Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mercury PoisoningAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Liquid Ventilation: Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.HydrocarbonsSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).Osmometry: Measurement of the OSMOLARITY of solutions or BODY FLUIDS.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Benzene DerivativesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi: ... Density (near r.t.). amorphous: 1.8-2.1 g/cm3[2]. graphite: 2.267 g/cm3. diamond: 3.515 g/cm3. ... However, a recent computational study employing density functional theory methods reached the conclusion that as T → 0 K and p ... It is among the lightest known solids, with a density of about 2 kg/m3.[46] Similarly, glassy carbon contains a high proportion ...
It has a vapor density of 4.2 (air=1). Diethylaluminum chloride is very difficult to handle. Diethylaluminum chloride is ... When dissolved in hexane, diethylaluminum chloride is a colorless liquid. It is used for polyolefin catalysis and as an ... Diethylaluminum chloride vapors can diffuse throughout a room and catch fire from an ignition source and create a flash back. ...
Similar differences are typical of water liquid/water vapor densities. The sound speed changes dramatically for materials ... Two-phase flow can occur in various forms, such as flows transitioning from pure liquid to vapor as a result of external ... The phase changes are not instantaneous, and the liquid vapor system will not necessarily be in phase equilibrium. The change ... When the vapor bubble collapses, it can produce very large pressure spikes, which over time will cause damage on the propellor ...
ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. ... It is among the lightest known solids, with a density of about 2 kg/m3. Similarly, glassy carbon contains a high proportion of ... It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the ... Today, diamonds are located in the diamond-rich density fraction with the help of X-ray fluorescence, after which the final ...
Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi: ... Density (near r.t.). amorphous: 1.8-2.1 g/cm3[1] graphite: 2.267 g/cm3 diamond: 3.515 g/cm3 ... Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963- ...
H2O vapor is sequestered as liquid H2O in oceans, greatly decreasing the atmospheric density. With liquid water running over ... It occurs on Earth when water vapor condenses to form rain or glacial ice. It also occurs on Earth when carbon dioxide is ... What basis The exosphere is the high-altitude region where atmospheric density is sparse and Jeans escape occurs. Jeans escape ...
Vacuum pump oil has very low vapor pressure and it is available in a range of densities; the lowest density vacuum oil was ... Pascal further devised an experiment to test the Aristotelian proposition that it was vapors from the liquid that filled the ... since more vapors would mean more pushing down on the liquid column). Pascal performed the experiment publicly, inviting the ... The density of mercury will change with increase or decrease in temperature, so a reading must be adjusted for the temperature ...
... the working fluid also has a high vapor pressure and density. As the lower chamber in each pair is heated, the liquid begins to ... One chamber in each connected pair is filled with a liquid with a low boiling point (propane (TB = −42 °C) and R-12 (TB = −29.8 ... vaporize, forcing the remaining liquid to travel to the upper chamber. This fluid transfer causes a weight imbalance, which ...
Hot pressing provides higher density material. Chemical vapor deposition can place a film of a ceramic on another material. ... At high temperatures used to prepare glass, the material is a viscous liquid. The structure of glass forms into an amorphous ... This involves simulating materials at all length scales, using methods such as density functional theory, molecular dynamics, ... whereas medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) is used for underground gas and water pipes, and another variety called ultra-high- ...
The lowest temperature at which a small test flame passing over the surface of the liquid causes the vapor to ignite is ... The increase in temperature will cause the chemical to begin to produce flammable vapor in increasing quantities and density. ...
... of state describes the vapor densities of pure components and mixtures quite well but the deviations of the liquid density ... The prediction of a vapor-liquid equilibrium is successful even in mixtures containing supercritical components. However, the ... these are obtained from parametric fits to experimental vapor-liquid equilibria of mixtures. Hence, for high-quality model ... This allows the calculation of densities, enthalpies, heat capacities, and other properties. As stated previously, the PSRK ...
Clear colourless liquid the density of which is lower than water's. Highly flammable liquid and vapor. Its physical state is ... clear liquid Its destilation range is 115-118Cº. Some more specific properties are: Gravity: 0,76 Vapor density: 2,38 ... Some other useful applications of these organic nitriles are the performance of high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. ...
The fluid has a density between that of water vapor and liquid at standard conditions, and exhibits high gas-like diffusion ... In addition, the behavior of water as a solvent is altered (in comparison to that of subcritical liquid water) - it behaves ... rates along with high liquid-like collision rates. ...
