An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit the action of 5-LIPOXYGENASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.

Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (1/779)

We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems.  (+info)

Induction of monocyte binding to endothelial cells by MM-LDL: role of lipoxygenase metabolites. (2/779)

Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (EC) with minimally oxidized LDL (or minimally modified LDL, MM-LDL) produces a specific pattern of endothelial cell activation distinct from that produced by LPS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1, but similar to other agents that elevate cAMP. The current studies focus on the signal transduction pathways by which MM-LDL activates EC to bind monocytes. We now demonstrate that, in addition to an elevation of cAMP, lipoxygenase products are necessary for the MM-LDL response. Treatment of EC with inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or cinnamyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), blocked monocyte binding in MM-LDL-treated EC (MM-LDL=118+/-13%; MM-LDL+ETYA=33+/-4%; MM-LDL+CDC=23+/-4% increase in monocyte binding) without reducing cAMP levels. To further investigate the role of the lipoxygenase pathway, cellular phospholipids were labeled with arachidonic acid. Treatment of cells for 4 hours with 50 to 100 microg/mL MM-LDL, but not native LDL, caused a 60% increase in arachidonate release into the medium and increased the intracellular formation of 12(S)-HETE (approximately 100% increase). There was little 15(S)-HETE present, and no increase in its levels was observed. We demonstrated that 12(S)-HETE reversed the inhibitory effect of CDC. We also observed a 70% increase in the formation of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET) in cells treated with MM-LDL. To determine the mechanism of arachidonate release induced by MM-LDL, we examined the effects of MM-LDL on intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of EC with both native LDL and MM-LDL caused a rapid release of intracellular calcium from internal stores. However, several pieces of evidence suggest that calcium release alone does not explain the increased arachidonate release in MM-LDL-treated cells. The present studies suggest that products of 12-lipoxygenase play an important role in MM-LDL action on the induction of monocyte binding to EC.  (+info)

Conversion of cucumber linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by site-directed mutagenesis. (3/779)

Multiple lipoxygenase sequence alignments and structural modeling of the enzyme/substrate interaction of the cucumber lipid body lipoxygenase suggested histidine 608 as the primary determinant of positional specificity. Replacement of this amino acid by a less-space-filling valine altered the positional specificity of this linoleate 13-lipoxygenase in favor of 9-lipoxygenation. These alterations may be explained by the fact that H608V mutation may demask the positively charged guanidino group of R758, which, in turn, may force an inverse head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid substrate. The R758L+H608V double mutant exhibited a strongly reduced reaction rate and a random positional specificity. Trilinolein, which lacks free carboxylic groups, was oxygenated to the corresponding (13S)-hydro(pero)xy derivatives by both the wild-type enzyme and the linoleate 9-lipoxygenating H608V mutant. These data indicate the complete conversion of a linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by a single point mutation. It is hypothesized that H608V exchange may alter the orientation of the substrate at the active site and/or its steric configuration in such a way that a stereospecific dioxygen insertion at C-9 may exclusively take place.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (4/779)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase during postgerminative growth. Its expression and action on lipid bodies. (5/779)

In cucumber (Cucumis sativus), high lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) activity has been detected in the soluble fraction prepared from cotyledons of germinating seeds, and the involvement of this enzyme in lipid turnover has been suggested (K. Matsui, M. Irie, T. Kajiwara, A. Hatanaka [1992] Plant Sci 85: 23-32; I. Fuessner, C. Wasternack, H. Kindl, H. Kuhn [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11849-11853). In this study we have investigated the expression of the gene lox-1, corresponding to the LOX-1 enzyme. LOX-1 expression is highly coordinated with that of a typical glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase, during the postgerminative stage of cotyledon development. In contrast, although icl transcripts accumulated in tissue during in vitro senescence, no accumulation of lox-1 mRNA could be observed, suggesting that lox-1 plays a specialized role in fat mobilization. LOX-1 is also known to be a major lipid body protein. The partial peptide sequences of purified LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 entirely coincided with that deduced from the lox-1 cDNA sequence. The data strongly suggest that LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 are derived from a single gene and that LOX-1 can exist both in the cytosol and on the lipid bodies. We constructed an in vitro oxygenation system to address the mechanism of this dual localization and to investigate the action of LOX-1 on lipids in the lipid bodies. LOX-1 cannot act on the lipids in intact lipid bodies, although degradation of lipid body proteins, either during seedling growth or by treatment with trypsin, allows lipid bodies to become susceptible to LOX-1. We discuss the role of LOX-1 in fat mobilization and its mechanism of action.  (+info)

Evidence that lipid hydroperoxides inhibit plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. (6/779)

The oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we found that polar lipids isolated from minimally oxidized LDL produced a dramatic inhibition of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, suggesting that HDL-cholesterol transport may be impaired during early atherogenesis. In this study, we have identified molecular species of oxidized lipids that are potent inhibitors of LCAT activity. Treatment of LDL with soybean lipoxygenase generated small quantities of lipid hydroperoxides (20 +/- 4 nmol/mg LDL protein, n = 3); but when lipoxygenase-treated LDL (1 mg protein/ml) was recombined with the d > 1.063 g/ml fraction of human plasma, LCAT activity was rapidly inhibited (25 +/- 4 and 65 +/- 16% reductions by 1 and 3 h, respectively). As phospholipid hydroperoxides (PL-OOH) are the principal oxidation products associated with lipoxygenase-treated LDL, we directly tested whether PL-OOH inhibited plasma LCAT activity. Detailed dose-response curves revealed that as little as 0.2 and 1.0 mole % enrichment of plasma with PL-OOH produced 20 and 50% reductions in LCAT activity by 2 h, respectively. To gain insight into the mechanism of LCAT impairment, the enzyme's free cysteines (Cys31 and Cys184) and active site residues were "capped" with the reversible sulfhydryl compound, DTNB, during exposure to either minimally oxidized LDL or PL-OOH. Reversal of the DTNB "cap" after such exposures revealed that the enzyme was completely protected from both sources of peroxidized phospholipids. We, therefore, conclude that PL-OOH inhibited plasma LCAT activity by modifying the enzyme's free cysteine and/or catalytic residues. These studies are the first to suggest that PL-OOH may accelerate the atherogenic process by impairing LCAT activity.  (+info)

The diversity of the lipoxygenase family. Many sequence data but little information on biological significance. (7/779)

Lipoxygenases form a family of lipid peroxidising enzymes, which oxygenate free and esterified polyenoic fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives. They are widely distributed in both the plant and animal kingdoms. During the last couple of years more and more lipoxygenase isoforms have been discovered but for most of them the biological significance remains unclear. This review attempts to classify the currently known mammalian lipoxygenase isoforms and critically reviews the concepts for their biological importance.  (+info)

When and why a water-soluble antioxidant becomes pro-oxidant during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation: a study using uric acid. (8/779)

The inclusion of uric acid in the incubation medium during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation exerted either an antioxidant or pro-oxidant effect. The pro-oxidant effect, as mirrored by an enhanced formation of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and increase in negative charge, occurred when uric acid was added late during the inhibitory or lag phase and during the subsequent extensive propagation phase of copper-stimulated LDL oxidation. The pro-oxidant effect of uric acid was specific for copper-induced LDL oxidation and required the presence of copper as either Cu(I) or Cu(II). In addition, it became much more evident when the copper to LDL molar ratio was below a threshold value of approx. 50. In native LDL, the shift between the antioxidant and the pro-oxidant activities was related to the availability of lipid hydroperoxides formed during the early phases of copper-promoted LDL oxidation. The artificial enrichment of isolated LDL with alpha-tocopherol delayed the onset of the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid and also decreased the rate of stimulated lipid peroxidation. However, previous depletion of alpha-tocopherol was not a prerequisite for unmasking the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid, since this became apparent even when alpha-tocopherol was still present in significant amounts (more than 50% of the original values) in LDL. These results suggest, irrespective of the levels of endogenous alpha-tocopherol, that uric acid may enhance LDL oxidation by reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), thus making more Cu(I) available for subsequent radical decomposition of lipid peroxides and propagation reactions.  (+info)

Lipoxygenases (LOX) catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to hydroperoxides. These hydroperoxides are further metabolized to leukotrienes and lipoxins in mammals, and are involved in asthma and inflammation. LOX of animals and plants contain iron as catalytic metal (FeLOX). Filamentous fungi use both FeLOX, and manganese containing LOX (MnLOX). The role of LOX in fungi is still not known. This thesis focuses on expression of novel MnLOX, analyses of their reaction mechanism and products by HPLC-MS/MS, protein crystallization and analysis of the first MnLOX structure. MnLOX from G. graminis, M. salvinii, M. oryzae, F. oxysporum and C. gloeosporioides were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized by HPLC-MS/MS. All MnLOX catalyzes suprafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion. Replacement of one Ile to Phe in the active site of MnLOX of G. graminis could switch the mechanism from suprafacial to mainly antarafacial. MnLOX of F. ...
During oxygenation by 15-lipoxygenases, polyenoic fatty acids are bound at the active site in such a way that the ω-terminus of the fatty acids penetrates into the substrate binding pocket. In contrast, for arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenation, an inverse head to tail orientation has been suggested. However, an inverse orientation may be hindered by the large energy barrier associated with burying the charged carboxylate group in the hydrophobic environment of the substrate binding cleft. We studied the oxygenation kinetics of ω-modified fatty acids by 15-lipoxygenases and found that ω-hydroxylation strongly impaired substrate affinity (higher Km), but only moderately altered Vmax. In contrast, ω-carboxylation completely prevented the lipoxygenase reaction; however, methylation of the additional carboxylate group restored the activity. Arg403 of the human 15-lipoxygenase has been implicated in fatty acid binding by forming a salt bridge with the carboxylate group, and thus mutation of this ...
Development of a biocatalytic process for the production of C6-aldehydes from vegetable oils by soybean lipoxygenase and recombinant hydroperoxide ...
Lipoxygenases (EC 1.13.11.-) are a family of (non-heme), iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene into cell signaling agents that serve diverse roles as autocrine signals that regulate the function of their parent cells, paracrine signals that regulate the function of nearby cells, and endocrine signals that regulate the function of distant cells. The lipoxygenases are related to each other based upon their similar genetic structure and dioxygenation activity. However, one lipoxygenase, ALOXE3, while having a lipoxygenase genetic structure, possesses relatively little dioxygenation activity; rather its primary activity appears to be as an isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of hydroperoxy unsaturated fatty acids to their 1,5-epoxide, hydroxyl derivatives. Lipoxygenases are found in eukaryotes (plants, fungi, animals, protists); while the third domain of terrestrial life, the archaea, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cigarette smoking stimulates lipoxygenase but not cyclooxygenase pathway in platelets. AU - Chang, Wen Chang. AU - Fukuda, Shoshi. AU - Tai, Hsin Hsiung. PY - 1983/9/15. Y1 - 1983/9/15. N2 - Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily for 4 to 8 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated level of carboxyhemoglobin. Arachidonate metabolism through lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways in platelets was determined. Cigarette smoking increased 12-lipoxygenase activity significantly without affecting the cyclooxygenase pathway. In view of platelet-leukocyte interactions and potent chemotactic activity of 12-HETE for aortic smooth muscle cell migration, increased 12-lipoxygenase activity may predispose individuals to atherosclerosis, thromboembolism and emphysema commonly found in smokers.. AB - Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily for 4 to 8 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated level of ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (5z,8z,10e,12s,14z)-12-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid (C20H32O4) from the PQR.
We investigated the expression and accumulation pattern of lipoxygenase isoforms throughout the maize plant life. Two forms of lipoxygenase L1 and L2 have been identified as acidic proteins of 100 kDa (pI 6.4) and 90 kDa (pI 5.5-5.7) which accumulate in dry embryos and in various organs of maize seedlings. In young embryos, only the L2 form was detected and accumulation of L2 mRNA decreased during embryo development. Identification of lipoxygenases from in vivo and in vitro synthesized proteins indicates that similar levels of both L1 and L2 forms accumulated during treatment with abscisic acid, (ABA) gibberellic acid (GA3) and jasmonic acid (JA). However, differences in the activity of both enzymes were detected. By using an antiserum directed against purified L2 we isolated and characterized a partial cDNA clone of maize embryos encoding a lipoxygenase. The deduced amino acid sequence of L2 cDNA shares 78% identity with the rice L2 protein, and 51-56% identity with lipoxygenases from the ...
It has been proposed that lipoxygenases, specifically 15-lipoxygenase, may play an important role in promoting the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the artery wall. It is well known that peroxides are unstable in the presence of transition metals, decomposing to form the alkoxy and peroxy radicals, and so initiating lipid peroxidation. To test whether lipoxygenase-derived peroxides may promote the oxidation of LDL in the presence of copper, the lipoprotein was enriched with lipid peroxides derived from the enzymic action of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases on either linoleic or arachidonic acid. All of these products were found to promote oxidation, whereas the related hydroxy fatty acids had no effect. This suggests that lipoxygenase-derived peroxides associated with the LDL particle may promote peroxidation in the presence of a suitable transition metal catalyst. This result has implications both for the mechanism of the potential pro-oxidant action of lipoxygenases in vivo and for the ex ...
