An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)
A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.
A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Relating to the size of solids.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Surgical removal of a section of the iris.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.
A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Thus, liquids meet the requirements of being both energy-dense and clean-burning. In addition, liquids (and gases) can be ... Therefore, fusion stops and the star dies. In attempts by humans, fusion is only carried out with hydrogen (isotope of 2 and 3 ... Electric confinement (ITER), inertial confinement(heating by laser) and heating by strong electric currents are the popular ... Most transportation fuels are liquids, because vehicles usually require high energy density. This occurs naturally in liquids ...
... dye laser); low-power air-cooled lasers (argon (488 nm), red-HeNe (633 nm), green-HeNe, HeCd (UV)); diode lasers (blue, green, ... The flow cell has a liquid stream (sheath fluid), which carries and aligns the cells so that they pass single file through the ... Because different fluorescent dyes' emission spectra overlap,[10][11] signals at the detectors have to be compensated ... In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting ...
Wafer dicing may then be performed either by sawing using a cooling liquid or a dry laser process called stealth dicing. ... Die preparation[edit]. After preparing a large number of MEMS devices on a silicon wafer, individual dies have to be separated ... which is called die preparation in semiconductor technology. For some applications, the separation is preceded by wafer ...
Laser treatment - often with a pulse dye laser or carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Pulse dye lasers (wavelength 582 nm) work by ... Cryosurgery or cryotherapy, which involves freezing the wart (generally with liquid nitrogen),[36] creating a blister between ... Pulse dye lasers are less destructive and more likely to heal without scarring. CO2 laser works by vaporizing and destroying ... CO2 lasers will require local anaesthetic. Pulse dye laser treatment does not need conscious sedation or local anesthetic. It ...
Stilbene is one of the gain mediums used in dye lasers. Disodium 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate is prepared by the ... Cis-stilbene is a liquid at room temperature (melting point: 5-6 °C (41-43 °F)), while trans-stilbene is a crystalline solid ... Commercially important dyes derived from this compound include Direct Red 76, Direct Brown 78, and Direct Orange 40. The ... E)-Stilbene itself is of little value, but it is a precursor to other derivatives used as dyes, optical brighteners, phosphors ...
More directly, dyes can be added to (usually liquid) flows to measure concentrations; typically employing the light attenuation ... We can illuminate the particles with a sheet of laser light in order to visualize a slice of a complicated fluid flow pattern. ... or laser-induced fluorescence techniques. In scientific visualization flows are visualized with two main methods: Analytical ...
Metalder's combined Laser Arm and G-Kick attacks cause him to fall over and explode. Before dying, Hedogross spews liquid all ... Both die in the collapse of the Ghost Bank, denied their attempt to escape by Coolgin in the guise of God Neros. Coolgin (クールギン ... He died in October 1944 as the first member of the Kamikaze Special Attack Squads. He loved music and played the violin with ... However, he dies first. Battling Metalder, he damages his armor. Darbarbo and Bulchek seem to cause interference in the battle ...
... then fires his laser at Josh. The blast misses Josh, but hits the container, shattering the glass and the green liquid spills ... Psycho leaves, thinking Josh will die. The green blobs is actually nanomachines, known to the company as "Nano-Probes". Later ... He is dying, so some scientists tell Jeff that Josh will need transphasic energy. Jeff allows them. However, it doesn't work. ... Berto tells Josh's father that the probes are dying, and need trasphasic energy to survive. Jeff finds it too risky, but Josh ...
Fields within organic photonics include the liquid organic dye laser and solid-state organic dye lasers. Materials used in ... laser dye-doped PMMA laser dye-doped ormosil laser dye-doped polymer-nanoparticle matrices laser dye-doped bio-based gain media ... "Compact and miniaturized organic dye lasers: from glass to bio-based gain media". In Duarte FJ (ed.). Organic Lasers and ... Duarte, F. J.; James, R. O. (2003-11-01). "Tunable solid-state lasers incorporating dye-doped, polymer- nanoparticle gain media ...
Liquids, in the form of dye solutions as used in dye lasers.[5][6] ... List of laser types. References and notes[edit]. *^ Hecht, Jeff. The Laser Guidebook: Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1992. ( ... The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser. The gain ... Encyclopedia of laser physics and technology *^ A.E.Siegman (1986). Lasers. University Science Books. ISBN 0-935702-11-3. .. . ...
The principle of detection was based on staining proteins and nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes within a liquid sample. As ... stained particles passed through the probe region and interacted with a laser, emissions were detected and recorded for ... The virus counter is an instrument for rapid quantification of viruses in liquid samples. It is a specialized flow cytometer ... "Combo Dye® and ViroTag® Reagents". Sartorius. Retrieved 2020-10-03. InDevR Website University of Colorado Website. ...
However these dye-sensitized photovoltaics present storage problems because the liquid electrolyte is toxic and can potentially ... Brown, G. F. & Wu, J. (2009). "Third generation photovoltaics". Laser & Photonics Reviews. 3 (4): 394-405. Bibcode:2009LPRv.... ... For example, MIT estimated that 52,000 people per year die prematurely in the U.S. from coal-fired power plant pollution[135] ... Typically using a seed crystal, an ingot of this solution is grown from the liquid polycrystalline. The ingot may also be cast ...
... and employs visible tunable lasers such as dye lasers. Another method used is liquid thermal diffusion. A person can be exposed ... 1990). Dye Laser Principles. Academic. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-12-222700-4. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. " ... An alternative laser method of enrichment is known as atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) ... The molecular laser isotope separation method employs a laser beam of precise energy to sever the bond between uranium-235 and ...
Saturable absorbers are commonly liquid organic dyes, but they can also be made from doped crystals and semiconductors. ... important particularly for laser applications, concern the development of mode-locked lasers which can be pumped with laser ... Although laser light is perhaps the purest form of light, it is not of a single, pure frequency or wavelength. All lasers ... A laser's bandwidth of operation is determined primarily by the gain medium from which the laser is constructed, and the range ...
Initially multiple-prism grating configurations were introduced in narrow-linewidth liquid dye lasers but eventually were also ... "Narrow-linewidth pulsed dye Laser oscillators". In Duarte, F. J.; Hillman, L. W. (eds.). Dye Laser Principles. Academic Press. ... 37, 3987-3989 (1998). Duarte, F. J.; Piper, J. (1980). "A double-prism beam expander for pulsed dye lasers". Optics ... doi:10.1016/0030-4018(82)90216-4. Duarte, F. J. (1989). "Ray transfer matrix analysis of multiple-prism dye laser oscillators ...
These materials can be efficiently optically pumped by the AlGaAs-GaAs laser diode arrays, but dye laser excitation is used ... which concentrates energy emission at 2.085 µm at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen. The process is a radiationless, ... These states are produced in a weakly ionized RF plasma discharge, and nitrogen-pumped dye lasers are used to generate the ... Megan, Graydon (November 14, 2016). "Isaac Abella, University of Chicago physicist who worked with lasers, dies at 82". Chicago ...
The player can die by falling into toxic liquids, bottomless pits, or falling from too great a height, and if hit by ... but their new density allows them to avoid destruction by laser beams, the Slow dimension, where time crawls to ten times ... destructive lasers; this will restart the player at the start of a puzzle or a checkpoint if passed. The goal of each room is ...
After the ink has cured (dried), the labels are laser- or die-cut and the waste material between labels removed from the press ... Once applied, the polyurethane liquid flows to the edge of the label and stops (due to the surface tension of the liquid), ... The liquid polyurethane material is then applied to the labels on the press sheet and left to cure.. ... The coating can be applied in liquid form in many different ways, ranging from manual application via syringe to optically- ...
He died in Glasgow in 1907. Kerr's most important experimental work was the discovery of double refraction in solid and liquid ... Intense light from lasers allows the achievement of the effect using the light's own electric field, the AC Kerr effect. Kerr ... Modern cells are more commonly filled with liquids such as nitrobenzene. Kerr also was an early champion of the metric system ...
The quantum efficiency of those liquid lasers was about 0.75 relative to the traditional Nd:YAG laser. Another important ... The latter is one of the most popular inorganic photocatalyst for decomposition of phenol, various dyes and other waste water ... The Nd-YAG laser emits infrared light at 1.064 micrometres and is the most popular solid-state laser (i.e. laser based on a ... The laser liquids prepared by this technique emits at the same wavelength of 1.064 micrometres and possess properties, such as ...
Common equipment used for the perforation of metal include rotary pinned perforation rollers, die and punch presses, and laser ... liquid gas burning tubes, mine cages, coal washing, etc. Material development - glass reinforcement, cement slurry screens, ... dyeing machines, textile printers and felt mills, cinder screens, blast furnace screens, etc. Automotive - air filters, oil ... is sheet metal that has been manually or mechanically stamped or punched using CNC technology or in some cases laser cutting to ...
The first dye laser (and the first provide output from a liquid solution) was demonstrated by physicist Peter P. Sorokin and ... Died: Major-General J. F. C. Fuller, 87, British Army strategist and military historian New York City's "Crash Clean-up ... See and Bassett, who had been scheduled to travel into space on Gemini 9A in May, died when their T-38 jet trainer struck the ... Died: Camilo Torres Restrepo, 37, Colombian guerrilla leader who had renounced his position as a Roman Catholic priest in order ...