... has a vapor density that is 4.6 times that of air, or about 1.384 grams per milliliter at 20 °C (68 °F ... Trifluoroacetyl chloride is typically stored as a liquid under high pressure. Liquid trifluoroacetyl chloride can cause ... It is usually shipped as a liquid under high pressure, however. The compound is a toxic gas. ... as a liquid under pressure. The compound has a melting point of −146 °C (−231 °F) and a boiling point of −27 °C (−17 °F). The ...
Michael Faraday's announcement of ether as an anesthetic in 1818 Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid ... makes it ideal for use as the non-polar solvent in liquid-liquid extraction. When used with an aqueous solution, the diethyl ... Vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol over some alumina catalysts can give diethyl ether yields of up to 95%. Diethyl ether can be ... Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol. This process uses solid ...
Sudden Sniffer's Death Syndrome article at Carolinas Poison Center Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic ... It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE. It is also a ... Sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine bleach) mixed with common household liquids such as acetone, butanone, methyl ethyl ... which turns yellow in phosgene vapor. There are several colorimetric and fluorometric reagents for phosgene, and it can also be ...
... liquid diffusivity, light key component, Re = Reynolds number = (hwuvρv/µL(FA)), hw = weir height, ρv = vapor density, (FA) = ... liquid surface tension, µL = liquid viscosity, Sc = liquid Schmidt number = (µL/ρ_L * D_LK), ρL = liquid density, DLK = ... The equation is: E = 0.07(Dg^(0.14))(SC^(0.25))(Re^(0.08)) where Dg is liquid diffusivity, Sc Schmidt number, and Re Reynolds ... Dg = surface tension number = (σL/µLuv ), uv = superficial vapor velocity, σL = ...
1990 Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of sulfolane Typical Properties ... Sulfolane is also added to hydrofluoric acid as a vapor suppressant, commonly for use in a refinery's alkylation unit. This " ... It is a colorless liquid commonly used in the chemical industry as a solvent for extractive distillation and chemical reactions ... was found to be highly effective in separating high purity aromatic compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures using liquid-liquid ...
... liquid, gaseous or plasma), density, solubility, vapor pressure, electrical conductivity rate and extent to which chemical ... Because liquid droplets commonly exist in clouds at sub-zero temperatures, 0°C is better defined as the melting point of ice. ... It makes good sense, for example, to say of the extensive variable U, or of the extensive variable S, that it has a density per ... For the Kelvin scale in modern times, this choice of convention is made to be that of setting the gas-liquid-solid triple point ...
SEKAB ethyl acetate A Techno Commercial Profile of Ethyl Acetate in India Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, ... This colorless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell (similar to pear drops) and is used in glues, nail polish removers, ... In a killing jar charged with ethyl acetate, the vapors will kill the collected insect quickly without destroying it. Because ... dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of ethyl acetate. ...
... where the distinction between gas and liquid ceases to apply. Densities of the liquid phase and vapor phase become equal at ... As the substance in a liquid body crosses the boundary from liquid to gas (see green arrow in phase diagram), the liquid ... the sample can be brought via two possible alternate paths from the liquid phase to the gas phase without crossing the liquid- ... surface tension in the liquid body pulls against any solid structures the liquid might be in contact with. Delicate structures ...
... the liquid density is much greater than the vapor density, ρ L ≫ ρ V {\displaystyle \rho _{L}\gg \rho _{V}} , so that F ( t ... is the density of the surrounding liquid, assumed to be constant R ( t ) {\displaystyle R(t)} is the radius of the bubble ν L ... Outside the bubble is an infinite domain of liquid with constant density ρ L {\displaystyle \rho _{L}} and dynamic viscosity μ ... If u L {\displaystyle u_{L}} is the velocity of the liquid relative to the bubble at r = R {\displaystyle r=R} , then the mass ...
... vapor to ice).[12] Density. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes.[14] In 1 atm pressure ... Liquid water. Liquid water is present on Earth, covering 71% of its surface.[1] Liquid water is also occasionally present in ... Water in three states: solid (ice), liquid and vapor (here mostly invisible water vapor, cooling and condensing, is building ... On a pressure/temperature phase diagram (see figure), there are curves separating solid from vapor, vapor from liquid, and ...
Donnelly, Russell J.; Barenghi, Carlo F. (1998). "The Observed Properties of Liquid Helium at the Saturated Vapor Pressure". ... The suggested values for solid densities refer to "near room temperature" by default. The suggested values for liquid densities ... The source for the van der Waals constants and for the literature densities was: R. C. Weast (Ed.), Handbook of Chemistry and ... Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Density of Molten Elements and ...
