Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Liquid Ventilation: Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Liquid Phase Microextraction: Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Forensic Toxicology: The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.GlucosidesGels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).PolyvinylsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.FuraldehydeGlucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.PropaneMicroscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.EstersTherapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)o-Phthalaldehyde: A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Their other properties are diverse: many have low combustibility, are thermally stable, with wide liquid regions, and favorable solvating properties for a range of polar and non-polar compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analytes from the sample were extracted into a thin liquid membrane of hexadecane deposited on a porous Teflon membrane, from which they were subsequently analyzed directly by DESI. (ku.dk)
  • Amazon has the Purex Liquid Laundry Detergent for Baby (75 Fluid Ounces, 57 Loads) for a low $3.25 after Subscribe & Save. (techbargains.com)
  • While progress is being made in hospitals in regards to prescribing liquids in mL, many hospitals still use dosing devices that have household measures (e.g., teaspoonful, dessertspoonful, tablespoonful) and, as above, even drams and ounces. (ismp.org)
  • These borane - ionic liquid solutions appear to be the brightest hope so far to replace hydrazine and its derivatives as fuels in hypergolic propellant systems. (rsc.org)
  • To overcome this, the MIT team used an ionic liquid called DMPI-TFSI, which remains stable even in a powerful vacuum. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of the reference ionic liquid: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amide (including mixtures) Part 1. (hidenisochema.com)
  • This project is funded by the DTI and allows a benign ionic liquid to be used in place of phosphoric acid/sulphuric acid mixtures. (le.ac.uk)
  • We are currently in discussions with a number of large companies about licensing ionic liquid technology for catalytic reactions, electropolishing, pickling and cleaning applications. (le.ac.uk)
  • Natural Fluid Dynamics Make fantastic wave photography. (darkroastedblend.com)
  • For this purpose, we measured the power consumption and the velocity profiles at different solid volume fractions and compared the results with those obtained via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. (aiche.org)
  • key experiments that show how polymeric fluids differ from structurally simple fluids, then presents, in rough historical order, various methods for solving polymer fluid dynamics problems. (slugbooks.com)
  • While the focus shall be on fluid dynamics, talks on other aspects of liquid metal batteries and related devices (e.g., aluminum reduction cells) are equally welcome and clearly do belong to the scope of the workshop. (hzdr.de)
  • Incorporating steel reinforced polymer components, to give a pressure rating of 40 Bar, the low inertia turbines of the flowmeter have proven ideal for measuring the low viscosities (0.3 to 0.4 centipoises) encountered with volatile refrigerant fluids measured in the liquid form. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The investigators have developed a new method, malignant cell enrichment with immunomagnetic beads capture followed by Pap staining and NGS, to identify target malignant cells in body fluids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The experimental results obtained for flat liquid/fluid interfaces were compared with those calculated from an approximate solution of the flow equation by F. Y. Kafka and V. E. B. Dussan. (elsevier.com)
  • Dehghani, Mohammad Reza 2018-05-15 00:00:00 This work presents a new SAFT-VR Electrolyte equation of state (SAFT-VRE Morse EOS) that can predict solid-liquid equilibrium and second order derivative properties of electrolyte solutions. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a liquid lens, the electrowetting effect is applied to a non-mixing pair of fluids - typically one aqueous solution that conducts electricity and one oil that is nonconducting - that have different refractive indexes, meaning that light travels through each one differently. (microscan.com)
  • During long coast periods of zero-gravity, storage vessels for the cryogenic liquids proposed for use in some power transmission systems undergo random distribution of the liquid and vapor phases therein. (sae.org)
  • Thus, when heat flow into the vessel causes the vessel pressure to build-up requiring venting to maintain a safe value, the likelihood of venting the valuable liquid phase, as well as the vapor, results. (sae.org)
  • To preclude this eventuality, various devices for separating the liquid and vapor phases and venting just the vapor have been studied and carried into the experimentation stages. (sae.org)
  • This report presents the data obtained from the analysis, design and development testing of a specific, dynamic type vapor-liquid separator intended for use in a hydrogen storage tank. (sae.org)
  • DiStefano, J. and Shiozawa, S., "The Design and Development of a Zero-G Vapor Liquid Separator for Use in Cryogenic Fluid Power Systems," SAE Technical Paper 650322, 1965, https://doi.org/10.4271/650322 . (sae.org)
  • And with passive two-phase heat transfer (liquid to vapor), there are no moving parts and cooling hardware within the server is all but eliminated. (3m.com)
  • Our optimized method is more sensitive and reproducible than the earlier liquid hybridization assay and compares favorably to previously published real-time PCR methods for detection of enterovirus. (asm.org)
  • WHETHER an equilibrium concept is applied to a consideration for diffusion in liquids or whether the methods of irreversible thermodynamics 1,2 are used, it is clearly established that the driving force for molecular diffusion in liquids, such as occurs in the well-known diaphragm cell, is the gradient of the chemical potential. (nature.com)