... of water matrix material for UV-protection coating matrix material for laser dye-doped organic-inorganic solid state dye lasers ... When high intense ultrasound is introduced in liquid, cavitation is produced. Due to the cavitational shear forces, molecular ... F. J. Duarte, Solid-state multiple-prism grating dye-laser oscillator, Appl. Opt. 33, 3857-3860 (1994). Rosa-Fox, N. de la; ... Organic laser Organic photonics Li CY, et al. (1992). "ORMOSILS as matrices in inorganic-organic nanocomposites for various ...
For some low power lasers, the laser gain medium itself may be positioned at a beam waist. Other elements, such as filters, ... A transparent dielectric sphere, such as a liquid droplet, also forms an interesting optical cavity. In 1986 Richard K. Chang ... demonstrated lasing using ethanol microdroplets (20-40 micrometers in radius) doped with rhodamine 6G dye.[citation needed] ... Simple cavities are often aligned with an alignment laser-a well-collimated visible laser that can be directed along the axis ...
19, 223-229 (1987) F. J. Duarte, Tunable organic dye lasers: physics and technology of high-performance liquid and solid-state ... F. J. Duarte, Narrow-linewidth pulsed dye laser oscillators, in Dye Laser Principles (Academic, New York, 1990) Chapter 4. F. J ... 31, 6979-6982 (1992). F. J. Duarte, "Generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory for pulse compression in ultrafast dye lasers ... Beam expander Laser linewidth Multiple-prism grating laser oscillator I. Newton, Opticks (Royal Society, London, 1704). D. ...
... the Argon-ion laser (514 nm) and the Krypton-ion laser (521 nm and 531 nm), as well as liquid dye lasers. Green lasers have a ... To dye fabrics green, they first colored them yellow with dye made from saffron and then soaked them in blue dye from the roots ... These new dyes were more stable and brilliant than the vegetable dyes, but some contained high levels of arsenic, and were ... Only in the 16th century was a good green dye produced, by first dyeing the cloth blue with woad, and then yellow with Reseda ...
Surgical curettage of the wart Laser treatment - often with a pulse dye laser or carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Pulse dye lasers ( ... Electrodesiccation Cryosurgery or cryotherapy, which involves freezing the wart (generally with liquid nitrogen), creating a ... Pulse dye lasers are less destructive and more likely to heal without scarring. CO2 laser works by vaporizing and destroying ... CO2 lasers will require local anaesthetic. Pulse dye laser treatment does not need conscious sedation or local anesthetic. It ...
... ... Home » Speckle suppression of laser light using liquid crystals aligned by photoisomerization of dye molecules ... The trans-cis isomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystalline hosts is studied. It is shown that the full set of parameters ... A glass substrate of a liquid-crystal cell, coated with polyvinyl alcohol doped with azo dye, was illuminated with a linearly ...
This has been difficult up to now because the sample needed to be situated in vacuum -- but liquids evaporate. ... Red dye tested. The team was successful in dissolving a prototype red dye (1) for organic solar cells in an ionic liquid (2) ... Methodology advance at HZB: Ionic liquids simplify laser experiments on liquid samples. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für ... Methodology advance at HZB: Ionic liquids simplify laser experiments on liquid samples ...
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:. Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed ... a single nanocrystal surrounded by liquid in a chamber and illuminate it with the laser. To determine whether the liquid is ... This is the first example of a laser beam that will refrigerate liquids like water under everyday conditions," said senior ... "Few people have thought about how they could use this technology to solve problems because using lasers to refrigerate liquids ...
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:. Im Focus: The spin state story: Observation of the quantum spin ... liquid state in novel material. New insight into the spin behavior in an exotic state of matter puts us closer to next- ... cancer cells »cancerous cells »cardiovascular disease »detecting »early stages »laser light »photoacoustic scan »types of ... Further reports about: , cancer cells , cancerous cells , cardiovascular disease , detecting , early stages , laser light , ...
Laser Phys. (1). L. W. Lin and L. G. Deng, "Low threshold and coherent random lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals ... Low-voltage-modulated laser based on dye-doped polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal Bo-wei Liu, Zhi-gang Zheng, Xu- ... J. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, and J. J. Wu, "Mode competition of two band-edge lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser ... J. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, and J. J. Wu, "Mode competition of two band-edge lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser ...
... thereby facilitating emission of laser beams, and to miniaturize ... exciting a light-emitting body in a solid-state dye laser with ... In a liquid dye laser, a laser dye solution is circulated; therefore, there are advantages in that degradation of the laser dye ... A liquid dye laser, a solid-state dye laser, and the like are known as a tunable organic laser in which the wavelength can be ... a solid-state dye laser can be compact since a thin film of laser dye is used; however, a thin film of laser dye that is once ...
Liquids, in the form of dye solutions as used in dye lasers.[5][6] ... List of laser types. References and notes[edit]. *^ Hecht, Jeff. The Laser Guidebook: Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1992. ( ... The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser. The gain ... Encyclopedia of laser physics and technology *^ A.E.Siegman (1986). Lasers. University Science Books. ISBN 0-935702-11-3. .. . ...
... and Risk Management at Radford University provides detailed information regarding Radiation Safety including the laser safety ... Dye Lasers. Many liquid organic dyes will lase if pumped with ultraviolet light. The dyes are dissolved in a liquid such as ... Several dyes can be mixed to create a laser that can be tuned across the entire visible range. Dye lasers can also produce ... Cryogenic liquids (especially liquid nitrogen) may be used to cool the laser crystal and associated receiving and transmitting ...
Laser printers *Liquid penetrant examination equipment - Dye penetrant inspection equipment *Mainframe computers ...
Types of Die Cutting Operations. *. Dryers. Liquid Desiccant Drying Systems. *. Dividers. Cleanroom Isolators. ... Laser Cutting vs. Milling. *. Generators. New Clear Nanobubble Generator Designed to Improve Pond and Lake Water Quality. ...
... die,Haarentfernung,mit,Gentle,Pro,Laser,und,elos-Plus-Systemen,vor,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory ... NASDAQ: a... (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/2012...,Syneron,Medical,stellt,die,nächste,Generation,von,Handstücken,für ... CBD form that can be easily incorporated into liquid products, while reducing costs to ... ... Für die Laser-Haarentfernungs-Serie Gentle Pro von Syneron und Candela gibt es ein neues Handstück für die großflächige ...
3-8 Energy Transfer in Molecular Lasers. 3-9 CO2 Laser Systems. 3-10 Liquid Dye Lasers. 3-11 Semiconductor Lasers. 3-12 Laser Q ... EXP20 - Laser Safety *EXP21 - Laser Triangulation *EXP22 - Laser Leveling *EXP23 - CO2 Laser Workstation Laser Maintenance and ... EXP28 - Laser Scanner *EXP29 - Laser Beam Analysis *EXP30 - Laser Doppler Ananometer *EXP31 - Fibre Ring Laser *EXP32 - Laser ... Liquid (dye) lasers are usually pumped optically. *X-ray lasers have supposedly been pumped using small nuclear devices. ...
Mode competition of two bandedge lasing from dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser Ja-Hon Lin, Po-Yen Chen, and Jin-Jei Wu ... Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 ... Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 ... Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 ...
Based on the pioneering work of Anderson and Parrish in the early 1980s, several vascular-specific laser systems have been ... Laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions has progressed significantly over the past 30 years. ... Argon-pumped tunable dye laser. The argon-pumped tunable dye laser (APTDL) is a quasi-CW mode laser with high specificity for ... Venous lakes treated by liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. Br J Dermatol. 1997 Dec. 137(6):1018-9. [Medline]. ...
In-flow visualisation using planar laser imaging. 2.7. In-flow visualisation using ink-dye pigment injection. References ... Surface flow visualisation using oil-dye technique. 2.3. Surface flow visualization using thermochromic liquid crystal. 2.4. ... 7. Surface Heat Transfer Mapping Using Thermochromic Liquid Crystal. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Properties of thermochromic liquid ...
Genes linked to cancer and other diseases may now be simpler to detect with a new liquid laser technique that clearly ... dyeglass capillaryliquid lasersMichiganNewsring resonator cavitysolid-state lasersUniversity of MichiganXudong Fanlasers ... Liquid lasers, discovered in the late 1960s, amplify light by passing it through a dye, rather than a crystal, as do solid- ... the detection was performed in a liquid laser. The laser acts as a sample holder and, more importantly, provides strong optical ...
... laser 10 to determine the pulse characteristics. The cavity dumped neodymium YAG laser 10 is used to excite a liquid dye laser ... whereby said laser mode locking means acts as a mode-locked exciter which is frequency doubled and excites a liquid dye laser, ... A 4 MHz signal is injected into the output pulse of the YAG laser 10 prior to its introduction into the liquid dye laser 20. ... Depending upon the desired output frequency, the liquid dye laser also may preferably contain dyes ranging from styryl (760 nm ...