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Accepted name: arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. Reaction: arachidonate + O2 = (5Z,8Z,10E,14Z)-(12S)-12-hydroperoxyicosa-5,8,10,14-tetraenoate. Other name(s): δ12-lipoxygenase; 12-lipoxygenase; 12δ-lipoxygenase; C-12 lipoxygenase; 12S-lipoxygenase; leukotriene A4 synthase; LTA4 synthase. Systematic name: arachidonate:oxygen 12-oxidoreductase. Comments: The product is rapidly reduced to the corresponding 12S-hydroxy compound.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 82391-43-3. References:. 1. Hamberg, M. and Samuelsson, B. Prostaglandin endoperoxides. Novel transformations of arachidonic acid in human platelets. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71 (1974) 3400-3404. [PMID: 4215079]. 2. Nugteren, D.H. Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380 (1975) 299-307. [PMID: 804329]. 3. Wallach, D.P. and Brown, V.R. A novel preparation of human platelet lipoxygenase. Characteristics and inhibition by a variety of phenyl hydrazones and ...
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Title: Structural Organization of the Regulatory Domain of Human 5- Lipoxygenase. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):John B. Allard and Thomas G. Brock. Affiliation:6301 MSRB III, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0642, USA.. Keywords:5-lipoxygenase, structure, c2 domain, toxin, lipase, protein kinase c, sandwich, plat domain. Abstract: The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) initiates the synthesis of leukotrienes. For this reason, 5-LO activity is important for immune defense, whereas improper regulation contributes to pathogenesis, including chronic inflammation, asthma and atherosclerosis. Like all lipoxygenases, the 5-LO protein consists of two domains, a regulatory domain and a catalytic domain. Naturally, the regulatory domain determines catalytic activity and controls leukotriene synthesis. This domain shares features with classical C2 domains in that it has a β-sandwich structure and binds calcium, nucleotides and phospholipids. However, important ...
In contrast to the well-studied role of 5-lipoxygenase in the arachidonic acid cascade that occurs in inflammatory cells, the biological role of the related 15-lipoxygenases in the metabolism of free polyenoic fatty acids is far from clear. However, the activity of 15-lipoxygenases with more complex substrates may play a crucial role in the differentiation and maturation of certain cell types and in the oxidative modification of lipoproteins in the early stages of atherosclerosis ...
The invention is directed to the enhanced expression and purification of lipoxygenase enzymes. These enzymes are of wide-spread industrial importance, often produced in heterologous microbial systems. Preferably, the lipoxygenase produced by the methods of the invention is a plant-derived enzyme and expressed at high-levels in a microbial system that includes a protease-deficient host and one or more chaperone expression plasmids. The invention is also directed to amino acid and nucleic acid fragments of the lipoxygenase enzyme including fragments in expression constructs encoding all or a portion of one or more lipoxygenase genes. The invention is also directed to methods of manufacturing bread and other food and also non-food products with lipoxygenase manufactured by the methods of the invention.
Lipoxygenase Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase Identifiers Symbol Lipoxygenase Pfam PF00305 InterPro IPR013819 SCOP 2sbl OPM family 87 OPM protein 1zq4 Available
Bryant, R.W., Bailey, J.M., Schewqe, T. and Rapoport, S.M. (1982). „Positional specificity of a reticulocyte lipoxygenase. Conversion of arachidonic acid to 15-S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 6050-6055. PMID 6804460 ...
BTW. Good to hear at okay na si hubby mo. Kahit di pa tayo nagkikita in person Rose pero kinakabahan talaga ako noong nabasa ko yong post mo kasi naalala ko yong friend ko sa UK na asawa nya Bristish, 2 din anak nya pero 11 months old lang noon ang bunso nya. Isinugod din sa Hospital ang husband nya at di nya alam kung paano pumunta sa hospital kasi 2 kids ang dala nya. Tumawag sya sa kin sa Maymila, umiiyak pero wala akong magagawa kasi mag kalayo kami, very frustrating talaga hanggang sa namatay ang husband nya. Ako ang pinaka bestfriend nya, at inaasahan sa lahat noong andito sya sa Maynila pero noong nag kaproblema sya sa UK di ko sya natulongan. Kaya noong nabasa ko yong post mo, sobrang kaba ko dahil may 2 ka pang anak dyan at kayo-kayo din lang ang andyan. Wala din kamag-anak ang hubby mo jan so mahirap talaga kaya prayers lang ma itutulong namin sa inyo. Pero powerful talga ang prayers so wala na rin akong kaba at naka smile na akong nag ta-type dito hehehe. At sana tuloy-tuloy na ...
Recently, we have demonstrated by two different methods that lipoxgenases (LOXs) and 14-3-3 proteins form interactions in barley embryos [Holtman, Roberts, Oppedijk, Testerink, van Zeijl and Wang (2000) FEBS Lett. 474, 48-52]. It was shown by both co-immunoprecipitations and surface-plasmon resonance experiments that 13-LOX, but not 9-LOX, forms interactions with 14-3-3 proteins. In the present report we show that the presence of 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins was established in high-molecular-mass complexes. Amounts of 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins in high-molecular-mass fractions increased during germination, but were reduced after dephosphorylation of protein extracts or competition with the 14-3-3-binding peptide P-Raf-259, indicating that 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins interact in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Chemicals/CAS: 13-lipoxygenase, EC 1.13.11.-; 14-3-3 Proteins; Lipoxygenase, EC; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase, EC ...
15 Lipoxygenase 1小鼠单克隆抗体[3G8](ab119774)可与大鼠, 狗, 人, 猴样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Hi, new lng ako dito sa pagr nyo pero mostly nabasa is yung mga nagkakapimples dahil sa mga ininom nla na mas na worst pa. I have pimples dn po since HS days pa. I not recommend you this product that Ive using po but just a suggestion po This is oral med for acne tlaga. Product name is PRAVENTAC of OneCareWellness. Online dn sya nabibili, I cab say it was expensive but for me it is effective. One week pa lng ako nagamit nito. Pero before ako gumamit nyan i Have more acne pati sa leeg ko at ilalim ng baba ko natubo. Pero nag try ako nito nawawala tlga sila. At take note minsan ndi pa nga ako nakakainom nyan kc Minsan nagiinom ako ng alak at madaling araw na nakakauwi pero. Ndi ako nagkakapimples na na d kagaya noon mag puyat lng may bago nanaman pimples. Kaya natuwa ako sa product na to. So i suggest na try nyo rin sana makahelp ako. One more thing na rn sabe sa luxxe white is meron sya effect na magkakapimples ka after week or 2 somtimes is a month. Ok lng po yan ganyan tlga yan kc later on ...
Hi, new lng ako dito sa pagr nyo pero mostly nabasa is yung mga nagkakapimples dahil sa mga ininom nla na mas na worst pa. I have pimples dn po since HS days pa. I not recommend you this product that Ive using po but just a suggestion po This is oral med for acne tlaga. Product name is PRAVENTAC of OneCareWellness. Online dn sya nabibili, I cab say it was expensive but for me it is effective. One week pa lng ako nagamit nito. Pero before ako gumamit nyan i Have more acne pati sa leeg ko at ilalim ng baba ko natubo. Pero nag try ako nito nawawala tlga sila. At take note minsan ndi pa nga ako nakakainom nyan kc Minsan nagiinom ako ng alak at madaling araw na nakakauwi pero. Ndi ako nagkakapimples na na d kagaya noon mag puyat lng may bago nanaman pimples. Kaya natuwa ako sa product na to. So i suggest na try nyo rin sana makahelp ako. One more thing na rn sabe sa luxxe white is meron sya effect na magkakapimples ka after week or 2 somtimes is a month. Ok lng po yan ganyan tlga yan kc later on ...
El dato más fuerte es sobre el liderazgo de la TV ya que un 97% de la gente consumió contenidos a través de la TV como dispositivo, pero a la vez crece el consumo por medio de dispositivos conectados a Internet como el Smart TV o Mobile. En esta línea, casi un 74% ve contenidos de TV a través de plataformas online (live, catch up, VoD, entre otros) y un 83% consume videos online a través de la web o apps web.. ⇒ Otro dato interesante es que el 44% de la gente está suscripta a dos servicios de streaming (que puede ser paga o gratuita), 18% está suscripta a tres y 7% a cuatro. Los más jóvenes son los más proclives a suscribirse a un sistema pago, mientras el 15% no suscribe a ninguna plataforma con los adultos mayores a la cabeza señaló Hajmi. Con respecto a las marcas, solo el 8% de la gente considera que deberían dejar de comunicar en un contexto de pandemia. El resto considera importante estar en contacto con sus marcas.. ...
Debido al cáncer le extirparon el estómago, el colon, el recto y la vesícula, pero eso no impidió a Juan Dual recorrer Latinoamérica en dos ruedas y va por más.
Breve 4: Muchos estadounidenses creen que la actividad física reduce el riesgo depadecer cáncer, pero la mayoría encuentran confusas las recomendaciones sobre la actividad física | HINTS
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Finalmente en los ojos apliqué un poco de sombra dorada y delineé abajo con el rose platine de Chanel. La idea era un sutil contraste entre dorado y plateado -tampoco tanto, porque no quería un look metálico noventero a la Paulina Rubio en sus inicios. Arriba delineé con negro, pero sellé con morado oscuro, para quitarle un poco el negro. Los labios los rellené con un delineador en un tono similar al natural de mis labios y apliqué un poco de gloss ...
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La diabetes tipo 1 no se puede prevenir. Ni los médicos pueden saber quién la desarrollará y quién no.. Nadie sabe con certeza cuál es la causa de la diabetes tipo 1, pero los científicos creen que esta enfermedad guarda cierta relación con los genes. Pero el simple hecho de heredar los genes de la diabetes no suele bastar para desarrollar esta enfermedad. En la mayoría de los casos, un niño tiene que exponerse a algo más, como un virus, para desarrollar una diabetes tipo 1.. La diabetes tipo 1 no es contagiosa, y los niños y adolescentes no pueden contagiarse de otras personas, ni se la pueden transmitir a sus amigos o parientes. Y comer mucho azúcar tampoco puede causar una diabetes tipo 1.. No hay ninguna forma fiable de predecir quién desarrollará una diabetes tipo 1, pero hay análisis de sangre que permiten detectar los signos iniciales de esta enfermedad. De todos modos, estos análisis no se hacen de forma sistemática, porque los médicos no pueden hacer nada para detener ...
Yung mga haters lang ni Gerald masyadong judgemental dito. 1st of all bakit ba sila galit na galit sa pagiging user ni Gerald. Bakit ba laging credit ang kasikatan sa loveteam ni Gerald. Eh wala bng nagawa si Gerald at laging umaasa sa Lovteam? Sobrang galing ba umakting ni Kim at Sarah to prove that? I know may ibat ibang talent at fans sila pero of corz meron din naman si Gerald. Given na gwapo sya at good looks pero mahirap din makasapasok sa showbiz bilang artista. Kahit walang loveteam si Gerald he proves it na. If hes gonna do new projects he research abt his role and do many sacrifices to potray the role. Like in TD, Budoy, MMK etc... Sinasabi lang na di sya marunong umarte kasi laging nega agad ang isip ng ibang tao. Pero mahirap naman ginagawa nya. Titilian talaga sya ng mga girls kasi GWAPO sya at HOT. Thats given but its not easy at all doing his proffession.. ReplyDelete ...
Interviene el moderador: El VIH se reproduce dentro de las células y debilita el sistema inmunológico. …………... El virus ataca preferentemente al sistema inmunitario, destruyendo las defensas del organismo. El organismo cada vez tiene más dificultades para defenderse, por lo que aparecen infecciones -producidas por gérmenes, parásitos o virus- o algunas variedades de cáncer que en condiciones normales no se producirían.. …………….. En una primera fase el VIH se reproduce multiplicándose activamente en las células infectadas. Para defenderse, el organismo crea anticuerpos específicos pero no consigue eliminar el VIH: disminuye la presencia de virus en la sangre, pero no impide que los virus sigan presentes y continúen su actividad en otros órganos.. ……………. Durante varios años el organismo permanece en una situación de aparente equilibrio, pero el VIH se sigue multiplicando de forma activa en las células e infectando otras nuevas.. ………….. Linfocitos ...
