DimethylformamideDMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Medical Records, Problem-Oriented: A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.BooksFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.United StatesBibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Book SelectionDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Libraries, MedicalHealth Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Price ListsUnion ListsBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Great BritainBibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.BrazilModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.EnglandCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Solvation significantly affects the basicity of amines. N-H groups strongly interact with water, especially in ammonium ions. Consequently, the basicity of ammonia is enhanced by 1011 by solvation. The intrinsic basicity of amines, i.e. the situation where solvation is unimportant, has been evaluated in the gas phase. In the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the electron-releasing effects of the organic substituents. Thus tertiary amines are more basic than secondary amines, which are more basic than primary amines, and finally ammonia is least basic. The order of pKb's (basicities in water) does not follow this order. Similarly aniline is more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution.[11]. In aprotic polar solvents such as DMSO, DMF, and acetonitrile the energy of solvation is not as high as in protic polar solvents like water and methanol. For this reason, the basicity of amines in these aprotic solvents is almost solely ...
... is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
... (1-methyl-4-[(oxocyclohexadienylidene)ethylidene]-1,4-dihydropyridine, MOED) is an organic dye belonging to the class of merocyanines. MOED is notable for its solvatochromic properties, meaning it changes color depending on the solvent in which it is dissolved. As shown in the structural formula, MOED can exist in two resonance forms: A neutral molecule and a zwitterion. Research indicates that the zwitterion form is most representative when the compound exists in polar solvents such as water, and the neutral form when it exists in nonpolar solvents such as chloroform. When MOED is dissolved in various liquids, its colour will vary, depending on the solvent and its polarity. In general, the more polar the solvent, the shorter the wavelengths of the light absorbed will be. When light of a certain colour (wavelength) is absorbed, the solution will appear in the complementary colour of the one absorbed. Therefore, in water, a highly polar solvent, MOED appears yellow ...
... (DMF) is the methyl ester of fumaric acid. DMF was initially recognized as a very effective hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Later, DMF combined with three other fumaric acid esters (FAE) was licensed in Germany as oral therapy for psoriasis (trade name Fumaderm). Other diseases, such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, and sarcoidosis were also found to respond to treatment with DMF in case reports or small patient series. Phase III clinical trials found that DMF (BG-12) successfully reduced relapse rate and increased time to progression of disability in multiple sclerosis (trade name Tecfidera). DMF is thought to have immunomodulatory properties without significant immunosuppression. In a non-medical use, DMF was applied as a biocide in furniture or shoes to prevent growths of mold during storage or transport in a humid climate. However, due to incidences of allergic reactions ...
3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 9195223. Kemp S, Pujol A, Waterham HR, van Geel BM, Boehm CD, Raymond GV, Cutting GR, Wanders RJ, Moser HW (2002). "ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations". Hum. Mutat. 18 (6): 499-515. doi:10.1002/humu.1227. PMID 11748843. Lan F (2002). "Molecular diagnostics in China". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 39 (12): 1190-1194. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2001.188. PMID 11798073. Feil R, Aubourg P, Mosser J, Douar AM, Le Paslier D, Philippe C, Mandel JL (1992). "Adrenoleukodystrophy: a complex chromosomal rearrangement in the Xq28 red/green-color-pigment gene region indicates two possible gene localizations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 49 (6): 1361-71. PMC 1686466 . PMID 1746561. Moser HW, Moser AE, Singh I, O'Neill BP (1985). "Adrenoleukodystrophy: survey of 303 cases: biochemistry, diagnosis, and therapy". Ann. Neurol. 16 (6): 628-641. doi:10.1002/ana.410160603. PMID 6524872. Migeon BR, Moser HW, Moser AB, Axelman J, Sillence D, Norum ...
The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent is function of temperature. Depending on the change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the dissolution reaction, i.e., on the endothermic (ΔG , 0) or exothermic (ΔG , 0) character of the dissolution reaction, the solubility of a given compound may increase or decrease with temperature. The van 't Hoff equation relates the change of solubility equilibrium constant (Ksp) to temperature change and to reaction enthalpy change (ΔH). For most solids and liquids, their solubility increases with temperature because their dissolution reaction is endothermic (ΔG , 0).[8] In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g. that approaching the critical temperature), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water; the lower dielectric constant results in a less polar solvent and in a change of hydration energy affecting the ΔG of the dissolution reaction. Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior ...