These technologies can enlarge the color reproduction area of three-layer guest-host liquid crystal displays (GHLCDs) 1.6-fold ... The yellow anthraquinone dye behaves as a quencher of the coumarin dye, and the mixture has a large absorption coefficient ... The relationships between molecular structures and properties of anthraquinone dichroic dyes were studied and dyes with large ... Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser. Previous Article in Special Issue. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid ...
These improved laser dyes can be excited by pump lasers and are capable of producing stimulated coherent emission in the near ... The present invention relates to laser dyes having improved characteristics comprising substituted and unsubstituted ring- ... Visible and UV Dyes", Applied Physics, vol. B 32, (1983), pp. 9-14... Ultraviolet Organic Liquid Lasers, Furumoto/Ceccon, IEEE ... 2) of the dye laser. The efficiency isdetermined from the slope of the plot: dye laser energy versus pump laser energy. Both ...
Liquid-crystal lasers are comparable in size to diode lasers, but provide the continuous wide spectrum tunability of dye lasers ... A liquid-crystal laser is a laser that uses a liquid crystal as the resonator cavity, allowing selection of emission wavelength ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Laser Displays: liquid-crystal laser promises low-fabrication-cost display". Laser ... Jeong, Mi-Yun; Hyunhee Choi; J. W. Wu (2008). "Spatial tuning of laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal wedge ...
In addition to the usual liquid state, dye lasers are also available as solid state dye lasers (SSDL). SSDL use dye-doped ... Laser dye Organic laser Solid-state dye laser Tunable laser Dye Laser Principles: With Applications by Frank J. Duarte, Lloyd W ... A dye laser is a laser that uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution. Compared to gases and most ... Continuous-wave (CW) dye lasers often use a dye jet. CW dye-lasers can have a linear or a ring cavity, and provided the ...
Measurement Laser Radar Tool can use photosensitive dyes.. LR200 combines radar, laser, and 3D software technologies to provide ... 320 liquid-filled thermostat provides quick response to temperature changes. From low freeze protection setting of 43°F, it ...
MEMS Pressure Sensor Die for Catheters. When small is not small enough, look to NovaSensors line of MEMS pressure sensor die ... LiOM Series: LiDAR Laser Technology. Introducing LiOM Series, with LiDAR laser technology, of very special, short pulse, fiber- ... The liquid flow sensor SLF3S-1300F enables applications in the fields of diagnostics, analytical instruments and life sciences ...
The ethylene glycol solution (core liquid) withde-ionized (DI) water (cladding liquid) is co-injected into the lens chamber to ... The influences of the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction of ethylene glycol and flow rate of liquids on the refractive index ... and the focal length changes from 127.1 to 8 μm by varying the flow rate of the core liquid from 0.5 × 103 to 5 × 103 pL/s when ... mass fraction and flow rate of liquids. The focal length of the microlens varies from 942 to 11 μm when the mass fraction of ...
The laser resonator further contains a sum frequency generating crystal for intracavity sum frequency generation of the two ... An active feedback mirror is located in the path of the lower net gain laser transition to provide optical amplification at ... The sum frequency generating crystal is placed near a laser resonator cavity mode waist in the region where both wavelengths ... sapphire laser simultaneously at 808 nm and 1.064 μ. ... polarization of the two fundamental wavelengths in the laser ...
Design and Synthesis of Near-Infrared Absorbing Dyes for the Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) ... Laser-Beam Apodizer Utilizing Gradient-Index Optical Effects in Liquid Crystals. *Laser Ionization of Noble Gases by Coulomb ... Phase Conversion of Lasers with Low-Loss Distributed Phase Plates. *Nematic Polymer Liquid-Crystal Wave Plate for High-Power ... Liquid Crystal Devices for High Powered Lasers- Part 2: Waveplates. *Active-Passive Mode-Locked Oscillator Generating ...
Development of laser dyes to realize low threshold in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal lasers. ... Force-driven reversible liquid-gas phase transition mediated by elastic nanosponges.. Nomura K, Nishihara H, Yamamoto M, Gabe A ...
Mirrorless dye doped ionic liquid lasers. Valentin Barna and Luisa De Cola ... Example: (diode OR solid-state) AND laser [search contains "diode" or "solid-state" and laser] ... 1.21 W passively mode-locked Tm:LuAG laser. T. Feng, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, W. Qiao, T. Li, T. Dekorsy, J. He, L. Zheng, Q ... Enhanced performances of diode-pumped sapphire/Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4/sapphire micro-laser at 1.5-1.6 μm ...
... liquid lasers such as dye laser; and solid lasers such as YAG laser, YAG (2/1) laser, ruby laser and semiconductor laser may be ... By way of example alone, gas lasers such as helium-neon laser, argon laser, krypton laser and helium-cadmium laser; ... a dye laser 72 (550 nm) having an Ar laser 74 in the form of an excitation laser as a green light source; and an Ar laser 73 ( ... said optical contact liquid having a refractive index approximately equal to that of the plate 5. Upon the incidence of laser ...
  • Mirrors are also needed to oscillate the light produced by the dye's fluorescence, which is amplified with each pass through the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most dyes have a very short time between the absorption and emission of light, referred to as the fluorescence lifetime, which is often on the order of a few nanoseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, most solid-state lasers have a fluorescence lifetime ranging from hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio between laser emission and fluorescence can be as large as 10,000:1 (experimentally, the team achieved 200:1), which allows the researchers to pick up the target DNA from a mixture of single-base-mismatched DNA with 50 times higher concentration, Fan explained. (photonics.com)
  • The laser acts as a sample holder and, more importantly, provides strong optical feedback to amplify the small difference in fluorescence, he said. (photonics.com)
  • The yellow anthraquinone dye behaves as a quencher of the coumarin dye, and the mixture has a large absorption coefficient without fluorescence. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, the fluorescence of the solutions of the Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine C dyes at different excitation wavelengths when there are silver nanoparticles is investigated. (begellhouse.com)
  • The effect of the mixture components concentration on the fluorescence amplification coefficient of the dye molecules is studied. (begellhouse.com)
  • If the pumping spectrum is far from the wavelength of maximum of the plasmon resonance, the concentration of the nanoparticles is low, and the dye concentration is high, then the relative optical density is small, the fluorescence gain becomes insignificant, and even its quenching may occur. (begellhouse.com)
  • The results of these studies allow us to formulate a general approach to assessing the effect of the components ratio of mixtures composed of dye molecules and metallic nanoparticles on the fluorescence intensity of fluorophore molecules. (begellhouse.com)
  • The detector and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) system converts analog measurements of forward-scattered light (FSC) and side-scattered light (SSC) as well as dye-specific fluorescence signals into digital signals that can be processed by a computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A laser-excited, confocal-fluorescence scanner is used for high-sensitivity, on-column detection of electrophoresis performed using an array of capillaries. (spie.org)
  • To realize ultrasensitive detection of trace amounts of lead in water, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with laser-induced fluorescence (LIBS-LIF) was investigated. (rsc.org)
  • The enhanced fluorescence properties, attributed to noncovalent binding, allowed the use of the new squarylium dyes as probes for the low-level detection of proteins in a mixture (including myoglobin (pI=7.16), transferrin (pI=5.9), and HSA (pI=4.8)), separated by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). (omicsonline.org)
  • By combining the sensitivity and selectivity of Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) detection with the high efficiency and speed of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) separations of proteins, many have shown the utility of this system for protein analysis [ 6 - 13 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, since just a small number of proteins possess natural fluorescence in a suitable spectral range (beyond UV), CE-LIF requires protein analytes to be labeled with a fluorescent tag or dye. (omicsonline.org)
  • Modern instruments usually have multiple lasers and fluorescence detectors (the current record for a commercial instrument is 4 lasers and 18 fluorescence detectors). (wikidoc.org)
  • Liquid detergents such as Tide contain a colorless dye that absorbs ultraviolet and produces a blue fluorescence. (exo.net)
  • At CLEO: 2014, Rasmussen will describe how near-infrared fluorescence laser imaging (NIRFLI) allows lymphatic structures and flow to be measured quantitatively, including in the fine vessels -- a dramatic improvement over lymphoscintigraphy. (chemistry2011.org)
  • The Home-Built Laser Assembly and Power Supply - Structure, optics, mirror mounts, electrical components. (repairfaq.org)
  • Spectra of textile dyes were acquired using an HR spectrometer (LIBS2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc.) having an optical resolution of 0.06 nm in the spectral range of 200 to 720 nm. (hindawi.com)
  • The rapid increase in applications of LIBS is due to the continuous research and advancements in the fields of lasers, optics, and related photodetectors [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The REU Site "Lasers and Optics" offers research in physics, in chemistry, and in engineering, with a specific focus on lasers and optics, a field that continues to bloom. (unl.edu)
  • Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulforhodamine 640-dopes silica gel" by F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, and A. Brun,Aug. 1, 1989/vol. 14, No. 15/Optics Letters, pp. 785-787. (patentgenius.com)
  • Solid-state dispersive dye laser oscillator:very compact cavity", F.J. Duarte, Optics Communications 117 (1995), pp. 480-484. (patentgenius.com)
  • F.J. Duarte and R.O. James, Spatial structure of dye-doped polymer nanoparticle laser media, Applied Optics, vol. 43, No. 20, Jul. (patentgenius.com)
  • Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Laser irradiation can selectively destroy specific targets (chromophores) within the skin by using an appropriate wavelength, pulse duration, and energy setting. (medscape.com)
  • An active feedback mirror is located in the path of the lower net gain laser transition to provide optical amplification at that wavelength. (google.com)
