Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Silicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement: Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Acrylic ResinsKyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Infusions, Spinal: The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).OsteomyelitisToluidinesBone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Spinal NeoplasmsAluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Bone Diseases, MetabolicEmbolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.AcrylatesBisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Compomers: Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Bone cements are provided as two-component materials. Bone cements consist of a powder (i.e., pre-polymerized PMMA and or PMMA ... The bone cement viscosity changes over time from a runny liquid into a dough like state that can be safely applied and then ... are anchored with bone cement. The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone and plays the important ... Osteoplasty - use of bone cement to reduce pain Application note describing how to measure residual monomer in bone cement A ...
... bones, wood, cork), and man made materials such as cements and ceramics can be considered as porous media. Many of their ... liquid or gas). The skeletal material is usually a solid, but structures like foams are often also usefully analyzed using ... Cement & Concrete Research (2006), 36 (8) 1483 -1489 Peng, Sheng; Hu, Qinhong; Dultz, Stefan; Zhang, Ming (2012). "Using X-ray ...
... air-cements, magnesia, hydrated lime), hydraulic (Roman cement, portland cement, hydraulic lime), acid-resistant (silicon ... In a more narrow sense, binders are liquid or dough-like substances that harden by a chemical or physical process and bind ... Glue is traditionally made by the boiling of hoofs, bones, or skin of animals and then mixing the hard gelatinous residue with ... Larger amounts of dry substance are added to liquid binders in order to cast or model sculptures and reliefs. In cooking, ...
Pressure-sensitive adhesives are manufactured with either a liquid carrier or in 100% solid form. Articles are made from liquid ... Adhesive may be used interchangeably with glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, and is any substance applied to one surface, or ... Egg-based pastes were used to bond gold leaves incorporated various natural ingredients such as blood, bone, hide, milk, cheese ... White glue, contact adhesives and rubber cements are members of the drying adhesive family. As the solvent evaporates, the ...
2. Calcium phosphate cement (hydroxyapatite) bioceramic material: CPC has been studied since 1985 in the US. Bone grafting ... 4. Calcium aluminate bioceramic material - (alumina cement in minerals, calcium aluminate cements in bioceramics) Alumina is an ... Strengths of more than 50 MPa are achieved when mixed in a powder-to-liquid ratio of more than 3 to 1.[citation needed] ... Limestone Portland Cement) GIC solution is polyacrylic acid. GIC is alumino-silicate (glass) bioceramic cement. As MTA is ...
Natural cements were frequently used in stucco mixes during the 1820s. The popularisation of Portland cement changed the ... Mixes for renders were patented, including a "Water Cement, or Stucco" consisting of lime, sand, bone ash and lime-water (Dr ... Veneer plastering covers the entire wall with thin liquid plaster, uses a great deal of water and is applied very wet. The ... In 1796, Revd James Parker patented Parker's "Roman Cement". This was a hydraulic cement which, when mixed with sand, could be ...
Roman cement, portland cement, hydraulic lime), acid-resistant (silicon fluoride cement, quartz cement), and autoclavable ( ... In a more narrow sense, binders are liquid or dough-like substances that harden by a chemical or physical process and bind ... Glue is traditionally made by the boiling of hoofs, bones, or skin of animals and then mixing the hard gelatinous residue with ... Based on their chemical resistance, binders are classified by the field of use: non-hydraulic (gypsum, air-cements, magnesia, ...
Modern cements are often Portland cement or Portland cement blends, but other cements are used in industry. Portland cement is ... Large quantities of waste animal meat and bone meal (MBM), also known as animal flour, have to be safely disposed of or ... the tricalcium aluminate and the brownmillerite are essential to allow the formation of the liquid phase during the kiln ... BET theory Cement chemist notation Cement render Energetically modified cement (EMC) Fly ash Geopolymer cement Portland cement ...
... are cements consisting predominantly of hydraulic calcium aluminates. Alternative names are "aluminous cement", "high-alumina cement" and "Ciment fondu" in French. They are used in a number of small-scale, specialized applications. The method of making cement from limestone and low-silica bauxite was patented in France in 1908 by Bied of the Pavin de Lafarge Company. The initial development was as a result of the search for a cement offering sulfate resistance. The cement was called in the French "Ciment fondu". Subsequently, its other special properties were discovered, and these guaranteed its future in niche applications. The main active constituent of calcium aluminate cements is monocalcium aluminate (CaAl2O4, CaO · Al2O3, or CA in the cement chemist notation). It usually contains other calcium aluminates as well as a number of less reactive phases deriving from ...