1- El cine, por ejemplo, amplía la temática y las formas del teatro. El espectador admite en el escenario escenas escabrosas y actuaciones próximas a una filmación. A veces el escenario puede parecer un plató (El gran teatro del mundo, de Calderón, en versión de Calixto Bieito).. Pero el público, inconcientemente, demanda el primer plano y la cámara que lo guíe, y eso exige un esfuerzo de concentración, que es difícil de soportar si no eres aficionado al teatro (es como ver un partido de fútbol en vivo si siempre lo has visto en la tele: esperas la repetición, el comentario, la cámara lenta, etc.).. Cada medio aporta una mejora y, a la vez, crea un hándicap (un pero) en la percepción del espectáculo.. 2- La música popular universal (jazz, blues, rock, pop, etc.) permite crear espectáculos de teatro musical no elitistas entendibles en todas las culturas (Cabaret dirigido por Sam Mendes).. Pero la educación musical de los espectadores es muy ecléctica, exigente y cambiable, y ...
Kakapanganak ba yung 8 buwan na ang nakalipas? Pwede ko bang sabihin na kakaligo ko lang pero 8 buwan na ang nakakalipas? Pwede ko ba sabihing kakauwi ko lang ng probinsya, pero 8 buwan na ang nakalipas? Pwede ko kayang sabihin na kakakain ko lang ng ube, pero 8 buwan na ang nakakalipas noong huli akong kumain ng ube? Nasaang planeta na ba ako?. ...
hehehe good thing I dont experienced that much at home, as Ate Mj really know how to comfort Faith, and when Faith would grab things from Ate Mj like her notebooks and things from school, I firmly say no, she would cry at first but eventually I guess she understands and smile us again. Usually Ate Mj would approach her when she have this kind of moods, and would play together,Si ate Mj din when she was yet a toddler, if we go to malls and she want something a toy perhaps if I say no, not today and explained her after why we cant buy those things she would understand and will say Ma sunod na lang pag naa kay kwarta ha? They are both sweet pero mas sipat ning akong gamay may pagkamaldita pero ma handle pa man especially when Ate Mj is around. Mas moduol pa siya kay Ate Mj keysa kay Ate Mariel na highschool na hehehe. Pero basin sad girl murag duol duol ra sila ug age, sometimes naay possibility nga naay rivalry pag ing ana ang age, sige lang someday mawala na na sa ilaha. just try to explain them ...
No recuerdo dónde vi este efecto de combinar algodón y terciopelo en una camiseta, pero se me quedó grabado. Empecé este DIY hace unos meses, pero me desesperé: el terciopelo no se arrastraba bien en la máquina de coser y el conjunto de las puntadas era desastroso... Nunca en mi vida había cosido una manga, y para cuando descubrí como se hacía, estaba ya tan harta de experimentar y que no me saliera, que lo dejé a medio terminar. Es que cuando te ofuscas con algo, no hay manera... Pero el otro día decidí recuperar este proyecto acabarlo ¡Por fin, aquí está ...
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human 15 Lipoxygenase 1 protein (ab114421). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enzymatic properties of the 15-lipoxygenase of human cultured keratinocytes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Institut fur Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK), Corrensstr. 3, D-06466 Gatersleben, Germany. A complex mixture of fatty acid-derived aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols is released upon wounding of the moss Physcomitrella patens. To investigate the formation of these oxylipins at the molecular level we isolated a lipoxygenase from P. patens, which was identified in an EST library by sequence homology to lipoxygenases from plants. Sequence analysis of the cDNA showed that it exhibits a domain structure similar to that of type2 lipoxygenases from plants, harboring an N-terminal import signal for chloroplasts. The recombinant protein was identified as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase and linoleate 13-lipoxygenase with a preference for arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. In contrast to any other lipoxygenase cloned so far, this enzyme exhibited in addition an unusual high hydroperoxidase and also a fatty acid chain-cleaving lyase activity. Because of these unique features the pronounced
A lipoxygenase cDNA clone, pCD45, was identified in a Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed mRNA cDNA library by hybrid-release/translation followed by immunoprecipitation with antiserum raised against lipoxygenase from Glycine max L. (soya bean). pCD45 hybrid-selected an mRNA encoding the larger of the two polypeptides of Mr approximately 95 000 that were immunoprecipitated from cell-free translation products of pea seed poly(A)-containing RNA by the G. max anti-lipoxygenase. Northern-blot analysis showed the mRNA that hybridized to pCD45 to be approximately 3000 nucleotides in length. Three to five copies of the lipoxygenase gene corresponding to pCD45 were estimated to be present per haploid Pisum genome; hybridization of the cDNA insert from pCD45 to G. max DNA was also detected. ...
Abstract:. Introduction: The genus Garcinia which is rich of secondary metabolites, mainly flavonoids, have known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of lipoxygenase. There isnt found literature indicating research on inhibition of lipoxygenase activity been done in this plant. The purpose of this study is to obtain the data and determine the potential antioxidant activity, and inhibition of lipoxygenase activity of Garcinia porrecta Laness. stem bark extracts. Methods: This research is included FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method antioxidant assay, in vitro lipoxygenase inhibition assay, flavonoids qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography, and total flavonoids assay in the most active extract. Results: The results showed the methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of G. porrecta Laness. stem bark using FRAP method, has antioxidant activity with EC50 values respectively 1.33; 4.97; and 19.96 μg/mL and lipoxygenase inhibition ...
Plants continuously have to defend themselves against life threatening events such as drought, mechanical damage, temperature stress and potential pathogens. A main component of the plant defense mechanism is the lipoxygenase pathway. Products of this pathway are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, signaling, or ... read more have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The first step in the lipoxygenase pathway is the reaction of linoleic or linolenic acids with molecular oxygen, catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase. The formed hydroperoxy fatty acids are highly reactive and dangerous for the plant, and are therefore further metabolized by other enzymes such as allene oxide synthase, hydroperoxide lyase, peroxygenase or divinyl ether synthase. Hydroperoxide lyases are heme-containing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 class (CYP74B). They cleave the C-C bond adjacent to the hydroperoxy group in the lipoxygenase products, resulting in the formation of w-oxo acids and volatile C6- and ...
Blackburn, N. J., Hasnain, S. S., Binsted, N., Diakun, G. P., Garner, C. D. & Knowles, P. F. (1984) An extended X-ray-absorption-fine-structure study on bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in aqueous solution. Direct evidence for three-coordinate copper(I) in reduced enzyme. Biochem. J. 219, 985-990 ...
Linolenic acid, methyl ester; Methyl linolenate; 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)-; Methyl all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate; Methyl (9Z,12Z,15Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate; [Z,Z,Z]-9,12,15-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester; cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester; Methyl linolenate, α; Methyl α-linolenate; (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester; Methyl 9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-octadecatrienoate; C18:3 n3; C18:3 n3 cis; Méthyl linolénate; Linolenato di metile; C18:3 (cis-9,12,15); C18:3 (all-cis-9,12,15 ...
Dallas Sinus Centers Facial Plastic Surgeon Dr. Colin Pero talks about a procedure called Balloon Sinuplasty. Jody had been dealing with nose bleeds for years and became severe over the last few months. Watch Dr. Colin Pero explains how the balloon sinuplasty helped open Jodys sinuses and stop her nose bleeds.. ...
Dive into the research topics of Increased biosynthesis of lipoxygenase products by UVB-irradiated guinea pig epidermis: Evidence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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A1777 is a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor that reduces leukocytes proliferation without affecting the eosinophils of mast cells.
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Linoleate 9/13-lipoxygenase; In presence of oxygen, converts linoleate into (9S)- hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecenoate (9HPOD), which spontaneously decomposes to the corresponding 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecenoate (9HOD), and into 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecenoate (13HPOD) which spontaneously decomposes to the corresponding 13-hydroxy-9,11- octadecenoate (13HOD). Also active on linolenate. To a lesser extent, is also able to convert oleate into (10S)-hydroperoxy-8E- octadecenoate, which spontaneously decomposes to the corresponding 10-hydroxy-8E-octadecenoate. Is almost not active on arachidonate (685 aa ...
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are lipid peroxidizing enzymes, implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and hyperproliferative diseases, which represent potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Although soybean LOX1 was discovered more than 60 years ago, the structural biology of these enzymes was not studied until the mid 1990s. In 1993 the first crystal structure for a plant LOX was solved and following this protein biochemistry and molecular enzymology became major fields in LOX research. This review focuses on recent developments in molecular enzymology of LOXs and summarizes our current understanding of the structural basis of LOX catalysis. Various hypotheses explaining the reaction specificity of different isoforms are critically reviewed and their pros and cons briefly discussed. Moreover, we summarize the current knowledge of LOX evolution by profiling the existence of LOX-related genomic sequences in the three kingdoms of life. Such sequences are found in eukaryotes and bacteria ...
Founder and Chief Scientist Misha Shchepinov will present:. PUFAs are essential nutrients vital for biological, particularly mitochondrial and neuronal, membranes. Unlike any other type of oxidative stress-related damage, lipid peroxidation is a chain process which, once initiated, can damage thousands of PUFA residues before the reaction is terminated. The rate limiting step of the process is hydrogen abstraction at the bis-allylic (between double bonds) site. Antioxidants are inefficient for various reasons. A novel approach employs deuteration of PUFAs at the bis-allylic positions to stops lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the rate limiting step (hydrogen abstraction) due to the isotope effect. Numerous cell culture and animal studies, as well as Phase I in humans, support the role of LPO in neurological and other diseases, and offer a novel therapeutical intervention. ...
Cancer cell metastasis is the single most threatening occurrence of tumor progression and predicts patient prognosis as well as survival. Invasion can be regulated by the Met receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Met), integrin beta4, and the lipid enzyme, 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX). Therefore we sought to determine if beta4, c-MET and 12-LOX comprise a signaling axis. c-Met is implicated in cancer cell dissemination through regulation of invasion in EMT where cell-cell junctions are disturbed to allow motility. Furthermore, beta4 promotes cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix through hemidesmosomes. However, the homeostatic signaling functions of beta4s cytoplasmic tail can be hijacked by growth factor receptors during tumor growth to promote tumor cell survival and metastasis. Beta4 interacts with 12-LOX, an enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to yield 12(S)-HETE, a bioactive lipid that also promotes invasion, tumor growth, and resistance to apoptosis. Our findings reveal that c-Met and beta4
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits ...
Bermudez, AF, Coles, B, Coffey, M and ODonnell, V (2003) Protein kinase C regulates 15-lipoxygenase oxidation of membrane-bound arachidonate in human monocytes In: 10th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Free-Radical-Biology-and-Medicne, 2003-11-20 - 2003-11-24, SEATTLE, WASHINGTON. Full text not available from this repository ...
Inflammation in the vascular wall is important for development of atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B (ALOX15B) is more highly expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions than in healthy arteries. This en
Oxidative stress is a major brain injury mechanism after ischemic stroke. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is a key mediator of oxidative stress, contributing to neuronal cell death and vascular leakage. Nonetheless, the mechanism leading to its upregulation is currently unknown. We show here that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs), specifically STAT6 and possibly STAT1, increase transcription of 12/15-LOX in neuronal cells. Both p-STAT6 and -1 bound to specific STAT binding sites in the mouse 12/15-LOX promoter. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown showed STAT6 to be the dominant regulator, reducing 12/15-LOX promoter activation and cell death in oxidatively stressed HT22 cells. STAT6 siRNA efficiently prevented the increase of 12/15-LOX in murine primary neurons, both after induction of oxidative stress and after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Early activation of STAT6 and STAT1 in mice was consistent with a role in regulating 12/15-LOX in focal ischemia. Brains of human ...
Confirmed. shes from Colegio De Sta Cecilia a private catholic school in Valenzuela City. FEU cya then transferred to Assumption. In our school nung high school, deadma lang beauty nya. kc nga kumabaga ordinary lang dating nya eh. maputi lang kaso pango. eh mas dihamak na mas mdadaming pretty sa knya sa school nmin. pero mahilig na to sumali sali sa mag beauty pageant sa min. d lang cya nananalo kc bokya sa academic. Pero nung nag college cya, nag FEU then Assumption, laki tlga pinagbago nya. ang pretty pretty na nya. Ganda ng face nya. Un nga bali balita naging bf nay rich politician. Sayang , shes so young pa nman. di nman masisisi kc d nman cla mayaman. cya lang inaasahan ng family nya. wala kc kwenta mag kuya nito, walang ambisyon sa buhay. Kaya cya gumawa ng way para maiahon sa buhay parents nya. Pero grabe, di ko akalain na hanggang ngyn papatol pa din cya sa married men. akala nmin natigil na ung sa rich politician, hindi pa din pala. Delete ...