  • a non-linear optical crystal located within said laser resonator cavity having the property to generate said third wavelength being the sum frequency of said two wavelengths. (google.com)
  • 5. The laser of claim 4 in which said first wavelength of said two wavelengths is approximately 808 nm and said second wavelength of said two wavelengths is 1.064 μ, said non-linear optical crystal for generating said sum frequency is a Type II KTP crystal non-critically phase matched for sum frequency generation at approximately 25 C. and said sum frequency of said third wavelength is approximately 459 nm. (google.com)
  • A liquid-crystal laser is a laser that uses a liquid crystal as the resonator cavity, allowing selection of emission wavelength and polarization from the active laser medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • For light circularly polarized with the same handedness, this regular modulation of the refractive index yields selective reflection of the wavelength given by the helical pitch, allowing the liquid-crystal laser to serve as its own resonator cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, optical tuning of the output wavelength is available using laser light far from the pick-up frequency of the gain medium, with degree of rotation governed by intensity and the angle between the polarization of the incident light and the dipole moment. (wikipedia.org)
  • MATCH the specified laser wavelength to the part of the eye that is most affected. (slideserve.com)
  • Wavelength, power density (watts per sq. cm) and energy fluence (irradiance multiplied by time of exposure expressed as joules per sq. cm) of the laser. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Optofluidic dye lasers may play a significant role in future laser applications in numerous areas, combining wavelength flexibility with integration and ease of operation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The spectral emission from the laser generated plasma is used as a fingerprint wavelength, which assists the detection of the elemental composition of the target. (hindawi.com)
  • It is shown that one can consider the relative optical density of the mixture components, which is the ratio of the optical density of the nanoadditive to the optical density of the dye at the excitation wavelength, as a generalized parameter that has influence on the fluorescent characteristics of nanocomposites. (begellhouse.com)
  • Pulsed KTP laser has a wavelength of 532nm. (brainscape.com)
  • A laser emits a concentrated beam of light at a specific wavelength determined by the material used to produce the laser. (juvaskin.com)
  • The wavelength can be thought of as the "color" of the laser, though some laser light is outside the visible range. (juvaskin.com)
  • It is the first laser device that can produce two wavelengths from the same handpiece sequentially, or produce each wavelength separately. (juvaskin.com)
  • The first wavelength, usually the 595nm pulsed dye laser, alters the targeted hemoglobin in treated vessels to methemoglobin, which is more susceptible to treatment with 1064nm wavelength. (juvaskin.com)
  • The polarimeter can measure the full Stokes vector in the wavelength range 550 to 750 nm with 1-nm resolution and consists of a fiber-based spectrophotometer, a white light emitting diode light source, two liquid crystal retarders, and one polarizer. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Calculi, stones, calcified tissue and other material are broken down for removal from within a body using laser pulses that are delivered via an optical fiber and have a wavelength, intensity, energy per pulse and pulse duration selected to break down the object into smaller particles without delivering. (google.com.au)
  • exposing the region of the calculus to pulsed laser light having energy per pulse of less than 200 mJ, pulse duration between 0.5 and 10 microseconds and wavelength between 350 and 550 nanometers sufficient to initiate fragmentation of the calculus with production of an acoustic signal within the calculus while limiting the thermal damage to surrounding tissue. (google.com.au)
  • The frequency-tunable TOPAS laser is set to a blue wavelength to find resonances in aromatic molecules. (unl.edu)
  • An excisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia with a Er,Cr:YSGG laser with a wavelength of 2780nm. (scielo.org.za)
  • Basic requirements for a laser or a light source to treat leg veins are a wavelength that is proportionately better absorbed by the target (hemoglobin) than surrounding chromophores and penetration to the full depth of the target blood vessel. (medscape.com)
  • Lasers are typically reserved for the smallest telangiectasias of the leg, but newer longer-wavelength lasers can be useful for spider veins up to 2 mm in diameter, although they produce much more pain than when small-diameter vessels are treated. (medscape.com)
  • A beam of light (usually laser light) of a single wavelength is directed onto a hydro-dynamically focused stream of fluid. (wikidoc.org)
  • The magnitude of accessible laser (or collateral) radiation of a specific wavelength or emission duration at a particular point as measured by appropriate methods and devices. (vumc.org)
  • We have demonstrated alignment control of liquid crystals using photoisomerization induced by polarized ultraviolet light to fabricate a polarization control plate. (ebscohost.com)
  • We confirmed the alignment of liquid crystals within the illuminated region dependent on the polarization direction of the ultraviolet light through the photoisomerization of azo dye molecules. (ebscohost.com)
  • Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals. (ebscohost.com)
  • Typically, growing laser crystals is an expensive process that requires lots of time and can cost thousands of dollars to produce just a single gram of material. (innovations-report.com)
  • So far, the UW team has only demonstrated the cooling effect with a single nanocrystal, as exciting multiple crystals would require more laser power. (innovations-report.com)
  • The resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals (DD-PDLCs) within capillary tubes were investigated. (osapublishing.org)
  • Distributed feedback lasing using Bragg reflection of a periodic structure instead of external mirrors was first proposed in 1971, predicted theoretically with cholesteric liquid crystals in 1978, achieved experimentally in 1980, and explained in terms of a photonic band gap in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colossal" nonlinear change in refractive index is achievable in doped nematic-phase liquid crystals, that is the refractive index can change with illumination intensity at a rate of about 103cm2/W of illumination intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrically Controlled Diffraction Grating in Azo Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals. (nih.gov)
  • Electrically controllable Fresnel lens in 90° twisted nematic liquid crystals. (nih.gov)
  • By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Liquid crystals are of technological interest as they allow for optical effects which can be electrically controlled. (jove.com)
  • In this paper we present an electro-optical device consisting of nematic liquid crystals addressed by an electrode structure consisting of thin films of polymer wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes (nanohybrids). (jove.com)
  • The main drawback of these devices is that their modulation is based on simple planar or twisted nematic liquid crystals, which are inherently slow mechanisms due to their viscoelastic properties. (jove.com)
  • lasing phenomena in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals. (kiev.ua)
  • The first laser on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals was created (І. (kiev.ua)
  • 3. The solid-state dye laser according to claim 1, wherein the light source is any one of an organic EL element, a light-emitting diode, a cold cathode tube, and a plane fluorescent lamp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Diode Laser Power Supplies - Drive requirements, modulation, sample circuits for low and high power devices. (repairfaq.org)
  • Semiconductor lasers , sometimes called diode lasers, are not solid-state lasers. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Liquid-crystal lasers are comparable in size to diode lasers, but provide the continuous wide spectrum tunability of dye lasers while maintaining a large coherence area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diode lasers use semiconductor circuits to produce laser energy. (juvaskin.com)
  • An 800 nm diode laser which targets the pigment in hair follicles. (juvaskin.com)
  • A fluorescent dye and commercially-available laser diode and military-grade night vision devices are used to visualize the lymphatic capillaries. (chemistry2011.org)
  • The dye is absorbed into the lymphatics and when illuminated by the laser diode , it emits a fluorescent light , which the device amplifies with a military-grade image intensifier -- the main component in night vision goggles -- and then captures with a commercial CCD digital camera. (chemistry2011.org)
  • The picosecond electrical pulse-propagation characteristics of microchannel-plate detectors, used in diagnosing laser-driven inertial-confmement-fusion experiments, were measured with an electro-optic sampling system. (ebscohost.com)
  • This allows the molecules to be excited with a laser pulse and to record the behaviour of the excited energy states. (eurekalert.org)
  • A precisely tuned excitation pulse from a laser, called the pump pulse, promotes electrons in the sample to an excited state, whereas application of a precisely timed and short probe pulse allows to measure the binding energy of the excited electrons. (eurekalert.org)
  • This involved exciting the dye with a laser pulse. (eurekalert.org)
  • The laser light is then released in a stream or pulse through a partially transmitting mirror at one end of the cavity. (radford.edu)
  • To limit damage to surrounding structures, pulse duration must be less than or equal to the targeted thermal relaxation time of the chromophore, ie, the time necessary for the target to cool by half of its peak temperature after laser irradiation. (medscape.com)
  • Introducing LiOM Series, with LiDAR laser technology, of very special, short pulse, fiber-coupled lasers for LiDAR applications. (azosensors.com)
  • Lasers produce selective photocoagulation of vessels using pulse durations equal to or longer than the thermal relaxation time (or cooling time) of the vessels. (brainscape.com)
  • For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. (unt.edu)
  • 2. A method of claim 1, wherein the laser pulses are derived from a pulsed laser having a pulse duration in the order of microseconds. (google.com.au)
  • Previous student projects have involved work on sample delivery, characterization of laser and electron pulses, automation of experimental components, simulation of electron pulse propagation and data analysis. (unl.edu)
  • Pulse dye laser wart removal is ideal for stubborn warts, resistant to liquid nitrogen and salicylic acid or other chemical agents. (dermsurgery.net)
  • There are many different types of lasers. (howstuffworks.com)
  • LIST the five types of lasers and briefly DESCRIBE their attributes. (slideserve.com)
  • The two types of lasers generally used for acne scars are fractional CO2 lasers and Er:YAG lasers with the latter of the two being less invasive. (getridofthings.com)
