of 1% CPC spray treatment (at 258C, 20 psi, and 30 s of exposure) against L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters stored at 0 and 48C for 42 days was then evaluated. Application of a 1% CPC surface spray to frankfurters immediately prior to packaging reduced L. monocytogenes concentrations by 1.4 to 1.7 log CFU/g and further restricted ...
RASFF - Listeria monocytogenes (980 CFU/g) in smoked salmon from Poland in France RASFF - Listeria monocytogenes (presence /25g) in tahini from Turkey, via Germany in the Netherlands RASFF - Listeria monocytogenes (1.7x10E5 CFU/g) in thawed sliced smoked salmon from Lithuania, packaged in Italy in Hungary RASFF - Listeria monocytogenes (180 CFU/g) in raw milk cheese from Spain in France…
Listeria monocytogenes is the major pathogen in ready-to-eat meat products such as deli meats and frankfurters. Contamination can occur via the salt brines that are used to cool thermally processed meats. Both L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria can grow and thrive under these brine conditions, and may become competitive with each other for available nutrients. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a three strain cocktail of lactic acid bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, Carnobacterium gallinarum, and Lactobacillus plantarum on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua in brines stored under low temperatures up to 10 days. Three brine concentrations (0%, 7.9%, and 13.2% NaCl) were inoculated with ~7.0 log10 cfu/ml of one of five cocktails (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), L. monocytogenes + LAB, or L. innocua + LAB) and stored for 10 days at either 4°C or 12°C. Three replications of each brine/cocktail/temperature combination ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Collapse of the proton motive force in Listeria monocytogenes caused by a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici. AU - Christensen, D. P.. AU - Hutkins, R. W.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The effect of pediocin JD, a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici JD1-23, on the proton motive force and proton permeability of resting whole cells of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A was determined. Control cells, treated with trypsin-inactivated bacteriocin at a pH of 5.3 to 6.1, maintained a pH gradient and a membrane potential of approximately 0.65 pH unit and 75 mV, respectively. However, these gradients were rapidly dissipated in cells after exposure to pediocin JD, even though no cell lysis had occurred. The pH gradient and membrane potential of the producer cells were also unaffected by the bacteriocin. Whole cells treated with bacteriocin were twice as permeable to protons as control cells were. The results suggest that the inhibitory action of pediocin JD ...
BUSANI L, CIGLIANO A, TAIOLI E, CALIGIURI V, CHIAVACCI L, DI BELLA C, BATTISTI A, DURANTI A, GIANFRANCESCHI M, NARDELLA MC, RICCI A, ROLESU S, TAMBA M, MARABELLI R, CAPRIOLI A (2005) . Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes contamination in foods of animal origin in Italy. Journal of Food Protection 68 8 1729 - ...
Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug
Listeria monocytogenes is a rare pathogen that principally affects neonates, pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. It most commonly causes gastroenteritis in healthy adults and central nervous system infection in immunosuppressed patients. Cardiovascular infection due to Listeria monocytogenes is rare and tends to cause endocarditis.1 This article presents the case of a mycotic aortic aneurysm due to Listeria monocytogenes.. A 76-year-old man with a history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease attended the emergency department following 2 months of general discomfort, hyporexia, low back pain and 7kg weight loss in the previous 2 weeks. The patient was afebrile and the physical examination revealed no significant findings. The vascular examination found distal pulses in both lower limbs. Bloods were normal, except for blood glucose at 460mg/dl. The chest and abdominal X-rays were normal. After normalising the patients blood glucose levels, ...
Correspondence. E-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT. Between November 1996 and December 2006, two cases of early-onset and one case of late-onset neonatal listeriosis were reported in San Luis, Argentina. This article describes clinical and laboratory findings as well as treatment and outcome for newborns treated for Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or septicaemia. In one of the newborns with early-onset listeriosis, meningitis led to important complications including hydrocephalus. The two other newborns showed complete recovery following adequate treatment. The L. monocytogenes isolates from two patients belonged to PCR group IVb (including serovar 4b strains) and to PCR group IIb (including serovar 1/2b strains) in the third patient. Listeriosis, especially the maternal-fetal presentation, is still rare in Argentina for unknown reasons. Our data can be used in the future as an epidemiological survey.. Key words: Listeria monocytogenes; Neonatal meningitis; Argentina. RESUMEN. Meningitis ...
The plasmid content of 30 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes and 18 isolates of Listeria innocua obtained from short-ripened cheeses was analysed. The isolates of L. monocytogenes serogroup 1 harboured a single plasmid, pLM33 (33.2 kbp), whereas the serogroup 4 isolates did not contain plasmids. One group of L. innocua strains harboured the plasmid pLI71 (71 kbp) and another one contained two plasmids: pLI59 (59.5 kbp) and pLI56 (56.5 kbp). These plasmid groups were in accordance with clusters previously defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the chromosomal DNA of Listeria isolates. Plasmids pLM33, pLI71 and pLI59 shared homology regions of at least 20 kbp. Plasmid pLI56 did not encode genes for any known character (such as carbohydrate fermentation, resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals or disinfectants, growth at low pH, NaCl tolerance or thermal inactivation by pasteurisation) and displayed different characteristics to the other three plasmids. It was also the only one ...
The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), an important virulence factor thats secreted by (infection. attacks all around the globe, and specifically the antibiotic-resistant strains which have been isolated from human beings and the surroundings, this bacterium can be a significant concern for open public health (2C4). can be an invasive bacterium, and it expresses many virulence elements that are extremely connected with cell invasion, intracellular bacterial success, and cell-to-cell growing. Pursuing their internalization into focus on cells, including both phagocytic cells and different non-phagocytic cells, bacterias either are wiped out or turn out escaping from the principal internalization vesicle in to the cytoplasm (5). Once inside the cytosol, the bacterias grow rapidly, plus they utilize the web host actin cytoskeleton by expressing a surface area protein known as ActA to create F-actin, which gives for bacterial motility buy 38226-84-5 and dissemination into neighboring cells. ...
Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are pathogens that have caught the attention of federal agencies and researchers due to their great economic impact when illnesses occur. To reduce the presence of these pathogens, different approaches have been used. However, since the global consumers demand for natural ingredients is steadily increasing, the investigation of the effectiveness of potential natural antimicrobials is necessary. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L extracts against Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes was investigated. Furthermore, H. sabdariffa L and ε-polylysine were evaluated to reduce populations of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of H. sabdariffa L extracts against Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 was 6,489 μg/mL and for L. monocytogenes, 5,309 μg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of H. sabdariffa L extracts against ...
Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting the need for more refined discriminatory typing methods to identify outbreaks within frequently occurring L.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sodium lactate on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157: H7, and Salmonella spp. in cooked ham during storage at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. Cooked ham was added with 0% - 3% lactate, inoculated with a multiple-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157: H7, or Salmonella spp. and stored at 4oC - 15oC for up to 35 day. The growth of the three pathogens was inhibited in ham containing 3% lactate, and no growth of E. coli O157: H7 and Salmonella spp. occurred at the lowest storage tem- peratures of 6 and 8oC, respectively. In ham containing no lactate, the average growth rates were 0.256 - 0.380 log CFU/day for L. monocytogenes at 4oC - 8oC, 0.242 - 0.315 log CFU/day for E. coli O157: H7 at 8oC - 15oC, and 0.249 - 0.328 log CFU/day for Salmonella spp. at 10oC - 15oC. The addition of 1% or 2% lactate significantly (P | 0.05) reduced the growth rates of the three pathogens, and the effect was more profound at
Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%)
Recombinant Listeriolysin O without PEST sequence and with haemolytic activity. The secreted pore-forming protein Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence determinant of the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that allows the pathogen to escape from the phagocytic vacuole and reach the host cytosol. LLO is a single polypeptide protein encoded by the hlyA gene and composed of 529 residues. PEST sequence is 19 amino acids peptide located at the protein NH 2-terminus, that targets the toxin for degradation. This motif is essential for bacterial virulence.. ...