... is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). It is an image-guided procedure that requires conscious sedations and either general or local anesthesia. Vesselplasty is a latest minimally invasive procedure that increases mobility and reduces the pain of patients' with vertebral compression fractures by restoring the height of compressed vertebrae. It is an alternative to vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty-two conventional VCF treatment methods-that solves the problem of leakage of cement out of the vertebral body, which can happen during both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The main purpose of Vesselplasty is to reduce pain and hospital staying because it is a minimal invasive procedure. Patients usually go home the same day as the procedure. Vesselplasty is generally performed by a spine surgeon or interventional radiologist. With the patient placed under general or local anesthesia, the procedure is performed under C-arm imaging. The correct ...
In human anatomy of the leg, the femoral sheath has three compartments. The lateral compartment contains the femoral artery, the intermediate compartment contains the femoral vein, and the medial and smallest compartment is called the femoral canal. The femoral canal contains efferent lymphatic vessels and a lymph node embedded in a small amount of areolar tissue. It is conical in shape and is about 2 cm long. ...
... (CCN) was developed to simplify the formulas cement chemists use on a daily basis. It is a shorthand way of writing the chemical formula of oxides of calcium, silicon, and various metals. The main oxides present in cement (or in glass and ceramics) are abbreviated in the following way: For the sake of mass balance calculations, hydroxides present in hydrated phases found in hardened cement paste, such as in portlandite, Ca(OH)2, must first be converted into oxide and water. To better understand the conversion process of hydroxide anions in oxide and water, it is necessary to consider the autoprotolysis of the hydroxyl anions; it implies a proton exchange between two OH−, like in a classical acid-base reaction: OH−acid 1 + OH−base 2 → O2−base 1 + H2Oacid 2 or also, 2 OH− → O2− + H2O For portlandite this gives thus the following mass balance: Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O Thus portlandite can be written as CaO · H2O or CH. These oxides are used to build more ...
... is a registered trademark for fibre cement. The name "Eternit" is sometimes used as a generic term for fibre cement, but in fact it is a trademark for a brand of fibre cement, currently owned by the Belgian company Etex (parent company of Eternit Gmbh). Fibre is often applied in building and construction materials, mainly in roofing and facade products. The term "cement" originates from the Latin word "Caementum", which signifies chopped stone. Cement describes a binding substance, which will react chemically with water and develop into a material hard as stone. In fibre cement there is a fibre reinforcement, which contributes to making the fibre-cement material even stronger and to better withstand tension. Together with a carefully planned production process, fibre cement makes it possible to develop strong and long-lasting construction materials. ...
... was an American medical device company with headquarters in San Jose, California. It was known for its development of minimally invasive therapeutic devices built upon a radiofrequency platform for the treatment of spinal diseases. The platform included two applications, the StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and the STAR Tumor Ablation System for pain relief treatment of metastatic spinal tumors. DFINE was founded in 2004 in San Jose, California. It has had five rounds of funding since inception. The first being $35 million in 2009 led by Prospect Venture Partners. In January 2010 it received an additional $2.8 million. It received $36.2 million in equity finance in July 2010, led by Split Rock Partners with participation from OrbiMed, Prospect Venture Partners, and Vanguard Ventures. Its fourth round was $25 million with an additional $1.8 million coming in April 2012. In 2011, DFINE was awarded a five-year Federal Supply ...
... is the compound Ca4(PO4)2O, (4CaO.P2O5). It is the most basic of the calcium phosphates, and has a Ca/P ratio of 2, making it the most phosphorus poor phosphate. It is found as the mineral hilgenstockite, which is formed in industrial phosphate rich slag (called "Thomas slag"). This slag was used as a fertiliser due to the higher solubility of tetracalcium phosphate relative to apatite minerals. Tetracalcium phosphate is a component in some calcium phosphate cements that have medical applications. Tetracalcium phosphate cannot be prepared in aqueous solution, any precipitates having the correct Ca/P ratio contain hydroxide ions in apatitic phases. Solid state reactions are used, one example is: 2CaHPO4 + 2CaCO3 → Ca4(PO4)2O + CO2 +H2O (1450-1500 °C for up to 12 hours) As tetracalcium phosphate is metastable the molten reaction mixture has to be quenched to rapidly, reduce the temperature and prevent the formation of other compounds such as Ca3(PO4)2, CaO, CaCO3 and ...