  • Liquid gas interface is captured using the state of art moment-of-fluid (MOF) methods. (asme.org)
  • http://www.pulsair.com Pulsair's IBC Tote tank mixer is an easy to use portable mixer designed to mix, blend and agitate liquids any size IBC tote tank, bag-in-a-box or cardboard liquid bulk packaging vessel. (environmental-expert.com)
  • http://www.pulsair.com Pulsair's 55-gallon drum mixer is an easy to use portable mixer designed to mix, blend and agitate liquids in 55-gallon drums and 200/205 litre barrels. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, water-based plant gum, cellulose, synthetic polymer and other reinforcers used in conventional fracturing fluids have the following problems: the polymer material that entered the shale reservoir is very easy to be adsorbed on the surface of the porous medium, which further reducing the original smaller volume of pore and throat. (justia.com)
  • Liquid polymer clay mix, Liquid Sculpey®, opaque and translucent clear / black / white with bakeable transfer and color medium. (firemountaingems.com)
  • Liquid polymer clay mix, Liquid Sculpey®, opaque cream / silver / gold with bakeable transfer and color medium. (firemountaingems.com)
  • Liquid polymer clay, Sculpey®, translucent clear. (firemountaingems.com)
  • To ensure the highest degree of inertness to the refrigerant fluids the flowmeter polymer components were moulded in an FDA approved grade of Polyvinylidene difluoride (PDVF) and mounted in a 316 stainless steel body. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • In many of these applications the liquids have complex non Newtonian behaviour (Paul, Atieno-Obeng and Kresta, 2004). (aiche.org)
  • A cubic EOS has to be excessively complicated in order to be capable of capturing not only the single-phase behaviour of gas and liquid but also the transition two-phase zone. (hindawi.com)
  • However, just within this zone the cubic EOS is not used: its complicated nonmonotonic behaviour is simply replaced by an isobaric straight line (Maxwell's line) which corresponds to the true gas-liquid equilibrium. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention pertains to two inserts to be used in conjunction with the nozzles of known liquid flow through applicators. (google.com)
  • Today, our fluorinated liquids are critical to the manufacture of semiconductor wafers, the testing of advanced electronics and many other high technology applications. (3m.com)
  • The findings by Ruben Juanes and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology could make industrial processes like oil recovery, where mixing liquids is critical for extraction, more efficient. (newscientist.com)
  • Graco Fluid Automation systems are engineered to meet the needs for manufacturing liquid silicone rubber products, where precision is critical to ensure optimum quality and minimal waste. (graco.com)
  • Oscillations in the OHC membranes create periodic viscoelastic flows in the contacting fluid media. (mdpi.com)
  • In some cases, these droplets continue to move up the nanowire, while in other cases the droplets appear stationary even as the liquid within them flows upward. (nanotech-now.com)
  • This application claims priority to Chinese Patent Application No. CN201910022861.2, filed on Jan. 10, 2019, entitled "A foam fracturing fluid with double interface layers of a phlogisticated air-liquid CO 2 for shale gas production and preparation method thereof", which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. (justia.com)
  • Although the Navier-Stokes equations governing fluid flow are well known, their nonlinear nature means that they can only be solved in exceptional cases (such as laminar pipe flow). (aps.org)
  • From the distributions of liquid-like and gas-like particles, we present new explanations on some important properties of SCF, including the local density augmentation and divergent partial molar volume in supercritical solution. (aps.org)
  • Based on a stable density stratification of two liquid metals and a molten salt, LMBs offer several unique advantages as huge current densities, simple construction, easy scalability on the cell level, and potentially near infinity cycle life. (hzdr.de)
  • Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than in a gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments were also performed using culture fluids obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, Va.) stock enterovirus or rhinovirus strains. (asm.org)
  • Liquid crystal thermography is an effective method widely employed in transient and steady-state heat transfer experiments with excellent spatial resolution and good accuracy. (asme.org)
  • Graco Fluid Automation offers a complete line of metering systems for industrial applications involving two-component Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) materials. (graco.com)
  • Graco Fluid Automation LSR metering systems are engineered to achieve the highest degree of accuracy - maximizing materials, reducing scrapped parts and increasing productivity. (graco.com)
  • Graco Fluid Automation advanced technologies eliminate guesswork to make sure you hit a specific ratio and volume the first time and every time. (graco.com)
  • Since the fluid is routinely collected for cytologic evaluation, this facilitates easy access to samples for research in the laboratory. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depending on the workshop program and interest, a visit to the Liquid Metal Laboratory of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf as well as a city tour is planned to be offered. (hzdr.de)
  • Challenge In 2003 an area behind the hot cells in Building 2026 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was flooded with highly contaminated liquids when a liquid low level waste pipe became clogged. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Core barrel design is multi-purpose and allows using one barrel for coring isolated and non-isolated core due to using fiberglass core tubes and insulating fluid. (burintekh.com)