  • Home-Built Nitrogen (N2) Laser - Pulsed ultraviolet laser that is easy to construct without fancy equipment. (repairfaq.org)
  • The dye is usually pumped with an external laser, such as a nitrogen, excimer, or frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lesions or bumps are destroyed by freezing them using liquid nitrogen. (truemd.com)
  • Cryosurgery involves freezing the angioma with liquid nitrogen. (healthline.com)
  • You often only need one treatment session for cryosurgery to work, and the liquid nitrogen is usually sprayed for only about 10 seconds. (healthline.com)
  • These types of at-home sprays are not as powerful as professional freezing treatments which use liquid nitrogen. (sknclinics.co.uk)
  • Cryotherapy involves using liquid nitrogen to freeze off the verruca, causing it to die and naturally fall off. (sknclinics.co.uk)
  • Argon, carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, dimethyl ether - propane are the most common chemical compounds that are used for this procedure. (allhealthsite.com)
  • Our Beverly Hills and Santa Monica skin care experts utilize cryosurgery to safely freeze away genital warts, molluscum or other warts with liquid nitrogen. (dermsurgery.net)
  • This treatment involves the application of liquid nitrogen to the genital warts. (wisegeek.com)
  • This is a special procedure that is performed by trained medical practitioners like cosmetic surgeons or dermatologists using liquid nitrogen. (thealma-n1.co.uk)
  • Liquid nitrogen is helpful in freezing the dark cells of the skin. (thealma-n1.co.uk)
  • In this paper we describe a velocity modulation absorption spectrometer which consists of a commercial color center laser (Burleigh FCL-20), an 1 cm $\times$ 1 m liquid nitrogen cooled AC discharge cell, an InSb photovoltaic detector, and a lock-in amplifier. (osu.edu)
  • However, they are most commonly treated at the dermatologist office with liquid nitrogen or laser. (healthtap.com)
  • You can only treat warts with prescription topical in the genital area or cautery or liquid nitrogen. (healthtap.com)
  • All that's used is good old-fashioned liquid nitrogen. (getridofthings.com)
  • With cold therapy (cryopeeling), the surface of the epidermis is iced up with liquid nitrogen so that it dies. (beauty-outlet24.de)
  • 6. Tunable Dye Laser with fluorescent dyes (esp. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Then, the lead atoms in the plasma were re-excited by a second tunable dye laser resonantly. (rsc.org)
  • Argon/Krypton Ion Lasers - General features and characteristics, basic power requirements, specific examples. (repairfaq.org)
  • Home-Built Pulsed Argon and/or Krypton (Ar/Kr) Ion Laser - A similar gas laser produces multiple color beam. (repairfaq.org)
  • Excimer lasers (the name is derived from the terms excited and dimers ) use reactive gases, such as chlorine and fluorine, mixed with inert gases such as argon, krypton or xenon. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Argon (488 nm and 514 nm) and continuous-wave dye lasers (515-590 nm) have also been used historically because they are well absorbed by hemoglobin and penetrate to the depth of middermal vessels, more than 1 mm into the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Pumping may be achieved with electrical currents (e.g. semiconductors, or gases via high-voltage discharges ) or with light, generated by discharge lamps or by other lasers ( semiconductor lasers ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The laser medium can be a solid, gas, liquid or semiconductor . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Most systems use a semiconductor pumping laser to achieve population inversion, though flash lamp and electrical pumping systems are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red, green, and blue linear laser arrays may consist of arrays of semiconductor laser diodes made of suitable semiconductor materials so as to directly emit radiation at wavelengths corresponding to red, green, and blue colors, respectively. (google.com)
  • Alternatively, the red, green and blue color arrays may be formed by arrays of semiconductor laser diodes emitting radiation at twice the desired red, green and blue wavelengths, whose radiation is coupled to arrays of second harmonic generation crystal elements. (google.com)
  • A method of packaging at least a portion of a semiconductor die or dice is disclosed. (google.es)
  • Uncured material may be disposed proximate at least the periphery of at least one semiconductor die and at least partially cured substantially as a whole. (google.es)
  • singulating each of the plurality of the semiconductor dice through the cured dielectric material. (google.es)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein disposing flowable, uncured dielectric material at least partially around and between the plurality of semiconductor dice comprises disposing uncured dielectric material over the active surface of each of the plurality of semiconductor dice. (google.es)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 , wherein disposing flowable, uncured dielectric material at least partially around and between the plurality of semiconductor dice comprises at least one of immersing, dipping, spin-coating, printing, and spraying. (google.es)
  • removing a portion of the cured dielectric material to expose the bond pads of each of the plurality of semiconductor dice. (google.es)
  • preventing the flowable, uncured dielectric material from contacting the bond pads of each of the plurality of semiconductor dice prior to at least partially curing, substantially as a whole, the flowable, uncured dielectric material. (google.es)
  • 8. The method of claim 6 , wherein preventing the flowable, uncured dielectric material from contacting the bond pads comprises forming barrier structures extending from the active surface of each of the plurality of semiconductor dice and surrounding the bond pads thereof. (google.es)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , further comprising preventing the flowable, uncured dielectric material proximate to the bond pads of each of the plurality of semiconductor dice from curing. (google.es)
  • In addition, because wavelengths corresponding to absorption peaks for various skin chromophores are known, absorption of laser energy can be localized without damaging neighboring structures. (medscape.com)
  • Compared to gases and most solid state lasing media, a dye can usually be used for a much wider range of wavelengths, often spanning 50 to 100 nanometers or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the dye can be replaced by another type in order to generate an even broader range of wavelengths with the same laser, from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet, although this usually requires replacing other optical components in the laser as well, such as dielectric mirrors or pump lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laser resonator further contains a sum frequency generating crystal for intracavity sum frequency generation of the two fundamental wavelengths. (google.com)
  • The sum frequency generating crystal is placed near a laser resonator cavity mode waist in the region where both wavelengths are spatially superimposed, producing the sum frequency of the two wavelengths. (google.com)
  • An intracavity polarization rotator provides the appropriate orientation of the polarization of the two fundamental wavelengths in the laser gain element as well as in the non-linear sum frequency generating crystal. (google.com)
  • 6. The laser of claim 3 in which said solid state gain element is a crystalline material that includes a host material doped with activator ions to produce said laser emission in said preselected range of wavelengths when said crystal line material is optically excited by end pumping thereof. (google.com)
  • Lasers produce selective photocoagulation of vessels using wavelengths of light that are well absorbed by haemoglobin. (brainscape.com)
  • The Cynergy Multiplex combines the versatile wavelengths of the 595nm pulsed dye laser and the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser in a single unit to treat undesirable vascular malformations and other conditions. (juvaskin.com)
  • In fact, general surgeons employ the various laser wavelengths and laser delivery systems to cut, coagulate, vaporize, and remove tissue. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Because pressure broadening is usually negligible at infrated wavelengths, and high ion velocities (drift random) can berealized in light gases such as $H_{2}$ and He, velocity-modulated ion absorption spectroscopy in audio frequency discharges with lock-in detection at the discharge frequency becomes a straight forward and powerful technique for ion absorption spectroscopy when used in conjunction with a narrow bandwidth tunable laser source. (osu.edu)
  • They are often categorized as far-infrared lasers (1400 nm - 1 mm), near-infrared lasers (780 - 1400 nm), visible lasers (380 - 760 nm), and ultraviolet lasers (200 nm - 380 nm). (adelphi.edu)
  • One should be very careful in handling ultraviolet and infrared lasers because we cannot see the beam and the invisible laser radiation can cause severe damage to the eye and the skin. (adelphi.edu)
  • These improved laser dyes can be excited by pump lasers and are capable of producing stimulated coherent emission in the near ultraviolet range, particularly in the range below 400 nm, and have improved photostability. (patentgenius.com)
  • The neodymium-Yag laser emits infrared light at 1,064 nanometers (nm). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The dye rhodamine 6G, for example, can be tuned from 635 nm (orangish-red) to 560 nm (greenish-yellow), and produce pulses as short as 16 femtoseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dye lasers use complex organic dyes, such as rhodamine 6G, in liquid solution or suspension as lasing media. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This is made up of organic molecules networked to one another through ionic forces (i.e. like a salt), which compose a liquid at room temperature. (eurekalert.org)
  • Summing up, Emad Aziz has no doubt that "ionic liquids are a good alternative to conventional solvents for analysing molecules in solution using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. (eurekalert.org)
  • The dye is mixed with a compatible solvent, allowing the molecules to diffuse evenly throughout the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dyes used in these lasers contain rather large, organic molecules which fluoresce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under standard laser-pumping conditions, the molecules emit their energy before a population inversion can properly build up, so dyes require rather specialized means of pumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Michigan say their method works better than the current approach, which uses fluorescent dye and other biological molecules to find and bind to mutated DNA strands. (photonics.com)
  • The trans and cis isomers contribute negative and positive torques, respectively, that reorient LC molecules perpendicular and parallel to the polarization of the pump laser. (spie.org)
  • A laser in which an axial flow of gas is maintained through the tube to replace those gas molecules depleted by the electrical discharge used to excite the gas molecules to the lasing. (vumc.org)