Sinopsis: La historia tiene lugar en Edo (Ahora conocido como Tokio), la cual había sido conquistada por unos extraños seres extraterrestres llamados Amanto (天人 (Gente del cielo). Los samuráis de entonces lucharon contra los invasores, pero todo termino en una derrota absoluta ya que ellos poseían un armamento superior el cual los humanos no podían hacer frente . En esta época gracias a los Amanto el país goza de muchos avances tecnológicos pero ala vez la raza humana a sido desprendida de la autoridad de su propio planeta. Para evitar cualquier revuelo bélico se ha prohibido el uso y porte de espadas por parte de los terrícolas, pero aun así en esta nueva era hay personas que se mantienen fieles a sus creencias y convicciones como es el caso del carismático Gintoki. Gin, junto a sus fieles ayudantes Shinpachi y Kagura crean una tienda conocida como Yorozuya en la cual realizan cualquier tipo de trabajo, por ende es lo que les hará vivir varias desventuras. Wiki creada en : ...
Es tu pareja, pero... ¿te retira su afecto si no haces lo que quiere? ¿Controla todos tus movimientos? ¿Dejaste tus proyectos personales con tal de que funcionara la relación? Te gusta tu trabajo, pero... ¿consideras que no estás haciendo lo que realmente quieres? ¿Tu jefe te hace pensar que te hace un favor por darte trabajo? ¿Se apropian de tus ideas? ¿Esta frustración te hace reaccionar de una manera desproporcionada con tus seres queridos? Te consideras alguien equilibrado, pero... ¿ciertas situaciones y personas te hacen sentir inferior? ¿Te preocupas en exceso y siempre piensas lo peor? ¿Te sientes solo, sin embargo, no dejas de mirar tu móvil cuando estás acompañado? Quieres a tu familia, aunque... ¿te sientes mal por no haber cumplido las expectativas de tus padres? ¿Detestas las reuniones familiares? ¿Te tratan como si fueras un niño todavía y te comparan con tus hermanos? ¿Te vuelven los fantasmas de tu niñez cuando estás con ellos? Es tu amigo, ...
La recuperación mundial está en marcha, pero avanza a ritmos diferentes, con algunos mercados emergentes creciendo rápidamente y un crecimiento más lento en las economías avanzadas. El entorno macroeconómico actual ya ha permitido el regreso de condiciones financieras externas favorables y de elevados precios de las materias primas, una situación que se podría prolongar pero que no se prevé que sea permanente. En este contexto externo, la reactivación de América Latina y el Caribe está ocurriendo más rápido de lo esperado, pero su velocidad varía en cada país. En el informe, se mencionan los diferentes retos que enfrentan los países en materia de política mientras avanza la recuperación mundial. El capítulo 1 pasa revista a la situación mundial y las perspectivas para Estados Unidos y Canadá en especial; el capítulo 2 describe las perspectivas para América Latina y el Caribe. El capítulo 3 profundiza en los desafíos del retorno de las condiciones financieras holgadas. Con el
MALMÖ - Todo el mundo sabe que es bueno beber ocho vasos de agua al día. Después de todo, es lo que aconsejan muchísimos articulistas sobre la salud, por no mencionar al Servicio de Salud Nacional británico. Vivir sano hoy es sinónimo de siempre tener a mano una botella de agua y beber de ella con regularidad para intentar alcanzar la cantidad diaria que nos mantenga hidratados y saludables.. De hecho, solemos beber sin tener sed, pero así es como debe ser: como nos recuerda la marca de bebidas Gatorade, puede que nuestro cerebro sepa mucho, pero no sabe cuándo nuestro cuerpo necesita agua. Claro, puede que no nos resulte cómodo beber tanto, pero Powerade nos da este sabio consejo: uno puede hacer que el estómago se adapte a tolerar más fluidos si aumenta su consumo de manera gradual.. Ahora la revista British Medical Journalinforma que estas afirmaciones no solo no tienen ningún sentido, sino además son un absurdo desacreditado. La comunidad médica lo ha sabido desde al ...
Hola!!! Gracias Jossiah por contestarme.Te explico:Soy hipertensa pero solo me sube la presion arterial en situaciones que me encuentro nerviosa o por algun disgusto,emocion,etc.Por ejemplo,en lo que voy de embarazo me sube cuando voy a la consulta.Ahora el medico me acaba de recetar metildopa 250 mg cada 8 horas,pero tengo terror que le haga dano al bebe.He leido que causa hipotension neonatal,pero el doctor dice que esta medicina se lleva usando por mucho tiempo y que a medida que avanza el embarazo,me subira la dosis.Gracias Jossiah por tu consejo,creo que encontre un buen medico,ojala que Dios me acompane al igual que a todas las mujeres con este problema ...
Madeswaran, Arumugam, Muthuswamy Umamaheswari, Kuppuswamy Asokkumar, Thirumalaisamy Sivashanmugam, Varadharajan Subhadradevi, Puliyath Jagannath (2011) Docking studies: In silico lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
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Hesselberg Hydro is one of only a few companies which specialise in the use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering. Whilst the amount of literature on the subject has increased over the years - we are often asked to advise on the possible uses of our products where erosion or scour problems occur.. We have the experience and expertise to assess a wide range of erosion & scour problems and advise on the design & installation of our systems so that clients can assess their suitability. In remote areas we may need to assess the suitability of locally available materials. We are able to achieve this within our laboratories, and have a programme of research & development to further increase our knowledge of our materials & their application.. Hesselberg Hydro is able to carry out inspections of existing asphaltic structures to advise on any maintenance requirements to ensure long-term integrity of the installations.. The 4 main types of services offered are as follows:. ...
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Treatment of PBMCs and BEAS-2B with montelukast at concentrations of 10-4M to 10-6M, and with MK-886 at a concentration of 10-4M significantly inhibited release of IL-8 by RV-infected BEAS-2B. RANTES, IL-6 and IP-10 release was inhibited at all concentrations tested by both drugs, while IL-11 release was inhibited only after treatment with montelukast. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with montelukast or with MK-886 at a concentration of 10-6M inhibited release of all cytokines measured, irrespective of exposure to conditioned media of RV-infected PBMCs, while 10-9M montelukast inhibited the release of IL-8, IL-11 and IL-6, and 10-9M MK-886 suppressed the release of IL-8 and RANTES. ...
Moradian N, Ochs HD, Sedikies C, Hamblin MR, Camargo CA Jr, Martinez JA, Biamonte JD, Abdollahi M, Torres PJ, Nieto JJ, Ogino S, Seymour JF, Abraham A, Cauda V, Gupta S, Ramakrishna S, Sellke FW, Sorooshian A, Wallace Hayes A, Martinez-Urbistondo M, Gupta M, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A, Kelishadi R, Esteghamati A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Majdzadeh R, Palit P, Badali H, Rao I, Saboury AA, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Ahmadieh H, Montazeri A, Fadini GP, Pauly D, Thomas S, Moosavi-Movahed AA, Aghamohammadi A, Behmanesh M, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Ghavami S, Mehran R, Uddin LQ, Von Herrath M, Mobasher B, Rezaei N. ...
Day 11 = 10 mg hydro in a.m., or a divided a.m. and p.m. dose may be best due to shorter duration of hydro, and continue at that dosage daily. Hydrocortisone can be compounded into small dosages, such as 1 mg and up, if more precise dosing is preferred (like 2/3 a.m. and 1/3 p.m. dose). So, the regular pred is continued for the first 5 days, and the equivalent hydro is doubled for the first 7 to 10 days (both are used together 5 days), and after 7 - 10 days the hydro is halved to the normal dosage, and divided dosage may be best due to the shorter duration of hydro. ...
NAGPAKAMATAY ang isang ginang na hinihinalang uminom ng insecticide sa loob ng kanilang bahay sa Barangay Rizal, Ponteverde, Capiz.. Bumubula pa ang bibig ng biktima na kinilala lamang sa pangalang Balacano nang datnan ng kanyang pamilya sa loob ng kanilang silid.. Ayon sa imbestigasyon, pinaniniwalaan nagpakamatay ito sa pamamagitan ng pag-inom ng insecticide dahil sa nangangamoy pa ang bibig nito dahil sa bulang lumalabas dito.. Tinangka pa na isugod sa pagamutan ang ginang pero idineklara itong dead on arrival ng mga doktor sa sumuri biktima.. Ayon sa pamilya, may ilan araw na nilang nakikitang walang kibo ang ginang at malalim ang iniisip pero hindi nila umano akalain na magpapakamatay ito.. Wala naman umano silang alam na dahilan kung bakit magpapatiwakal ito.. ...
Huminga ulet ako ng malalim, nag-ayos ng aking polo na kulay blue, nagpapahiwatid na naman ng kalungkotan I am so blue… pero hindi ako si Agua Bendita. Hinatak ko ang aking trolley bag at lumapit sa mga taong nakapila, nakipila narin ako. Dahil sa bagal ng pag-usad ng pila naisip ko tuloy ang aking pamilya, nalungkot ako lalo Isang taon na naman ako mawawalay sa inyo sa isip ko. Naramdaman ko lalong bumigat ang dala-dala kong kalungkotan, huminga ako ulet ng malalim, pero sa pagkakataon yun hindi na nakuha sa pag-exhale at pag-inhale lang, lalo pang bumigat hangang sa naramdaman kong lumalabas na ang excess baggage kong kalungkotan sa aking mga mata. ...
Todos tenemos cicatrices que nos ha dejado la vida, a veces podemos convivir con ellas, pero otras veces esas cicatrices son antiestéticas y nos atormentan constantemente.. Sí, es posible tatuarse sobre las cicatrices, pero es importante saber y entender algunas cosas antes de hacerlo, porque no todas las cicatrices son iguales y no todas las pieles se comportan igual.. Primero que todo debemos saber que existen cinco tipos de cicatrices:. Cicatrices Normales: Son las que sanan bien, que dejan marca muy leve o ninguna en lo absoluto. Pigmentación y grosor igual a la piel sana.. Cicatrices Atróficas: Generalmente son las cicatrices que deja el acné o algunos tipos de erupciones cutáneas se ven como pequeños huecos en la piel. Esto se debe a que no hubo suficiente producción de colágeno ni reparación del tejido.. Cicatrices Hipertróficas: Se caracterizan por tener relieve, son rojizas y por lo general duelen o producen comezón. Su forma se debe a un exceso de colágeno que forma un ...
Todos tenemos cicatrices que nos ha dejado la vida, a veces podemos convivir con ellas, pero otras veces esas cicatrices son antiestéticas y nos atormentan constantemente.. Sí, es posible tatuarse sobre las cicatrices, pero es importante saber y entender algunas cosas antes de hacerlo, porque no todas las cicatrices son iguales y no todas las pieles se comportan igual.. Primero que todo debemos saber que existen cinco tipos de cicatrices:. Cicatrices Normales: Son las que sanan bien, que dejan marca muy leve o ninguna en lo absoluto. Pigmentación y grosor igual a la piel sana.. Cicatrices Atróficas: Generalmente son las cicatrices que deja el acné o algunos tipos de erupciones cutáneas se ven como pequeños huecos en la piel. Esto se debe a que no hubo suficiente producción de colágeno ni reparación del tejido.. Cicatrices Hipertróficas: Se caracterizan por tener relieve, son rojizas y por lo general duelen o producen comezón. Su forma se debe a un exceso de colágeno que forma un ...
i have a regular period.. and i already have 1 son.. he is 1 yr and 1mo. old now.. ive got mens on may25. we had sex a wek after my mens using pull out.. i know its not safe..nresearch ko kc yung pre-cum, malaking posibilidan n makakabuntis din. so hintay ko na lng june 25.. im stressing out waiting for the date..i feel like im bloating and everytime i lay down, and trying to press my stomach, i feel the object in moves up and down. so weird.iniisip ko baka placenta na ito.lakas din kc ng pintig.but i know its just my own pulse.kaloka, yaw ko pa kc magka baby uli. then i heard yung pulse sa stomach is normal, it just an abdominal, ayon nga, nung june 25, hindi ako nagkakaroon. bother ulit ako, so pt agad.false eh. then nung july 2, nagkaroon ako ng spotting.. brown dscharge then dinugo na ako kinabukasan..4 days of bleeding pero light lng.confuse pa din ako kc nga bloated pa ako.,pero ala naman signs of being preggy. then iniicp ko bka cause yun ng implantation. iniisip ko na ...
Since Thursday kasi di kumikilos si Baby J. Medyo napraning nanaman ako and may I text si OB about whats happening. She told me to go to FEU Hospital sa Pay Treatmeant Room at hintayin ko daw yung resident OB dun. She wants to know baby Js heart tone. Pagkadating ni Jason galing sa clieant meeting eh dumiretso agad kami sa hospital. Nandun na ang OB pero wala pa ang doppler... naliligaw pa ... namasyal mag-isa ang doppler hehehe. Nung napakinggan naman ang heart tones ni Baby J, normal naman. In other words, nasa deep sleeping state si Baby J. Or shes doing some moves pero small lang kaya di ko masyado nararamdaman. Then my OB texted me na tomorrow na ako magpa-congenital screening, kasabay ng sister niya. Super na-excite nanaman kami ni Jason ... sa wakas malalaman na namin yung gender ni baby weeeeeeeeee ...