... (18 December 1790 - 23 February 1883) was a French physician and surgeon who was born and practiced medicine in Paris. His older brother, Hippolyte Cloquet (1787-1840) and his younger nephew Ernest Cloquet (1818-1855) were also physicians. In 1821 Jules Cloquet became one of the earliest members elected to the Académie Nationale de Médecine in Paris. In 1836, he was elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Cloquet was known for his expertise as a surgeon, especially his work with hernial disorders. He was also the first to describe and identify the remnant of the embryonic hyaloid artery. This vestige was to become known as Cloquet's canal. Cloquet's name is associated with three anatomical terms regarding the femoral canal: "Cloquet's hernia": a hernia of the femoral canal "Cloquet's septum": a fibrous membrane bounding the annulus femoralis at the base of the femoral canal "Cloquet's gland": small lymphatic nodes in the femoral canal Cloquet ...
It was originally part of Anomickee County founded in 1840, which in 1843 was changed to Alpena, a pseudo-Native American word - a neologism coined by Henry Schoolcraft, meaning something like "a good partridge country."[8][9][10] This was part of a much larger effort to rename a great many of the Michigan counties at the time.[9] The region, known as the "Sunrise Side" from its location on the east shoreline of Michigan, was first a site of commercial fishing activity and is still home to extensive commercial fishing activities. Later the region, like much of Michigan, was shaped by the logging era of the 1800s. Today, Alpena is known for its limestone quarry, one of the largest in the world, owned and operated by the Lafarge corporation and is a major cement manufacturer and exporter. While at one time the largest in the world, the cement plant is now just the largest cement plant for Lafarge in North America with an annual capacity of almost 3 million ...
... is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). It is an image-guided procedure that requires conscious sedations and either general or local anesthesia. Vesselplasty is a latest minimally invasive procedure that increases mobility and reduces the pain of patients' with vertebral compression fractures by restoring the height of compressed vertebrae. It is an alternative to vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty-two conventional VCF treatment methods-that solves the problem of leakage of cement out of the vertebral body, which can happen during both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The main purpose of Vesselplasty is to reduce pain and hospital staying because it is a minimal invasive procedure. Patients usually go home the same day as the procedure. Vesselplasty is generally performed by a spine surgeon or interventional radiologist. With the patient placed under general or local anesthesia, the procedure is performed under C-arm imaging. The correct ...
... s belong to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics. They are noted for their transparency, resistance to breakage, and elasticity. They are also commonly known as acrylics or polyacrylates. Acrylate polymer is commonly used in cosmetics such as nail polish as an adhesive. Acrylate monomers used to form acrylate polymers are based on the structure of acrylic acid, which consists of a vinyl group and a carboxylic acid terminus. Other typical acrylate monomers are derivatives of acrylic acid, such as methyl methacrylate in which one vinyl hydrogen and the carboxylic acid hydrogen are both replaced by methyl groups, and acrylonitrile in which the carboxylic acid group is replaced by the related nitrile group. Other examples of acrylate monomers are: Methacrylates Methyl acrylate Ethyl acrylate 2-Chloroethyl vinyl ether 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Hydroxyethyl methacrylate Butyl acrylate Butyl methacrylate TMPTA Acrylic elastomer is a general term for a type of ...
... (also known as PMMA, Red Mitsubishi), chemically known as methyl-MA, 4-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine, 4-MMA) or (4-PMDA, as listed to its original physical name.) is a stimulant and psychedelic drug closely related to the amphetamine-class serotonergic drug para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). PMMA is the 4-methoxy analog of methamphetamine. Little is known about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of PMMA; because of its structural similarity to PMA, which has known toxicity in humans, it is thought to have considerable potential to cause harmful side effects or death in overdose. In the early 2010s, a number of deaths in users of the drug MDMA were linked to misrepresented tablets and capsules of PMMA. Its effects in humans are reputedly similar to those of PMA, but slightly more empathogenic in nature.[medical citation needed] It has a reduced tendency to produce severe hyperthermia at low dosages, but at higher dosages side effects and risk of ...
... is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape. This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals, and together referred to as a remodeling unit. Approximately 10% of the skeletal mass of an adult is remodelled each year.[42] The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair microdamaged bones from everyday stress, and to shape the skeleton during growth.[citation needed] Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress (Wolff's law). It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bone's ...
