Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Arachidonate Lipoxygenases: Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Masoprocol: A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Arachidonic Acids5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Leukotriene A4: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipoxygenases: Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.QuinolinesQuinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the action of 5-LIPOXYGENASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Receptors, Eicosanoid: Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)PyransUmbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.ZymosanDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.CycloheptanesIonophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.

Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (1/779)

We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems.  (+info)

Induction of monocyte binding to endothelial cells by MM-LDL: role of lipoxygenase metabolites. (2/779)

Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (EC) with minimally oxidized LDL (or minimally modified LDL, MM-LDL) produces a specific pattern of endothelial cell activation distinct from that produced by LPS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1, but similar to other agents that elevate cAMP. The current studies focus on the signal transduction pathways by which MM-LDL activates EC to bind monocytes. We now demonstrate that, in addition to an elevation of cAMP, lipoxygenase products are necessary for the MM-LDL response. Treatment of EC with inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or cinnamyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), blocked monocyte binding in MM-LDL-treated EC (MM-LDL=118+/-13%; MM-LDL+ETYA=33+/-4%; MM-LDL+CDC=23+/-4% increase in monocyte binding) without reducing cAMP levels. To further investigate the role of the lipoxygenase pathway, cellular phospholipids were labeled with arachidonic acid. Treatment of cells for 4 hours with 50 to 100 microg/mL MM-LDL, but not native LDL, caused a 60% increase in arachidonate release into the medium and increased the intracellular formation of 12(S)-HETE (approximately 100% increase). There was little 15(S)-HETE present, and no increase in its levels was observed. We demonstrated that 12(S)-HETE reversed the inhibitory effect of CDC. We also observed a 70% increase in the formation of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET) in cells treated with MM-LDL. To determine the mechanism of arachidonate release induced by MM-LDL, we examined the effects of MM-LDL on intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of EC with both native LDL and MM-LDL caused a rapid release of intracellular calcium from internal stores. However, several pieces of evidence suggest that calcium release alone does not explain the increased arachidonate release in MM-LDL-treated cells. The present studies suggest that products of 12-lipoxygenase play an important role in MM-LDL action on the induction of monocyte binding to EC.  (+info)

Conversion of cucumber linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by site-directed mutagenesis. (3/779)

Multiple lipoxygenase sequence alignments and structural modeling of the enzyme/substrate interaction of the cucumber lipid body lipoxygenase suggested histidine 608 as the primary determinant of positional specificity. Replacement of this amino acid by a less-space-filling valine altered the positional specificity of this linoleate 13-lipoxygenase in favor of 9-lipoxygenation. These alterations may be explained by the fact that H608V mutation may demask the positively charged guanidino group of R758, which, in turn, may force an inverse head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid substrate. The R758L+H608V double mutant exhibited a strongly reduced reaction rate and a random positional specificity. Trilinolein, which lacks free carboxylic groups, was oxygenated to the corresponding (13S)-hydro(pero)xy derivatives by both the wild-type enzyme and the linoleate 9-lipoxygenating H608V mutant. These data indicate the complete conversion of a linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by a single point mutation. It is hypothesized that H608V exchange may alter the orientation of the substrate at the active site and/or its steric configuration in such a way that a stereospecific dioxygen insertion at C-9 may exclusively take place.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (4/779)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase during postgerminative growth. Its expression and action on lipid bodies. (5/779)

In cucumber (Cucumis sativus), high lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) activity has been detected in the soluble fraction prepared from cotyledons of germinating seeds, and the involvement of this enzyme in lipid turnover has been suggested (K. Matsui, M. Irie, T. Kajiwara, A. Hatanaka [1992] Plant Sci 85: 23-32; I. Fuessner, C. Wasternack, H. Kindl, H. Kuhn [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11849-11853). In this study we have investigated the expression of the gene lox-1, corresponding to the LOX-1 enzyme. LOX-1 expression is highly coordinated with that of a typical glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase, during the postgerminative stage of cotyledon development. In contrast, although icl transcripts accumulated in tissue during in vitro senescence, no accumulation of lox-1 mRNA could be observed, suggesting that lox-1 plays a specialized role in fat mobilization. LOX-1 is also known to be a major lipid body protein. The partial peptide sequences of purified LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 entirely coincided with that deduced from the lox-1 cDNA sequence. The data strongly suggest that LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 are derived from a single gene and that LOX-1 can exist both in the cytosol and on the lipid bodies. We constructed an in vitro oxygenation system to address the mechanism of this dual localization and to investigate the action of LOX-1 on lipids in the lipid bodies. LOX-1 cannot act on the lipids in intact lipid bodies, although degradation of lipid body proteins, either during seedling growth or by treatment with trypsin, allows lipid bodies to become susceptible to LOX-1. We discuss the role of LOX-1 in fat mobilization and its mechanism of action.  (+info)