... is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH. This heterocyclic amine consists of a six-membered ring containing five methylene bridges (-CH2-) and one amine bridge (-NH-). It is a colorless liquid with an odor described as objectionable, and typical of amines. the name comes from the genus name Piper, which is the Latin word for pepper. Although piperidine is a common organic compound, it is best known as a representative structure element within many pharmaceuticals and alkaloids. Piperidine was first reported in 1850 by the Scottish chemist Thomas Anderson and again, independently, in 1852 by the French chemist Auguste Cahours, who named it. Both men obtained piperidine by reacting piperine with nitric acid. Industrially, piperidine is produced by the hydrogenation of pyridine, usually over a molybdenum disulfide catalyst: C5H5N + 3 H2 → C5H10NH Pyridine can also be reduced to piperidine via a modified Birch reduction using sodium in ethanol. Piperidine itself has ...
... s (also termed pit and fissure sealants, or simply fissure sealants) are a dental treatment intended to prevent tooth decay. Teeth have recesses on their biting surfaces; the back teeth have fissures (grooves) and some front teeth have cingulum pits. It is these pits and fissures which are most vulnerable to tooth decay, partly because food sticks in them and they are hard-to-clean areas. Dental sealants are materials placed in these pits and fissures to fill them in, creating a smooth surface that is easy to clean. Dental sealants are mainly used in children who are at higher risk of tooth decay, and typically they are placed as soon as the adult molar teeth come through. Dental caries is an upset of the balance between loss and gain of minerals from a tooth surface. The loss of minerals from our teeth occurs from the bacteria within our mouths fermenting foods and producing acids, whereas the tooth gains minerals from our saliva and fluoride that is present within our mouths. ...
... is an Indian public health specialist, scholar and environmentalist. The Government of India honoured her, in 2014, by awarding her the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for her contributions to the fields of public health and environment. Micronutrient deficiency is a serious public health concern in most developing countries. In India, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorder are of greatest public health significance. In addition, subclinical zinc deficiency, fluorosis, and fluoride-deficient dental caries are important areas of concern, writes Dr. Indira Chakravarty. Chakravarty hails from West Bengal and secured a doctoral degree (PhD) in Biochemistry from Calcutta University. This was followed by a second doctoral degree (DSc). She has been active in the food safety and hygiene milieu of India and the world in general, and has participated in 30 research projects. She has been involved with two projects of the World Health ...
In dentistry, the approximal surfaces are those surfaces which form points of contact between adjacent teeth. However, in diastemic individuals these surfaces may not make contact but are still considered approximal. Due to the topography of approximal sites the removal of plaque by brushing may be difficult and hence a significant build-up may occur increasing the risk of plaque-related diseases such as dental caries or gingivitis. It is recommended that teeth be professionally cleaned every six months, in part, to avoid this build-up and therefore maintain the health of the dentition and surrounding tissues. Fejerskov, O; Kidd, E (2008). Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management, 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-3889-5 ...
A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from. It is typically used by infants and young children, or if someone cannot (without difficulty) drink from a cup, for feeding oneself or being fed. It can also be used to feed non-human mammals. In particular it is used to feed infant formula, expressed breast milk or pediatric electrolyte solution. A large-sized bottle typically holds 280 ml; the small size 150 ml.[citation needed] It is composed of a bottle itself, a teat, a ring to seal the teat to the bottle, a cap to cover the teat and optionally a disposable liner. The height-to-width ratio of bottles is high (relative to adult cups) because it is needed to ensure the contents flood the teat when used at normal angles; otherwise the baby will drink air. However, if the bottle is too tall, it easily tips. There are asymmetric bottles that ensure the contents flood the teat if the bottle is held at a certain direction. The teat itself is generally ...
The Hall Technique is a non-invasive treatment for decayed baby back (molar) teeth. Decay is sealed under preformed (stainless steel) crowns, avoiding injections and drilling. It is one of a number of biologically orientated strategies for managing dental decay. The technique has an evidence-base showing that it is acceptable to children, parents and dentists and it is preferred over standard filling techniques, due to the ease of application and overall patient comfort as young patient don't have to undergo traumatic injections. Preformed metal crowns are now recommended as the optimum restoration for managing carious primary molars. There are now 5 randomised control trials that have shown the Hall Technique to be superior to other methods for managing decay in baby teeth but there is a lack of evidence to conclude that the Hall technique is superior to placing preformed metal crowns in a conventional manner. Initial fears over the potential problem with sealing caries into teeth being that ...