  • 2. The laser of claim 1 in which said active mirror is optically pumped in an end pumping mode, and one of said three fold mirror elements is located within said laser resonator cavity to produce a laser resonator cavity mode waist at said exterior face of said active mirror. (google.com)
  • The growth of the radiation field in the laser resonator cavity. (vumc.org)
  • After adding a monomer (NOA65) into the liquid crystal mixtures, the emission spectra from the capillary tube revealed multiple emission spikes with narrow emission linewidth due to enhancement of the light scattering. (osapublishing.org)
  • The fine white horizontal line is the capillary cavity that enables the laser to amplify the intrinsic difference in the light signals from healthy and mutated DNA. (photonics.com)
  • The laser radiation is extracted via conventional fibers that are spliced to the dye-filled capillary active medium. (diva-portal.org)
  • Now the team intends to investigate nanoparticles in ionic liquids using PES, in particular nanodiamonds made of carbon. (eurekalert.org)
  • To overcome this problem, the use of photoacoustic enhancers like gold, carbon nanotubes or dyed nanoparticles, is needed. (innovations-report.com)
  • The relative optical density is maximized with increase in the concentration of nanoparticles as well as with decrease of the concentration of the dye or in the case of excitation by radiation with the spectrum closest to the maximum of plasmon resonance of nanoparticles. (begellhouse.com)
  • This is the first example of a laser beam that will refrigerate liquids like water under everyday conditions," said senior author Peter Pauzauskie, UW assistant professor of materials science and engineering. (innovations-report.com)
  • Microprocessors, for instance, might someday use a laser beam to cool specific components in computer chips to prevent overheating and enable more efficient information processing. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists could also use a laser beam to precisely cool a portion of a cell as it divides or repairs itself, essentially slowing these rapid processes down and giving researchers the opportunity to see how they work. (innovations-report.com)
  • The UW team also designed an instrument that uses a laser trap -- akin to a microscopic tractor beam -- to "hold" a single nanocrystal surrounded by liquid in a chamber and illuminate it with the laser. (innovations-report.com)
  • 6. The solid-state dye laser according to claim 1, wherein the solid-state dye laser includes a reflector over a portion not located in a direction in which a beam is emitted by the optical resonator from the solid-state dye laser. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The purpose of the optical cavity is to provide optimal amplification and stability for the laser beam. (radford.edu)
  • Home-Built Helium-Neon (HeNe) Laser - Much like the original gas laser from 1962 produces a red beam. (repairfaq.org)
  • In a ring laser, the mirrors of the laser are positioned to allow the beam to travel in a circular path. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liquid is circulated at very high speeds, to prevent triplet absorption from cutting off the beam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser beams are monochromatic, extremely directional, have a small angular divergence of the beam, and are coherent. (adelphi.edu)
  • Even though the laser beam is electromagnetic radiation, they can cause severe harm to the tissue because they can focus a large amount of energy on a small area resulting in damage to the cells and often causing severe burns. (adelphi.edu)
  • Specifically, the laser beam can cause damage to the cornea and the eye lens as well as the small region of the retina on which the beam may be focused. (adelphi.edu)
  • An in-plane liquid gradient index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed for dynamically adjusting the beam focusing. (mdpi.com)
  • The influences of the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction of ethylene glycol and flow rate of liquids on the refractive index profile of L-GRIN microlens are analyzed, and the finite element method and ray tracing method are used to simulate the convection-diffusion process and beam focusing process, which is helpful for the prediction of focusing effects and manipulation of the device. (mdpi.com)
  • It is found that not only the focal length but the focal spot of the output beam can be adjusted by the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction and flow rate of liquids. (mdpi.com)
  • LST.OBJ.001) LIST the characteristics of a laser beam. (slideserve.com)
  • LIST the characteristics of a laser beam. (slideserve.com)
  • IDENTIFY other non-beam hazards that are possible in laser environment and GIVE an example of each. (slideserve.com)
  • light output is monochromatic for each type of laser, light is coherent (complete alignment of all the waves produced and emitted) and light is highly climated (no divergence during travel - essentially directed beam without loss of intensity). (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • It has a totally reflecting mirror at one end and partially transmitting one for the laser beam. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Penetration, absorption of the laser beam by different tissues (red cells, black melanin, Fibroblasts etc.) and tissue scatter depend upon these three factors and hence the ultimate destruction of the desired diseased tissues and the saving of healthy surrounding tissues (to avoid scarring) are calculated in treatment. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • When an intense laser beam, having power density greater than the threshold value of the sample surface, is focused onto the surface of a target, plasma is generated due to high temperature and pressure. (hindawi.com)
  • The flow cell has a liquid stream (sheath fluid), which carries and aligns the cells so that they pass single file through the light beam for sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. (unt.edu)
  • As a result, enhanced scattering of laser and white light was observed from these liquid crystal cells which bend themselves as electrically controllable optical diffusers and beam shapers. (jove.com)
  • The term laser means light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, and it uses a laser light source (laser beam) to remove tissues that are diseased or to treat blood vessels that are bleeding. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • The experimental results show that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the refractive index change (Δn) of an ADDLC sample pumped by a green laser can be modulated by the beam intensity (IG). (spie.org)
  • ARTICULATED ARM CO(2) laser beam delivery device consisting of a series of hollow tubes and mirrors interconnected in such a manner as to maintain alignment of the laser beam along the path of the arm. (vumc.org)
  • used to repoint the beam, and in "folded," compact laser systems. (vumc.org)
  • For small angles where the cord is approximately equal to the arc, the beam divergence can be closely approximated by the ratio of the cord length (beam diameter) divided by the distance (range) from the laser aperture. (vumc.org)
  • It provides insight into the physical and chemical processes of novel liquid energy materials that might be employed in organic solar cells or catalysts, for instance. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team was successful in dissolving a prototype red dye (1) for organic solar cells in an ionic liquid (2) and studying it with photoelectron spectroscopy. (eurekalert.org)
  • A dye laser is a laser that uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSDL use dye-doped organic matrices as gain medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dye laser uses a gain medium consisting of an organic dye, which is a carbon-based, soluble stain that is often fluorescent, such as the dye in a highlighter pen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theodore G. Pavlopoulos, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, "Prediction of Laser Action Properties of Organic Dyes from Their Structure and the Polarization Characteristics of Their Electronic Transitions", vol. (patentgenius.com)
  • A team from Cambridge University and Cambridge Display Technology Ltd. of Cambridge, UK, and from Max Planck Institut fur Polymerforschung Ackermannweg of Mainz, Germany, has created organic photovoltaic cells by mixing liquid crystal with perylene dye. (photonics.com)
  • It is also used in liquid state organic dye lasers, as triplet state quencher to reduce dye blinking. (alfa.com)
  • Stimulated Emission from Flashlamp-Excited Organic Dyes in Polymethyl Methacrylate", O.G.Peterson and B.B. Snavely, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 12, No. 7, Apr. (patentgenius.com)
  • To reduce the laser threshold by efficiently exciting a light-emitting body in a solid-state dye laser with light having high density, thereby facilitating emission of laser beams, and to miniaturize a solid-state dye laser including an excitation light source. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A solid-state dye laser capable of emitting laser beams by efficiently introducing light from an excitation light source to a light-emitting body incorporated in an optical resonator structure and exciting the light-emitting body with light with high density, is realized. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • LIST several types of laser excitation sources. (slideserve.com)
  • Dye bleaching is avoided by circulating the Rhodamine dye during optical excitation. (diva-portal.org)
  • An electrical element in laser excitation which attracts electrons from a cathode. (vumc.org)
  • Photoacoustics uses pulses of laser light to heat cells for a fraction of a second. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the continuous-wave laser, shuttered pulses for certain therapeutic modalities are used like the shuttering device in a camera. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • The synchronized pulses of each laser allow for reduced energies to be delivered, which should minimize side effects such as bruising, swelling, and pain. (juvaskin.com)
  • 3. A method of claim 2, wherein the laser pulses have a duration of between 0.5 and 10 microseconds. (google.com.au)
  • 4. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the laser pulses are derived from a pulsed dye laser. (google.com.au)
  • We offer students a wide range of relevant and topical research activities, including work with laser-driven multi-fiber nanotip electron sources, imaging of femtosecond molecular dynamics, generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses, spectroscopy, metamaterials for photonic and optical applications, propagation of laser pulses in liquids, programmable spatial light modulation, and femtosecond laser surface processing. (unl.edu)
  • Our work involves ultrafast laser, generation and characterization of electron pulses and retrieving structures from electron diffraction patterns. (unl.edu)
  • A glass substrate of a liquid-crystal cell, coated with polyvinyl alcohol doped with azo dye, was illuminated with a linearly polarized third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser light. (ebscohost.com)