Habang gf ko si Ms. CEU, medyo so-so lang ang sex life namin. Wild naman sya sa kama, pero minsan parang kulang parin. Boring din kasi sya minsan kung kasama mga friends ko. Di ko naman trip ang pagkaserious ng mga friends nya. Opposite kami sa interest.Masarap ang mga sex namin. Yun kapag nasajeep kami e sinisiko ko yun suso nya. Or nakahawak sa pwet kung nakaupo sa bus. Pero matamlay parin. Nung grumaduate na ako ng college, 1 year behind sya, e need na talaga humanap ng work. Nakahanap naman...
Reveling In The Abyss calienta nuestra sangre rápidamente, escuchamos intactas esas influencias grindcore que atascarían hasta al más puerco de los puercos de la granja, seis minutos y medio que se convirtieron en mis favoritos desde la primera escuchada, donde la cereza es ese breakdown letal al término de esta es de otra puta galaxia. Seething With Disdain es tecnicismo mezclado con la crudeza, una palanca clara que demuestra cómo se hacen las cosas, la manufactura es fenomenal de principio a fin. Ideological Subjugation (también alguno temas tienen nombres peculiares o poco comunes), obviamente un misil más dirigido a la grieta política y social en la que nos hundimos día a día, que manejados por una banda de esta naturaleza esos asuntos reciben el triple de putazos. Weaken The Structure coloca calma melódica, exterminada de inmediato por la locura de esos pocos pero vastos instrumentos, ahora sí que pocos pero locos diría un hommie, limpio y sistemático como la base de DF ...
Main article: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drugs that inhibit the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme will inhibit the synthetic ... 1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... Leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast,[2] and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, like ... Zileuton is a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase and thus inhibits leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Both ...
"Pfam entry: Lipoxygenase". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-01-25. PDBsum entry: Alpha Toxin "Pfam ...
It is a lipoxygenase inhibitor. Gowri MS, Azhar RK, Kraemer FB, Reaven GM, Azhar S (September 2000). "Masoprocol decreases rat ...
AM-679 is a drug which acts as a selective inhibitor of 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). This protein is involved in ... "5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors. Part 2: 3-{5-((S)-1-Acetyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-tert-butylsulfanyl ... "A Novel 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitor, AM679, Reduces Inflammation in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected ...
... possibly 15-lipoxygenase-2 (i.e. ALOX15B), 5-lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX5), cyclooxygenase-2 (i.e. COX-2), and certain Cytochrome ... The following oxygenase enzymes may be responsible for metabolizing PUFA to resolvins: 15-lipoxygenase-1 (i.e. ALOX15), ... range of cells and tissues by the initial metabolism of DHA to 7S-hydroperoxy-DHA and 4S-hydroperoxy-DHA by a 15-lipoxygenase ( ...
Pinoresinol - inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase. Uracil - isolated from the leaf of Fadogia homblei, significant as the first ...
Cho KJ, Seo JM, Kim JH (July 2011). "Bioactive lipoxygenase metabolites stimulation of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen ... Speed N, Blair IA (December 2011). "Cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-mediated DNA damage". Cancer Metastasis Rev. 30 (3-4): 437 ...
For example, 5-lipoxygenase (i.e. (ALOX5) in neutrophils and 15-lipoxygenase-1 (i.e. ALOX15) in immature erythrocytes and ... The double oxygenations may be conducted within a single cell type which possess ALOX5 and an enzyme with 15-lipoxygenase ... A lipoxin (LX or Lx), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction product, is a bioactive autacoid metabolite of arachidonic acid ... This step is catalyzed by enzymes with 15-lipoxygenase activity which in humans includes ALOX15, ALOX12, aspirin-treated ...
15-Lipoxygenase-2: Cells also used 15-lipoxygenase 2 (i.e. 15-LOX-2 or ALOX15B) to make 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE. However ... 15-Lipoxygenase-1: Cells metabolize arachidonic acid with 15-lipoxygenase-1 (i.e., 15-LO-1, ALOX15) to form 15(S)-HpETE as a ... inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase but not other human lipoxygenases. This effect could also have anti-inflammatory and anti- ... Oxygenated by 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5 to form its 5,6-trans epoxide derivative which may then rearrange to the lipoxins (LX), ...
Lipoxygenase homology domains 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the LOXHD1 gene. This gene encodes a highly conserved ... "Entrez Gene: Lipoxygenase homology domains 1". Retrieved 2012-04-10. Grillet N, Schwander M, Hildebrand MS, Sczaniecka A, ... protein consisting entirely of PLAT (polycystin/lipoxygenase/alpha-toxin) domains, thought to be involved in targeting proteins ...
The murine homolog of human 15(S)-lipoxygenase-2 (ALOX15B), 8(S)-lipoxygenase, while preferring arachidonic acid over linoleic ... However, ALOX15B, similar to human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15), metabolizes linoleic acid to 13(S)-HODE but not to 9(S)-HODEs. ... Cho, K. J.; Seo, J. M.; Kim, J. H. (2011). "Bioactive lipoxygenase metabolites stimulation of NADPH oxidases and reactive ... Speed, N.; Blair, I. A. (2011). "Cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-mediated DNA damage". Cancer Metastasis Reviews. 30 (3-4): ...
The 15-lipoxygenases (particularly ALOX15) may also act in series with 5-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, or aspirin-treated COX2 ... The enzymes 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1 or ALOX15) and 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LO-2, ALOX15B) metabolize arachidonic acid to the S ... Other reactions of lipoxygenases generate cellular damage; murine models implicate 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesis of ... Lipoxygenases (LOXs): 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX or ALOX5) initiates the metabolism of arachidonic acid to 5- ...
... cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. In addition to the maresins, this class of mediators includes: the 15-lipoxygenase (i.e. ... certain 15-lipoxygenase-derived Resolvin D series metabolites of DHA; certain other 15-lipoxygenase-derived protectin D1 and ... Maresin 1, and more recently defined maresins, are 12-lipoxygenase-derived metabolites of the omega-3 fatty acid, ... Studies implicate the following pathway in its formation: 12-lipoxygenase converts DHA to its 14-hydroxperoxy intermediate, 14( ...
12-lipoxygenase gene, see lipoxygenase#mouse lipoxygenases) are resistant to a) streptozotocin-induced, b) high fat diet- ... express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (also termed 12/15-lipoxygenase, 12/15-LOX or ... In humans, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO, 12-LOX, ALO12, or platelet type 12-lipoxygenase) is encoded by the ALOX12 gene ... "CDNA cloning of a 8-lipoxygenase and a novel epidermis-type lipoxygenase from phorbol ester-treated mouse skin". Biochimica et ...
Delta12-lipoxygenase, 12Delta-lipoxygenase, and C-12 lipoxygenase. ALOX12, often termed plate platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase, is ... ALOX12 (EC, also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase". Yamamoto S, Suzuki H, Ueda N (March 1997). "Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases". ... Other systematic names for ALOX12 include 12S-Lipoxygenase, platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase, arachidonate:oxygen 12- ...
In competitive inhibition, an inhibitor that resembles the normal substrate binds to the enzyme, usually at the active site, and prevents the substrate from binding.[8] At any given moment, the enzyme may be bound to the inhibitor, the substrate, or neither, but it cannot bind both at the same time. During competitive inhibition, the inhibitor and substrate compete for the active site. The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow one of the two complexes to bind to the site therefore either allowing for a reaction to occur or yielding it. In competitive inhibition the inhibitor resembles the substrate therefore taking its place and binding to the active site of an enzyme. Increasing the substrate concentration would diminish the "competition" for the substrate to properly bind to the active site and allow a reaction to occur.[3] When the substrate is of higher concentration than that of the competitive inhibitor, it ...
A 2017 population-based, matched-cohort study of 93,197 men aged 66 years and older with BPH found that finasteride and dutasteride were associated with a significantly increased risk of depression (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.73-2.16) and self-harm (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.34-2.64) during the first 18 months of treatment, but were not associated with an increased risk of suicide (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.53-1.45).[31][32][33][21] After the initial 18 months of therapy, the risk of self-harm was no longer heightened, whereas the elevation in risk of depression lessened but remained marginally increased (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.37).[31][32][21] The absolute increase in the rate of depression was 247 per 100,000 patient-years and of self-harm was 17 per 100,000 patient-years.[21][34] As such, on the basis of these findings, it has been stated that cases of depression in patients that are attributable to 5-ARIs will be encountered on occasion, while cases of self-harm attributable to 5-ARIs will be encountered ...
The affinity of RI for ribonucleases is among the highest for any protein-protein interaction; the dissociation constant of the RI-RNase A complex is in the femtomolar (fM) range under physiological conditions while that for the RI-angiogenin complex is less than 1 fM. Despite this high affinity, RI is able to bind a wide variety of RNases A despite their relatively low sequence identity. Both biochemical studies and crystallographic structures of RI-RNase A complexes suggest that the interaction is governed largely by electrostatic interactions, but also involves substantial buried surface area.[3][4] RI's affinity for ribonucleases is important, since many ribonucleases have cytotoxic and cytostatic effects that correlate well with ability to bind RI.[5] Mammalian RIs are unable to bind certain pancreatic ribonuclease family members from other species. In particular, amphibian RNases, such ranpirnase and amphinase from the Northern leopard frog, escape mammalian RI and have been noted to have ...
Beyond being a catalyst in the rate-limiting step in testosterone reduction, 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC). In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3α-reduction of DHT, 5α-DHP and DHDOC lead to neurosteroid metabolites with effect on cerebral function. These neurosteroids, which include allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 3α-androstanediol, act as potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, and have antidepressant, anxiolytic, prosexual, and anticonvulsant effects.[33] 5α-Dihydrocortisol is present in the aqueous humor of the eye, is synthesized in the lens, and might help make the aqueous humor itself.[34] 5α-Dihydroaldosterone is a potent antinatriuretic agent, although different from aldosterone. Its formation in the kidney is enhanced by restriction of dietary salt, suggesting it may help retain sodium.[35] 5α-DHP is a ...
The role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular disease was elucidated in the second half of the 20th century.[138] This lipid hypothesis prompted attempts to reduce cardiovascular disease burden by lowering cholesterol. Treatment consisted mainly of dietary measures, such as a low-fat diet, and poorly tolerated medicines, such as clofibrate, cholestyramine, and nicotinic acid. Cholesterol researcher Daniel Steinberg writes that while the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial of 1984 demonstrated cholesterol lowering could significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and angina, physicians, including cardiologists, remained largely unconvinced.[139] Scientists in academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry began trying to develop a drug to reduce cholesterol more effectively. There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A.[140] In 1971, Akira Endo, a Japanese biochemist working for the pharmaceutical company Sankyo, ...
When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all cholinesterase inhibitors require doses to be increased gradually over several weeks, and this is usually referred to as the titration phase. Many other types drug treatments may require a titration or stepping up phase. This strategy is used to build tolerance to adverse events or to reach a desired clinical effect.[12] This also prevents accidental overdose and is therefore recommended when initiating treatment with drugs that are extremely potent and/or toxic (drugs with a low therapeutic index). ...
In response to a report of precancerous changes in the pancreases of rats and organ donors treated with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin,[21][22] the United States FDA and the European Medicines Agency each undertook independent reviews of all clinical and preclinical data related to the possible association of DPP-4 inhibitors with pancreatic cancer. In a joint letter to the New England Journal of Medicine, the agencies stated that they had not yet reached a final conclusion regarding a possible causative relationship.[23]. A 2014 meta-analysis found no evidence for increased pancreatic cancer risk in people treated with DPP-4 inhibitors, but owing to the modest amount of data available, was not able to completely exclude possible risk.[24]. ...
As enzymes have evolved to bind their substrates tightly, and most reversible inhibitors bind in the active site of enzymes, it is unsurprising that some of these inhibitors are strikingly similar in structure to the substrates of their targets. An example of these substrate mimics are the protease inhibitors, a very successful class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV.[19] The structure of ritonavir, a protease inhibitor based on a peptide and containing three peptide bonds, is shown on the right. As this drug resembles the protein that is the substrate of the HIV protease, it competes with this substrate in the enzyme's active site. Enzyme inhibitors are often designed to mimic the transition state or intermediate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This ensures that the inhibitor exploits the transition state stabilising effect of the enzyme, resulting in a better binding affinity (lower Ki) than substrate-based designs. An example of such a transition state inhibitor is the antiviral drug ...