  • A liquid biopsy in CSF, obtained by lumbar puncture, is much less invasive and less risky for the patient than traditional procedures used to extract brain tissue samples. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new technique, liquid biopsy, has been recently and successfully developed at research level, which detects a tumor's specific mutations by means of a plasma sample containing circulating tumor DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • As reflected in recent literature, the liquid biopsy ´policing´ of cancer is not only promising a more precise treatment selection for each individual patient, but could also help us to be steps ahead of cancer´s next move. (eurekalert.org)
  • With these important considerations in mind we looked for a way to apply this type of liquid biopsy to brain cancer, especially in view of the obstacles associated with accessing this tumor type", explains Joan Seoane, Director of Translational Research at VHIO, ICREA Professor, and Professor at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), who led the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Liquid biopsy in plasma has already proven useful in metastatic colon, breast and lung cancer, but not as successful for brain tumors, for several reasons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mirroring certain successes to-date of applying liquid biopsy across other tumor types, the use of tumor DNA circulating in CSF as a liquid biopsy for brain tumors could be much less invasive than standard tissue biopsy to characterize the genetic alterations of the new tumor. (eurekalert.org)
  • The purpose of the current study is to establish a Liquid biopsy method (positive enrichment by a novel immunomagnetic beads capture assay) for detection of malignant cell in serous effusions and to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity for clinical application. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fluid control systems maintain a long service life of fluids and components in hydraulic, lubrication and coolant systems. (engnetglobal.com)
  • AmnioELITE™ is an amniotic fluid allograft comprised of minimally manipulated amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived components obtained from the placental tissue of consenting mothers at the time of a live, full-term, elective Cesarean birth. (surgilogix.com)
  • Our Calcium Magnesium liquid is also pre-acidified (pH 4.0) to ensure maximum absorption of the essential minerals. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • In this paper, a new extraction method based on countercurrent liquid-liquid microextraction (CLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in plasma and urine samples prior to their analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). (springer.com)
  • In 1982, Fluorinert liquid became the first immersion coolant used in supercomputing when incorporated into the Cray-2 design. (3m.com)
  • Achieve your performance targets for your next generation data center while reducing footprint and improving energy efficiency with liquid immersion cooling using 3M fluids. (3m.com)
  • We thought that we were getting the best results we could with a glucosamine liquid until one day we were at the store and unable to purchase that brand. (entirelypets.com)
  • Though the observations used this specific liquid, the results are believed to apply to most liquids, including water. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The results illustrated the feasibility of a liquid crystal based shear stress sensor for visualizing the spatial distribution of biologically relevant shear stress. (begellhouse.com)
  • Graco Fluid Automation's extensive LSR experience results in equipment that is engineered to reduce cleaning downtime and increase production efficiency. (graco.com)
  • Her main theoretical and experimental research touch such fields as turbulent mixing, chemical reaction, precipitation, liquid-liquid dispersions. (routledge.com)
  • In order to test their performance and to identify their important parameters, four well-known three-phase k r - S - P c models have been tested against published experimental data on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) migration in the unsaturated zone. (diva-portal.org)
  • Scientists investigating how proteins naturally transition between gas-like solutions, condensed liquids, solidified gels, and insoluble fibrils are finding increasing evidence that proteins liquefy before aggregating. (alzforum.org)
  • When dissolved in ionic liquids , the borane solutions exhibit ignition delay times which are superior to any known hypergolic ionic liquids . (rsc.org)
  • According to Watson-Marlow Pumps Group, this has resulted in a rapid rise in orders for refilling solutions such as the company's Flexicon peristaltic liquid dosing technology. (watson-marlow.com)
  • Watson-Marlow says that many companies filling e-liquid cartridges are now upgrading to fully automatic solutions. (watson-marlow.com)
  • In this study, variable range statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT-VR Morse) EOS was extended to electrolyte solutions. (deepdyve.com)
  • We are a world leader in fluid and motion control technologies, delivering exceptional solutions which improve the productivity and efficiency of our customers' equipment. (norgren.com)
  • Impact Faraday funded a studentship to investigate the formation of colloids such as emulsions and micelles in sc fluids. (le.ac.uk)
  • This box was made of acrylic and filled with a refractive index matching fluid to avoid optical distortions on the surface of the cylindrical vessel. (aiche.org)
  • Due to the nature of how the physics of force fields work, fluid under the influence of a force will accelerate (speed up) over time, similar to how an object under the force of gravity will speed up the longer it falls. (blenderartists.org)