... a cartridge filled with bone cement powder and a monomer well for receiving monomer liquid to be flowed into the bone cement ... The monomer liquid flows by gravity in a stream near the outer periphery of the bone cement powder. The stream penetrates the ... The powder and liquid are then mechanically mixed to form bone cement. ... bone cement powder and forms a partial cylinder of monomer-rich powder essentially uniformly along the height of the bone ...
The invention relates to surgical bone cement compositions and more particularly to bone cement compositions having aneasthetic ... Bone cements suitable for use in the process of the invention generally comprise a liquid monomeric (meth)acrylate composition ... bone cement powder (40 g)+bone cement liquid (17.9 g)=57.95 g. The mean mass of bone cement discs in an individual experiment ... Bone cement was temporarily applied to keep the bones spaced and aligned, but this time the cement was Howmedica bone cement ...
In use, the bone cement is warmed until it reaches a temperature and consistency suitable for use. The bone cement may be ... The frozen bone cement is treated by electromagnetic radiation to insure sterility. ... The present invention is directed to polymethylmethacrylate bone cement that is premixed and frozen so as to arrest the ... In practice, the bone cement may simply be dropped into a container of liquid nitrogen and left until the liquid nitrogen ...
Cement Type. When compared with other bone cements, Palacos cement showed highest elution rates, which was explained by its ... Liquid antibiotics elute larger amounts from bone cement than antibiotics in powder form [8]. However, they are not used in ... They showed that when antibiotic loaded acrylic bone cement is placed next to cortical bone, dense cortical bone is penetrated ... In the past, bone cement liquid monomer, methyl methacrylate (MMA), was believed to be carcinogenic. However, the lack of ...
The second component to be mixed with the bone cement powder in order to produce a cement dough can, e.g., be a monomer liquid ... Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements usually are present as two-component systems. The first component usually is a bone cement ... wherein the bone cement is a bone cement produced from a bone cement powder according to claim 1. 11. A method for two-stage ... 7. Bone cement powder according to claim 1, wherein the fraction of the fosfomycin preparation present in the bone cement ...
An orthopaedic bone cement mixing device comprising a mixing bowl (1) and a lid (3), said lid (3) having a handle (4) extending ... The bone cement is produced by thoroughly mixing together two components, usually methylmethacrylate monomer liquid and ... In particular, some of the cement used in the USA may be more bulky than the other cements and it has been found that known ... Automated bone cement mixing apparatus. US6033105 *. 4. Aug. 1999. 7. M rz 2000. Barker; Donald. Integrated bone cement mixing ...
G at different vancomycin loadings in the powder of the cements. We hypothesized that antibiotic elution of Copal® spacem is ... and 6 g of vancomycin per 40 g of cement powder (COP specimens) and using 0.5 g gentamicin premixed Palacos® R+G manually ... loaded with 2 g, 4 g, and 6 g of vancomycin per 40 g of cement powder (PAL specimens). These specimens were used for ... i,Purpose,/i,. Copal® spacem is a new PMMA bone cement for fabricating spacers. This study compares elution of gentamicin, ...
... was formed along the cement in the bone marrow and no fibrous soft tissue intervened between the cement and new bone 2 weeks ... Publications] Miyamoto Y: Basic properties of calcium phosphate cement containing atelocollagen in its liquid or powder phases ... Publications] Ishikawa K: Properties and mechanisms of fast-setting calciuim phosphate cements Journal of Materials Science: ... apatite cement / osteoconductivity / new bone / biocompatibility / anti-washout-type / リン酸カルシウム / セメント / 骨再建 / 骨補填材 / 非崩壊性 / ...
... opening the liquid phase container within one of the said chambers which is not in communication with the outside atmosphere, ... one liquid and one powder, comprising the steps of storing the two components separately in a multichamber container, ... setting up a negative pressure within the chamber containing the powder phase, causing aspiration of the liquid into the ... injecting the paste into a cannula and extruding the paste with direct emplacement of the cement. ...
... which is particularly useful for the preparation of bone cement used in orthopedics, from a powder component and a liquid ... A method of preparing a self-curing two-component cement, ... Many modern day bone cements of the two component powder/liquid ... The present procedure for preparing PMMA bone cement is to thoroughly mix the powder and liquid component in order to start ... A method of preparing a self-curing two-component cement, which is particularly useful for the preparation of bone cement used ...