The Little Milk Company in Ireland is recalling a batch of Organic Irish Cheddar Cheese for possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination, according to a notice posted on the Food Safety Authority of Ireland website. We are telling you about this because this dairy does sell some cheeses in New York City in the United States according to information on its website; we just dont know exactly where. In Ireland, the recalled cheeses include Organic Mild Cheddar sold in 135 gram packages; Milk Organic Wedge in 1 kg packages, and Grated Cheese in 2 kg packages. The batch number is B82. The best before dates on these cheeses are: 18/12/2017, 01/01/2018, 14/01/2018, 25/01/2018, 12/02/2018, 05/03/2018, 12/03/2018, 26/03/2018, 17/07/2018. The sizes, batch number, and best before dates on cheese … [Read more...] ...
Listeria monocytogenes: How much protection is enough?. By: Ryan Robinson, PhD. Recent studies involving Listeria monocytogenes found in lettuce is causing concern for food safety. In foods such as lettuce, which are not heated prior to eating, there is a concern as to how safe ready-to-eat foods can be, even with precautionary action. Is washing the lettuce enough? How much do we need to do to ensure we are doing what we can to prevent ourselves, and those we care about, from becoming sick? When is enough, well, enough?. Listeria monocytogenes, most frequently referred to as simply Listeria, is a pathogenic, rod-shaped bacterial organism. It is commonly associated with foodborne illnesses originating from consumption of tainted deli meat, hot dogs, and unpasteurized dairy, but may also be associated with contaminated produce.. While outbreaks of Listeria are less common than other foodborne illnesses (e.g. Salmonella or E. coli infections) they are incredibly dangerous. Several studies ...
Background: We sequenced four plasmids of the genus Listeria, including two novel plasmids from L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2c and 7 strains as well as one from the species L. grayi. A comparative analysis in conjunction with 10 published Listeria plasmids revealed a common evolutionary background. Principal Findings: All analysed plasmids share a common replicon-type related to theta-replicating plasmid pAMbeta1. Nonetheless plasmids could be broadly divided into two distinct groups based on replicon diversity and the genetic content of the respective plasmid groups. Listeria plasmids are characterized by the presence of a large number of diverse mobile genetic elements and a commonly occurring translesion DNA polymerase both of which have probably contributed to the evolution of these plasmids. We detected small non-coding RNAs on some plasmids that were homologous to those present on the chromosome of L. monocytogenes EGD-e. Multiple genes involved in heavy metal resistance (cadmium, copper, ...
Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally
Flagella and flagellum-mediated motility are integral to the virulence of several gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens (10). For L. monocytogenes, no link has been made between flagella and virulence, although the flagella are important for efficient invasion of tissue culture cells (2, 6). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which flagella influence the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade host cells and the role of flagella in colonizing mice early in infection. Our results clearly indicate that L. monocytogenes flagella do not function as adhesins to enhance bacterial attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells, but rather function as motility devices contributing more to invasion than a mere increase in probability of bacterium-host cell interaction. Moreover, we show that motile bacteria outcompete nonmotile bacteria for initial colonization of the intestinal tract and liver by L. monocytogenes.. Flagella can function as adhesins, independent of motility, to enhance ...
Catalyzes the reduction of the double bond of an array of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. It also reduces the nitro group of nitroester and nitroaromatic compounds. It could have a role in detoxification processes.
ID Y1020_LISMH Reviewed; 224 AA. AC B8DHJ9; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 03-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 11-DEC-2019, entry version 54. DE RecName: Full=UPF0758 protein LMHCC_1020; GN OrderedLocusNames=LMHCC_1020; OS Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4a (strain HCC23). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Listeriaceae; Listeria. OX NCBI_TaxID=552536; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=HCC23; RX PubMed=21602330; DOI=10.1128/jb.05236-11; RA Steele C.L., Donaldson J.R., Paul D., Banes M.M., Arick T., Bridges S.M., RA Lawrence M.L.; RT Genome sequence of lineage III Listeria monocytogenes strain HCC23.; RL J. Bacteriol. 193:3679-3680(2011). CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the UPF0758 family. {ECO:0000305}. DR EMBL; CP001175; ACK39368.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; WP_012581272.1; NC_011660.1. DR SMR; B8DHJ9; -. DR EnsemblBacteria; ACK39368; ACK39368; LMHCC_1020. DR KEGG; lmh:LMHCC_1020; -. DR HOGENOM; HOG000273374; -. DR KO; ...
Route of Infection Determines the Impact of Type I Interferons on Innate Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Jan K Overweel Ltd. are warning the public not to consume the Ballarini brand Gorgonzola cheese products described below because the products may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.
Among the eight strains of Listeria monocytogenes tested for lysozyme sensitivity, two were resistant to lysozyme but became sensitive after lipase pretreatment. Among the other six, one was very sensitive to lipase and another one was extremely susceptible to lysozyme. Stable protoplasts were formed from the lysozyme-resistant strain (42) by lipase and lysozyme treatment, which completely digested the cell wall. The cell wall (uranyl acetate-lead stained) was of a thick triple-layered profile, with the intermediate layer of low density. Lipase treatment for a short time (60 min) did not cause any alteration in structure, but prolonged treatment (180 min) caused extensive digestion of the plasma membrane and the cell wall, liberating cytoplasmic material. When the cells were treated with either lipase or lysozyme, a small number of protoplasts were extruded through the partly digested or weakened transverse cell wall, leaving an almost intact cell wall ghost. There were small vesicular structures in the
MartinWren, P.C. Attorneys to handle listeria monocytogenes claims from Rojo 7-layer dip. Learn more here and contact us today for legal help!
A total of 14 Mexican honeys were screened for quality parameters including color, moisture, proline, and acidity. Antioxidant properties of complete honey and its methanolic extracts were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of complete honeys against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Sthapylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was determined ...
Listeriosis is an infection caused by the gram-positive motile bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis is relatively rare and occurs primarily in newborn infants, elderly patients, and patients who are immunocompromised.
Listeriosis is an infection caused by the gram-positive motile bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis is relatively rare and occurs primarily in newborn infants, elderly patients, and patients who are immunocompromised.
A numerical taxonomic survey has heen performed using 192 strains of Listeria and possibly related bacteria. Of these, 38 strains have heen further investigated hy serological techniques. The results indicate that Listeria monocytogenes is a good, homogeneous species, L. grayi and L, murrayi do not differ sufficiently from each other to warrant individual specific status, and it is recommended that they he combined in the single species L, grayi. They show a close relationship to L. monocytogenes, compatible with that of two species within the same genus, but L. denitrificans differs greatly from the other Listeria spp, and should be removed from the genus, Erysipelothrix, Listeria and Microbacterium thermosphac- tum show a closer resemblance to the family Lactobacillaceae than to the family Corynebacteriaceae where they are at present classified. The suggested relationship of Gemella haemol- ysans to the tribe Streptococceae in the Lactobacillaceae has been confirmed, and it is possible to ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Pinnacle Foods Inc. is voluntarily recalling a limited number of Birds Eye Baby Sweet Peas after testing indicated the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the retail environment, according to a Department of Defense All Food and Drug Activity message sent Sept. 30.. The Defense Commissary Agency has publicized this recall to all its stores, said Richard Stith, lead consumer safety officer for DeCA headquarters at Fort Lee, Virginia. Whenever a commissary has a recalled or withdrawn product in its inventory, the product is immediately removed from store shelves.. The following product is affected by this recall:. • Birds Eye Baby Sweet Peas, 13 ounces: UPC 014500022530 with Best By dates of July 5 and 6, 2019.. Listeria monocytogenes may cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, the frail or elderly, and those with weakened immune systems. Healthy adults may only suffer short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and ...