Evidence that lipid hydroperoxides inhibit plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. (6/779)

The oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we found that polar lipids isolated from minimally oxidized LDL produced a dramatic inhibition of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, suggesting that HDL-cholesterol transport may be impaired during early atherogenesis. In this study, we have identified molecular species of oxidized lipids that are potent inhibitors of LCAT activity. Treatment of LDL with soybean lipoxygenase generated small quantities of lipid hydroperoxides (20 +/- 4 nmol/mg LDL protein, n = 3); but when lipoxygenase-treated LDL (1 mg protein/ml) was recombined with the d > 1.063 g/ml fraction of human plasma, LCAT activity was rapidly inhibited (25 +/- 4 and 65 +/- 16% reductions by 1 and 3 h, respectively). As phospholipid hydroperoxides (PL-OOH) are the principal oxidation products associated with lipoxygenase-treated LDL, we directly tested whether PL-OOH inhibited plasma LCAT activity. Detailed dose-response curves revealed that as little as 0.2 and 1.0 mole % enrichment of plasma with PL-OOH produced 20 and 50% reductions in LCAT activity by 2 h, respectively. To gain insight into the mechanism of LCAT impairment, the enzyme's free cysteines (Cys31 and Cys184) and active site residues were "capped" with the reversible sulfhydryl compound, DTNB, during exposure to either minimally oxidized LDL or PL-OOH. Reversal of the DTNB "cap" after such exposures revealed that the enzyme was completely protected from both sources of peroxidized phospholipids. We, therefore, conclude that PL-OOH inhibited plasma LCAT activity by modifying the enzyme's free cysteine and/or catalytic residues. These studies are the first to suggest that PL-OOH may accelerate the atherogenic process by impairing LCAT activity.  (+info)

The diversity of the lipoxygenase family. Many sequence data but little information on biological significance. (7/779)

Lipoxygenases form a family of lipid peroxidising enzymes, which oxygenate free and esterified polyenoic fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives. They are widely distributed in both the plant and animal kingdoms. During the last couple of years more and more lipoxygenase isoforms have been discovered but for most of them the biological significance remains unclear. This review attempts to classify the currently known mammalian lipoxygenase isoforms and critically reviews the concepts for their biological importance.  (+info)

When and why a water-soluble antioxidant becomes pro-oxidant during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation: a study using uric acid. (8/779)

The inclusion of uric acid in the incubation medium during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation exerted either an antioxidant or pro-oxidant effect. The pro-oxidant effect, as mirrored by an enhanced formation of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and increase in negative charge, occurred when uric acid was added late during the inhibitory or lag phase and during the subsequent extensive propagation phase of copper-stimulated LDL oxidation. The pro-oxidant effect of uric acid was specific for copper-induced LDL oxidation and required the presence of copper as either Cu(I) or Cu(II). In addition, it became much more evident when the copper to LDL molar ratio was below a threshold value of approx. 50. In native LDL, the shift between the antioxidant and the pro-oxidant activities was related to the availability of lipid hydroperoxides formed during the early phases of copper-promoted LDL oxidation. The artificial enrichment of isolated LDL with alpha-tocopherol delayed the onset of the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid and also decreased the rate of stimulated lipid peroxidation. However, previous depletion of alpha-tocopherol was not a prerequisite for unmasking the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid, since this became apparent even when alpha-tocopherol was still present in significant amounts (more than 50% of the original values) in LDL. These results suggest, irrespective of the levels of endogenous alpha-tocopherol, that uric acid may enhance LDL oxidation by reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), thus making more Cu(I) available for subsequent radical decomposition of lipid peroxides and propagation reactions.  (+info)