To reduce this risk, premixed cements have been developed using glycerol as mixing liquid. The premixed cement sets when it is ... Calcium phosphate cements are used in medicine to fill bone defects or give support to screws and plates in fracture fixation. ... Several cement formulations were evaluated e.g. the influence of powder to liquid ratio (P/L), powder particle size and ... Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are used as bone void filler in various orthopedic indications; however, there are some major ...
The monitoring of bone cements and the associated healing processes in the human body is difficult and so far has often been ... These additives have a negative effect on the mechanical properties and setting time of the bone cement. In this paper, we ... are well-established bone replacement materials that have been used in dentistry and orthopedics for more than 25 years. ... HAp at a powder-to-liquid ratio (PLR) of 1.5 g∙mL−1 to add up to 50 wt% powder. The mixed Eu:CPC pastes were converted into ...
When used for bone/implant fixation, or as a filler or cement for bone repair, gradual biodegradation of the cement composite ... eventual replacement of the cement with developing bone tissue. ... An improved bone cement is comprised of a particulate ... controlled release of biological agents that are mixed into the composite can be achieved as the cement biodegrades. ... More recent research efforts concerning fixation of bone prostheses have been directed to development of bone cements that are ...
However, they lack sufficient porosity to allow immediate bone ingrowth and thus foster rapi ... bone cements are widely used for the treatment of bone defects and have been proposed to serve as a delivery platform for ... Calcium phosphate (CaP) bone cements are widely used for the treatment of bone defects and have been proposed to serve as a ... however this modification induced a significant increase in porosity within 3 weeks ageing in an aqueous liquid. The release ...
Another embodiment provides a connector having a rotating fitting, which releasably connects the tube body to a cement ... A tube body includes an interior bore to carry a material flow into bone. The tube body includes a dispensing end having an ... When the cement temperature is below a given threshold value, the cement 38 maintains a flowing, viscous liquid state, which is ... Method and apparatus for monitoring and/or controlling the curing of cements used in medical procedures. ...
A system for treating bone using this method includes an introducer for delivering fill material into the bone and an energy ... In another embodiment, method of treating bone includes injecting a volume of fill material into a bone and selectively ... An exemplary system utilizes Rf energy in combination a conductive bone fill material for polymerizing the surface of the ... a viscosity of a selected portion of the bone filler to control the direction of flow of the fill material within the bone. ...
The pressure delivery device causes a pressurized compound to be delivered, the pressurized compound may be liquid or gaseous ... An apparatus for delivering bone cement into a vertebra, includes a cannula, a delivery device in communication with the ... Apparatus and method for delivering and mixing a liquid bone cement component with a powder bone cement component. ... Flex-tight interlocking connection tubing for delivery of bone cements/biomaterials for vertebroplasty. ...
Such a bone cement formulation decreases the exothermic temperature of the bone cement and decreases the possibility of tissue ... Therefore, a reduced amount of a polymerizable component need be added to the dry component to form a bone cement. ... A bone cement having a dry component including a large constituent and a small constituent. The small constituent fills a ... The porous bone cements require that the bone cement be formed in such a way to produce the porous product to allow bone in- ...
... a separate container containing the monomer liquid or comprising an integrated container containing the monomer liquid, an ... the mixing device comprising at least one cartridge having an evacuable interior for mixing of the bone cement, a mixing device ... in which a movable plunger for conveying a liquid is arranged and delimits a pump chamber of the pressure pump and a connection ... The invention relates to a mixing device for mixing PMMA bone cement from a monomer liquid and a cement powder, ...
... paste-like bone cement. Previously, bone cement came powdered and had to be combined with a liquid in a vacuum system, then ... Heraeus Medical has been developing specialized bone cements and the related mixing systems for many years. Now, with an ... for a new ready-to-use cementing system for an innovative bone cement used in joint endoprostheses (hip and knee joints). Dr. ... End User Development »Head Medium Display »Medical Wellness »Quarzglas »bone cement »environmentally friendly »glass fiber » ...
Bone cements are provided as two-component materials. Bone cements consist of a powder (i.e., pre-polymerized PMMA and or PMMA ... The bone cement viscosity changes over time from a runny liquid into a dough like state that can be safely applied and then ... are anchored with bone cement. The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone and plays the important ... Osteoplasty - use of bone cement to reduce pain Application note describing how to measure residual monomer in bone cement A ...