Listeria monocytogenes, described first in 1926 by Murray, Webb and Swann, is an extensive problem in public health and food industries. This organism has the ability to cause human illness and death, particularly in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Epidemiological evidence from outbreaks of listeriosis indicates the principle route of transmission is via the consumption of foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Implicated vehicles of transmission include meat, eggs, chicken, vegetables, and dairy products. Listeria spp. are ubiquitous in nature, present in a wide range of unprocessed foods and in soil, sewage, and river water. Certain strains of Listeria spp. are able to survive the manufacturing and ripening processes in dairy products. Listeria spp. grow over a pH range of 5.0 - 9.6 and survive in food products with pH level outside these parameters. Listeria spp. are microaerophilic, Gram-positive, asporogenous, non-encapsulated, non-branching, short, motile rods. ...
ID LISMC_1_PE1001 STANDARD; PRT; 212 AA. AC LISMC_1_PE1001; C1L1U3; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative two-component response regulator; DE (LISMC_1.PE1001). GN OrderedLocusNames=Lm4b_01042; OS LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES SEROTYPE 4B STR. CLIP 80459. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacillales; Listeriaceae; Listeria. OX NCBI_TaxID=568819; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS LISMC_1.PE1001. CC Listeria monocytogenes Clip81459, complete genome. CC complete sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:C1L1U3_LISMC CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 HTH luxR-type DNA-binding domain. CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 response regulatory domain. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000034813 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; C1L1U3; -. DR EMBL; FM242711; CAS04808.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_002757747.1; NC_012488.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; C1L1U3; -. DR SMR; ...
LISTERIA. What is Listeria? Listeria is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, containing a number of species including L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii and L. grayi. Although the first four of these have all been implicated in human infection nearly all cases of Listeria infection are caused by L. monocytogenes. At […]. ...
Due to its ubiquitous nature, Listeria monocytogenes is a threat to all fresh fruits and vegetables, including mushrooms, which are Irelands largest horticultural crop. Although fresh cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) have not been previously linked with listeriosis outbreaks, the pathogen still poses a threat to the industry, particularly due to its ability to form biofilms. This threat is highlighted by the multiple recalls of mushroom products caused by L. monocytogenes contamination and by previous studies demonstrating that L. monocytogenes is present in the mushroom production environment. In this study, the biofilm formation potential of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the mushroom production environment was investigated on materials and at temperatures relevant to mushroom production. A preliminary assessment of biofilm formation of 73 mushroom industry isolates was undertaken using a crystal violet assay on polystyrene microtitre plates. The biofilm formation of a subset ...
... and that keeps Listeria monocytogenes at safe levels. Lag phase can be reduced... ... Controlling Listeria - Bio Cultures Last post by Bob K. « Mon Feb 05, 2018 20:55 Posted in Microbiology of meat and products ...
... and that keeps Listeria monocytogenes at safe levels. Lag phase can be reduced... ... Controlling Listeria - Bio Cultures Last post by Bob K. « Mon Feb 05, 2018 20:55 Posted in Microbiology of meat and products ...
  • L. monocytogenes can contaminate foods and cause a mild illness (called listerial gastroenteritis) or a severe, sometimes life-threatening, illness (called invasive listeriosis). (fda.gov)
  • According to the Risk Assessment, foods estimated to pose the highest risk of being associated with listeriosis are RTE foods that support the growth of L. monocytogenes . (fda.gov)
  • Listeriosis is a disease caused by eating foods that have been contaminated by the Listeria monocytogenes bacterium. (eurekalert.org)
  • Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes . (usda.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An outbreak of listeriosis in Halifax, Nova Scotia, involving 41 cases and 18 deaths, mostly in pregnant women and neonates, was epidemiologically linked to the consumption of coleslaw containing cabbage that had been contaminated with L. monocytogenes-contaminated sheep manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, a number of cases of foodborne listeriosis have been reported, and L. monocytogenes is now widely recognized as an important hazard in the food industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis, is an important pathogen in pregnant patients, neonates, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised individuals, although it is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a gram positive bacterium and causes many food-borne infections such as Listeriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When people eat food contaminated with L. monocytogenes , they may develop a disease called listeriosis. (fda.gov)
  • Consumption of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a serious infection that primarily affects older adults, persons with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women and their newborns. (usda.gov)
  • People with invasive listeriosis usually report symptoms starting 1 to 4 weeks after eating food contaminated with Listeria . (cdc.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for the foodborne disease listeriosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • L. monocytogenes is recognized as an important public health problem due to the very high rate of mortality (25%) and the frequency of listeriosis outbreaks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes se ha asociado a quesos elaborados a partir de leche cruda, lo que supone un importante riesgo de salud pública debido a la listeriosis. (isciii.es)
  • Based on the association of Listeria monocytogenes with raw-milk cheese and, in turn, on the potential threat of listeriosis, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. (isciii.es)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a main etiological factor of listeriosis, spread mainly by food products. (springer.com)
  • In recent years, an increasing number of patients with listeriosis and an augmentation in L. monocytogenes antibiotic resistance, e.g. to penicillin and ampicillin, has been reported. (springer.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen causing listeriosis, an often fatal infection leading to meningitis, sepsis, or infection of the fetus and abortion in susceptible individuals. (hindawi.com)
  • The bacterial foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a debilitating disease linked with about 2,500 illnesses and more than 500 deaths in the U.S.A. each year. (science20.com)
  • Confinement conditions can stress the animals and favor the contamination and proliferation for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), agent of listeriosis which causes abortion, stillbirths, nervous dysfunctions and gastroenteritis. (usp.br)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen implicated in many outbreaks of listeriosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterium and is the cause of listeriosis, a serious food-borne disease. (genetics.org)
  • Even though several high-profile outbreaks of listeriosis have involved deli meats and soft cheeses, current epidemiological trends suggest that Listeria -contaminated produce is associated with significantly higher disease burden than previously recognized. (usda.gov)
  • It can take up to 70 days after exposure to Listeria for symptoms of listeriosis to develop. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • As an initial step to address these objectives, we propose to develop a state-of-the-art, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) protocol for molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains, and to use this methodology, in combination with the current "gold standard" pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) approach, to determine whether we can identify a subgroup(s) of L. monocytogenes strains significantly associated with human listeriosis. (usda.gov)
  • NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: Listeria monocytogenes is a major bacterial pathogen responsible for foodborne illnesses, and several large outbreaks of listeriosis have occurred during the past few years (several of them involved fatalities). (usda.gov)
  • During the course of these studies, we will (i) determine whether a subgroup(s) of L. monocytogenes strains significantly associated with listeriosis can be identified, and - if that is the case (as expected) - we will identify the genetic substitutions responsible for grouping the L. monocytogenes strains. (usda.gov)
  • APPROACH: The project is specifically designed to address the issue of differences in the virulence of L. monocytogenes strains, by (i) determining whether a cluster of L. monocytogenes strains significantly associated with listeriosis can be identified by sequence analysis of various housekeeping and virulence-associated genes, and (ii) delineating the phylogenetic relationships between clinical and environmental L. monocytogenes strains. (usda.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for approximately 2,500 cases of listeriosis in the United States each year (of which ca. 500 are fatal), and the annual cost of foodborne listeriosis in the United States has been estimated to exceed 2.3 billion dollars. (usda.gov)
  • Tests confirmed that the Listeria monocytogenes found in the samples matches one of the three different strains of Listeria monocytogenes associated with the multi-state outbreak of listeriosis. (manufacturing.net)
  • L. monocytogenes is considered to be a potential public health risk by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as this bacterium can easily contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and cause an invasive, life-threatening disease (listeriosis). (harvard.edu)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. (arupconsult.com)
  • A wide variety of foodstuffs could be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), but in the majority of cases listeriosis is predominately related to ready-to-eat (RTE) food. (witpress.com)
  • In vivo experiments demonstrated for the first time that properdin is necessary in the survival of acute murine listeriosis: properdin-deficient mice were more susceptible to intravenous infection with L. monocytogenes compared to wild type mice, and had a greater systemic IFN-gamma and splenic IL-17A response and greater disease severity with impaired M1 type activation. (bl.uk)