A toothache is a pain felt in a person's tooth, normally when the tooth is hurt. A tooth can be hurt by tooth decay caused by plaque or by an injury.. ...
Indexes that are listed at the top of the result-set may not be as beneficial as indexes listed at the bottom. ... from sys.indexes i. inner join sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats s. on s.object_id = i.object_id. and s.index_id = i.index_id. and s. ... from sys.indexes i. left outer join sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats s. on s.object_id = i.object_id. and s.index_id = i.index_id. ... That type of indexes may be listed at the bottom of the output, hence it leads us to assume the index is heavily used. Because ...
Obesity OR Overweight OR BMI OR body mass index OR weight AND caries OR dental caries OR oral health OR dmf OR teeth decay OR ... Keywords and index terms: obes, child, paediatric, weight, overweight, BMI, dental caries, primary dentition, dft, dmft, dmfs, ... A list of possibly relevant titles in other languages will be provided as an appendix. As the availability and methodology of ... Obesity, DMFT Index, tooth decay, waist circumference, skinfolds and body mass index. Operators OR or AND used [23]. ...
SQL Server Interview Question "What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs?" Complete list of SQL Server DBA Interview ... Websites are now on the must-have list of every business. Any new start-up that is contemplating having a website, then it is ... SQL Server DBA Interview Questions and Answers , What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. ... What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. Sachin Diwakar January 25, 2018 23 ...
DMF. decayed/missing due to caries/filled. DMFS. decayed/missing due to caries/filled tooth surface. ... List of Abbreviations 879 * List of Tables and Figures 883 * Index 903 ...
SQL Server Interview Question "What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs?" Complete list of SQL Server DBA Interview ... Websites are now on the must-have list of every business. Any new start-up that is contemplating having a website, then it is ... SQL Server DBA Interview Questions and Answers , What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. ... What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. Sachin Diwakar February 3, 2018 85 ...
DMFs) and info on submission of DMFs to agency. FDA provides info on DMF list, status of DMF, types of DMF, and more. ... Info helps to master FDAs list of Drug Master Files ( ... due to the form heading element not being included in the index ... The list of DMFs is current through DMF 32419. Changes to the DMF activity status, DMF type, holder name, and subject made ... If a DMF holder references other DMFs a list of those DMFs can be provided in this section, similar to Section 30 on Form 356h ...
DMFs) is outdated and not in line with international efforts to standardize MF terminology and MF procedures. The revised draft ... The MF Holder should file a current index listing all components/formulations when filing the update for the MF. ... The 2008 Draft Guidance Document - Drug Master Files (DMFs) is outdated and not in line with international efforts to ... Also refer to the 2015 Notice - Re: Preparation of Drug Master File (DMF) in "Non-eCTD Electronic-Only" Format. ...
... carpal index explanation free. What is carpal index? Meaning of carpal index medical term. What does carpal index mean? ... Looking for online definition of carpal index in the Medical Dictionary? ... per person or the average number of DMF tooth surfaces (DMFS). ... citation index an index listing all publications appearing in a ... Heat index, Hemacytology index, Hemogram index, Hepatic iron index, HERP index, Hollingshead index, Icterus index, IgG index, ...
In 1943 the DMF in 12 -year-olds in North Shields was 4.3 and in 1949 it was 2.4. In South Shields the DMF was 2.4 in 1943 and ... The DMFS in 15-year-olds has hardly changed since 1993 when the DMFS was 4.00 and 60% of children were caries free53,139. In ... The following are a list of recent consensus reports which concluded that caries levels will be low when dietary sugars are ... http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/index.html, 1999. 14 Pitts NB, Palmer J. The Dental Caries Experience of 5-, 12- and 14-Year Old ...
The following list shows some of the references to be used by travelers. This list is not all inclusive. Travelers should use ... DMFs, (A)NDAs, (A)ADAs, and (A)NADAs filed with the agency are accessible to the inspection team through ITOB. Copies of the ... team is to evaluate the foreign facilitys compliance with cGMPs and its adherence to application commitments and DMF ... The Merck Index. *The Pharmaceutical Quality Control Handbook. *The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy ...