A trypsin inhibitor (TI) is a protein and a type of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that reduces the biological activity of trypsin by controlling the activation and catalytic reactions of proteins.[1] Trypsin is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of many different proteins, primarily as part of digestion in humans and other animals such as monogastrics and young ruminants. When trypsin inhibitor is consumed it acts as an irreversible and competitive substrate.[2] It competes with proteins to bind to trypsin and therefore renders it unavailable to bind with proteins for the digestion process.[1] As a result, protease inhibitors that interfere with digestion activity have an antinutritional effect. Therefore, trypsin inhibitor is considered an anti-nutritional factor or ANF.[3] Additionally, trypsin inhibitor partially interferes with chymotrypsin function. Trypsinogen is an inactive form of trypsin, its inactive form ensures protein aspects of the body, such as the pancreas and muscles, are ...
Compositae) on soybean lipoxygenase and prostaglandin synthetase". General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 26 (4): 815-9. ...
Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and arachiconate lipoygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12B arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type". Boeglin WE, Kim RB, Brash AR (June 1998). "A 12R-lipoxygenase in ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOX12B is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOXE3 ALOX12B ... The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 and ALOX15B ...
This protein binds F-actin, and also interacts with and thereby stabilizes 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5). Although this gene has been ... Provost P, Samuelsson B, Rådmark O (Apr 1999). "Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Provost P, Doucet J, Hammarberg T, Gerisch G, Samuelsson B, Radmark O (2001). "5-Lipoxygenase interacts with coactosin-like ... Anwar Y, Sabir JS, Qureshi MI, Saini KS (2014). "5-lipoxygenase: a promising drug target against inflammatory diseases- ...
Hussey HJ, Tisdale MJ (1996). "Inhibition of tumour growth by lipoxygenase inhibitors". Br. J. Cancer. 74 (5): 683-687. doi: ... Wijkander J, O'Flaherty JT, Nixon AB, Wykle RL (1995). "5-Lipoxygenase products modulate the activity of the 85-kDa ... Ding XZ, Iversen P, Cluck MW, Knezetic JA, Adrian TE (1999). "Lipoxygenase inhibitors abolish proliferation of human pancreatic ... Sarveswaran S, Thamilselvan V, Brodie C, Ghosh J (2011). "Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer ...
Lipoxygenases oxidize the flour. Other additives may be used as yeast nutrients or as a source of enzymes: carbamide (also ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.[5] Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. ... "Alox5 - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". WikiGenes.. *^ Fahel JS, de Souza MB, Gomes MT, Corsetti PP, Carvalho NB, Marinho FA, de ... "5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes". J. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... soybean lipoxygenase L1 and L3, coral 8-lipoxygenase, human 5-lipoxygenase, rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and porcine leukocyte 12- ... erythrocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase, erythrocyte type), reticulocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase ... LOX-DB - LipOXygenases DataBase Lipoxygenases iron-binding region in PROSITE PDB: 1YGE​ - structure of lipoxygenase-1 from ... Certain types of the lipoxygenases, e.g. human and murine 15-lipoxygenase 1, 12-lipoxygenase B, and ALOXE3, are capable of ...
Manganese lipoxygenase. Magnaporthe oryzae (strain 70-15 / ATCC MYA-4617 / FGSC 8958) (Rice blast fungus). Loading... ...
Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (EC, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional ... Linoleate+8R-lipoxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... 12-dienoate Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase contains heme. Brodhun F, Göbel C, Hornung E, Feussner I (May 2009). "Identification of ...
The discovery of mammalian lipoxygenases which convert arachidonic acid to oxygenated products with potent inflammatory and ... For example, pulmonary tissues synthesize the peptido-leukotrienes (LTC4, D4 and E4), which are products of 5-lipoxygenase, in ... Higgs G.A. (1989) Novel 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors in Inflammation and Asthma. In: Samuelsson B., Berti F., Folco G.C., Velo G.P ... Acetohydroxamic acids as potent, selective, orally active 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. J. Med. Chem., 31: 499-500.Google Scholar ...
Lipoxygenase metabolism: roles in tumor progression and survival.. Pidgeon GP1, Lysaght J, Krishnamoorthy S, Reynolds JV, ... Pharmacologic and natural inhibitors of lipoxygenases have been shown to suppress carcinogenesis and tumor growth in a number ... The metabolism of arachidonic acid through lipoxygenase pathways leads to the generation of various biologically active ... Substantial evidence supports a functional role for lipoxygenase-catalyzed arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in cancer ...
Arachidonic Acid Platelet Aggregation Human Platelet Lipoxygenase Activity Lipoxygenase Pathway These keywords were added by ... Nugteren, D.H., 1975, Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:299-307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... A potent and selective inhibitor of platelet lipoxygenase, J. Biol. Chem. 255:5996-5998.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Chang, W.C, Nakao, J., Orimo, H., and Murota, S., 1982, Effects of reduced glutathione on the 12-lipoxygenase pathway in rat ...
Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase.. Safayhi H1, Mack T, Sabieraj J, Anazodo MI, ... Among the BAs, acetyl-11-keto-beta-BA induced the most pronounced inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) product formation with an ... BA in concentrations up to 400 microM did not impair the cyclooxygenase and 12-lipoxygenase in isolated human platelets and the ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor [Drug Class] (4 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
26 Abstracts with Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Llichen-derived lipoxygenase inhibitors have antiproliferative activity against 12 human cancer cell lines. Nov 01, 2004. ... Curcumin inhibits lipoxygenase, indicating it possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.Nov 01, 2000. ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors, Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Additional Keywords : ...
Compare 5-Lipoxygenase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... 5-Lipoxygenase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 257 5-Lipoxygenase ELISA ELISA Kit across 14 suppliers. ...
Since the 5-lipoxygenase pathway is abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, and 12/15-lipoxygenase is able to ... ロイコトリエン・リポキシゲナーゼ代謝系と創薬 [in Japanese] Leukotriene-lipoxygenase pathway and drug discovery [in Japanese] * * 阿部 正義 ABE Masayoshi ... 5-lipoxygenase or 12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitors may prevent progression of atherosclerosis. In addition, it has been reported ... Zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, increases production of thromboxane A_2 and platelet aggregation in patients with asthma ...
... inhibited the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (EC, type 1) with an IC50 of 6.8 microM ... Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology*. Molecular Structure. Soybeans / enzymology. Structure- ... 0/Anacardic Acids; 0/Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 18654-18-7/anacardic acid; 2197-37-7/Linoleic Acid; EC ... In addition, anacardic acid (C15:2) was also found to exhibit time-dependent inhibition of lipoxygenase-1. The alk(en)yl side ...
Lipoxygenase (5‐LOX) catalyses two steps in thebiosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators of inflammation derived from ... 1993) 5‐Lipoxygenase‐activating protein stimulates the utilization of arachidonic acid by 5‐lipoxygenase. European Journal of ... 2012) Conversion of human 5‐lipoxygenase to a 15‐lipoxygenase by a point mutation to mimic phosphorylation at Serine‐663. FASEB ... 2011) The N‐terminal beta‐barrel domain of mammalian lipoxygenases including mouse 5‐lipoxygenase is not essential for ...
Anti-5 Lipoxygenase antibody (ab39347) has been cited in 11 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in ICC/IF, IHC, IHC- ... Xingfu W et al. Cytoplasmic 5-Lipoxygenase Staining Is a Highly Sensitive Marker of Human Tumors of the Choroid Plexus. Am J ... Chakrabarti SK et al. Evidence for activation of inflammatory lipoxygenase pathways in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker ...
Rabbit polyclonal 5 Lipoxygenase antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2 ... Belongs to the lipoxygenase family.. Contains 1 lipoxygenase domain.. Contains 1 PLAT domain. ... All lanes : Anti-5 Lipoxygenase antibody (ab59341) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Extracts from HuvEc cells without immunizing ... ab59341, at a 1/50 dilution, staining human 5 Lipoxygenase in skeletal muscle in the presence and absence of the immunizing ...
On the Role of Molecular Oxygen in Lipoxygenase Activation: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST OF EPIDERMAL LIPOXYGENASE-3 WITH SOYBEAN ... Inducible expression of 15-lipoxygenase-2 and 8-lipoxygenase inhibits cell growth via common signaling pathways ... The lipoxygenase gene ALOXE3 implicated in skin differentiation encodes a hydroperoxide isomerase. Zheyong Yu, Claus Schneider ... Lipoxygenases Mediate the Effect of Essential Fatty Acid in Skin Barrier Formation: A PROPOSED ROLE IN RELEASING OMEGA- ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Brain tumors metastatic from breast cancer are dependent on an enzymatic pathway called the arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway. ...
New anti-inflammatory agents possessing dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase (COX/LOX) inhibition were discovered by computer-aided ... Computer-aided discovery of anti-inflammatory thiazolidinones with dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibition J Med Chem. 2008 ... New anti-inflammatory agents possessing dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase (COX/LOX) inhibition were discovered by computer-aided ...
We identified a novel polymorphism, c.760 G>A (E254K), in exon 6 of the 5-lipoxygenase gene (5-LO). This substitution was ... A novel polymorphism, E254K, in the 5-lipoxygenase gene associated with bronchial asthma ... and are derived from arachidonic acid by the action of 5-lipoxygenase. ...
Lipoxygenases are a family of (non-heme), iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated ... Lipoxygenase Products. All (16). Lipoxygenase Inhibitors (16). Catalog No.. Information. Product Use Citations. Product ... MK-886 is an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). It is also a ... MK-886 is an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). It is also a ...
Funk C. D. The molecular biology of mammalian lipoxygenases and the quest for eicosanoid functions using lipoxygenase-deficient ... Lipoxygenase Inhibitors as Potential Cancer Chemopreventives. Vernon E. Steele, Cathy A. Holmes, Ernest T. Hawk, Levy ... Lipoxygenase Inhibitors as Potential Cancer Chemopreventives. Vernon E. Steele, Cathy A. Holmes, Ernest T. Hawk, Levy ... Lipoxygenase Inhibitors as Potential Cancer Chemopreventives. Vernon E. Steele, Cathy A. Holmes, Ernest T. Hawk, Levy ...
The reactivity of cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase with trilinolein was examined. The activity of the enzyme against linoleic ... Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase oxygenizes trilinolein at the lipid/water interface Lipids. 1995 Aug;30(8):733-8. doi: 10.1007/ ... This suggests that cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase acts only on an insoluble substrate at the lipid/water interface but not on ... The reactivity of cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase with trilinolein was examined. The activity of the enzyme against linoleic ...
2 Abstracts with 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ... An in-vitro test of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) inhibition potency verified that both Plantago ... 5 Pharmacological Actions Researched for 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Pharmacological Actions : 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cyclooxygenase 1 Inhibitor, Cyclooxygenase ...
Barley plants having reduced lipoxygenase-1 enzyme activity are provided, for example, barley plants expressing mutant LOX-1 ... The lipoxygenase activity in all Line G embryos was very low, with an average of 0.06 0.04 U lipoxygenase per mg protein, ... Since the low-lipoxygenase trait is a recessive trait, Ll plants show wild-type lipoxygenase activity. After each round of back ... The low-lipoxygenase lines were screened by measuring total lipoxygenase activity in extracts of the coleoptile (top 7 mm) from ...
Here, we determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival. ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival. ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival. Yaoyu Chen,1 Cong Peng,1 Sheela A. ... Inflammation and immune regulation by 12/15-lipoxygenases. Prog Lipid Res. 2006;45(4):334-356.. View this article via: PubMed ... Effect of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites, 15-(S)-HPETE and 15-(S)-HETE on chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K-562: reactive ... Regulation of bone mass in mice by the lipoxygenase gene Alox15. Science. 2004;303(5655):229-232.. View this article via: ...
Plant lipoxygenases may be involved in a number of diverse aspects of plant physiology including growth and development, pest ... PS00711, LIPOXYGENASE_1, 1 hit. PS00081, LIPOXYGENASE_2, 1 hit. PS51393, LIPOXYGENASE_3, 1 hit. PS50095, PLAT, 1 hit. ... PS00711, LIPOXYGENASE_1, 1 hit. PS00081, LIPOXYGENASE_2, 1 hit. PS51393, LIPOXYGENASE_3, 1 hit. PS50095, PLAT, 1 hit. ... linoleate 13S-lipoxygenase activity Source: CACAO ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ...