  • Since light-induced processes for this dye have already been studied in depth, the physicists were able to compare their experimental data with existing results. (eurekalert.org)
  • But those concentrated beams of light have never been able to cool liquids. (innovations-report.com)
  • The UW team chose infrared light for its cooling laser with biological applications in mind, as visible light could give cells a damaging "sunburn. (innovations-report.com)
  • They illuminated a single microscopic crystal suspended in water with infrared laser light to excite a unique kind of glow that has slightly more energy than that amount of light absorbed. (innovations-report.com)
  • The strength of the sound depends on how much laser light is absorbed. (innovations-report.com)
  • 4. The solid-state dye laser according to claim 1, wherein the first light-emitting body includes a substance with an emission quantum efficiency of 50% or higher. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The term laser is an acronym for light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation. (radford.edu)
  • Lasers produce light by a process that involves changes in energy states within the atoms of certain materials. (radford.edu)
  • The laser light is amplified by reflecting it back and forth in the lasing medium with a pair of mirrors. (radford.edu)
  • Prior to the laser it was not possible to generate light with these characteristics. (radford.edu)
  • Laser light is produced by changes in the energy levels of electrons. (radford.edu)
  • Laser Safety - Hazards to vision, other issues, 100 W light bulb versus 1 mW laser, safety classifications, links. (repairfaq.org)
  • A high energy source of light is needed to 'pump' the liquid beyond its lasing threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid lasers, discovered in the late 1960s, amplify light by passing it through a dye, rather than a crystal, as do solid-state lasers. (photonics.com)
  • One is to achieve the refraction of light at curved, optically smooth, liquid-liquid interfaces between two flowing fluids by controlling laminar flows. (mdpi.com)
  • Gas lasers (helium and helium-neon, HeNe, are the most common gas lasers) have a primary output of visible red light. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The surgeon uses an excimer laser to cut or reshape the cornea so that light will focus properly on the retina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The patient stares at the blinking light of a laser microscope and must fixate his or her gaze on that light. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The term Laser Surgery implies Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Lasers use the attraction and refraction of light to destroy the hair follicle. (complusalliance.org)
  • Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Lasers and light devices used to treat vascular lesions include KTP, pulsed-dye, alexandrite, diodie and Nd:YAG lasers, in addition to IPL. (brainscape.com)
  • At surgery, the tip is illuminated with an eye-safe, red, HeNe laser, and the resulting glowball of light in the breast tissue surrounds the lesion. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A novel imaging technique that produces accurate amplitude and phase images of an optical fiber facet using only a phase-only liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and a single-pixel detector is presented. (jove.com)
  • Liquid crystal over silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator technology has become dominant in industries such as pico-projection, which require high-quality reflective microdisplays for intensity modulation of light. (jove.com)
  • Laser beams are strong beams of light produced by electrically stimulating a particular material. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Also, because lasers are more precise, the laser can penetrate tissue by adjusting the intensity of the light. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • In a special procedure known as photodynamic therapy (PDT), this laser uses light-sensitive dyes to shrink or dissolve tumors. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Holographic laser projection is high efficiency when using analogue phase spatial light modulators and high brightness laser sources. (spie.org)
  • Besides, the dye-induced torque can be changed from negative to positive by adding red light. (spie.org)
  • A gain medium for producing a light emission in a laser. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. A gain medium for producing a light emission in a laser, the gain medium comprising a dye-doped polymer nanoparticle matrix comprised of dye-doped polymers andnanoparticles, the dye-doped polymer nanoparticle matrix having an absolute value of dn/dT less than an absolute value of dn/dT of the pure dye-doped polymer matrix. (patentgenius.com)
  • Public interest in laser and light treatment of leg veins is high, and, under the right circumstances, excellent results can be achieved with this treatment modality. (medscape.com)
  • Many patients benefit from a combination of treatments such as sclerotherapy, ambulatory phlebectomy, and intravascular laser or radiofrequency closure because external lasers and light sources do not effectively treat associated reticular and varicose veins. (medscape.com)
  • Absorption properties of the carbon dioxide laser light cause nonspecific thermal injury because the chromophore is water. (medscape.com)
  • The red light is the same light produced by a ruby laser. (exo.net)
  • There are also some skin lightening creams on the market that you try before going to your last option, which is going to the cosmetic surgeon to have the dark spots taken away via lasers or UV light. (naturalremedies.org)
  • The dead cells die off and are replaced by new, light cells. (thealma-n1.co.uk)
  • A laser (or other light source) used as a guide light. (vumc.org)
  • Used coaxially with infrared or other invisible light may also be a reduced level of the actual laser used for surgery or for other applications. (vumc.org)
  • A conical lens which, when followed by a conventional lens, can focus laser light to a ring shape. (vumc.org)
  • Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. (degruyter.com)
  • Unlike Fabry-Pérot cavities, a ring laser does not generate standing waves which cause spatial hole burning, a phenomenon where energy becomes trapped in unused portions of the medium between the crests of the wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early laser technology used continuous-wave (CW) mode lasers for treating cutaneous vascular lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Lasers can be a continuous wave (CW) or pulsed and can operate in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. (adelphi.edu)
  • DIFFERENTIATE between a Continuous Wave Laser and a Pulsed Laser. (slideserve.com)
  • The model below seems to work well for most optically-pumped solid-state lasers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The laser may be optically pumped in this manner from sources such as flash lamps. (radford.edu)
  • Normally incident 25 keV and 50 keV beams of Ar+ were used to sputter a target of 99.8 at% Ga and 0.2 at% Bi held at 40° C in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), under which conditions the alloy is known to exhibit extreme Gibbsian surface segregation that produces essentially a monolayer of Bi atop the bulk liquid. (unt.edu)
  • FDA-approved beams of laser energy precisely destroy the blood vessels responsible for feeding the wart. (dermsurgery.net)
  • In this prodedure, antibody molecule is conjugated to a fluorochromatic dye and stained cells in liquid suspension are carried through a sensing device commonly illuminated by laser beams. (usda.gov)
  • In the spirit of sticking with the Austin Powers motif, I feel I have to mention frickin' laser beams. (getridofthings.com)
  • Yuhua Huang, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Ying Zhou, and Shin-Tson Wu, "Enhancing the laser power by stacking multiple dye-doped chiral polymer films," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • We demonstrate a method for enhancing the laser efficiency by stacking multiple dye-doped chiral polymer films. (osapublishing.org)
  • This is due to the absorption of the laser dyes and the distributed feedback in the chiral polymer films. (osapublishing.org)
  • In this paper, we demonstrate that a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal can offer both phase modulation and high speed switching in a silicon backplane device which is independent of the input polarization state. (jove.com)
  • The gain medium comprises a dye-doped polymer nanoparticle matrix having an absolute value of dn/dT less than an absolute value of dn/dT of its dye-doped polymer matrix. (patentgenius.com)
  • In contrast to the conventional method, the optofluidic laser performs digital detection to amplify the fluorescent signals. (photonics.com)
  • Surgeons correct astigmatism by creating a normally shaped cornea with the excimer laser. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This much-more detailed map gives surgeons more specific information for the excimer laser and enables them to correct other abnormalities besides refractive error. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In April 1985, German physician Theo Seiler was the first to use an excimer laser to attempt to correct astigmatism in blind eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Experiments with excimer lasers on blind eyes were also completed in the United States in the mid-1980s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The work has now demonstrated it is feasible to replace the solvent with an ionic liquid of low vapor pressure, which does not perturb the sample characteristics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Helium-Cadmium Lasers - Characteristics, power supplies, HeCd laser head and PSU troubleshooting. (repairfaq.org)
  • The present invention relates to laser dyes having improved characteristics comprising substituted and unsubstituted ring-bridged p-oligophenylenes having at least four and no more than 8 phenyl groups. (patentgenius.com)
  • A correlation between the luminescence properties of the composite liquid crystal (LC) 5CB - carbon nanotubes (CNT) was revealed on the basis of its thermodynamic characteristics received using the Differential Scanning Calorimetry method and conductivity measurements. (kiev.ua)
  • The reflector cavity is often water cooled, to prevent thermal shock in the dye caused by the large amounts of near-infrared radiation which the flashtube produces. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A laser dye capable of stimulated coherent emission in the range below 400 nm comprising ring-bridged p-oligophenylenes having at least 4 and no more than 8 phenyl groups, and havingat least one bridge between two adjacent phenyl groups but no more than one bridge between any two adjacent phenyl groups. (patentgenius.com)
  • Hybrid aligned cholesteric: A novel liquid-crystal alignment. (ebscohost.com)
  • A hybrid aligned cholesteric (HAC) liquid-crystal (LC) structure is reported. (ebscohost.com)