DMF Index. *Dental Caries/epidemiology*. *Dental Caries/ethnology. *Dental Health Surveys/methods* ... Both methods can be used to compute caries increments for populations with similar distribution of the dmfs scores to the ... We computed and compared mean dmfs (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) increment scores including (d(t) mfs) or ...
DMF Index Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control Female Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use Health Education, ... FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean net dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for ...
DMF Index Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control Female Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use Health Education, ... FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean net dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for ... The odds ratio for baseline Helkimos anamnestic index was 4.1, 5.7 for Eichner index with the support of removable dentures, ... Body mass index Cross-Sectional Studies Denmark Female Humans Hypertension - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology Incidence ...
The dmf/DMF index remains the most widely used measure of effect. % CR were lower in recent studies, and the halo... ... Join our Mailing List. Please provide some information so we can add you to our list of contacts and send you updates from the ... The mean DMFS in the communities with 0.8 to 1.4 ppm fluoride was 53.9 percent to 62.4... ... General trends indicated that a reduction in DMFT index values occurred over time, that a further reduction in DMFT... ...
Some drawbacks of this index were - it employs same caries detection criteria as DMF or DMFS; in cases of large lesions, which ... These indices were critically evaluated to list their strengths and limitations. Conclusion:There are many promising new caries ... Main disadvantage of SiC index is that this index is just an extension of DMF index as it follows same criteria for assessing ... Keywords: caries assessment; DMF index; significant caries index; ICDAS; specific caries index; PUFA; CAST. ...
If you are looking for other sources for this API or if you want a detailed contact of one of the listed companies, then please ... Find the most up to date entries and filter for information about quality data like DMFs and CEPs. .suggestion-div ul { border ... DMF Back to API search. Producers. Contact. Producer. Country. CEP DMF GMP Under. Development. ... Find more than 10,000 APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) listed from more than 2,000 producers and distributors worldwide ...
DMFS index is most common index used for assessment of caries during epidemiological studies.DMFT/DMFS index is universal index ... The DMFT cut-offs in the check list are based on the mean DMFT of the top one third of children with . ... DMF and SiC) together may help to highlight oral health inequalities more accurately ... DMFS index is most common index used for assessment of caries during epidemiological studies.DMFT/DMFS index is universal index ...
M Component of the DMF Surface Index The M component of the DMF surface index represents those permanent teeth that have been ... Therefore, fully edentulous adults may have DMFS scores of 0, not 148. 000-148 Surfaces 7240 1340 2767 Blank 222 17 67 Index to ... Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content ... 713-721 Computed Periodontal Index (P.I.) 713-721 Computed Periodontal Index (P.I.) The index is the sum of valid periodontal ...
WFHC, not listed).. Forbes Global ranked Sun Pharma in the list of most valuable companies for 2004 (turnover less than $2bill ... On an average, technology for 20-25 APIs is developed every year, and this includes projects for DMF/EDMF filing. The area of ... DMFs). Most of our plants are ISO 14001 and ISO 9002 approved, besides being approved by the respective foreign regulatory ... Share indexed to 100. US. The USD 40 billion generic market is our topmost priority. We are present in the US directly, through ...
DMF), CEP/COS, Japanese DMFs, Written Confirmation (WC) details listed on... ... Best Hormone Manufacturer India , Neiss Labs Ltd (http://hormonemanufacturer.com/index.html) Search Indian Testosterone ... Find here directory listing of steroids manufacturers... India We are one of the grand manufacturers... testosterone propionate ... Find here directory listing of steroids manufacturers, steroids suppliers and exporters from India. View steroids company ...
One of them, allow us to take a look at the index fragmentation level - sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats DMF. It is important to ... PageType - where 1 = Data Page, 2 = Index Page. *IndexLevel - as SQL Server uses doubly-linked lists in a B-Tree for indexes, ... Identifying fragmented indexes. Starting from version 2005, SQL Server contains a number of DMVs and DMFs qhich allow us to ... INNER JOIN [sys].[indexes] i ON p.[object_id] = i.[object_id] AND p.index_id = i.index_id. WHERE t.[is_ms_shipped] = 0 ...