... is a problem that mostly affects gasoline-fueled internal combustion engines. It occurs when the liquid fuel changes ... Much of the foregoing applies equally to a gravity feed system; if vapor forms in the fuel line, its lower density reduces the ... Liquids boil at lower temperatures when in lower pressure environments. Vapor lock was a common occurrence in stock car racing ... For this reason, some fuel delivery systems allow fuel vapor to be returned to the fuel tank to be condensed back to the liquid ...
It is covered with a waxy cuticle which is impermeable to liquid water and water vapor and forms the boundary separating the ... and minor vein density. A number of authors have adopted simplified versions of these schemes.[51][24] At its simplest the ... and water vapor into and out of the internal intercellular space system. Stomatal opening is controlled by the turgor pressure ... carbon dioxide and water vapor can diffuse into and out of the leaf and access the mesophyll cells during respiration, ...
Our machines are connected directly to liquid CO2.. Web site: www.polartech-as.com/en/. ... High Pressure Pelletizer manufacture high-density pellets for your dry ice blasting.. See TOMCO2 for all Pelletizers available ... 3) Mildew and mold removal are far more complete with less chance of regeneration because of water vapor or moisture. 4) Dry ... Upon contact with the surface to be cleaned, the dry ice pellets transform directly from a solid to a gas (no liquid phase) in ...
Density of Saturated Vapor R-134a (Replies: 7) * Specific Heat of Liquid Saturation Line and Vapour Saturation Line in RefProp ... Density of ethanol is 0.789 g/cm^3. How can I mathematically calculate how much alcohol is in the air???. I am familiar with ...
The solid material can release enough vapor to cause symptoms. Post World War II studies indicate that concentrations below 8% ... Pure phosgene oxime is a colorless, crystalline solid; however, the munitions grade compound is a yellowish-brown liquid. ... Vapor density: Liquid density: No data. Flash point: No data. Solubility in water 70% in water; highly soluble in most organic ... Vapor pressure: 11.2 mm Hg at 25ºC (solid); 13 mm Hg at 40ºC (liquid) ...
... yellow cross liquid; yperite. Synonyms: HT: Mixture of bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide and bis[2-(2-chloroethylthio)-ethyl]ether ... Vapor density. 5.4 to 5.5 (air = 1.0). 6.92 (air = 1.0). Liquid density. 1.24 to 1.27 g/mL at 68 °F (20 °C). 1.27 g/mL. ... Colorless when pure but usually a pale yellow, dark brown or black oily liquid. The vapor is colorless. Clear yellowish liquid ... Contact with the vapor may result in first and second degree burns, while contact with the liquid typically produces second and ...
A high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for depositing an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film ... A cooling liquid is circulated throughout an internal portion of the pedestal 307 to control a growth temperature. For example ... These high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods may form a high density plasma having an electron density ... Further, the density of the plasma of the high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is higher by at least two ...
The solid material can release enough vapor to cause symptoms. Post World War II studies indicate that concentrations below 8% ... Pure phosgene oxime is a colorless, crystalline solid; however, the munitions grade compound is a yellowish-brown liquid. ... Vapor density: Liquid density: No data. Flash point: No data. Solubility in water 70% in water; highly soluble in most organic ... Vapor pressure: 11.2 mm Hg at 25ºC (solid); 13 mm Hg at 40ºC (liquid) ...
The Density of Liquid Oxygen. Lithium, Cæsium, and Rubidium from Lepidolite. By H. Peterson ... Determining Vapor-Densities. By J. H*amp*auml;bermann. Magnesium Fluoride. By A. Cossa ...
Low liquid and vapor densities. Low liquid heat capacity. High latent heat of vaporization. High vapor heat capacity. ... Density of air. Compressor power requirement. Coeffecient of Performance (Ideal). Coeffecient of Performance (Actual). ... Vapor - Compression Cycle. Practical evaporation and condensation pressures. High critical and low freezing temperatures. ...
of liquid 3.12 at 20°C; density of vapor 7.14 grams per liter at STP ; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, ... liquid chemical element; symbol Br; at. no. 35; at. wt. 79.904; m.p. -7.2°C; b.p. 58.78°C; sp. gr. ... of liquid 3.12 at 20°C; density of vapor 7.14 grams per liter at STP ; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. At ordinary temperatures ... bromine brō´mēn, -mĭn [key] [Gr.,=stench], volatile, liquid chemical element; symbol Br; at. no. 35; at. wt. 79.904; m.p. -7.2° ...
Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi: ... Density (near r.t.). amorphous: 1.8-2.1 g/cm3[2]. graphite: 2.267 g/cm3. diamond: 3.515 g/cm3. ... However, a recent computational study employing density functional theory methods reached the conclusion that as T → 0 K and p ... It is among the lightest known solids, with a density of about 2 kg/m3.[46] Similarly, glassy carbon contains a high proportion ...
surface tension for liquids. VaporDensity. density relative to air density. VaporPressure. vapor pressure. ...
Boiling Point Approximately 203F Vapor Density: Greater Than 1. Vapor Pressure 14 @ 37% @ 80 F Melting Point: -36 F to -10.6 F ... Appearance & Odor Clear Liquid with Sharp Pungent Odor. SECTION IV -- FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA. ...
Extensive tables on: vapor pressure of pure substances, density of coexisting phases of pure substances, melting and allotropic ... transitions under pressure; transition tempertures of crystalline liquids; vapor pressure of mixed systems; heterogeneous ... Landolt-Bornstein II/2a : Equilibria vapor-condensate and osmotic phenomena.. Title. Landolt-Bornstein II/2a : Equilibria vapor ... Home > ThermoDex > Landolt-Bornstein II/2a : Equilibria vapor-condensate and osmotic phenomena. ...
Appearance: colourless liquid. Melting Point: -85.6 C. Boiling Point: 31.4 C. Vapor Density: 2.35 (air = 1). Vapor Pressure: ...
Appearance: colourless liquid. Boiling Point: 224 - 232 C. Vapor Density: 6 (air = 1). Flash Point: 99 C. Water Solubility: ...
Vapor Density: lighter than air.. Percentage Volatile: 60. Appearance: Clear light amber liquid with light pine scent ...
Vapor Density: lighter than air.. Percentage Volatile: 60. Appearance: Clear light amber liquid with light soap scent ...
Density-temperature formulae for coexisting liquid and vapor and for freezing liquid parahydrogen, p. 541 Goodwin, Robert D. ... Vapor pressure and heat of sublimation of rhenium, p. 175 Plante, E.R.; Szwarc, R. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.070A.014 ... Density of polyethylene crystals grown from solution, p. 221 Martin, Gordon M.; Passaglia, Elio http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres. ... Thermal relaxation and brillouin scattering in liquids, p. 207 Mountain, Raymond D. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.070A.017 ...
Does gasoline in its liquid state burn? NO 30 What is the vapor density of gasoline? ...
Vapor Pressure: 0.02mm Hg at 20 C. *Vapor Density: 1. *Water Solubility: 100% ... Appearance: Clear Amber Liquid. *Odor: Odorless. *Rinsibility: No Visual Residual. *Application Temp: 40-110 F (4-43 C) ...
Buy Clear Liquid Diethylene Glycol 2-Ethylhexyl Ether , 2-Ethylhexyl Carbitol direct from Chemicals of China Factory that ... Vapor density 7.5 C. *Flash point 151 C. *Solubility 0.2 g/100 g water ... Clear Liquid Diethylene Glycol 2-Ethylhexyl Ether , 2-Ethylhexyl Carbitol. Large Image Clear Liquid Diethylene Glycol 2- ... Colorless Liquid EDGA Ethylene Glycol Diacetate With Cas Number 111-55-7 ...
