Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Relating to the size of solids.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (1/9099)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (2/9099)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (3/9099)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (4/9099)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (5/9099)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (6/9099)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (7/9099)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (8/9099)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Progressive aggregation of protein Tau into oligomers and fibrils correlates with cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunction, leading to neurodegeneration in vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimers disease. The unmet need of effective therapy for Alzheimers disease, combined with problematic pharmacological approaches, led the field to explore immunotherapy, first against amyloid peptides and recently against protein Tau. Here we adapted the liposome-based amyloid vaccine that proved safe and efficacious, and incorporated a synthetic phosphorylated peptide to mimic the important phospho-epitope of protein Tau at residues pS396/pS404. We demonstrate that the liposome-based vaccine elicited, rapidly and robustly, specific antisera in wild-type mice and in Tau.P301L mice. Long-term vaccination proved to be safe, because it improved the clinical condition and reduced indices of tauopathy in the brain of the Tau.P301L mice, while no signs of neuro-inflammation or other adverse neurological effects were
Stability of small unilamellar liposomes in serum and clearance from the circulation: the effect of the phospholipid and cholesterol components
The incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated lipids in lipid-based carriers substantially prolongs the circulation lifetime of liposomes. However, the mechanism(s) by which PEG-lipids achieve this have not been fully elucidated. It is believed that PEG-lipids mediate steric stabilization, ultimately reducing surface-surface interactions including the aggregation of liposomes and/or adsorption of plasma proteins. The purpose of the studies described here was to compare the effects of PEG-lipid incorporation in liposomes on protein binding, liposome-liposome aggregation and pharmacokinetics in mice. Cholesterol-free liposomes were chosen because of their increasing importance as liposomal delivery systems and their marked sensitivity to protein binding and aggregation. Specifically, liposomes containing various molecular weight PEG-lipids at a variety of molar proportions were analyzed for in vivo clearance, aggregation state (size exclusion chromatography, quasi-elastic light ...
Comparison of liposome-based transfection reagents hr...Transfection of mammalian cell lines is enhanced by the use oflipos...Our lab has recently been interested in the transient transfection of ...The cell line used for many of our experiments is the human adrenalcar...,Transfection,of,Green,Fluorescent,Protein,into,Human,Adrenalcarcinoma,Cells,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Quantum dots (QDs) and silica nanoparticles (SNs) are new classes of fluorescent probes that overcome the limitations encountered by organic fluorophores in bioassay and biological imaging applications. We encapsulated QDs and SNs into liposomes by the reverse-phase evaporation method. Nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by size exclusion chromatography and their characteristics were investigated. Dual-color, two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the number of nanoparticles inside each liposome. Results indicated that nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were formed and separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by using Sepharose gel. As expected, fluorescence self-quenching of nanoparticles inside liposomes was not observed. When a 0.8 mM solution of 50 nm QDs was used for liposome preparation, each liposome encapsulated an average of three QDs. However, we could not measure the number of SNs inside each liposome due to the spectral
In this thesis, the method development and investigation of different liposomal formulations to incorporate and retain Camptothecin (CPT) is described. CPT is a potent anticancer drug that has shown to be active against a broad spectrum of cancers. However, due to its challenging physicochemical properties, like poor water solubility, severe toxic effects to normal tissues and instability, its clinical development has been limited for nearly 40 years. A strategy to overcome CPTs challenging properties is to use liposome-based carrier system. By taking advantage of this carrier system, we may solubilise CPT in the phospholipid bilayer of liposomes, protect it from blood proteins and achieve a selective drug accumulation in tumor tissues or tumor-associated cells by enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR). A good liposome formulation of clinical utility must fulfil two important criteria. The liposomal drug carrier must incorporate CPT in the liposomal bilayer in a relevant therapeutic ...
A promising strategy to improve the immunogenic potential of DNA vaccines is the formulation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic liposomes. In this respect, particle size may be of crucial importance. This study aimed at the evaluation of high-pressure extrusion as a method for sizing cationic liposomes after entrapment of pDNA. This is a well-known sizing method for liposomes, but so far, it has not been applied for liposomes that are already loaded with pDNA. Liposomes composed of egg PC, DOTAP, and DOPE with entrapped pDNA were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration method and subjected to various extrusion cycles, comparing different membrane pore sizes and extrusion frequencies. At optimized extrusion conditions, liposome diameter (Zave) and polydispersity index (PDI) were reduced from 560 nm and 0.56 to 150 nm and 0.14 respectively, and 35% of the pDNA was retained. Importantly, gel electrophoresis and transfection experiments with pDNA extracted from these extruded liposomes demonstrated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liposomal drug delivery system. AU - Maruyama, Kazuo. AU - Kennel, Stephen. AU - Huang, Leaf. PY - 1990/8/1. Y1 - 1990/8/1. N2 - We have recently described an immunoliposome targeting system which involves the use of monoclonal antibodies specific for the pulmonary endothelial cells. We have employed the antibodies, 34A and 201B, which bind to a surface glycoprotein, gp112, which is specifically expressed in high concentrations in the capillary endothelial cells of the mouse lung. Intravenously injected immunoliposomes (34A- or 201B-liposomes) to the mice gain direct access and bind efficiently to the lung. Approximately 50% of the injected dose was accumulated in the lung for 34A-liposomes which contained an average of 935 antibody molecules per liposome. Lung accumulation of 34A-liposomes is completely blocked by a preinjection of free antibody 34A, indicating that the immunoliposome accumulation at the target site is immunospecific. The level of lung accumulation increases ...