The oil is an intermixture with the cement powder at a concentration of less than 10 wt % of the total weight of the ... An injectable bone mineral substitute material composition comprises an inorganic bone cement powder and a biologically ... Pasty or liquid multiple constituent compositions for injectable calcium phosphate cements. US20050023171. 28 Jul 2003. 3 Feb ... Device for providing spongy bone with bone substitute and/or bone reinforcing material, bone substitute and/or bone reinforcing ...
Compared to cortical bone and polymeric bone cements, the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements are generally poor ... and 0.5 M citric acid in a liquid-to-powder ratio of 0.22 ml/g. This composition gave the highest compressive strength ... Degradable synthetic materials with properties similar to bone, such as calcium phosphate cements, are a promising alternative ... The focus of this thesis is, therefore, on how the physical properties of acidic calcium phosphate cements (brushite cements) ...
Besides beads, the other form of antibiotic local delivery is by using PMMA bone cement, a powdered polymer mixed with a liquid ... or biodegradable and osteoactive materials such as calcium orthophosphates bone cements, have been shown to be promising ... AZI, M.L.; JUNIOR, M.K.; MARTINEZ, R.; PACCOLA, C.A.J. Bone cement and gentamicin in the treatment of bone infection: ... 2012) evaluated the bioactivity of meropenem loaded bone cement with possible application in Gram negative bone infections. ...
The Effect of Lif-Maleic Acid Added Calcium Aluminate Bone Cement and Ca-PMMA Composite Bone Cement on Bone Regeneration in Rat ... The cements were mixed with their respective liquids and were after setting stored in phosphate buffered saline at 37 °C for ... U. W. Jung et al., "The Effect of Lif-Maleic Acid Added Calcium Aluminate Bone Cement and Ca-PMMA Composite Bone Cement on Bone ... The Effect of Lif-Maleic Acid Added Calcium Aluminate Bone Cement and Ca-PMMA Composite Bone Cement on Bone Regeneration in Rat ...
  • Both materials were considered to have a high biocompatibility since no marked immunological response was induced and extensive bone ingrowth was observed. (diva-portal.org)
  • The conclusion from the study was that pCPC with ZrO2 radiopacifier is a promising alternative regarding bone replacement material and may be suggested for treatment of, for example, vertebral fractures based on its high biocompatibility, fast bone ingrowth, and good handling properties. (diva-portal.org)
  • In vitro biocompatibility of cements on human osteoblasts is ensured. (ovid.com)
  • Although there is a need for biocompatibility and cellular cytotoxicity testing in vitro, as well as in vivo evaluation, seashells could be used in glass ionomer cement aiming at the development of a 'scaffold' material for bone grafting or osseointegration. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of its excellent biocompatibility with dental tissues ( i.e. , no records of significant adverse side effects after over 20 years of use), GICs were examined for their ability to repair bone structures (2). (bvsalud.org)
  • Glass ionomer cements are popular because they contain several important properties in an optimal dental restorative material, such as fluoride release (3), a thermal expansion coefficient and module of elasticity that is similar to the dentin (4), adhesion on both the enamel and the dentin (5) and biocompatibility (6,7). (bvsalud.org)
  • The properties of CPC essential for clinical success are reviewed in this article, which includes properties of the set cement (e.g. bioresorbability, biocompatibility, porosity and mechanical properties) and unset cement (e.g. setting time, cohesion, flow properties and ease of delivery to the surgical site). (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Among the range of proposed synthetic materials, calcium phosphates (CP) have attracted a lot of attention due to their similar bone composition and excellent properties including biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenicity, non-toxicity [10- (jourtm.com)
  • The set time can be tailored to help the physician safely apply the bone cement into the bone bed to either anchor metal or plastic prosthetic device to bone or used alone in the spine to treat osteoporotic compression fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, rising number of accidents resulting in fractures require these bone cement and casting materials to fix a fractured bone. (researchmoz.us)
  • Setbone Medical is developing a novel bone cement for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). (trendlines.com)
  • Unfortunately, in up to 52% of procedures, there is risk of cement leakage into the spinal canal, bloodstream, and disc space causing possible paraplegia, embolisms, and vertebral fractures ( Journal of Medical Case Reports, Feb 2016). (trendlines.com)
  • This increases many people's risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, and their subsequent risk of fractures from something as minute as a cough. (medicaldaily.com)
  • This is necessary because the human hip is acted on by approximately 10-12 times the body weight and therefore the bone cement must absorb the forces acting on the hips to ensure that the artificial implant remains in place over the long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone cement is an epoxy used to attach the components of a knee implant to human bone during a total knee replacement (TKR). (awkolaw.com)