DMFs) with the FDA. DMFs allows companies to use synthesized ligands for very high purity protein pharmaceuticals with total ... The list of materials that have been used for gradient formation is extensive with examples of the more commonly used materials ... The effective guarantee of minimum quality standards and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is an integral part of a DMF. Few ... Sample movement is typically monitored by UV absorption or refractive index during high speed separations in ultracentrifuges. ...
... together had fewer DMFs than Indian companies. Each of them had between 20 and 35 DMFs. Ranbaxy has filed over 12 DMFs during ... The information contained in the DMF may be used to support an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA). The other countries ... big enough to make the lower reaches of the FTSE 100 if it were listed in Britain. Although the value of its sales is smaller, ... http://www.keralanext.com/news/index.asp?id=28474. WTF ???? MECYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDE is the generic name for this drug???? its ...
DMF (S)] index and dental fluorosis was recorded using Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis [TSIF index]. Drinking water samples ... Age of the child, Presence of caries of mother, DMFT /DMFS scores and Dietary habits of the mother were found to be significant ... DMF(S)] of 1.12 ΁ 0.79. The mean DMF(S) scores were found to be statistically insignificant amongst the various socio ... Periodontal status of the inmates was assessed by a single investigator using the Community periodontal index according to WHO ...
... care index (CI), and restorative index (RI) values. Without date or language restrictions four databases were searched for; ... DMF OR DMFS OR DMFT) AND (restorative index OR RI OR care index OR CI). ... for her administrative assistance with the sourcing of journal articles and compilation of reference lists. ... Table 4 DMFT, Care index (CI) and Restorative index (RI) in CLD and CNLD (n = 25 studies; 20 studies with DMFT data and 16 with ...
  • short increment sensitivity index (SISI) a hearing test in which randomly spaced, 0.5-second tone bursts are superimposed at 1- to 5-decibel increments in intensity on a carrier tone having the same frequency and an intensity of 20 decibels above the speech recognition threshold. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We computed and compared mean dmfs (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) increment scores including (d(t) mfs) or excluding the noncavitated stage (d(c) mfs) from TSS and another adjustment method proposed by Beck (modified Beck's method). (nih.gov)
  • FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean 'net' dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for all children, using cluster analysis to adjust for the intra-cluster correlation among children in the same community. (arctichealth.org)
  • One thing needs to be made checked before removing - there may be some indexes that have been created for read-only tables (so, no updates) and they are used by some scheduled (eg. (sql-server-performance.com)
  • That type of indexes may be listed at the bottom of the output, hence it leads us to assume the index is heavily used. (sql-server-performance.com)
  • Any information that a manufacturer does not wish to share with the applicant or sponsor (i.e., because it is considered proprietary) may be placed in a Type III DMF and incorporated into the application by a letter from the manufacturer to the applicant which authorizes reference to the DMF. (fda.gov)
  • opsonic index a measure of opsonic activity determined by the ratio of the number of microorganisms phagocytized by normal leukocytes in the presence of serum from an individual infected by the microorganism, to the number phagocytized in serum from a normal individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The list, which is updated quarterly, is available in Microsoft Excel and in ASCII (tab-delimited) . (fda.gov)
  • A Drug Master File (DMF) is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that may be used to provide confidential detailed information about facilities, processes, or articles used in the manufacturing, processing, packaging, and storing of one or more human drugs. (fda.gov)
  • It plans to file about 90 DMFs in the near future. (bharat-rakshak.com)
  • If a DMF is in paper format with FDA, the same submission does not need to be resubmitted in eCTD format. (fda.gov)
  • If the existing number is four-digits, e.g., 1234, the DMF holder will need to pad left with zeroes to convert the DMF number to a g-digit format, e.g., 001234 when the DMF is converted to eCTD format. (fda.gov)
  • In addition, if the DMF holder chooses to resubmit all of an existing paper DMF in eCTD format, and there are any changes in the content of the DMF as a result of the reformatting (e.g., addition of new or updated information), the Cover Letter for the submission should specify what areas of information have been updated. (fda.gov)
  • So an index should be able to record these lesions to apply primary preventive measures in a population. (bvsalud.org)
  • Find more than 10,000 APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) listed from more than 2,000 producers and distributors worldwide. (apisourcing.net)