  • A United States Patent issued in 1973 described a liquid-crystal laser that uses "a liquid lasing medium having internal distributed feedback by virtue of the molecular structure of a cholesteric liquid-crystal material. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the same term is used even in the laser oscillators , when amplified radiation is used to transfer energy rather than information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Laser Safety Program and its procedures are based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Z136.1 - 2014 Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, OSHA 29 CFR 1910.97 Non-Ionizing Radiation, and 29 CFR 1910.132 General Requirements. (adelphi.edu)
  • The Laser Safety Committee is a part of the Radiation Safety committee with a combined focus on both radiation and laser safety operations at the University. (adelphi.edu)
  • The Laser Safety Committee and the Radiation Safety committee are a combined committee that will focus on both radiation and laser safety operations at the University. (adelphi.edu)
  • The Laser Safety Committee shall include the Radiation Safety Officer, Laser Safety Officer, administrative representatives, academic department representatives who by knowledge and experience are qualified in the area of radiation and/or laser safety. (adelphi.edu)
  • The Radiation Safety Committee will review and make recommendations for the safe operation of lasers as a part of the laser safety plan. (adelphi.edu)
  • Some Features of Interband Luminescence under Intense Laser Radiation. (worldcat.org)
  • IDENTIFY the three primary mechanisms of tissue injury associated with laser radiation exposure. (slideserve.com)
  • IDENTIFY the two mechanisms by which laser radiation may potentially cause skin injury. (slideserve.com)
  • IDENTIFY the three basic categories of controls used in laser environments to provide a degree of protection from possible laser radiation injury and GIVE several examples of each type of control. (slideserve.com)
  • Starting with a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, the desired helical pitch (the distance along the helical axis for one complete rotation of the nematic plane subunits) can be achieved by doping the liquid crystal with a chiral molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental work reported will describe the use of digitally addressed nematic liquid crystal on silicon devices for the analogue phase holograms. (spie.org)
  • However, pump-probe laser experiments are. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, pump-probe laser experiments detecting photoelectrons are only feasible under ultra-high vacuum. (eurekalert.org)
  • Solid-state lasers have lasing material distributed in a solid matrix (such as the ruby or neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet 'Yag' lasers). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Nd:YAG is short for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, the type of crystal that is used as the lasing medium for these lasers. (juvaskin.com)
  • Home-Built Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser - High power (10 to 50 W or more) flowing gas infra-red laser. (repairfaq.org)
  • 2. The laser dye as recited in claim 1, wherein the bridges are selected from the group consisting of: ##STR20## and R.sub.1 is an alkyl radical having 1 to 8 carbon atoms and R.sub.2 is the same alkyl radical selected from the group consistingof CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl and isobutyl. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. Carbon dioxide Laser-for warts, Keloids, lymphangiomas etc. (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon dioxide lasers were used early in an effort to obliterate telangiectatic vessels by means of vaporization with a small spot size. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, studies using carbon dioxide lasers have demonstrated unsatisfactory cosmetic results. (medscape.com)
  • As they are cooled by the laser, the nanocrystals developed by the UW team emit a reddish-green "glow" that can be seen by the naked eye. (innovations-report.com)
  • CO2 lasers emit energy in the far-infrared, and are used for cutting hard materials. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Because different fluorescent dyes' emission spectra overlap [2] , signals at the detectors have to be compensated electronically as well as computationally. (wikidoc.org)
  • Port-wine stain on the cheek and nose with 90% improvement after nine 585-nm pulsed dye laser treatments. (medscape.com)
  • Laser treatments are the only way to treat existing broken capillaries. (prlog.org)
  • Pulsed dye, KTP and YAG lasers are quick treatments that can help the cause. (prlog.org)
  • Here at JUVA, we have the latest developments in laser technology allowing us to provide custom treatments designed for your skin and your condition. (juvaskin.com)
  • In addition to reviewing diagnostic testing for small fiber neuropathy and current treatments, these authors discuss recent study results for low-level laser therapy. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Instead, doctors may recommend such treatments as freezing the genital warts, which is referred to as cryotherapy , or laser removal. (wisegeek.com)
  • Laser removal is also among the most common treatments for genital warts in pregnancy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Laser scar removal often requires repeated treatments. (getridofthings.com)
  • The pigment flakes can be interspersed into liquid media such as paints or inks to produce colorant materials for subsequent application to objects or papers. (google.co.uk)
  • The ethylene glycol solution (core liquid) withde-ionized (DI) water (cladding liquid) is co-injected into the lens chamber to form a gradient refractive index profile. (mdpi.com)
  • Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a non-reversible refractive procedure performed by ophthalmologists to correct myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After these tests, a technician or co-managing optometrist will perform a refraction to make sure the refractive correction the surgeon will program into the laser is correct. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The surgeon checks the refractive numbers on the laser. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The dye solution is usually circulated at high speeds, to help avoid triplet absorption and to decrease degradation of the dye. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The solid-state dye laser according to claim 1, wherein the optical resonator has a diffraction grating structure or a photonic crystal structure, or is a thin film having a reflective edge surface. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Coaxial pumped lasers have an annular dye cell that surrounds the flashtube, for even better transfer efficiency, but have a lower gain due to diffraction losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work studies photo-induced reorientation in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal (ADDLC) films by observing the diffraction patterns produced by self-phase modulation (SPM). (spie.org)
  • The reorientation effect in the ADDLC sample illuminated by the biphotonic lasers (green and red lasers) is also investigated by observing the self-phase modulation diffraction pattern. (spie.org)
  • Solid-state Dye Laser Oscillators", F.J. Duarte, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '93, pp. 400-404. (patentgenius.com)
  • In gas lasers, electrons are pumped to higher energy states by a voltage generator. (radford.edu)
  • Commercial Unstabilized HeNe Lasers - Specific models from Melles Griot, Spectra-Physics, Coherent, more. (repairfaq.org)
  • Laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions has progressed significantly over the past 30 years. (medscape.com)
  • Pulsed laser systems, such as the 585- or 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL), subsequently were developed and have become the mainstays of therapy for both congenital and acquired vascular lesions. (medscape.com)
  • 20 cm 2 ) respond better to laser treatment compared with lesions localized on the trunk or extremities or larger lesions. (medscape.com)
  • This revolutionary laser efficiently treats a complete range of vascular lesions including broken blood vessels, rosacea , port-wine stains, spider veins on the face and trunk, and leg veins. (juvaskin.com)
  • The Affinity QS 532 is an Nd:YAG laser that treats red-colored tattoos and epidermal pigmented lesions such as solar lentigines. (juvaskin.com)
  • The method is well-established for solid-state matter, but not for liquid samples. (eurekalert.org)
  • be concentration of active centers in the solid-state lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the usual liquid state, dye lasers are also available as solid state dye lasers (SSDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The laser of claim 2 in which the laser gain element is a solid state gain element. (google.com)
  • 4. The laser of claim 3 in which said solid state gain element is a Ti:sapphire gain element, and said substrate of said active mirror is Nd:YAG. (google.com)
  • Solid-state dye laser wtih modified poly(methyl methacrylate)-doped active elements", A. Maslyukov, s. (patentgenius.com)
  • Opportunity beckons for solid-state dye lasers", F.J. Duarte, Laser Focus World, May 1995. (patentgenius.com)
  • The reason that this laser treatment is so effective is because your skin will not only be treated on the surface, but also the internal tissues. (juvaskin.com)
  • In most cases, laser genital wart removal can be accomplished without damaging the surrounding body tissues and may cause less pain that cryotherapy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Tissue scatter and thermal relation are the other factors to be taken into consideration while planning laser therapy . (beauty-cosmetic-guide.com)
  • Laser technology has become so precise and specific, allowing providers to target and treat one type or color of tissue. (juvaskin.com)
  • The specific color of the laser determines the color of tissue it targets. (juvaskin.com)
  • The laser tissue welding device is intended for use in patients requiring sealing of the pancreas after partial pancreatectomy, and including those patients who are fully heparinized or have hemodilutional coagulation failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hypothesis is that the laser tissue welding device is safe and effective in sealing the pancreas, thereby decreasing the blood loss (operative and post-operative), and pancreatic juice leakage for patients when the Laser Tissue Welding device is used after pancreatic resection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Capable of penetrating tissue more deeply than other lasers, the Nd:YAG laser enables blood to clot quickly, allowing surgeons to see and can enable surgeons to see and touch body parts that could otherwise be reached only through open (invasive) surgery. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • After the treatment, the tissue that makes up the genital warts gradually dies and falls off. (wisegeek.com)
  • A fast discharge flashtube or an external laser is usually used for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • See gas discharge laser. (vumc.org)
  • Commercial Stabilized HeNe Lasers - Specific Models from Hewlett Packard/Agilent, Zygo, Teletrac/Axsys, more. (repairfaq.org)
  • Complete HeNe Laser Power Supply Schematics - more than 35 AC line and 25 inverter types, most you can build. (repairfaq.org)