Another new technology to increase the accumulation of liposomes at the target site is immunoliposomes. Immunoglobulins, especially those of the IgG class, are attached to the surface of the liposomes. They act as ligands-molecules that connect to a site on a receptor protein-capable of recognizing and binding to tissue at sites of interest. However, most immunoliposomes are still eliminated by the liver before they can deliver significant results. One way to meet this challenge is to use stealth liposome technology: Coat the immunoliposomes with PEG to create long-circulating liposomes. Currently, one immunoliposome formulation is in clinical trials, a PEGylated DXR formulated to recognize gastric, colon, and breast cancer cells ...
The invention discloses a formula of a liposome preparation containing compound amino acids and a preparation method thereof; a raw material mass ratio of the liposome preparation is determined; the preparation method comprises the following steps: (1) weighing soybean phosphatide and cholesterol, adding water, heating and stirring to prepare an oil phase; (2) weighing cysteine hydrochloride and tryptophan, adding process water for dissolution, orderly adding some or all of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, arginine, glycine, and praline; then orderly adding one or more than one of auxiliary materials of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin K, and a film forming material, finally adding potassium sorbate or ethylparaben, stirring toprepare a water phase; (3) mixing the oil phase and the water phase, shearing by a high-speed shearing machine to obtain the liposome preparation. The invention initiates the technology for preparingliposome ...
Liposomal glutathione is a certain type of supplement. Liposomal supplements offer a delivery system that ensures effective delivery into the cells and rapid uptake.. Liposomes are especially good as an antioxidant delivery system because theyre prepared from natural phospholipids, are biocompatible and are nontoxic.. What all this means in simpler terms is that liposomal delivery systems are a good way to take supplements like glutathione because they protect the therapeutic molecules from breaking down in your digestive system.. Typically when you take a supplement, and especially one thats not normally that bioavailable like glutathione, much of the value is lost by the time it reaches your cells because it breaks down in your digestive system.. The goal is to get as much of the value of the glutathione to your cells as possible, which can be achieved through liposomal delivery.. Research found that liposomes can increase cellular delivery 100 times over non-liposomal ...
BISAC: SCI017000. Chapter One is addressed to a comprehensive revision of the bibliography regarding the emergence of liposomes and the first steps in their design, the type of systems (components and structures), their classification and properties. Chapter Two discusses the possibility of creating living synthetic cells. Chapter Three provides an overview of the development and application of liposomes in biomedical sciences, with special emphasis on recent advances in the investigation of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. In Chapter Four, the authors review the mechanisms of drug transport through the BBB using liposomes, and the design strategies for optimum liposomal properties. In Chapter Five, the development rationales and structural types of pH-sensitive liposomes is discussed Chapter Six presents the characteristic, classification and preparation methods of liposomes. To develop liposomal drug delivery system, ...
Liposomes which substantially avoid uptake into the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), termed Stealth liposomes, have recently been formulated (Allen, T.M. and Chonn, A., (1987) FEBS Lett. 223, 42-46). The pharmacokinetics of stealth liposomes as a function of liposome dose and a comparison to conv …
Soft nanogels are submicron-sized hydrophilic structures engineered from biocompatible polymers possessing the characteristics of nanoparticles as well as hydrogels, with a wide array of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, namely, drug and protein delivery. In this work, nanogels were obtained using the physical self-assembly technique or layer-by-layer which is based on electrostatic interactions. Liposomal vesicles were coated with alternating layers of hyaluronic acid and chitosan yielding a more viscous hydrogel formulation that previously reported core-shell nanoparticulate suspension, via simply modifying the physico-chemical characteristics of the system. Structural features, size, surface charge, stability and swelling characteristics of the nanogel were studied using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. With a specific cranio-maxillofacial application in mind, the hydrogel was loaded with recombinant human (rh) bone morphogenetic protein-7, also
LIPOSOMES can encapsulate and transport water-soluble ingredients in their polar cavity and oil-soluble ingredients in their hydrophobic cavity. ​. el-e-ments uses liposome encapsulations as a delivery system for important actives as well as Vitamins A, B3, B5, C and E for enhanced protection and skin nutrition. The liposome encapsulation ensures delivery into the tissues where the actives can work to improve moisturization, reduce inflammation, the appearance of spots, uneven skin tone and loss of elasticity all of the support that your skin health ingredient actives need to truly perform with optimal entourage and bio-availability. Liposomes deliver the power of the vital nutrients deep into the tissues, making them 10x more effective than the vitamins alone. ...