  • In addition, cells, when so activated, may transfer their released polyunsaturated fatty acids to adjacent or nearby cells which then metabolize them through their lipoxygenase pathways in a process termed transcellular metabolism or transcellular biosynthesis. (
  • Based on detailed analyses of 15-lipoxygenase 1 and stabilized 5-lipoxygenase, lipoxygenase structures consist of a 15 kilodalton N-terminal beta barrel domain, a small (e.g. ~0.6 kilodalton) linker inter-domain (see protein domain#Domains and protein flexibility), and a relatively large C-terminal catalytic domain which contains the non-heme iron critical for the enzymes' catalytic activity. (
  • Lipoxygenases depend on the availability of their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates which, particularly in mammalian cells, is normally maintained at extremely low levels. (
  • In general, various phospholipase A2s and diacylglycerol lipases are activated during cell stimulation, proceed to release these fatty acids from their storage sites, and thereby are key regulators in the formation of lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites. (
  • Certain types of the lipoxygenases, e.g. human and marine 15-lipoxygenase 1, 12-lipoxygenase B, and ALOXE3, are capable of metabolizing fatty acid substrates that are constituents of phospholipids, cholesterol esters, or complex lipids of the skin. (
  • 3. Wallach, D.P. and Brown, V.R. A novel preparation of human platelet lipoxygenase. (
  • Plant lipoxygenase in conjunction with hydroperoxide lyases are responsible for many fragrances and other signalling compounds. (
  • In view of platelet-leukocyte interactions and potent chemotactic activity of 12-HETE for aortic smooth muscle cell migration, increased 12-lipoxygenase activity may predispose individuals to atherosclerosis, thromboembolism and emphysema commonly found in smokers. (
  • Less data about platelet lipoxygenase pathway, especially for its biological role, are available. (
  • Since the 5-lipoxygenase pathway is abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, and 12/15-lipoxygenase is able to oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acid esterified in the membranous phospholipids, 5-lipoxygenase or 12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitors may prevent progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • The 5‐lipoxygenase pathway is part of the innate immune system. (
  • These results suggest that drugs targeting the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway merit investigation as a therapy for osteoporosis. (
  • Since the latter stimulatory effect of AA is prevented by inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, we examined the effects of various lipoxygenase pathway products on glucose-induced insulin secretion. (
  • The mediator was not one of the stable end-products of either limb of the lipoxygenase pathway: 12- or 5-hy-droxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) (0.5-2000 ng/ml) did not alter insulin release, whereas 11-HETE, 15-HETE, leukotriene (LT)B 4 and the δ 6 trans isomers of LTB 4 , LTC 4 and 11- trans LTC 4 all inhibited insulin release. (
  • We have discovered a new calcium kinase signaling pathway through which RvD1 lowers the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the common enzyme for LTB 4 and LXA 4 biosynthesis This shift in 5-LOX localization dampens LTB 4 production and enhances LXA 4 production. (
  • Genes of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway are compelling candidates for atherosclerosis. (
  • Further, lipoxygenase pathway SNPs that were associated with measures of atherosclerosis were associated with markers of inflammation (CRP, ICAM-1) and calcification (MGP). (
  • These results suggest that variants in lipoxygenase pathway genes may have pleiotropic effects on multiple components that determine risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • The current research was motivated by the role of lipoxygenase pathway gene products in inflammation, initiation/progression of atherosclerosis, and their modulation of expression by glucose. (
  • Role of the lipoxygenase pathway in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. (
  • The 12-lipoxygenase pathway is a key mediator of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced effects in the adrenal cortex. (
  • This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. (
  • Most notably, 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway products including LTC 4 and -D 4 , the slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis, are considered causative agents in airway allergic responses, because they are potent bronchoconstrictors and inducers of leakage permeability changes ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) lipid mediator is among inflammatory molecules that are abundantly produced in various diseases and is primarily biosynthesized via the 12(S)-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway. (