  • In a 2016 case series which evaluated 13 cases of tibial component de-bonding (where the implant fails to adhere to the cement interface on the shin bone) in implants performed with HVC. (awkolaw.com)
  • The first recorded bone implant was performed in 1668. (periobasics.com)
  • Two different particle sizes of CAC - 3.5 µm vs. 212-250 µm which is recommended in periodontal bone grafting procedures - were filled in 8mm calvarial defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. (scientific.net)
  • The result of this study shows that when calvarial defects in white rats are filled with 212-250 µm calcium aluminate cement, the materials proved to be bio-compatible in growth and healing on the surrounding tissues. (scientific.net)
  • To determine if the foam could actually repair degenerated bone, the researchers applied it to tiny defects in the thigh bones of rabbits. (medicaldaily.com)
  • After this, many researchers used different forms of bone grafts in periodontal bone defects. (periobasics.com)
  • Bone defects caused by skeletal diseases, traumatic events, congenital anomalies, and malignancies annually bring millions of patients to hospitals for bone remodeling and transplantation [7, (jourtm.com)
  • The mechanical properties of the composite were not compromised by up to 10 wt% MBG granule addition, which can be attributed to the strong interface between the cement matrix and MBG particles, however this modification induced a significant increase in porosity within 3 weeks ageing in an aqueous liquid. (rsc.org)
  • In this thesis a method to measure the porosity of a cement was developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • A model estimating the porosity of the hardened cement from the initial chemical composition was further formulated and the accuracy affirmed. (diva-portal.org)
  • An exclusive process patented by Tecres gives to the powder particles of Cemex a very smooth and uniform surface, making the cement very compact with extremely low porosity. (endo.id)
  • This composition gave the highest compressive strength historically measured for this type of cement, i.e. , 74.4 (±10.7) MPa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results Compared to control cement specimens, improved GEN release, longer antimicrobial activity (against clinically-relevant bacterial strains), and comparable setting time, cytocompatibility, compressive strength (both prior to and after aging in PBS at 37 oC for 30 d), 4-point bend strength and modulus, fracture toughness, and PBS uptake. (mendeley.com)
  • The invention relates to surgical bone cement compositions and more particularly to bone cement compositions having aneasthetic properties, and to methods for producing analgesia. (google.ca)
  • Surgical procedures to reconstruct or repair bones have become extremely common. (google.com)
  • The surgical control group received a flap operation only, while the experimental group was treated with calcium aluminate bony cement incorporating LiF-maleic acid. (scientific.net)
  • In addition to surgical bone remodeling, several materials have been used for remodeling and refinement of the frontal bone. (springer.com)
  • Although it can be an effective treatment to improve self esteem [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ], contouring of the cranial vault, especially the frontal bone, still is a rarely performed surgical procedure for gender reassignment. (springer.com)
  • But knowing from reconstructive surgery of the cranial vault that surgical bone reshaping of the forehead without augmentation often is not sufficient, several alloplastic materials such as high-density polyethylene or methylmethacrylate have been widely used for augmentation and remodeling of the frontal bone [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ], thus avoiding the use of autogenous bone. (springer.com)
  • CDHA, one possible end product of the CPC setting reaction, is the basic material of bone apatite, which is strongly substituted in its natural form by ions such as Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , HPO 4 2− , and CO 3 2− [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Currently, despite the numerous combinations of cement of CP cements, there are only two final products, brushite and apatite, such as HA or CDHA (Calcium Deficient HA), and these two products are further obtained by two types of hydrolysis and acid-reactive chemical reactions. (jourtm.com)
  • When used for sustained release of biologically active agents in a physiological environment, controlled release of biological agents that are mixed into the composite can be achieved as the cement biodegrades. (google.com.au)
  • The photo of the prepared intraoperatively K -wire-armed, antibiotic loaded cement nail with a syringe (for scale comparison). (hindawi.com)
  • Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic loaded cement spacer is the preferred treatment method of late hip joint infections. (medsci.org)
  • The 'Klinik für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie' (Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg / Saar, Germany) developed therefore a special moulding form whereby a standardized, antibiotic-loaded cement spacer adapted to patient infection can be formed during surgery [ 8 - 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • These additives have a negative effect on the mechanical properties and setting time of the bone cement. (mdpi.com)