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection by UNITED BIOTECH (P) LTD, Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter of Doxorubicin HCl Liposome Injection. Call Now.
Computer-assisted motion analyses (CASA) and flow cytometry were used to evaluate stallion spermatozoa prior to and after cryopreservation. Spermatozoa were pretreated with: (1) Hepes-buffered medium (SHB); (2) phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes; or (3) liposomes composed of both PS and cholesterol (PSCH) prior to dilution in either SHB or skim milk-egg yolk extender (SMEY). After cooling to 5 degrees C in SHB, PS and PSCH pretreatment (23%). Spermatozoal motion parameters were higher for spermatozoa diluted in SMEY than dilution in SHB. In Experiment 2, motion parameters were compared for spermatozoa pretreated with PSCH liposomes and cryopreserved in either SMEY or a high salt-skim milk-egg yolk extender (CO). Spermatozoal motion characteristics were similar for all spermatozoal treatments after cooling at 5 degrees C. After cryopreservation, PSCH liposome-treated samples had higher percentages of motile spermatozoa than untreated samples regardless of freezing extender. Samples frozen in CO medium had
The study of different strategies to improve the stability and bioavailability of bioactive components has increased in the last decades. One of the mechanisms that has acquired great relevance is to formulate using liposomal vesicles. Liposomes are structures that enhance the absorption, stability and transport of active compounds, which is reflected by an increase in the bioactivity of the encapsulated molecules. The guarana extract has proven to be rich in methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. These metabolites are associatedto a wide variety of pharmacological properties, and exert a stimulating effect. For this reason, it has become popular in nutritional products. In this workit was characterized physicochemically a nutritional product based on guarana, vitamins and folic acid. In this product the active components were encapsulated in liposomal vesicles, which were analyzed to know their structure, size (diameter) and membrane thickness. Results and analysis indicate that liposomes are ...
Title:Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Generic Doxorubicin HCl Liposome Injection with the Reference Listed Drug. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Kuntal Maiti *, Subhas Bhowmick, Pankaj Jain, Murlidhar Zope, Keyur Doshi and Thennati Rajamannar. Affiliation:Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai. Keywords:Doxorubicin hydrochloride, liposome, sterically stable, generic, physicochemical equivalence, cancer.. Abstract:Background: Liposomal doxorubicin is widely used for treating ovarian cancer and Kaposis sarcoma. Encapsulation of doxorubicin in highly complex polyethylene glycol-coated (stealth) liposomes prolongs residence time and avoids the systemic toxicity associated with administration of the free drug. Small variations in ...
In addition, we find binding of charged nanoparticles to the outer surface of phospholipid liposomes produces particle-stabilized liposomes that repel one another and do not fuse. Subsequently, the volume fraction can be raised as high as ∼50%, reversibly, still without fusion. In studies of liposome longevity, we verify the stability of particle-stabilized liposome suspensions with volume fraction up to 16% for up to 50 days, the longest period investigated. In contrast to the stabilized liposomes, the volume fraction of the same liposomes without nanoparticles is typically less than ∼2% with a longevity of 4∼5 days. Fluorescent dyes are encapsulated within the particle-stabilized liposomes, without leakage. Although these particle-stabilized liposomes are stable against fusion, ∼75% of the outer liposome surface remains unoccupied, which is still biofunctionalizable tested with ligand-receptor binding. This work not only provides a robust nanoparticle-liposome complex system which ...
Coating of liposomes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has proven to prolong the circulation time of liposomes in the blood stream. PEG prevents the binding of opsonins and subsequent uptake of the liposomes by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The reduction in clearance of PEGylated liposomes from the circulation improve the bioavailability of the liposomes in the blood and increase the chance of liposomes being accumulated in tumor tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the incorporation and retention ability of PEGylated liposome formulations of the anticancer agent Camptothecin (CPT), and further try to develop an immunoliposomal formulation of CPT targeting the EGFR receptors on the surface of colorectal cancer cells. The results from the incorporation and retention studies showed that the formulation consisting of 79 % egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), 20 % 1,2-di-oleyl-3- trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 1 % PEG ...