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase , also known as ALOX5 , 5-lipoxygenase , 5-LOX , or 5-LO , is a non- heme iron-containing enzyme (EC that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene . (
  • [5] Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. (
  • The 6 human lipoxygenases along with some of the major products that they make as well as some their associations with genetic diseases are as follows: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) (EC IPR001885), also termed 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, and 5-LO. (
  • The effects of a novel series of selective inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase on anaphylactic and inflammatory responses. (
  • Selective inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase by novel acetohydroxamic acids III. (
  • Selective inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase by novel acetohydroxamic acids: I. Biochemical assessment in vitro and ex vivo Br. (
  • Brain tumors metastatic from breast cancer are dependent on an enzymatic pathway called the arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway. (
  • Here, we determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in a murine model of BCR-ABL-induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). (
  • Lipoxygenase enzymes initiate diverse signaling pathways by specifically directing oxygen to different carbons of arachidonate and other polyunsaturated acyl chains, but structural origins of this specificity have remained unclear. (
  • According to NCBI Map Viewer, genes flanking ALOX15 in centromere to telomere direction on 17p13 are: GABARAP 17p13.1 GABA(A) receptor-associated protein, ASGR2 asialoglycoprotein receptor 2, ALOX12 17p13.1 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (Homo sapiens), ALOX12P2 17p13 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase pseudogene 2, TEKT1 tektin 1, FBXO39 F-box protein 39. (
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is one of several LOX isoforms that has iron as a cofactor and oxygenates polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • According to Entrez Gene the arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase pseudogene (ALOX12P2) (HGNC: 13742) is located on 17p13.1. (
  • A comparison of the arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) with the 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) lipoxygenase metabolite of linoleate revealed that 12-HETE has biological activities that mimic the phorbol ester tumor promoters, whereas 13-HODE has antithetical effects. (
  • Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B knockdown leads to reduced lipid accumulation and inflammation in atherosclerosis. (
  • We have shown previously that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B (ALOX15B) is more highly expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions than in healthy arteries. (
  • Products of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenases (LO) types I and II display both beneficial roles, such as lipoxins (LXs) that stereoselectively signal counterregulation, as well as potential deleterious actions (i.e., nonspecific phospholipid degradation). (
  • The recombinant protein was identified as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase and linoleate 13-lipoxygenase with a preference for arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. (
  • Higgs GA, Mugridge KG, Moncada S, Vane JR (1984) Inhibition of tissue damage by the arachidonate lipoxygenase inhibitor BW755C. (
  • The metabolism of arachidonic acid through lipoxygenase pathways leads to the generation of various biologically active eicosanoids. (
  • When platelets are aggregated by some of these agents such as thrombin or collagen, polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly arachidonic acid) are liberated from membrane phospholipids and then subsequently oxygenated via cyclooxygenase and/or lipoxygenase. (
  • In contrast to the redox type 5-LO inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid, BA in concentrations up to 400 microM did not impair the cyclooxygenase and 12-lipoxygenase in isolated human platelets and the peroxidation of arachidonic acid by Fe-ascorbate. (
  • 5‐Lipoxygenase (5‐LOX) catalyses two steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators of inflammation derived from arachidonic acid. (
  • 1993) 5‐Lipoxygenase‐activating protein stimulates the utilization of arachidonic acid by 5‐lipoxygenase. (
  • Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of nonheme iron-containing enzymes that oxygenate unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid to specific hydroperoxide products ( 1 ). (
  • Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are important pro-inflammatory mediators in bronchial asthma (BA) and are derived from arachidonic acid by the action of 5-lipoxygenase. (
  • Nature employs 8-lipoxygenase to produce 8 R -hydroperoxide from the oxygenation of arachidonic acid. (
  • FLAP (5-lipoxygenase activating protein), encoded by the ALOX5AP gene, likely acts as an arachidonic acid-binding and transfer protein to facilitate 5LO activity [ 4 ]. (
  • Among the 4 mammalian LO subfamilies, 15-lipoxygenase-1 (also known as 12/15-lipoxygenase in mice) catalyzes the transformation of free arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the transformation of linoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) (the reduced product is 13-HODE). (
  • Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites. (
  • Bioactive lipids, especially cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases (LOXs) metabolites of arachidonic acid, are known to be involved in inflammation and cancers. (
  • We investigated the conversion rate of 14C labelled arachidonic acid (14C-AA), the lipoxygenases (LOX) products and the endogenous synthesis of eicosanoids and IPs in extracted granuloma. (
  • Following activation, metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) may play a significant role in regulating the degree and stability of platelet activation as inhibition of 12-LOX significantly attenuates platelet aggregation in response to various agonists. (
  • Arachidonic acid is metabolized by rabbit peritoneal PMNs via both prostaglandin cyclo-oxygenase and fatty acid lipoxygenase pathways to yield a multiplicity of biologically active products. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) are key enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) are key enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to important bioactive fatty acids known as eicosanoids ( 1 ). (
  • Leukotriene (LT) B 4 production is initiated by the conversion of free arachidonic acid to an unstable epoxide intermediate, LTA 4 , by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the presence of the accessory 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). (
  • It inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibition in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • Zileuton (A-64077) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase , and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used to decrease the symptoms of asthma. (
  • It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. (
  • Pectolinarigenin, an active anti-inflammatory ingredient in Cirsium chanroenicum , is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) . (
  • MK-886 is an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis , inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) . (
  • Caffeic acid is an inhibitor of both TRPV1 ion channel and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO). (
  • ML355 is a potent and selective inhibitor of human 12-Lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 290 nM and shows excellent selectivity over related lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases. (
  • Phenidone (1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidinone), a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) , is an organic compound that is primarily used as a photographic developer. (
  • In cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that Sema3A treatment stimulates the synthesis of the eicosanoid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse is prevented when 12(S)-HETE synthesis is blocked with an inhibitor of 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). (
  • 6 The combined cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitor BW 755C completely blocked contractions in the females. (
  • 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton (200 and 400 Mg/kg. (
  • The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor VIA-2291 effectively lowers production of leukotriene metabolites. (
  • The effects of pretreatment with BAYx 1005, an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis via antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses has been evaluated. (
  • The novel 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor, ABT-761, was investigated for its effect on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. (
  • The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor zileuton showed inhibition of LTB 4 , LTC 4 , and LXA 4 production. (
  • Protective effect of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor ardisiaquinone A on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. (
  • Among the BAs, acetyl-11-keto-beta-BA induced the most pronounced inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) product formation with an IC50 of 1.5 microM. (
  • In addition, anacardic acid (C15:2) was also found to exhibit time-dependent inhibition of lipoxygenase-1. (
  • New anti-inflammatory agents possessing dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase (COX/LOX) inhibition were discovered by computer-aided prediction of biological activity for 573 virtually designed chemical compounds. (
  • An in-vitro test of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) inhibition potency verified that both Plantago lanceolata and P. major exhibit considerable anti-inflammatory activity. (
  • Inhibition of Soybean Lipoxygenases - Structural and Activity Models for the Lipoxygenase Isoenzymes Family, Recent Trends for Enhancing the Diversity and Quality of Soybean Products Dora Krezhova, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/17976. (
  • L-Proline-Catalyzed Synthesis of Phthalimide Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Lipoxygenase Inhibition Activities. (
  • Lipoxygenase activity has been shown to be increased by and to mediate the hypertrophic effects of Ang II, the mitogenic effects of cytokines, and the chemotactic effects of platelet-derived growth factor in VSMCs, whereas 12/15-LO inhibition blocks these effects. (
  • We conclude that ABT-761 is effective in suppressing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and that this protection is related quantitatively to the degree of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. (
  • Less data about platelet lipoxygenase pathway, especially for its biological role, are available. (
  • Since the 5-lipoxygenase pathway is abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, and 12/15-lipoxygenase is able to oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acid esterified in the membranous phospholipids, 5-lipoxygenase or 12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitors may prevent progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • The 5‐lipoxygenase pathway is part of the innate immune system. (
  • These results suggest that drugs targeting the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway merit investigation as a therapy for osteoporosis. (
  • Since the latter stimulatory effect of AA is prevented by inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, we examined the effects of various lipoxygenase pathway products on glucose-induced insulin secretion. (
  • The mediator was not one of the stable end-products of either limb of the lipoxygenase pathway: 12- or 5-hy-droxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) (0.5-2000 ng/ml) did not alter insulin release, whereas 11-HETE, 15-HETE, leukotriene (LT)B 4 and the δ 6 trans isomers of LTB 4 , LTC 4 and 11- trans LTC 4 all inhibited insulin release. (
  • Genes of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway are compelling candidates for atherosclerosis. (
  • Further, lipoxygenase pathway SNPs that were associated with measures of atherosclerosis were associated with markers of inflammation (CRP, ICAM-1) and calcification (MGP). (
  • These results suggest that variants in lipoxygenase pathway genes may have pleiotropic effects on multiple components that determine risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • The current research was motivated by the role of lipoxygenase pathway gene products in inflammation, initiation/progression of atherosclerosis, and their modulation of expression by glucose. (
  • Role of the lipoxygenase pathway in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. (
  • The 12-lipoxygenase pathway is a key mediator of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced effects in the adrenal cortex. (
  • This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. (
  • Most notably, 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway products including LTC 4 and -D 4 , the slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis, are considered causative agents in airway allergic responses, because they are potent bronchoconstrictors and inducers of leakage permeability changes ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) lipid mediator is among inflammatory molecules that are abundantly produced in various diseases and is primarily biosynthesized via the 12(S)-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway. (
  • While most developed compounds primarily target the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) or the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, very few compounds selectively inhibiting the 12-LO pathway are known. (
  • Walker J.R., Dawson W. (1980) Inhibitory effect of benoxaprofen and BW 755C on rabbit PMN leukocyte lipoxygenase (Abstract). (
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction linoleate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase contains heme. (
  • This enzyme is assumed to be a 12-lipoxygenase (Hamberg et ai . (
  • Barley plants having reduced lipoxygenase-1 enzyme activity are provided, for example, barley plants expressing mutant LOX-1 protein. (
  • 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators of inflammation. (
  • 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a key enzyme in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. (
  • Various mechanisms for regulated cell death include the formation of oxidative mediators such as lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO). In this respect, 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of lipid peroxides. (
  • Functional characterization of genetic enzyme variations in human lipoxygenases. (
  • Herein, the application of this theory to PCET in the enzyme soybean lipoxygenase illustrates the regimes of validity for the various rate constant expressions and elucidates the fundamental physical principles dictating PCET reactions. (
  • We previously reported that microgravity-dependent activation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) might play a central role in the initiation of apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, suggesting that the upregulation of this enzyme might be (at least in part) responsible for immunodepression observed in astronauts during space flights. (
  • The first part of her thesis describes the development of novel modulators for lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme activity. (
  • Enzyme kinetic studies on these salicylate-based modulators demonstrate that they regulate the lipoxygenase activity by binding to an allosteric regulatory site in lipoxygenses. (
  • Preferably, the lipoxygenase produced by the methods of the invention is a plant-derived enzyme and expressed at high-levels in a microbial system that includes a protease-deficient host and one or more chaperone expression plasmids. (
  • The invention is also directed to amino acid and nucleic acid fragments of the lipoxygenase enzyme including fragments in expression constructs encoding all or a portion of one or more lipoxygenase genes. (
  • We focused on the analysis of expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), an important enzyme involved in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins. (
  • Moreover, the influence of complexes 1-3 on the catalytic peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically studied. (
  • In contrast to any other lipoxygenase cloned so far, this enzyme exhibited in addition an unusual high hydroperoxidase and also a fatty acid chain-cleaving lyase activity. (
  • In contrast to other lipoxygenases a highly diverse product spectrum is formed by a single enzyme accounting for most of the observed oxylipins produced by the moss. (
  • LS-F23767 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Human ALOX15 / 15-Lipoxygenase in samples of Plasma and Serum. (
  • The authors have developed an assay for the detection of lipid hydroperoxides formed by human 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in enzyme or cellular assays using either a 96-well or a 384-well format. (
  • The utility of DPPP as a marker for 15-lipoxygenase activity was demonstrated with both enzyme- and cell-based assays for the identification of hits and to determine potency by IC(50) determinations. (
  • In addition, cells, when so activated, may transfer their released polyunsaturated fatty acids to adjacent or nearby cells which then metabolize them through their lipoxygenase pathways in a process termed transcellular metabolism or transcellular biosynthesis. (