  • 3) Mildew and mold removal are far more complete with less chance of regeneration because of water vapor or moisture. (dryiceinfo.com)
  • Specific Gravity/Density: 13.59 (water=1) - Molecular Formula :Hg - Molecular Weight: 200.59 - ORIGIN: Malaysia Packaging: Metal bottles of 34.5 Kgs net each.Packed in metallic flask with 34.5 kg in each flask, package in wooden boxes of 8 flasks in each box. (toboc.com)
  • Ionic liquids have been subject of interest recently due to its low volatility and ability to dissolve a wide variety of compounds, making it useful as green solvents for energy storage application and industrial process. (openpr.com)
  • Ionic liquid is also used to solve critical pharmaceutical problems, performing as carriers of pharmaceutical active compounds and salts through the combination of anions and cations. (openpr.com)
  • The solid version of most compounds is more dense than the liquid version. (geography4kids.com)
  • On coming into contact with the medium to be sterilized, the saturated steam condenses from the gas phase to the liquid phase, transferring its latent heat of vaporization to the material to be sterilized and thus, any associated microbes on its surface. (pnas.org)
  • This is the latent heat from the supersaturation of the vapor that can support the surface tension energy of the droplet. (sjsu.edu)
  • A high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for depositing an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film on a silicon substrate includes at least both a first deposition period during which a first power having a first frequency is applied to the silicon substrate and a second deposition. (google.com)
  • 2. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 1 , wherein said first deposition period corresponds to an initial deposition period of said high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. (google.com)
  • 3. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 2 , wherein said first frequency is 13.56 MHz. (google.com)
  • 4. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 3 , wherein said second frequency is not higher than 1.8 MHz. (google.com)
  • 5. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 4 , wherein a plurality of interconnections are formed on an insulating film on a surface of said silicon region with gaps in the range of 0.2 micrometers to 0.5 micrometers having a maximum aspect ratio in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 between two adjacent said interconnections. (google.com)
  • 6. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 1 , wherein said silicon region comprises a silicon substrate. (google.com)
  • 7. The high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method as claimed in claim 1 , wherein said insulating film is silicon dioxide film. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to an improved high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and more particularly to an improved high density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for depositing an inter-layer insulator or a passivation film which buries a gap of adjacent interconnections having a small distance. (google.com)
  • A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for deposition of an insulating film has been in development wherein a high frequency power is applied to a silicon substrate. (google.com)
  • Vapors are not absorbed through the skin except at very high concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Ionic liquid price trends have been high, making it uneconomical for industries to use. (openpr.com)
  • An optical device comprises an optical waveguide having, as a basic unit, a core layer of a liquid having a relatively high refractive index and a clad layer having a relatively low refractive index and covering said core layer, and a heat-generating means for heating a part of said core layer to form. (google.com)
  • Like would beings of high vibration be of low density and invisible to us because of that? (abovetopsecret.com)
  • We also supply high-purity industrial-grade IPA so you can use in it concentrated form or create your own IPA cleaning liquid. (ecolink.com)
  • For example, in a hot-humid climate, the exterior is typically at a high vapor pressure and high temperature during the summer. (buildingscience.com)
  • These solvents possess high vapor densities and are not very water soluble. (cdc.gov)
  • First, it has a high energy density . (everything2.com)
  • Plants measure internal liquid rates when high accuracy is necessary. (chemicalprocessing.com)
  • High liquid heights created to get accurately measurable level changes will increase the leak rates through bolted connections. (chemicalprocessing.com)
  • Adding to Yaws' initial release offering more than 5,000 inorganic and 34,000 organic substances as well as 293,000 records, the database now includes an additional 90 tables and 5,000 records of property data for mixtures, refrigerants and miscellaneous solids and liquids. (yahoo.com)
  • It has the unique ability to diffuse through solids like a gas , and dissolve materials like a liquid . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Skin, eye, and airway exposure to vapor sulfur mustard and skin and eye exposure to liquid mustard may cause systemic toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • When the vapor bubble collapses, it can produce very large pressure spikes, which over time will cause damage on the propellor or turbine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. (springer.com)
  • Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. (springer.com)
  • Haramura and Katto ( 3 ) postulated that CHF is triggered when the liquid film within the microlayer completely evaporates as a massive bubble hovers over it. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vapor-liquid coexistence curves for pure fluids are calculated using histogram reweighting Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble, while Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo is used to calculate binary and ternary mixture phase behavior. (aiche.org)
  • One of the most important properties of supercritical fluids is that their solvating properties are a complex function of their pressure and temperature, independent of their density. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Liquid water remains one of the most important environments in which physical, chemical, and biological processes occur. (pnas.org)
  • Despite being one of the most-studied liquids, the properties of water and the nature of its interactions with other physical systems continue to be at the forefront of current research in many fields of science ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The physical and forecasting mathematical models of heat and mass transfer with phase transformations and chemical reactions under heating and following ignition of typical liquid fuel by using concentrated flow of radiation were developed. (hindawi.com)
  • The tray type and geometry as well as the physical properties of the system determine the minimum acceptable liquid rate. (chemicalprocessing.com)
  • In addition to IPA cleaning liquid, cleaning liquids containing methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and butyl alcohol are commonly used for various cleaning operations, from removing grime from work surfaces to cleaning away dirt from electronic components. (ecolink.com)
  • Rising trend of adopting green solvent due to increasing toxic concerns from their organic substitutes should drive ionic liquid market during the forecasted timeframe. (openpr.com)
  • i) For small quantities of liquid DBCP, absorb on paper towels, remove to a safe place (such as a fume hood) and burn the paper. (wa.gov)
  • This plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method utilizes a dependency of a sputtering etching rate of argon ions upon an oblique angle, wherein the sputtering etching rate is higher efficiency to a sloped portion. (google.com)