  • While most developed compounds primarily target the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) or the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, very few compounds selectively inhibiting the 12-LO pathway are known. (
  • The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilo base pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered together on chromosome 17), is composed of 14 exons divided by 13 introns encoding the mature 78 kilodalton (kD) ALOX5 protein consisting of 673 amino acids. (
  • A novel polymorphism, E254K, in the 5-lipoxygenase gene associate. (
  • We identified a novel polymorphism, c.760 G>A (E254K), in exon 6 of the 5-lipoxygenase gene (5-LO). (
  • 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) was recently identified as a gene that makes an important contribution to atherosclerosis in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. (
  • Through combined genetic and genomic approaches, we identified the lipoxygenase gene Alox15 as a negative regulator of peak bone mineral density in mice. (
  • In this study, we will take the Lipoxygenase gene family as an example and discuss the differential retention and expansion of ancestral genes in four rosids. (
  • It has been shown that lipoxygenases have the ability to oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a step important in lesion initiation and progression, and KO of the lipoxygenase gene decreases oxidant stress. (
  • 1) Transcriptional regulation of 12-lipoxygenase : As examined by the luciferase assay, a negative regulatory region including the NFkB motif was found in the 5'-flanking region of the 12-lipoxygenase gene in human erythroleukemia cells. (
  • p50 and c-Rel) seemed to control the over-expression of the human 12-lipoxygenase gene. (
  • Based on detailed analyses of 15-lipoxygenase 1 and stabilized 5-lipoxygenase, lipoxygenase structures consist of a 15 kilodalton N-terminal beta barrel domain, a small (e.g. ~0.6 kilodalton) linker inter-domain (see protein domain#Domains and protein flexibility), and a relatively large C-terminal catalytic domain which contains the non-heme iron critical for the enzymes' catalytic activity. (
  • Malotilate is a liver protein metabolism improved compound, which selectively inhibit the 5-lipoxygenase . (
  • 1 . A barley plant or portion thereof comprising a mutant LOX-1 protein, the plant or portion characterized by a reduction or absence of lipoxygenase activity as compared with a non-mutated control. (
  • According to the NCBI conserved domain search, the presence of a polycystin/lipoxygenase/alpha-toxin (PLAT) domain in the 12-LOX protein allows it access and enables it to catalyze enzymatic lipid peroxidation in complex biological structures via direct dioxygenation of phospholipids and cholesterol esters of biomembranes and plasma lipoproteins. (
  • We studied the effects of Ang II and 12-lipoxygenase products on both total cell protein content and the levels of the matrix protein fibronectin in quiescent porcine aortic smooth muscle cells. (
  • Direct addition of the 12-lipoxygenase product 12-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased total cell protein content. (
  • 18. The method of claim 1, wherein soluble lipoxygenase polypeptide relative to total soluble protein in the cell extract is 30% or greater. (
  • Attenuation of early and late phase allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects by a 5-lipoxygenase activating protein antagonist, BAYx 1005. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein can attenuate allergen-induced bronchoconstrictor responses and support an important role for the cysteinyl leukotrienes in mediating these asthmatic responses. (
  • The predicted amino acid sequence indicates a polypeptide of Mr 97,628 that shows about 86% amino acid identity with a soya-bean lipoxygenase 3 protein sequence [Yenofsky, Fine & Liu (1988) Mol. (
  • Crossbreeding experiments with Alox15 knockout mice confirmed that 12/15-lipoxygenase plays a role in skeletal development. (
  • Employing a combined bioinformatical and enzymological strategy, which included structural modeling and experimental site-directed mutagenesis, we systematically explored the structural and functional consequences of non-synonymous genetic variations in four different human lipoxygenase genes (ALOX5, ALOX12, ALOX15, and ALOX15B) that have been identified in the human 1000 genome project. (
  • Human 12-lipoxygenase (encoded by ALOX12 ) and 15-lipoxygenase (encoded by ALOX15 ) have been localized to atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that 12/15LO activity is involved in the development of atherosclerosis [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • It is based upon a Sandwich assay principle and can be used to detect levels of ALOX15 / 15-Lipoxygenase as low as 37.5 picograms per milliliter. (