There is a great need of improved anticancer drugs and corresponding drug carriers. In particular, liposomal drug carriers with heat-activated release and targeting functions are being developed for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatments of tumors. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the heat-activation of liposome targeting to biotinylated surfaces, in model experiments where streptavidin is used as a pretargeting protein. The design of the heat-activated liposomes is based on liposomes assembled in an asymmetric structure and with a defined phase transition temperature. Asymmetry between the inside and the outside of the liposome membrane was generated through the enzymatic action of phospholipase D, where lipid head groups in the outer membrane leaflet, i.e. exposed to the enzyme, were hydrolyzed. The enzymatically treated and purified liposomes did not bind to streptavidin-modified surfaces. When activation heat was applied, starting from 22 degrees C, binding of the liposomes
This report aims to target already-existing systems that could enable the use of cloaking concepts in order to achieve control of three-dimensional processes, using coated spheres consisting of concentric layers of homogeneous isotropic diffusivity. Various applications already implicate the use of concentric bilayered vesicles, one example being liposomes used for drug delivery [1]. Liposomes are concentric bilayered vesicles in which an aqueous volume containing a water-soluble drug is enclosed by a membranous lipid bilayer composed of natural or synthetic phospholipids. One popular type of liposomes, known as the stealth liposomes [2], are highly stable, long-circulating liposomes whereby polyethylene glycol has been used as the polymeric steric stabilizer [3]. Stealth and other liposomes use the concept of invisibility in order to hide and evade the immunosystem by coupling water-soluble polymers to the lipid heads. Therefore, the polymer part of the molecule is dissolved in the aqueous ...
Specific targeting of liposome-formulated cytotoxic drugs or antigens to receptors expressed selectively on target cells represents an effective strategy for increasing the pharmacological efficacy of the delivered molecules. We have developed a feasible technique to selectively attach antibodies and fragments thereof, but also small-mol-wt ligands such as peptides, carbohydrates, or any molecules that recognize and bind target antigens or receptors to the surface of small unilamellar liposomes. Our concept is based on the site-specific functionalization of the ligands to be attached to the liposomes by thiol groups. These thiol groups can easily be introduced to antibodies or peptides by addition of cysteines, preferably at sites that do not interfere with the receptor binding domains. Optimally, the site-specific modification is introduced at the C-terminal end of the ligand, separated by an inert spacer sequence located between the thiols and the specific part of the ligand. The ...
Detection of biomolecules and biological nanoparticles by means of induced aggregation of larger nanoparticles using light scattering as readout was first accomplished in the middle of the last century. Since then, technical advances together with novel nanomaterials have enabled more sophisticated readout schemes, paving the way for methods exploiting dual-probe hybridization for biomolecular or nonoparticle recognition that today can compete with established bioanalytical methods. Herein, we present a quantitative assay, with single-nanoparticle readout, utilizing receptor-containing cell-membrane mimics in the shape of approximately 100-nm lipid liposomes rather than conventional antibody-modified nanoparticles to enable detection of virus particles in solution. Specifically, the method is based on virus-mediated aggregation of differently fluorescent-labeled liposomes that contain the ganglioside GM1 receptor for the Simian Virus 40 (SV40). The aggregation kinetics of the differently colored
DescriptionMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a myriad of infections ranging from mild skin-infection to more serious infections affecting internal organs. A glycopeptide, Vancomycin, remains the last line of defense against MRSA. The aim of this study is to investigate whether liposomal encapsulated Vancomycin had a better antimicrobial action than free Vancomycin in terms of infection-specific targeting and circulation time. For the same, encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics of the liposomes was evaluated along with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the liposomal preparations. The liposomes showcased a 12-15% encapsulation efficiency. Sustained release at pH 6.0 as compared to little to no release at pH 7.4 was demonstrated by the pH sensitive liposomes. Also, in acidic pH, an increase in efficacy was observed with a greater decrease in the MIC of the pH responsive liposomes as compared to the lower decrease in MIC of the non pH-responsive liposomes and ...
The liposome, a closed phospholipid bilayered vesicular system, has received considerable attention as a pharmaceutical carrier of great potential over the past 30 years. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, coupled with their biocompatibility and biodegradability, make liposomes attractive vehicles in the field of drug delivery. In addition, great technical advances such as remote drug loading, triggered release liposomes, ligand-targeted liposomes, liposomes containing combinations of drugs, and so on, have led to the widespread use of liposomes in diverse areas as delivery vehicles for anti-cancer, bio-active molecules, diagnostics, and therapeutic agents ...
In the tumor microenvironment, cytokines, growth factors, and oncogenes mediate constitutive activation from the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in both cancer cells and infiltrating immune cells. been shown to eliminate tumors through immune modulation. treatment of NSCLC with phenethyl isothiocyanate. For each of the studies reviewed, the formulation of phospholipids, the cholesterol content and the percentage of polyethylene glycol conjugated lipids differed. These differences can significantly impact treatment efficacy by affecting pharmacokinetics of ETP-46321 drug release and uptake profiles into phagocytic cells [22]. However, given the limited number of studies on liposomal delivery for each natural STAT3 inhibitor and the various cancer models that rarely match between studies, it was not possible to evaluate the effect of liposome compositions on drug efficacy. As more studies emerge on liposomal delivery of STAT3 inhibitors, hopefully the ...