  • In conclusion, these findings show that properdin is essential in survival of murine listeriosis and in sustaining a cellular response to the intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes. (bl.uk)
  • Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. (arctichealth.org)
  • This article, through focus on issues such as reexamination of zero-tolerance policies, improvements in detection and enumeration procedures, the impact of epidemiologic innovations, and measures needed to further reduce the incidence of listeriosis will highlight why L monocytogenes remains a continuing challenge for the food industry. (arctichealth.org)
  • Listeriosis is a bacterial zoonotic infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes . (cdc.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, intracellular foodborne pathogen that can contaminate a variety of foods and cause listeriosis, a potentially fatal disease. (asm.org)
  • While many different strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated from processing plant environments and frequently cause costly recalls, only a few virulent strains are known to colonize these environments, contaminate foods, and cause listeriosis ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Listeriosis is a rare disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes, usually, after the consumption of contaminated foods. (ebscohost.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes Electron micrograph of a flagellated Listeria monocytogenes bacterium (highly magnified). (britannica.com)
  • disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes . (britannica.com)
  • L. monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that is widespread in the environment and may be introduced into a food processing facility. (fda.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, in the division Firmicutes, named after Joseph Lister. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murray referred to the organism as Bacterium monocytogenes before Harvey Pirie changed the genus name to Listeria in 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • This updated book explores a wide repertoire of tools and approaches that have been created, modified, and applied to the study of L. monocytogenes , forming the basis of our understanding of the bacterium today. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and up-to-date, Listeria monocytogenes: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition aims to contribute toward the harmonization of methods used to study this important bacterium, and to be of particular interest to Listeria research both in relation to food association and control as well as clinical microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Electron micrograph of an artificially colored Listeria bacterium in tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is often used to study the mammalian immune response to infection because it is easy to culture, is relatively safe to work with and causes a highly predictable infection in laboratory mice. (nih.gov)
  • In the present review we summarize the current knowledge on the modulation of signal transduction pathways by secreted listerial products prior to bacterium-cell contact, during uptake, or while L. monocytogenes resides in the different intracellular compartments. (nih.gov)
  • Listeria monocyogenes is a faculative intracellular Gram-positive food borne bacterium, increasingly recognized as being responsible for severe infections in both humans and animals. (abcam.com)
  • Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a single polypeptide protein secreted by the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. (abcam.com)
  • The biochemistry of the tail formation process has been well studied in the case of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • A cancer vaccine containing a live-attenuated strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encoding a fusion protein composed of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) fused to a fragment of the immunostimulant listeriolysin O (LLO) protein, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • This component of the study is especially relevant for Listeria, a bacterium which is notorious for its ability to persistently colonize the food processing plant environment. (usda.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a "hardy" bacterium that is resistant to extreme hot and cold. (cnn.com)
  • The bacterium is of particular concern from the standpoint of food safety because of its ability to grow at refrigerator temperatures, and the high fatality rate associated with L. monocytogenes infections. (usda.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause serious food poisoning in humans. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we show that PML restricts infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes but not by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes moves from one cell to another using actin-rich membrane protrusions that propel the bacterium toward neighboring cells. (asm.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause illness when consumers eat refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods contaminated with this micro-organism. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • It is the investigators intention to investigate whether a specially designed vaccine, based on a genetically modified strain of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and called ADXS11-001 is safe to use and is able to boost the immune system of patients presenting with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For many RTE foods, contamination with L. monocytogenes can be avoided - e.g. , through the application of current good manufacturing practice requirements that establish controls on ingredients, listericidal processes, segregation of foods that have been cooked from those that have not, and sanitation. (fda.gov)
  • All FSIS recall information, including reports of recalls for possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination, is available in the Recalls section. (usda.gov)
  • WASHINGTON, September 25, 2014- Foster Farms, a Farmerville, La., establishment, is recalling approximately 39,747 pounds of frozen pre-cooked chicken products due to possible contamination with Listeria monocytogenes , the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today. (usda.gov)
  • White Castle has issued a voluntary recall of multiple products for possible listeria contamination. (medworm.com)
  • The pH levels (pH 4.9 to 5.5), the aw (0.96) 7 and low salt content (1.8%), 8 and considerable hand manipulation during manufacturing by small processors are factors that may all contribute to providing a favourable environment for contamination and survival/growth of L. monocytogenes in Idiazabal cheese. (isciii.es)
  • Our study demonstrates the potential of the extract for further development into a bio-control agent in food to prevent the incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination. (mdpi.com)
  • All human foods and environmental materials tested during independent external validation include food types most commonly associated with contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and also those food types known to be particularly challenging to PCR detection, for example brie, smoked salmon, cantaloupe melon and salami. (thermofisher.com)
  • Columbia River Natural Pet Foods is recalling Cow Pie fresh frozen meats for dogs and cats because of potential Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Thus, the development of appropriate strategies for the detection and elimination of L. monocytogenes contamination of foods is one of the top priorities for improving food safety and public health. (usda.gov)
  • Ottawa, November 28, 2016 - Sobeys Inc. is recalling Compliments brand Broccoli Slaw from the marketplace due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination. (gc.ca)
  • Epidemiologic analysis determined that contamination levels in hot dogs were remarkably low (0.3 CFU [colony-forming units] L monocytogenes serotype 4b/g). (arctichealth.org)
  • That same year, manufacturers of hot dogs and luncheon meats collectively recalled more than 500,000 pounds of product owing to possible Listeria contamination. (arctichealth.org)
  • As a result of this outbreak, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) addressed the problem of L. monocytogenes contamination in a directive published in the Federal Register in 2001. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Contamination of ready-to-eat products with L. monocytogenes after cooking is a serious threat that many food processors are trying to combat. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes has been found in the environment of ready-to-eat processing plants and could be a source for contamination of these products. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • These recalls clearly indicate the need for new control measures to help meat proces-sors in the continuing battle against L. monocytogenes contamination, and we are working with a Louisiana-based company to develop new ways to combat this pathogen in their products. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • The contamination was discovered after sampling by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Food Safety & Security Program and subsequent analysis by the Virginia Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the products. (marlerblog.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) continues to pose a food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE) meats due to potential cross-contamination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • White Castle has initiated a voluntary recall of a limited number of frozen 6 pack cheeseburgers, frozen 6 pack hamburgers, frozen 6 pack jalapeno cheeseburgers, and 16 pack hamburgers, 16 pack cheeseburgers for the possible presence of Listeria monocytogenes. (medworm.com)
  • The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the products listed. (food.gov.uk)
  • The recall was initiated after routine testing by the Washington State Department of Agriculture revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in a package of the pet food, and is being carried out with the knowledge of the Food and Drug Administration. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • This was independent of the direct presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the organs and solely controlled by the cytokine IFNgamma. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The 13 serotypes of L. monocytogenes can cause disease, but more than 90% of human isolates belong to only three serotypes: 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty-two L. monocytogenes isolates were checked with 16 commercial antibiotics and isolates displayed resistance to 10 antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • However, all L. monocytogenes isolates from fruits and vegetables belonged to serotype 4b. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During the course of these studies, we will also (i) determine the relative prevalence of major known Listeria virulence genes in the strains in various genetic clusters, and (ii) delineate the phylogenetic relationships between environmental and clinical L. monocytogenes isolates. (usda.gov)