  • From the results, chitosan was effective both in increasing mechanical properties and accelerating hardening of the normal bone cements. (scientific.net)
  • Due to several undesired cement properties, further development of the coating system is necessary to improve the thermal and mechanical properties while reducing the residual monomer content within the resulting cements. (syr.edu)
  • In addition, soaking CPC in Ringer's solution for 7,14 and 21 days also gave remarkable effects to cohesion, microstructure and mechanical properties of the cements. (iium.edu.my)
  • 14. The anaesthetic bone cement composition of claim 11 , wherein said polymerization initiator is an organic peroxy compound. (google.ca)
  • 6. Bone cement powder according to claim 1, further comprising at least one particulate polymethylmethacrylate or polymethylmethacrylate-co-polymer, a particulate radiopaquer, a radical initiator, and, optionally, a further antibiotic and/or antiseptic. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The bone cement powder additionally comprises a radiopaquer and the initiator dibenzoylperoxide. (justia.com)
  • Only when the two starting components are mixed to produce a cement dough do the ingredients of the redox initiator system, previously stored separately in the two pastes, liquids or powders, react with each other, forming radicals which trigger the radical polymerisation of the at least one monomer. (justia.com)
  • In TSBC's the polymer and initiator are thoroughly mixed within the liquid monomer to allow for complete dissolution. (syr.edu)
  • As a solution to pre-polymerization concerns, we have removed the initiator from the cement solution and developed a solvent casting method to deposit BPO within the static mixing nozzle that is used for cement delivery. (syr.edu)
  • Altering the polymer and initiator concentrations within the nozzle affects the entrapment of BPO in the coating and the release of benzoyl peroxide during cement mixing. (syr.edu)
  • Because of certain favorable properties, such as its easy manipulation and its ability to maintain the morphology of the defect site by acting as a scaffold, the newly developed cement is suitable for us as a graft material, and could be used very effectively in alveolar augmentation. (scientific.net)
  • The present study examined the possibility of modifying the structural properties of glass ionomer cement by adding seashells to form a possible 'scaffold' material for cases of bone formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Osteoconduction occurs when the bone graft material serves as a scaffold for new bone growth that is perpetuated by the native bone. (periobasics.com)
  • The orthopedic bone cement and casting materials market can be classified on the basis of materials used in the cast and in bone cement. (researchmoz.us)
  • The orthopedic bone cement and casting material market is also analyzed based on geographic distribution as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. (researchmoz.us)
  • With an aging global population and presence of untapped opportunities, the orthopedic bone cement and casting materials market is expected to grow at a good pace, particularly in countries such as India and China. (researchmoz.us)
  • Factors such as aging population leading to an increase in joint problems, an increasing number of people suffering from obesity, a shift towards junk and non-nutritious food that leads to weaker bones and continuous development in the field of healthcare are driving the orthopedic bone cement and casting materials market. (researchmoz.us)
  • Major opportunities for the orthopedic bone cement and casting material market lie in countries such as India, China, Russia, Brazil, and South Africa where there is a significant pool of under-served patients and lack of supporting healthcare infrastructure. (researchmoz.us)
  • Some of the key players in orthopedic bone cement and casting materials market are DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc., Zimmer Holdings, Inc., Smith & Nephew Plc, Stryker Corporation, Biomet, Inc. and Orthofix International N.V. (researchmoz.us)
  • 4. The substantially nonporous biocompatible of claim 1 , wherein said liquid component includes a monomer, polymerization accelerator, stabilizer, or mixtures thereof, wherein when said liquid component is mixed with said large particle constituent and said small particle constituent said monomer polymerizes to form the polymer structure. (google.co.uk)
  • Two components of Palacos®: powder (polymer) and liquid (monomer) are mixed in a ratio of 2g : 1ml. (medsci.org)
  • The cement requires a period of time to dissolve the polymer coating within the nozzle in order to access the available BPO. (syr.edu)
  • Since the initial formulation in the 1980s, CP cements have been increasingly used as bone substitutes, and many have been commercialized with various compounds. (jourtm.com)
  • After filling but before consolidation, an endoskeleton made of titanium-grade-two (Euro-Titan AG, Solingen, Germany) could be centered into the cement spacer for reinforcement (Fig. 2 ). (medsci.org)
  • The ground seashells were mixed with the glass ionomer cement at either 1, 5 or 10% concentrations (in weight). (bvsalud.org)
  • The knee joint is comprised where the thigh bone (femur) meets the shinbone (tibia). (awkolaw.com)