In one method, DNA fragments, of approximately 2-200 bases in length, or deoxynucleotides (single bases), are administered topically to the epidermis, either in a liposome preparation or in another appropriate vehicle, such as propylene glycol, in a quantity sufficient to enhance melanin production. As used herein, DNA fragments refers to single-stranded DNA fragments, double-stranded DNA fragments, a mixture of both single-and double-stranded DNA fragments, or deoxynucleotides. Deoxynucleotides refers to either a single type of deoxynucleotide or a mixture of different deoxynucleotides. The DNA fragments or deoxynucleotides can come from any appropriate source. For example, salmon sperm DNA can be dissolved in water, and then the mixture can be autoclaved to fragment the DNA. The fragments can additionally be UV-irradiated. The liposome preparation can be comprised of any liposomes which penetrate the stratum corneum and fuse with the cell membrane, resulting in delivery of the contents of ...
There are about 20 publications about liposomal formulations of Cyclosporin A (CyA) in the pharmaceutical and preclinical literature. Liposomal formulations were developed in order to reduce the nephrotoxicity of CyA and to increase pharmacological effects. However, conflicting results have been published as to the therapeutic properties of these formulations. This is also true for the change in pharmacokinetics and organ distribution of the liposomally encapsulated CyA as compared to conventionally formulated CyA. Using biophysical methods, it could be shown that CyA is not tightly entrapped in liposomal membranes, despite its high lipophilicity. CyA shows retardation only at high lipid concentrations in blood, following a massive injection of liposomes.This effect may diminish nephrotoxicity, as could be demonstrated by in vitro studies using a model tubule system. The results of these studies can be used to predict the formulation behavior in vivo and to optimize liposomal formulations. When ...
Elixinols new rapidly dissolving Hemp Oil Liposomes are the latest enhancements to cannabinoid delivery. Now you can receive cannabinoids into the body faster, deeper and easier than ever before. With 100% natural fruit and herb extracts, this is a delicious hemp oil supplement you will enjoy taking daily without any bitter taste.Product informationThis 3.5 oz (100 ml) spray pump dispenser bottle of Elixinol™ Liposome contains 1000 mg of cannabidiol extract (CBD hemp oil) with a citrus flavor.How our hemp oil liposomes are madeWe pre-dissolve our CBD hemp oil and embed it into microscopic liposomes. This safe technology allows you to absorb more cannabinoids with the aid of naturally occurring phospholipids. These support cellular health and delivery of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids directly into the cell.The reason that liposomes are so effective is that hemp oil, in its natural form, is a sticky dense oil. As you may know, getting any oil-based substance to pass through a cell wall is a
Read DNA-Induced Aggregation and Fusion of Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes in the Presence of Multivalent Cations Observed by the Cryo-TEM Technique, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Much of the work on liposomal drug delivery has focused on cancer treatment because conventionally delivered cancer chemotherapy has been far from satisfactory. Major problems with conventional chemotherapy are the inability of the drug to reach the tumor site at pharmacologically active concentrations, intrinsic as well as acquired cross-resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, and toxicity that contributes to many of the treatment failures.. Doxorubicin encapsulated in long-circulating, PEGylated liposomes has proven to be more effective than the free drug in several tumor models, including murine tumors and human tumor xenografts, regardless of tumor type and site of implantation (27) . In all of the experiments conducted, the liposomal preparation clearly performed better than Free-Dox, and the peak tumor drug levels obtained by liposome delivery were at least 3-fold greater. Notable differences in toxicity between free drug and liposomal drug have also been observed, including ...
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition. These products should be used only as directed on the label by the manufacturer. Do not use these products if you are pregnant, nursing, have a serious medical condition, or use prescription medications without consulting with your doctor first. These products are for adults only. These products are not intended for sale to persons under the age of majority as determined by the state in which the consumer resides (18 unless otherwise applicable). Products containing CBD or hemp are available for U.S. interstate commerce in accordance with the 2018 Agriculture Improvement Act 0f 2018 (Act) applicable to hemp-derived products. Pursuant to the Act, none of the products available on this Site contain more than 0.3% delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as measured on a dry weight basis by an independent laboratory ...
Kawakami, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yamashita, F.; Hashida, M., 2005: Induction of apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells by all-trans retinoic acid incorporated in DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct Comparison of Standard Transmission Electron Microscopy and Cryogenic-TEM in Imaging Nanocrystals Inside Liposomes. AU - Li, Tang. AU - Nowell, Cameron J.. AU - Cipolla, David. AU - Rades, Thomas. AU - Boyd, Ben J.. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - The use of electron microscopy techniques in the understanding of shape and size of nanoparticles are commonly applied to drug nanotechnology, but the type of microscopy and suitability for the particles of interest can have a significant impact on the result. The size and shape of the nanoparticles are crucial in clinical applications; however, direct comparison of the results from standard transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-TEM have rarely been reported. As a useful case for comparison, liposomal drug nanocrystals are studied here. In this study, the effect of thawing temperature on the size and shape of the ciprofloxacin nanocrystals was determined. A quantitative standard TEM assay was developed to allow for ...
A new technique for the quantification of cellular receptor-mediated endocytosis has been developed based on the analysis by flow cytometry of ligand-bearing liposomes containing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein. Carboxyfluorescein encapsulated at high concentrations in protein A-bearing liposomes is self-quenched. Binding and internalization of such liposomes by cells via antibodies directed towards membrane surface determinants results in the release of the liposome-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein into the cytoplasm causing an increase in cell-associated fluorescence. This increase can be quantified on a flow cytofluorometer. ...