  • 179 L. monocytogenes isolates randomly selected were serogrouped and typed by PFGE. (scielo.br)
  • Human L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained by using routine microbiological procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 29 human L. monocytogenes isolates were available for microbiological characterization: 22 from blood, 3 from placental membranes, 2 from cerebrospinal fluid, and 1 each from stool and dermal exudate. (cdc.gov)
  • The STs of L. monocytogenes isolates were determined by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) primers and conditions described by the Pasteur Institute ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Only 2 human L. monocytogenes ST87 serotype 1/2b isolates, both from Japan, were listed in the Pasteur Institute MLST database ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • in imported dry milk samples in Mexico, and to determine the sensitivity of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates to different antimicrobial agents. (ebscohost.com)
  • This allowed detecting the presence and subtypes of L. monocytogenes, to characterise the accompanying microbiota and to study the adhesion dynamics of L. monocytogenes isolates on stainless steel (SS) as well as the association capacity and biofilm formation in mixed culture with the accompanying species. (csic.es)
  • tos C Abstract This work reports the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for rapid, specific and decentralized detection of the invasion-associated protein p60 secreted by Listeria monocytogenes, a life-threatening foodborne pathogen. (medworm.com)
  • The broad application of this mouse model has resulted in a torrent of studies characterizing the contributions of different cytokines, receptors, adaptors and effector molecules to resistance against infection with Listeria monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse models have shown that complement, in particular complement receptor 3 (CR3) and complement 5 (C5), contributes to survival of infection with Listeria monocytogenes. (bl.uk)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is known as a facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause severe systemic infections in humans (for recent reviews, see references 15 and 47 ). (asm.org)
  • We performed a forward genetic screen to identify Drosophila mutations altering sensitivity to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes . (genetics.org)
  • We combined biocomputing and microarray-based strategies to identify σ B -dependent genes in the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes . (asm.org)
  • The purpose of the project was to characterise the contribution of properdin in the response to L. monocytogenes (EGD-e), a Gram-positive, intracellular pathogen, which can cause severe infectious disease in human and animals, by using in vitro and in vivo methods. (bl.uk)
  • L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 35% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three primer sets were used in conjunction with a previously described Division III primer set in order to classify 122 L. monocytogenes strains into five serotype groups [1/2a(3a), 1/2b, 1/2c(3c), 4b(d,e), and 4a/c]. (asm.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes Serotype Prevalence and Biodiversity in Diverse Food Products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serotype prevalence and biodiversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from diverse food products, i.e., minced pork, fruits, and vegetables. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fifteen cases in 2 epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks were caused by a rare type of Listeria monocytogenes , sequence type 87 serotype 1/2b. (cdc.gov)
  • Although L. monocytogenes is actively motile by means of peritrichous flagella at room temperature (20−25 °C), the organism does not synthesize flagella at body temperatures (37 °C). The genus Listeria belongs to the class Bacilli and the order Bacillales, which also includes Bacillus and Staphylococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The topics covered in this edition also include sampling in order to isolate Listeria , methods for their identification and characterization, methods for gene manipulation, and methods for control of the organism. (springer.com)
  • A notice on the Food and Drug Administration website defines Listeria monocytogene as 'an organism, which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. (al.com)
  • L. monocytogenes is an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. (enewspf.com)
  • lactis LABW4 was isolated from naturally fermented milk product which exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes MTCC657, a food spoilage psychrophilic organism. (scirp.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive intracellular organism seen almost always in neonatal sepsis, elderly meningitis, and in patients with chronic diseases and impairment of cellular immunity, which avoids the host immunity by a mechanism of cell to cell spreading. (bmj.com)
  • On November 24, 2014, Henry's Farm Inc. of Woodford, VA recalled all packages of Soybean Sprouts because they may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes , an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections to individuals with weakened immune systems. (marlerblog.com)
  • The tables below summarizes the location, flanking genes and also the characteristics of the novel small non-coding RNAs identified and the previously characterized non-coding RNAs present in L. monocytogenes aArrows indicate the sense of the gene on the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative transcriptome analyses of L. monocytogenes showed high-level transcriptional upregulation of the genes known to be involved in glycerol uptake and metabolism ( glpFK and glpD ) in the presence of glycerol (compared to that in the presence of glucose and/or cellobiose). (asm.org)
  • There is no overlap between our genes and the hundreds of genes identified in Drosophila S2 cells fighting L. monocytogenes infection, using genomewide RNAi screens in vitro . (genetics.org)
  • A Multiorgan Trafficking Circuit Provides Purifying Selection of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Objective 2: To identify and characterize genes of L. monocytogenes required for produce colonization (adherence, survival, growth). (usda.gov)
  • Objective 3: To assess role of the genes on biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel and produce surfaces. (usda.gov)
  • The mariner-based transposon-Listeria junction fragments in each pool will be processed for 454 sequencing and genes with different representation in each pool will be identified. (usda.gov)
  • Notably, theσ B -dependent L. monocytogenes genes identified through this HMM/microarray strategy included both stress response genes (e.g., gadB , ctc , and the glutathione reductase gene lmo1433 ) and virulence genes (e.g., inlA , inlB , and bsh ). (asm.org)
  • While whole genome sequencing has led to the identification of biofilm synthesis gene clusters in many bacterial species, bioinformatics has not identified the biofilm synthesis genes within the L. monocytogenes genome. (harvard.edu)
  • To identify genes necessary for L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, we performed a transposon mutagenesis library screen using a recently constructed Himar1 mariner transposon. (harvard.edu)
  • The identification of mutants bearing insertions within several flagellar motility genes previously known to be required for the initial stages of biofilm formation validated the ability of the mutagenesis screen to identify L. monocytogenes biofilm-defective mutants. (harvard.edu)
  • Using transcriptomic and proteomic microarrays, we also characterized a network of immunity genes and cytokines, which are regulated by PML in response to Listeria infection but independently from the listeriolysin O toxin. (asm.org)
  • While investigating the effects of listeria monocytogenes on histone modifications, we discovered a new transcription regulatory machanism by which the expression of genes is repressed, during infection. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • SIRT2 is recruiter to the transcription star sites of genes repressed during inection leading to H3K18 deacetylation and transcriptional repression.finnaly, my results demonstrate that SIRT2 is hijacked by L monocytogenes and promotes an increase in intracellular bacteria. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • To determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. (isciii.es)
  • Three hundred twenty-six samples previously purchased from supermarkets and street markets within the Athens area were studied for L. monocytogenes prevalence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several reports have shown that the prevalence of L. monocytogenes varies in different seafood, seafood products and its processing plant environments (3,22,27,46,50). (scielo.br)
  • The unit of activity mentioned on the datasheet of ab68198, Listeriolysin full length protein, HU/mg (hemolytic units) is defined in the attached paper, High-level expression of the Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O in Escherichia coli and preliminary characterization of the purified protein. (abcam.com)
  • For hazard characterization, since it is known that no direct human dose response data is available for L.monocytogenes, a flexible dose response model called the Weibull-Gamma model was evaluated. (arctichealth.org)
  • Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Our results indicate that PS-targeted therapeutics may be useful in the fight against infections by L. monocytogenes and other bacteria that use similar strategies of cell-to-cell spread during infection. (nature.com)
  • FDA, CDC, and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to hard-boiled eggs produced by Almark Foods' Gainesville, Georgia facility. (fda.gov)
  • CDC, several states, and federal partners investigated a multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people are more vulnerable to listeria infections, including those over 65 years of age, pregnant women and their unborn babies, babies less than one month old and people with weakened immune systems. (food.gov.uk)