  • Lipoxygenases depend on the availability of their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates which, particularly in mammalian cells, is normally maintained at extremely low levels. (
  • 12S-lipoxygenases has three isoforms, named after their site of initial identification: platelet, leukocyte and epidermis. (
  • Owing to the similarities in their genetic location, sequence and biological activities, leukocyte 12-LOX and 15-LOX-1 are often referred to as 12/15 lipoxygenase. (
  • Involvement of 5-lipoxygenase products in cigarette smoke-induced leukocyte/endothelium interaction in hamsters. (
  • Specifically, leukocyte-type 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO), highly homologous to human 15-lipoxygenase, and its products have been shown to be increased in animal models of native atherosclerosis and injury-induced restenosis. (
  • 2) Suicide inactivation of 12-and 15-lipoxygenases : Leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase showed a typical 'suicide inactivation' during its catalysis, whereas platelet 12-lipoxygenase reaction proceeded almost linearly. (
  • Acetohydroxamic acids as potent, selective, orally active 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. (
  • Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of anacardic acids. (
  • The alk(en)yl side chain of anacardic acids is essential to elicit the inhibitory activity. (
  • Lipoxygenases oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Monohydroxy acids from novel lipoxygenases. (
  • 2 . The barley plant or portion of claim 1 , wherein the lipoxygenase activity comprises catalysis of oxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated octadecanoic fatty acids to form 9-hydroperoxy fatty acid derivatives. (
  • Forty six synovial fluid samples from 42 patients with inflammatory joint disease were analysed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography to determine 5-lipoxygenase products, specifically dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). (
  • Manganese lipoxygenase (Mn-LO) oxygenates 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to bis-allylic 11S-hydroperoxy fatty acids, which are converted to 13R-hydroperoxy fatty acids. (
  • 15-Lipoxygenase-1 catalyzes the introduction of molecular oxygen into polyunsaturated fatty acids to form a lipid hydroperoxide. (
  • Although fatty acid metabolism has been extensively studied in mature hematopoietic subsets during inflammation, in developing hematopoietic cells the role of fatty acid metabolism, in particular by 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), was unknown. (
  • Camellia sinensis , Rhodiola rosea , and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. (
  • pCD45 hybrid-selected an mRNA encoding the larger of the two polypeptides of Mr approximately 95 000 that were immunoprecipitated from cell-free translation products of pea seed poly(A)-containing RNA by the G. max anti-lipoxygenase. (
  • The cDNA directs the transcription of mRNA that can be translated to give an anti-lipoxygenase-precipitable polypeptide in vitro. (
  • Inhibitory activity against reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase in rabbit was evaluated. (
  • In the present study, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of Eucalyptus citriodora kino were evaluated. (
  • This fraction also showed the strongest free radical scavenging activity in the two methods used as well as inhibitory activity against 15-lipoxygenase, with IC 50 values of 4.67±0.09, 2.57±0.06 and 14.67±0.93 μg/ml, respectively. (
  • These findings revealed that high antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of E. citriodora kino might be due to high phenolic and flavonoid content. (
  • A lipoxygenase cDNA clone, pCD45, was identified in a Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed mRNA cDNA library by hybrid-release/translation followed by immunoprecipitation with antiserum raised against lipoxygenase from Glycine max L. (soya bean). (
  • A near full-length cDNA for a pea (Pisum sativum) seed lipoxygenase was isolated and sequenced. (
  • The cDNA cloning of a pea ( Pisum sativum ) seed lipoxygenase. (
  • Chan, H. W.-S. ( 1973 ) Soya-bean lipoxygenase: an iron-containing dioxygenase , Biochim. (
  • Publications] T.Ohtsuki: 'Reperfusion induces 5-lipoxygenase translocation and leukotriene C_4 Production in ischemic brain' Am.J.Physiol.268. (
  • Dunham, W. R. , Carroll, R. T. , Thompson, J. F. , Sands, R. H. & Funk, M. O. Jr ( 1990 ) The initial characterization of the iron environment in lipoxygenase by Mössbauer spectroscopy , Eur. (