Consumer information about the medication CYTARABINE LIPOSOME - INJECTION (Depocyt), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug CYTARABINE LIPOSOME - INJECTION.
The efficacy of a liposomal formulation for intracerebral delivery of borocaptate (BSH) to brain tumor cells has been investigated using cell culture to study BSH uptake and persistence and using tumor-bearing rats to determine BSH distribution in the brain. During a 16-hr incubation, cellular uptake of BSH solution or BSH liposomal formulation was similar. However, the cellular persistence of BSH greatly increased when BSH was present in liposome. The differences in cellular persistence for BSH solution and BSH-loaded liposomes were significant both in 12-hr and 24-hr incubation experiments (p | 0.05 and p | 0.01, respectively). For the studies involving tumor-bearing rats, BSH level in tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissue at 2 hr and 6 hr after intracerebral injection of BSH-loaded liposomes (p | 0.01). Our study indicated that the liposomal formulation enhanced cellular persistence of BSH in tumor cells and therefore favored the boron accumulation in the cells. With
1. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6387-92 2. Maeda H. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting. Adv Enzyme Regul. 2001;41:189-207 3. Maeda H. Macromolecular therapeutics in cancer treatment: the EPR effect and beyond. J Controlled Release. 2012;164:138-44 4. Harrington KJ, Mohammadtaghi S, Uster PS, Glass D, Peters AM, Vile RG. et al. Effective targeting of solid tumors in patients with locally advanced cancers by radiolabeled pegylated liposomes. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:243-54 5. Allen C. Why Im holding onto hope for nano in oncology. Mol Pharm. 2016;13:2603-4 6. Minchinton AI, Tannock IF. Drug penetration in solid tumours. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6:583-92 7. Tan Q, Saggar JK, Yu M, Wang M, Tannock IF. Mechanisms of drug resistance related ...
We present a novel thylakoid based bio-solar cell capable of generating a photoelectric current of 0.7 µA/cm2. We have introduced an electro conductive polymer, PEDOT-S, to the thylakoid membrane. PEDOT-S intervenes in the photosynthesis, captures electrons from the electron transport chain and transfers them directly across the thylakoid membrane, thus generating a current. The incorporation of the electro conductive polymer into the thylakoid membrane is therefore vital for the function of the bio-solar cell. A liposomal model system based on liposomes formed by oleic acid was used to develop and study the incorporation of PEDOT-S to fatty acid membranes. The liposomes allow for a more controllable and easily manipulated system compared to the thylakoid membrane. In the model system, PEDOT-S could successfully be incorporated to the membrane, and the developed methods were applied to the real system of thylakoid membranes. We found that a bio-compatible electrolyte and redox couple was ...
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena lie at the core of drug formulation, drug delivery, as well as drug binding and action at diseased sites, e.g., in cancer therapy. We review a class of liposome-based drug-delivery systems whose design and functional properties are intimately controlled by the stability of sub-micron structures, lipid-bilayer interfaces, and interfacially activated enzymes that can be exploited to target and deliver drugs. Moreover these drugs can themselves be special lipid molecules in the form of lipid prodrugs that both form the liposomal carrier as well as the substrate for endogenously upregulated lipases that turn the prodrugs into potent drugs precisely at the diseased site. ...
Proteins and polysaccharide components were colocalized through a liposomal delivery system. LEPS liposomal carriers were composed of DOPC/DOPG/DOGS-NTA-Ni/cholesterol/DSPE-PEG2000 at a molar ratio of 3:3:1:4:0.1 to a total lipid mass of 500 μg. After dissolving lipids in chloroform, the solution was sonicated for 1 min using a Branson 450D Sonifier (at 20% amplitude using a tapered tip) and then evaporated using a rotary evaporator to form a film. Lipids were then rehydrated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the polysaccharide antigens to form liposomes, which were then passed 10 to 12 times through a handheld extruder (Avanti Polar Lipids) with a pore size of 200 nm. On ice, the background liposome solution was passed twice through a filter with 50-nm pore size and replaced each time with PBS. Next, proteins were incubated with liposomes for 30 min at 4°C with surface attachment mediated via polyhistidine tag-Ni chelation. CRM197 was included in the LEPS formulations used for ...
The influence of vitamin D3 and its metabolites calcifediol (25(OH)D) and calcitriol on immune regulation and inflammation is well described, and raises the question of potential benefit against bacterial infections. In the current study, 25(OH)D was encapsulated in liposomes to enable aerosolisation, and tested for the ability to prevent pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Prepared 25(OH)D-loaded liposomes were nanosized and monodisperse, with a negative surface charge and a 25(OH)D entrapment efficiency of approximately 23%. Jet nebulisation of liposomes was seen to yield an aerosol suitable for tracheo-bronchial deposition. Interestingly, 25(OH)D in either liposomes or ethanolic solution had no effect on the release of the proinflammatory cytokine KC from Pseudomonas-infected murine epithelial cells (LA-4); treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. Together with the importance of ...
Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) prepared from phospholipids are becoming popular membrane model systems for use in biophysical studies. The quality, size and yield of GUVs depend on the preparation method used to obtain them. In this study, hydrogels consisting of dextran polymers crosslinked by poly(ethyl
PEG altered the pharmacokinetic property of the DSPC/cholesterol liposomal doxorubicin by decreasing the Vss and clearance, and thereby increasing plasma AUC. These results are consistent with the notion that sterically stabilized liposome may reduce the RES uptake and enhance the longevity of liposomal doxorubicin in circulation, but above 3%, the gain in pharmacokinetic advantage was only slight. Compared with conventional liposomes, sterically stabilized liposomes have a 100-fold increase in AUC (3) . However, for the DSPC system used in this study, the AUC of liposomal doxorubicin with 6% PEG-modified lipid was only approximately twice that of liposomal doxorubicin without PEG, regardless of dosage or tumor-bearing status. Daunorubicin liposomes composed of DSPC/cholesterol without PEG also had a similar AUC (20) . The higher transition temperature and homogeneity in fatty acid of DSPC confers the higher stability to this DSPC/cholesterol liposomal system.. The movement of drugs from the ...
The use of liposomes has been crucial for investigations in biomimetic chemical biology as a membrane model and in medicinal chemistry for drug delivery. Liposomes are made of phospholipids whose biophysical characteristics strongly depend on the type of fatty acid moiety, where natural unsaturated lipids always have the double bond geometry in the cis configuration. The influence of lipid double bond configuration had not been considered so far with respect to the competence of liposomes in delivery. We were interested in evaluating possible changes in the molecular properties induced by the conversion of the double bond from cis to trans geometry. Here we report on the effects of the addition of trans-phospholipids supplied in different amounts to other liposome constituents (cholesterol, neutral phospholipids and cationic surfactants), on the size, ζ-potential and stability of liposomal formulations and on their ability to encapsulate two dyes such as rhodamine B and fluorescein. From a
Liposomes are proposed as drug delivery systems and can in principle be designed so as to cohere with specific tissue types or local environments. However, little detail is known about the exact mechanisms for drug delivery and the distributions of drug molecules inside the lipid carrier. In the current work, a coarse-grained (CG) liposome model is developed, consisting of over 2500 lipids, with varying degrees of drug loading. For the drug molecule, we chose hypericin, a natural compound proposed for use in photodynamic therapy, for which a CG model was derived and benchmarked against corresponding atomistic membrane bilayer model simulations. Liposomes with 21-84 hypericin molecules were generated and subjected to 10 microsecond simulations. Distribution of the hypericins, their orientations within the lipid bilayer, and the potential of mean force for transferring a hypericin molecule from the interior aqueous droplet through the liposome bilayer are reported herein.. ...
The well-known Toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG ODN has shown promising results as vaccine adjuvant in preclinical and clinical studies, however its in vivo stability and potential systemic toxicity remain a concern. In an effort to overcome these issues, different strategies have been explored including conjugation of CpG ODN with proteins or encapsulation/adsorption of CpG ODN into/onto liposomes. Although these methods have resulted in enhanced immunopotency compared to co-administration of free CpG ODN and antigen, we believe that this effect could be further improved. Here, we designed a novel delivery system of CpG ODN based on its conjugation to serve as anchor for liposomes. Thiol-maleimide chemistry was utilised to covalently ligate model protein with the CpG ODN TLR9 agonist. Due to its negative charge, the protein conjugate readily electrostatically bound cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), cholesterol and ...
TY - JOUR AU - Balanč, Bojana AU - Ota, Ajda AU - Đorđević, Verica AU - Sentjurc, Marjeta AU - Nedović, Viktor AU - Bugarski, Branko AU - Poklar-Ulrih, Nataša PY - 2015 UR - AB - The influence of resveratrol encapsulated into liposomes (prepared with a commercial lipid mixture of phospholipids, phospolipon 90NG, using the thin film and proliposome methods) on the structural properties of the liposome membrane was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Two fluorophores and two spin probes were used to monitor the characteristics of membranes made from a commercial mixture of phosphatidylcholine. Resveratrol was positioned rather in the inner part of the liposome membranes causing reduction in membrane fluidity. Moreover, resveratrol induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (from 41.3 ...
Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. Liposomes can also be designed to deliver drugs in other ways. Liposomes ... Liposomes can also be decorated with opsonins and ligands to activate endocytosis in other cell types. The use of liposomes for ... Another strategy for liposome drug delivery is to target endocytosis events. Liposomes can be made in a particular size range ... A liposome design may employ surface ligands for attaching to unhealthy tissue. The major types of liposomes are the ...