  • In L. monocytogenes , a food-borne pathogen capable of causing mild to severe infections in humans,σ B confers stress resistance (e.g., under acid stress and osmotic stress) and contributes to pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Human and pet food that is contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still cause serious and sometimes life-threatening infections. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Specific laboratory tests are required to diagnose Listeria infections, which can mimic other illnesses. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The ultimate objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Listeria monocytogenes, and to obtain background information needed for the development of a science-based strategy for managing L. monocytogenes infections (which also would include developing tools for rapid and accurate detection of "highly virulent" L. monocytogenes strains in foods and clinical samples). (usda.gov)
  • The data generated during the project should provide important information for the future elucidation of the virulence mechanisms of L. monocytogenes, and for the development of advanced strategies for dealing with L. monocytogenes infections. (usda.gov)
  • Further experiments found that ISG15 can counteract the infections of L. monocytogenes both in cells grown in cultures and in living mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can cause enteric infections. (elifesciences.org)
  • This volume includes research from the studies at the molecular level on the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes and the response of the host to its infections. (ebookee.org)
  • Introduction: Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne Gram-positive pathogen causing serious human infections. (vdu.lt)
  • Signaling through a pathway involving the type I IFN receptor and Stat1 sensitized macrophages to L. monocytogenes -induced cell death in a manner not requiring inducible NO synthase (nitric oxide synthase 2) or protein kinase R, potential effectors of type I IFN action during microbial infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data stress the importance of type I IFN for the course of infections with intracellular bacteria and suggest that factors other than listeriolysin O contribute to macrophage death during Listeria infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Desai AN, Anyoha A, Madoff LC, Lassmann B. Changing epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks, sporadic cases, and recalls globally: A review of ProMED reports from 1996 to 2018. (harvard.edu)
  • About 800 cases of Listeria infection are diagnosed each year in the United States, along with three or four outbreaks of Listeria-associated foodborne illness. (cnn.com)
  • L. monocytogenes , which can be commonly found in the environment (Brackett, 1988) has become a major concern to the food industry because of the outbreaks of human listerioses, in the past few years, involving various kinds of foods (Brackett, 1988). (scielo.br)
  • The CDC maintains a list of selected multistate Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks along with information about outbreak investigation and prevention. (arupconsult.com)
  • As a leading cause of death from a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes continues to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks of illness. (arctichealth.org)
  • Here we show that a bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes , can exploit efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection. (nature.com)
  • The facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes invades and multiplies in many mammalian cell types. (nih.gov)
  • The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes propels itself in the cytoplasm of the infected cells by forming a filamentous comet tail assembled by the polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein actin. (pnas.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that multiplies in the cytosol of host cells and relies on an actin-based mechanism of motility to spread from cell-to-cell without exiting the intracellular milieu. (cornell.edu)
  • An additional comparative study between the pathogenic L. monocytogenes strain and the non pathogenic L. innocua strain identified several non-coding RNAs that are only present within L. monocytogenes which suggests that these ncRNAs may have a role in pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e strain was used in these studies EMBL accession AL591824.1 Mandin P, Repoila F, Vergassola M, Geissmann T, Cossart P (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • 24 people infected with the outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes were reported from 13 states. (cdc.gov)
  • Designation of a new type strain for Listeria monocytogenes. (atcc.org)
  • We will employ two different Listeria monocytogenes strains, and two mariner mutant libraries for each strain. (usda.gov)
  • Autoclaved distilled water samples were inoculated with L . monocytogenes strain V7 and strain VPH-1, and incubated aerobically, at 30 C for 48 hours. (scielo.br)
  • The microbicidal activity of one synthetic cationic peptide (NP-2) was examined against L . monocytogenes strain V7, in a water system. (scielo.br)
  • Approximately 10,000 transposon mutants within L. monocytogenes strain 10403S were screened for biofilm formation in 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microtiter plates with 70 Himar1 insertion mutants identified that produced significantly less biofilms. (harvard.edu)
  • Various fragment-based typing methods have been used to differentiate L. monocytogenes strains at the subspecies or strain level ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Although these methods provide better strain differentiation than serotyping and phage typing, their discriminatory abilities are not optimal and sometimes cannot differentiate epidemiologically unrelated strains of L. monocytogenes ( 13 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Results obtained demonstrated the efficacy of the enzyme-BAC combined application to remove L. monocytogenes mixed biofilms and highlighted that this efficacy varies with the composition and age of the biofilm, pointing out the importance of designing strain-specific cleaning and disinfection strategies. (csic.es)
  • As outras espécies de Listeria encontradas, empregando-se a semeadura em placa foram: L. welshimeri (1 amostra de alface mimosa) e L. innocua (2 amostras de agrião). (usp.br)
  • This research topic aims to broadly address the biology and pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neogen's line of ANSR products also includes AOAC Research Institute-validated ANSR for Listeria and ANSR for Salmonella . (prnewswire.com)
  • Provides FSIS risk assessment reports and models for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Clostridium perfringens, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella , etc. (usda.gov)
  • Entre os microrganismos patogênicos que, potencialmente, podem ser transmitidos por vegetais MP citam-se: Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 e Salmonella sp. (usp.br)
  • Amongst pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted by MP vegetables are: Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. (usp.br)
  • Listeria specimens were collected from ill people from July 20, 2017, to August 1, 2019 . (cdc.gov)
  • Bettinehoeve has taken the precautionary step of recalling Bettine Ripened Goat Cheese, Bettine Blanc Ripened Goat Cheese, Bettine BIO Blanc Ripened Goat Cheese and Mediterani Goat Cheese Log because the products might contain Listeria monocytogenes. (food.gov.uk)
  • Here we employ a 'systems structural biology' approach to functionally characterize an unconventional α-glucan metabolic pathway from the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm ). (nature.com)
  • Here, we describe the structure of Hfq from the Grampositive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in its RNA-free form and in complex with a U 6 oligoribonucleotide. (osti.gov)
  • RTE foods can be contaminated if ingredients in the foods are contaminated with L. monocytogenes and are not treated to destroy viable cells of this pathogen, or if L. monocytogenes is allowed to contaminate the RTE food because of improper sanitary conditions or practices. (fda.gov)
  • LANSING, Mich. , July 9, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Neogen Corporation has received approval from the AOAC Research Institute for its new rapid and accurate test to definitively detect Listeria monocytogenes DNA in food and environmental samples. (prnewswire.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes can infect the brain, spinal-cord membranes and/or the bloodstream of the host through the ingestion of contaminated food such as unpasteurized dairy or raw foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • listeria , one of the causes of food poisoning . (webmd.com)
  • Listeria accounts for 19% of all deaths due to food-borne infection. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a species of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria that can be found in moist environments, soil, water, decaying vegetation and animals, and can survive and even grow under refrigeration and other food preservation measures. (fda.gov)
  • People infected with L. monocytogenes may start to see symptoms in a few hours or as long as two to three days after eating contaminated food. (fda.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to characterise the L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fish-processed food products. (springer.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm ) is an important food-borne human pathogen that is able to strive under a wide range of environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • A characteristic feature of L. monocytogenes is its ability to grow at cold temperatures and even in the presence of high concentrations of salt - traditional food preservation techniques which arrest the growth of most other pathogens. (science20.com)
  • The study will provide baseline data critical for novel targeted strategies to reduce food safety threats associated with Listeria-contaminated produce, including threats associated with persistent colonization of produce-processing facilities and with bacterial adherence and growth on the produce itself. (usda.gov)
  • Electrochemical immunosensor towards invasion-associated protein p60: An alternative strategy for Listeria monocytogenes screening in food. (medworm.com)
  • Detect Listeria monocytogenes in even the most challenging food types with the Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria monocytogenes PCR Assay which incorporates optimized primer and probe components for highly-specific detection of L. monocytogenes . (thermofisher.com)
  • The SureTect Listeria monocytogenes PCR Assay has been validated on over 20 different matrices from broad range of food and manufacturing environments including diary, meats, seafood, vegetables and production surfaces. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recommendations for keeping food safe from listeria are similar to those used to protect against other foodborne illnesses. (cnn.com)