  • Evidence for activation of inflammatory lipoxygenase pathways in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats. (
  • It seems OA chondrocytes, much like activated macrophage and monocytes produce a broad spectrum of products derived from both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways consistent with our hypothesis. (
  • Human aortic endothelial cells cultured in chronically high glucose levels results in elevated levels of 12S-HETE, suggesting activation of lipoxygenase pathways [ 12 , 13 ]. (
  • The ability of various inhibitors of lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) to induce apoptosis has implicated these pathways in the mechanism(s) of this form of cell death. (
  • Lipoxygenases depend on the availability of their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates which, particularly in mammalian cells, is normally maintained at extremely low levels. (
  • We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. (
  • Through combined genetic and genomic approaches, we identified the lipoxygenase gene Alox15 as a negative regulator of peak bone mineral density in mice. (
  • Crossbreeding experiments with Alox15 knockout mice confirmed that 12/15-lipoxygenase plays a role in skeletal development. (
  • Employing a combined bioinformatical and enzymological strategy, which included structural modeling and experimental site-directed mutagenesis, we systematically explored the structural and functional consequences of non-synonymous genetic variations in four different human lipoxygenase genes (ALOX5, ALOX12, ALOX15, and ALOX15B) that have been identified in the human 1000 genome project. (
  • Human 12-lipoxygenase (encoded by ALOX12 ) and 15-lipoxygenase (encoded by ALOX15 ) have been localized to atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that 12/15LO activity is involved in the development of atherosclerosis [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • 15-Lipoxygenase antibody LS-C173699 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human 15-Lipoxygenase (ALOX15). (
  • It is based upon a Sandwich assay principle and can be used to detect levels of ALOX15 / 15-Lipoxygenase as low as 37.5 picograms per milliliter. (
  • The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilo base pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered together on chromosome 17), is composed of 14 exons divided by 13 introns encoding the mature 78 kilodalton (kD) ALOX5 protein consisting of 673 amino acids. (
  • Based on detailed analyses of 15-lipoxygenase 1 and stabilized 5-lipoxygenase, lipoxygenase structures consist of a 15 kilodalton N-terminal beta barrel domain, a small (e.g. ~0.6 kilodalton) linker inter-domain (see protein domain § Domains and protein flexibility), and a relatively large C-terminal catalytic domain which contains the non-heme iron critical for the enzymes' catalytic activity. (
  • Malotilate is a liver protein metabolism improved compound, which selectively inhibit the 5-lipoxygenase . (
  • 1 . A barley plant or portion thereof comprising a mutant LOX-1 protein, the plant or portion characterized by a reduction or absence of lipoxygenase activity as compared with a non-mutated control. (
  • Two accessory proteins, coactosin-like protein (CLP) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), can support 5LO activity. (
  • According to the NCBI conserved domain search, the presence of a polycystin/lipoxygenase/alpha-toxin (PLAT) domain in the 12-LOX protein allows it access and enables it to catalyze enzymatic lipid peroxidation in complex biological structures via direct dioxygenation of phospholipids and cholesterol esters of biomembranes and plasma lipoproteins. (
  • We studied the effects of Ang II and 12-lipoxygenase products on both total cell protein content and the levels of the matrix protein fibronectin in quiescent porcine aortic smooth muscle cells. (
  • Direct addition of the 12-lipoxygenase product 12-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased total cell protein content. (
  • 18. The method of claim 1, wherein soluble lipoxygenase polypeptide relative to total soluble protein in the cell extract is 30% or greater. (
  • Attenuation of early and late phase allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects by a 5-lipoxygenase activating protein antagonist, BAYx 1005. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein can attenuate allergen-induced bronchoconstrictor responses and support an important role for the cysteinyl leukotrienes in mediating these asthmatic responses. (
  • In general, various phospholipase A2s and diacylglycerol lipases are activated during cell stimulation, proceed to release these fatty acids from their storage sites, and thereby are key regulators in the formation of lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites. (
  • Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes form fatty acid hydroperoxides used in membrane remodeling and cell signaling. (
  • Lipoxygenases are non-heme iron containing enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in different animal and plant species with extremely high regio- and stereospecificity. (
  • Lipoxygenases (LOs) constitute a heterogeneous family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives. (
  • The new derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of two enzymes, human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs) and soy bean lipoxygenase (LOX). (
  • The invention is directed to the enhanced expression and purification of lipoxygenase enzymes. (
  • The lipoxygenase enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. (
  • while the third domain of terrestrial life, the archaea, possesses proteins with a slight (~20%) amino acid sequence similarity to lipoxygenases, these proteins lack iron-binding residues and therefore are not projected to possess lipoxygenase activity. (
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Associations between lipoxygenases (Lox) and 14-3-3 proteins were demonstrated by two different methods. (
  • Substantial evidence supports a functional role for lipoxygenase-catalyzed arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in cancer development. (
  • 6[8'(Z)-pentadecenyl]salicylic acid, otherwise known as anacardic acid (C15:1), inhibited the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (EC, type 1) with an IC50 of 6.8 microM. (
  • The activity of plant 9-lipoxygenases (LOXs) influences the outcome of Arabidopsis thaliana interaction with pathogen and insects. (
  • Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are involved in many developmental and resistance processes in plants. (
  • Lipoxygenases (LOXs) exist extensively within plants and animals ( Brash, 1999 ). (
  • 9-Lipoxygenases ( 9-LOXs ) initiate fatty acid oxygenation, resulting in the formation of oxylipins activating plant defense against hemibiotrophic pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Acetohydroxamic acids as potent, selective, orally active 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. (
  • Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. (
  • Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of anacardic acids. (
  • The alk(en)yl side chain of anacardic acids is essential to elicit the inhibitory activity. (
  • Lipoxygenases oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Monohydroxy acids from novel lipoxygenases. (
  • 2 . The barley plant or portion of claim 1 , wherein the lipoxygenase activity comprises catalysis of oxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated octadecanoic fatty acids to form 9-hydroperoxy fatty acid derivatives. (
  • Fatty acids are regulated in part by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and our recent work has suggested inhibiting 12-LOX may be one approach to limiting platelet activity. (
  • Forty six synovial fluid samples from 42 patients with inflammatory joint disease were analysed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography to determine 5-lipoxygenase products, specifically dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). (
  • Manganese lipoxygenase (Mn-LO) oxygenates 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to bis-allylic 11S-hydroperoxy fatty acids, which are converted to 13R-hydroperoxy fatty acids. (
  • 15-Lipoxygenase-1 catalyzes the introduction of molecular oxygen into polyunsaturated fatty acids to form a lipid hydroperoxide. (
  • The cloning of genes related to lipoxygenase-leukotriene metabolism prompted us to try to elucidate the role of leukotrienes in various inflammations. (
  • In this study, we will take the Lipoxygenase gene family as an example and discuss the differential retention and expansion of ancestral genes in four rosids. (
  • There are various epidemiological correlation studies relating naturally occurring variations in the six human lipoxygenase genes (SNPs or rare mutations) to the frequency for various diseases in these individuals, but for most of the described variations no functional data are available. (
  • Vick, B. A. & Zimmerman, D. C. ( 1983 ) The biosynthesis of jasmonic acid: a physiological role for plant lipoxygenases , Biochem. (
  • 15-Lipoxygenase (LO) plays a central role in the "class switch" of eicosanoid mediator biosynthesis from leukotrienes to lipoxins, initiating the active resolution of inflammation. (
  • Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. (
  • Cell adhesion property affected by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase: Opto-electric approach. (
  • Sets of monoclonal antibodies have been prepared using two soybean seed lipoxygenase isoenzymes as the antigens. (
  • In kinetic experiments certain antibodies were found to influence catalysis upon incubation with lipoxygenase. (
  • Although fatty acid metabolism has been extensively studied in mature hematopoietic subsets during inflammation, in developing hematopoietic cells the role of fatty acid metabolism, in particular by 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), was unknown. (
  • Most lipoxygenases catalyze the formation of initially formed hydroperoxy products that have S chirality. (
  • For example, pulmonary tissues synthesize the peptido-leukotrienes (LTC 4 , D 4 and E 4 ), which are products of 5-lipoxygenase, in response to immunological challenge. (
  • Leukotriene B4, along with some of the mono-hydroxy lipoxygenase products is chemotactic and it has been suggested that LTB4 production by activated PMNs represents a local control mechanism for the accumulation of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. (
  • Mounting evidence suggests that lipoxygenase (LO)-catalyzed products have a profound influence on the development and progression of human cancers. (
  • A single-point L434F mutation of 8-lipoxygenase alters the regio- and stereospecificity of the final products, with a product ratio of 66 : 34 for 8 R - and 12 S -hydroperoxide, respectively. (
  • Involvement of 5-lipoxygenase products in cigarette smoke-induced leukocyte/endothelium interaction in hamsters. (
  • Lipoxygenase products in inflammatory synovial fluids and other exudates. (
  • Twenty eight per cent of the fluids which were assayed had one or more products of 5-lipoxygenase activation. (
  • pCD45 hybrid-selected an mRNA encoding the larger of the two polypeptides of Mr approximately 95 000 that were immunoprecipitated from cell-free translation products of pea seed poly(A)-containing RNA by the G. max anti-lipoxygenase. (
  • The invention is also directed to methods of manufacturing bread and other food and also non-food products with lipoxygenase manufactured by the methods of the invention. (
  • Specifically, leukocyte-type 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO), highly homologous to human 15-lipoxygenase, and its products have been shown to be increased in animal models of native atherosclerosis and injury-induced restenosis. (
  • Camellia sinensis , Rhodiola rosea , and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. (
  • Inhibitory activity against reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase in rabbit was evaluated. (
  • In the present study, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of Eucalyptus citriodora kino were evaluated. (
  • This fraction also showed the strongest free radical scavenging activity in the two methods used as well as inhibitory activity against 15-lipoxygenase, with IC 50 values of 4.67±0.09, 2.57±0.06 and 14.67±0.93 μg/ml, respectively. (
  • These findings revealed that high antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of E. citriodora kino might be due to high phenolic and flavonoid content. (
  • Certain types of the lipoxygenases, e.g. human and murine 15-lipoxygenase 1, 12-lipoxygenase B, and ALOXE3, are capable of metabolizing fatty acid substrates that are constituents of phospholipids, cholesterol esters, or complex lipids of the skin. (
  • Allard JB and Brock TG (2005) Structural organization of the regulatory domain of human 5‐lipoxygenase. (
  • Cytoplasmic 5-Lipoxygenase Staining Is a Highly Sensitive Marker of Human Tumors of the Choroid Plexus. (
  • Synthesized non phosphopeptide derived from human 5 lipoxygenase around the phosphorylation site of serine 271 (QLS P LE). (
  • U73122 potently inhibits human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) . (
  • Nguyen, T. , Falgueyret, J.-P. , Abramovitz, M. & Riendeau, D. ( 1991 ) Evaluation of the role of conserved His and Met residues among lipoxygenases by site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant human 5-lipoxygenase , J. Biol. (
  • In addition, the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase was found in both cytosol and microsomal fractions of epidermal cells of human skin. (
  • The present study shows that low micromolar concentrations of 5-Azadc induce the expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) in human colorectal cancer cells. (
  • In mammals a number of lipoxygenases isozymes are involved in the metabolism of eicosanoids (such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and nonclassic eicosanoids). (
  • These results suggest a possible involvement of leukotrienes in LPS-induced hypothermia and the potential protective role of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors in endotoxemia. (
  • Mammalian lipoxygenases play a role in normal cell development and differentiation but they have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hyperproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is induced in β-cells and macrophages during T1D and produces proinflammatory lipids and lipid peroxides that exacerbate β-cell dysfunction and macrophage activity. (
  • 12S-lipoxygenases has three isoforms, named after their site of initial identification: platelet, leukocyte and epidermis. (
  • Owing to the similarities in their genetic location, sequence and biological activities, leukocyte 12-LOX and 15-LOX-1 are often referred to as 12/15 lipoxygenase. (
  • Distances between selected grid points on soybean seed lipoxygenase-1 (SBL1) and a lysolecithin spin-labeled on choline were measured by pulsed (electron) dipolar spectroscopy. (
  • A lipoxygenase cDNA clone, pCD45, was identified in a Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed mRNA cDNA library by hybrid-release/translation followed by immunoprecipitation with antiserum raised against lipoxygenase from Glycine max L. (soya bean). (
  • 2003) Induction of 5‐lipoxygenase activation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes by 1‐oleoyl‐2‐acetylglycerol. (
  • 2008) The role of diacylglyceride generation by phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphatase in the activation of 5‐lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (
  • However, the relation between lipoxygenase activation and Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy is not known. (
  • These results suggest that 12-lipoxygenase activation plays a key role in Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. (
  • There was a poor correlation between synovial fluid white blood cell counts and evidence of 5-lipoxygenase activation. (
  • Plant lipoxygenase in conjunction with hydroperoxide lyases are responsible for many fragrances and other signalling compounds. (
  • Plant lipoxygenases may be involved in a number of diverse aspects of plant physiology including growth and development, pest resistance, and senescence or responses to wounding. (
  • in comparison to the wild-type plant, lox5 mutants, which are deficient in a 9-lipoxygenase, GPA population was smaller and the insect spent less time feeding from sieve elements and xylem, thus resulting in reduced water content and fecundity of GPA. (
  • The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. (
  • 16. The method of claim 1, wherein the collected lipoxygenase polypeptide comprises a plant lipoxygenase. (
  • The reactivity of cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase with trilinolein was examined. (
  • The lipoxygenases are related to each other based upon their similar genetic structure and dioxygenation activity. (
  • This speculation has been supported by the demonstration of lipoxygenase activity in a number of different tissues following stimulation. (
  • Development of a fluorescent intensity assay amenable for high-throughput screening for determining 15-lipoxygenase activity. (
  • Abietic acid, an abietane diterpenoid, inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 29.5 ± 1.29 μM. (
  • 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) and its primary metabolite, 13- S -hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13- S -HODE), play important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis ( 16 - 19 ). (