  • Anyone who has handled any of the recalled pet food and developed symptoms of Listeria infection should seek medical treatment and tell their doctors about the possible Listeria exposure. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The specific aims will include: (i) develop a MLST approach for L. monocytogenes, (ii) characterize L. monocytogenes strains from food, environmental and clinical samples by PFGE and MLST, and (iii) screen L. monocytogenes strains in various genetic clusters for the presence of known and putative virulence markers. (usda.gov)
  • In this application, we propose to develop a state-of-the-art multilocus sequence typing protocol for L. monocytogenes, and to use this methodology, in combination with other, well-established approaches, to characterize a large collection of L. monocytogenes strains from food, environmental, and clinical sources. (usda.gov)
  • Today, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it found Listeria monocytogenes in samples of Jensen Farms? (manufacturing.net)
  • Today, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it found Listeria monocytogenes in samples of Jensen Farms' Rocky Ford-brand cantaloupe taken from a Denver-area store and on samples taken from equipment and cantaloupe at the Jensen Farms' packing facility. (manufacturing.net)
  • The FDA will use the findings to help inform agency policy regarding Listeria and produce food safety best practices. (manufacturing.net)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a cause of concern to food industries, mainly for those producing ready-to-eat (RTE) products. (scielo.br)
  • L. monocytogenes was confirmed in salmon samples (41%), food contact surfaces (32%), non-food contact surfaces (43%) and of food handlers' samples (34%), but could not be detected in any ingredient. (scielo.br)
  • The introduction of L. monocytogenes in a food chain can occur by failure of the standard sanitation procedures. (scielo.br)
  • Ottawa, August 2, 2013 - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Jan K Overweel Ltd. are warning the public not to consume the Ballarini brand Gorgonzola cheese products described below because the products may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes . (gc.ca)
  • Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled. (gc.ca)
  • Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. (gc.ca)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, food-borne pathogen of humans and animals. (harvard.edu)
  • Laboratory testing is not recommended for pregnant women or other susceptible populations who may have consumed food contaminated with Listeria , but who exhibit no symptoms. (arupconsult.com)
  • It was found that L. monocytogenes can grow in a wide variety of potential reservoirs and sources within food-processing plants and contaminate ready-to-eat foods ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the ability to differentiate strains of L. monocytogenes is particularly important for tracking transmission of pathogenic strains within food-processing plants and developing more effective intervention strategies to prevent recalls and human illness. (asm.org)
  • Farber, J.M. and Peterkin, P.I. (1991) Listeria monocytogenes, a Food-Borne Pathogen. (scirp.org)
  • By September 2003, FSIS introduced a final rule, which requires the ready-to-eat food industry to impose a post-lethality treatment and growth inhibitor for Listeria monocytogenes or employ sanitation measures for control-ling L. monocytogenes in the processing environment. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • One of the main concerns of the food industry is that L. monocytogenes can grow at refrigerator temperatures. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • The FSIS rule states that ready-to-eat food companies have to show their antimicrobial treatments are effective against L. monocytogenes . (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes can adhere to different types of food contact surfaces within a food processing environment. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, a sponge-stick, foam spatula and an environmental swab were evaluated on their ability to detect low concentrations of L. monocytogenes on different types of food contact surfaces. (mdpi.com)
  • The detection ability of the different devices for L. monocytogenes can be concluded to be rather high on different types of food contact surfaces. (mdpi.com)
  • The possibility of reducing the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes (hemolysis) by exposure to stevia should be confirmed in real food matrices, opening a research niche with a valuable future impact on food safety. (csic.es)
  • In order to evaluate the incidence and dissemination of L. monocytogenes 415 samples were collected at different steps of a gravlax salmon processing line in São Paulo state, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Alberti-Segui, C., Goeden, K. R. & Higgins, D. E. Differential function of Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O and phospholipases C in vacuolar dissolution following cell-to-cell spread. (nature.com)
  • Several virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes have been identified and extensively characterized at the molecular and cell biologic levels, including the hemolysin (listeriolysin O), two distinct phospholipases, a protein (ActA), several internalins, and others. (nih.gov)
  • Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes , cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • During infection, PML undergoes oxidation-mediated multimerization, associates with the nuclear matrix, and becomes de-SUMOylated due to the pore-forming activity of the Listeria toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). (asm.org)
  • The effect of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by means of the assessment of the Listeriolysin O (LLO) production. (csic.es)
  • In order to study the behaviour of L. monocytogenes during an asymptomatic infection, INRA(1) scientists, working in collaboration with their colleagues at Institut Pasteur(2), created an original in vitro experimental model using cultures of human epithelial cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • These in vitro results have revealed the ability of L. monocytogenes to generate dormant intracellular forms which may be harboured, unsuspected, by humans or animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • The PS-binding receptor TIM-4 (encoded by the Timd4 gene) contributes to efficient cell-to-cell spread by L. monocytogenes in macrophages in vitro and growth of these bacteria is impaired in Timd4 −/− mice. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, these in vitro systems are obviously limited in their ability to explore how whole-animal physiologies interact with an infecting microbe and how L. monocytogenes can enter and survive in a wide variety of cell types. (genetics.org)
  • Most importantly, we observed that ISG15 expression restricts Listeria infection in vitro and in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • These events trigger an antibacterial response that is not observed during in vitro infection by an LLO-defective Listeria mutant, but which can be phenocopied by specific induction of PML de-SUMOylation. (asm.org)
  • In vitro assays for the first time point to the significant role of properdin in infection with L. monocytogenes: using dendritic cells and macrophages derived from the bone marrows of properdin-deficient (KO) and wild type mice (WT), cells from WT mice showed greater intracellular load of viable L. monocytogenes at an early time point. (bl.uk)
  • Both cell free and heat killed supernatants of LABW4 were effective to produce zones of inhibition against L. monocytogenes in vitro . (scirp.org)
  • Due to its frequent pathogenicity, causing meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally), pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, feta, and queso blanco fresco, which may be contaminated with and permit growth of L. monocytogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host cell signal transduction during Listeria monocytogenes infection. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show activation of transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3, the synthesis of large amounts of IFN-β mRNA, and type I IFN signal transduction in macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes . (jimmunol.org)
  • In particular, it has been shown that only one bacterial surface factor, ActA, is required for the movement of Listeria in a medium containing a few other actin-related proteins from the cytoplasm of the host cell. (pnas.org)
  • Many of the proteins responsible for the movement of Listeria have also been found in the front end of a crawling cell, also referred to as the lamellopodium ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Only a subset of additional caveolar components (cavin-2 and EHD2) are present at sites of bacterial transfer, and although clathrin and the clathrin-associated proteins Eps15 and AP2 are absent from the bacterial invaginations, efficient L. monocytogenes spreading requires the clathrin-interacting protein epsin-1. (asm.org)
  • We also directly demonstrated that isolated L. monocytogenes membrane protrusions can trigger the recruitment of caveolar proteins in a neighboring cell. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the cell surface protein ActA allows L. monocytogenes to activate host actin regulatory factors and undergo actin-based motility in the cytosol, eventually leading to formation of actin-rich protrusions at the cell surface. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the activity of the PrfA protein is modulated by an as-yet-unknown factor(s) whose production appears to be linked to the metabolism of L. monocytogenes . (asm.org)
  • A disposable screen-printed electrode was used as transducer surface and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that specifically recognize Listeria monocytogenes p60 protein and Listeria spp. (medworm.com)
  • Although clinical descriptions of L. monocytogenes infection in both animals and humans were published in the 1920s, it was not recognized as a significant cause of neonatal infection, sepsis, and meningitis until 1952 in East Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once ingested by humans and many animal species, L. monocytogenes uses sophisticated strategies to infect and proliferate within a wide diversity of host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Symptoms of Listeria infection in humans can include vomiting, nausea, persistent fever, muscle aches, severe headache and neck stiffness. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is associated with several invasive diseases including sepsis , neonatal sepsis , meningitis , and encephalitis . (arupconsult.com)
  • Does etanercept monotherapy enhance the risk of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis? (bmj.com)
  • We report a case of Listeria meningitis in a 45 year old patient with RA. (bmj.com)
  • 6, 7 To our knowledge, etanercept has been associated with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis only in a 72 year old patient with RA receiving multiple immunosuppressive treatment (etanercept, prednisone, and methotrexate), and no case has been seen during monotherapy. (bmj.com)
  • Many of the symptoms associated with Listeria infection vary by population, which makes it difficult to diagnose the illness based on clinical symptoms alone. (arupconsult.com)
  • Generally, healthy people with normal immune systems are asymptomatic, but may experience gastroenteritis or flulike symptoms following a high-dose Listeria exposure. (arupconsult.com)
  • Although healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms, such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, listeria infection can cause miscarriages and still births among pregnant women. (enewspf.com)
  • Eating foods contaminated with L. monocytogenes normally causes flu-like symptoms in healthy adults. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Listeria is also responsible for numerous recalls. (usda.gov)
  • This alternative sigma factor contributes to the ability of organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus subtilis , and Staphylococcus aureus to survive under environmental and energy stress conditions ( 4 , 10 , 18 , 19 , 65 ).σ B also contributes to biofilm formation in S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis ( 37 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Both L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes are pathogenic in mice, but only L. monocytogenes is consistently associated with human illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 4: TIM-4 promotes L. monocytogenes cell-to-cell spread in macrophages and growth in mice. (nature.com)
  • A ) Percentage of resorbed fetuses among C57BL/6 mice compared with isogenic CXCR3-deficient female mice 5 days after L . monocytogenes ΔactA (10 7 CFU) infection initiated midgestation (E11.5) during allogeneic pregnancies after mating with BALB/c males and controls without infection. (jci.org)
  • B ) Percentage of resorbed fetuses among C57BL/6 female mice 5 days after L . monocytogenes ΔactA (10 7 CFU) infection initiated midgestation (E11.5) among C57BL/6 female mice during allogeneic pregnancies after mating with BALB/c males that were administered anti-CXCR3 compared with isotype control antibody (500 μg per mouse) 1 day prior to infection and controls without infection. (jci.org)
  • C ) Representative FACS plots and composite data showing the percentage of fetal-OVA 257-264 -specific cells (CD90.1 + ) among CD8 + T cells recovered from the decidua or paraaortic lymph node 3 days after L . monocytogenes ΔactA (10 7 CFU) infection initiated midgestation (E11.5) for C57BL/6 female mice during allogeneic pregnancies after mating with by BALB/c-OVA males. (jci.org)
  • Protection against Listeria is mediated via lymphokine activation of T cells on macrophages and by interleukin-18. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that fetal wastage triggered by prenatal Listeria monocytogenes infection is driven by placental recruitment of CXCL9-producing inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages that promote infiltration of fetal-specific T cells into the decidua. (jci.org)
  • Maternal CD8 + T cells with fetal specificity upregulated expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and, together with neutrophils and macrophages, were essential for L. monocytogenes -induced fetal resorption. (jci.org)
  • Since Listeria is able to survive and replicate in the cytosol, several groups have sought to elucidate how bacteria are sensed within macrophages and more recently within nonphagocytic cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • To date, the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention reports that 35 people in 10 states, including four deaths, have been infected with the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes . (manufacturing.net)
  • From July 1998 to January 1999, four U.S. companies recalled ready-to-eat meats after L. monocytogenes was found in their products. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Modeling the impact of chlorine on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes , is most often transmitted through milk, soft cheeses and ice cream, raw vegetables, and raw meat and poultry. (britannica.com)
  • Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products. (usda.gov)
  • These guidelines help establishments producing Ready-to-Eat (RTE) meat and poultry products in their use of control methods for L. monocytogenes . (usda.gov)
  • Irreversible loss of membrane-binding activity of Listeria -derived cytolysins in non-acidic conditions: a distinct difference from allied cytolysins produced by other Gram-positive bacteria. (nature.com)
  • For biofilm assessments on produce, L. monocytogenes will be inoculated onto produce and inoculated surfaces will be screened by confocal laser scanning microscopy. (usda.gov)
  • Two newly identified genetic loci, dltABCD and phoPR, were selected for deletion analysis and both ΔdltABCD and ΔphoPR bacterial strains displayed biofilm formation defects in the PVC microtiter plate assay, confirming these loci contribute to biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes. (harvard.edu)
  • L monocytogenes is a motile, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus that has aerobic and facultatively anaerobic characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • Serotyping is a universally accepted subtyping method for Listeria monocytogenes . (asm.org)
  • Serotyping PCR primers were designed from variable regions of the L. monocytogenes genome. (asm.org)
  • Although infection by L. monocytogenes is relatively rare, it has the second highest fatality rate (21%) and the highest hospitalization rate (90%) of all foodborne pathogens ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Sanitation controls include effective environmental monitoring programs designed to identify and eliminate L. monocytogenes in and on surfaces and areas in the plant. (fda.gov)
  • The approval covers the use of the ANSR system to detect L. monocytogenes in the following sample types: hot dogs, Mexican-style cheese, cantaloupe, guacamole, pasteurized liquid egg, sprout irrigation water, and sponge samples from stainless steel surfaces. (prnewswire.com)
  • Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the interaction of L. monocytogenes with the host immune system that triggers the antibacterial immune responses on the mucosal surfaces of the human gastrointestinal tract. (hindawi.com)
  • Cantaloupes and other fruits with porous surfaces can become infected by listeria when soil and/or water seeps through their skin. (cnn.com)
  • A cocktail of four L. monocytogenes serotypes was inoculated with a concentration of 100 CFU/250 cm 2 onto stainless steel (SS), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and rubber surfaces in a 250 cm 2 area. (mdpi.com)
  • However, when the surfaces were allowed to air-dry for 1 h, L. monocytogenes was undetected in 11.1% of the samples ( n = 27) with the sponge stick, in 7.4% of the samples ( n = 27) with the foam spatula and in 3.7% of the samples ( n = 27) with the environmental swab, especially on SS surfaces. (mdpi.com)
  • A multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) scheme was developed for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes , and the results obtained using this scheme were compared to those of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the published results of other typing methods, including ribotyping (RT) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). (asm.org)
  • The pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes is linked to its ability to invade different cells in the body, such as epithelial cells in the intestine, liver, brain and placenta. (eurekalert.org)
  • When it reaches the cytoplasm of these cells, L. monocytogenes proliferates and uses a network of cell filaments - called the cytoskeleton - to travel and spread into neighbouring cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Through this model, they discovered that L. monocytogenes is able to change its lifestyle when it infects the cells of the liver and placenta for several days. (eurekalert.org)
  • Motile via flagella at 30 °C and below, but usually not at 37 °C, L. monocytogenes can instead move within eukaryotic cells by explosive polymerization of actin filaments (known as comet tails or actin rockets). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glomski, I. J., Gedde, M. M., Tsang, A. W., Swanson, J. A. & Portnoy, D. A. The Listeria monocytogenes hemolysin has an acidic pH optimum to compartmentalize activity and prevent damage to infected host cells. (nature.com)
  • Analysis of the L. monocytogenes intracellular lifecycle in cultured cells has revealed fundamental mechanisms that orchestrate bacterial internalization into host cells, exit from the endocytic vesicle, intracellular proliferation, and motility leading to bacterial spread from cell to cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • GlpK 1 but not GlpK 2 was essential for glycerol catabolism in L. monocytogenes under extracellular conditions, while the loss of GlpK 1 affected replication in Caco-2 cells less than did the loss of GlpK 2 and GlpD. (asm.org)
  • Stationary phase L. monocytogenes cells were rapidly inactivated by greater than 3-log units within 30 min of contact time with R. tomentosa extract at 128 µg/mL. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA for the microarray experiments was isolated from both wild-type and Δ sigB null mutant L. monocytogenes cells grown to stationary phase or exposed to osmotic stress (0.5 M KCl). (asm.org)
  • We show that ISG15 expression in nonphagocytic cells is dramatically induced upon Listeria infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • studied the role of ISG15 in human cells exposed to L. monocytogenes . (elifesciences.org)
  • To be fully virulent, Listeria must evade macrophage killing, enter and replicate in epithelial cells and spread from cell to cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Aim: To assessthe influence of potential inhibitors on the interaction of L. monocytogenes cells with efflux indicator Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions. (vdu.lt)
  • Total counts and the number of surviving L. monocytogenes cells were determined by a spread plate technique on tryptic soy agar and modified Oxford medium, respectively. (arctichealth.org)
  • The individual and combined effects on the occupied surface, and the number of viable adhered and released cells after the application of pronase and BAC against late-stage L. monocytogenes-E. coli dual-species biofilms were assessed. (csic.es)
  • Results demonstrated a synergistic effect of pronase-BAC application against L. monocytogenes-E. coli dual-species biofilms, a higher efficacy against L. monocytogenes, and the need to use high BAC doses to ensure the absence of adhered and released viable cells. (csic.es)