Cationic liposomes are manufactured similarly to liposomes. There are multiple processes that can be used to form cationic ... Cationic liposomes are spherical structures that contain positively charged lipids. Cationic liposomes can vary in size between ... A common application for cationic liposomes is cancer drug delivery. In the 1960s, Alec D. Bangham discovered liposomes as ... The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposome drastically increases the blood circulation time of cationic liposomes. ...
A unilamellar liposome is a spherical liposome, a vesicle, bounded by a single bilayer of an amphiphilic lipid or a mixture of ... Lipid polymorphism Liposome Lipid bilayer Rideau E, Dimova R, Schwille P, Wurm FR, Landfester K (November 2018). "Liposomes and ... small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs) that with a size range of 20-100 nm, large unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (LUVs) ... Unilamellar liposomes are used to study biological systems and to mimic cell membranes, and are classified into three groups ...
The Journal of Liposome Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes original research on the topics of ... liposomes and related systems, lipid-based delivery systems, lipid biology, and both synthetic and physical lipid chemistry. ... the general scope of the journal and abstracts and conference proceedings including those from the International Liposome ...
Liposomes are sphere-shaped vesicular structures self-assembled in a solvent composed of a broad type of lipids or other ... The vesicle structure of liposomes improves the effects on drug penetration through biological membranes, which enhance ... "Liposomes in Cosmetics". Journal of Skin and Stem Cell. Retrieved April 29, 2020. Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie ... "Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications". Nanoscale Research Letters. 8 (1): 102. Bibcode:2013NRL.....8..102A. ...
Medical Applications of Liposomes. Elsevier. pp. 165-180. ISBN 978-0-08-053608-8. -; Wasan, Ellen K. (April 5, 2006). " ...
Dietrich Arndt; Reiner Zeisig; Ines Eue & Iduna Fichtner (1995). "Alkylphosphocholines and Alkylphosphocholine Liposomes". ... Journal of Liposome Research. 5 (1): 91-98. doi:10.3109/08982109509039910. Weichert, Jamey P.; Clark, Paul A.; Kandela, Irawati ... "Cytotoxic effects of alkylphosphocholines or alkylphosphocholine-liposomes and macrophages on tumor cells". Anticancer Research ...
Nanomedicine, the general field Micelle, lipid cored Liposome, lipid bilayer shell, an earlier form with some limitations ... Lasic, Danilo D. (1997). Liposomes in Gene Delivery. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780849331091. Retrieved 11 January ... In addition, polymeric nanoparticles, self-emulsifying delivery systems, liposomes, microemulsions, micellar solutions and ...
Liposomes are a common vehicle in drug delivery and specifically for the treatment of cancer. Liposomes contain a phospholipid ... Success with liposomes as drug delivery systems has been shown both in vivo and in vitro. A study by Liu et al. showed that ... In addition, liposomes can entrap hydrophilic molecules in their hydrophilic core. Compared to the common cancer treatment ... investigated the effect of liposome-encapsulated drugs on the efficacy of targeted delivery in SDT. They found that, in ...
Immunoliposomes are antibody-conjugated liposomes. Liposomes can carry drugs or therapeutic nucleotides and when conjugated ...
Lipoplexes can also be formed from cationic liposomes and DNA solutions, to yield transfection agents. Cationic liposomes cross ... A mechanism for liposome transport across the BBB is lipid-mediated free diffusion, a type of facilitated diffusion, or lipid- ... Liposomes have the potential to protect the drug from degradation, target sites for action, and reduce toxicity and adverse ... Liposomes can also be functionalized by attaching various ligands on the surface to enhance brain-targeted delivery. Another ...
These drug-loaded liposomes travel through the system until they bind at the target site and rupture, releasing the drug. In ... Note- the term "liposome" is in essence synonymous with "vesicle" except that vesicle is a general term for the structure ... The first stealth liposomes were passively targeted at tumor tissues. Because tumors induce rapid and uncontrolled angiogenesis ... The most significant advance in this area was the grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the liposome surface to produce " ...
Doxorubicin HCl liposome (Doxil/Caelyx) - PEGylated liposome containing doxorubicin for the treatment of cancer (Alza, 1995) ... Blume G, Cevc, G (13 April 1990). "Liposomes for the sustained drug release in vivo". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Milla, P; Dosio, F (13 January 2012). "PEGylation of proteins and liposomes: a powerful and flexible strategy to improve the ... ISBN 978-0-444-64082-6. OCLC 1127111107.[page needed] Balazs, Daniel A.; Godbey, WT (15 December 2011). "Liposomes for Use in ...
... large unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (LUVs) with a size range of 100-1000 nm and giant unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (GUVs) ... the vesicles are called unilamellar liposomes; otherwise they are called multilamellar liposomes. The membrane enclosing the ... Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes). ... Artificial vesicles are classified into three groups based on their size: small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs) with a ...
Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Wei; Li, Kejie; Xie, Zhihong; Shi, Zhiguo (2013). "Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial ... encapsulated liposome with targeting bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium)". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 224: 217-224. doi: ...
Palchetti, S.; Colapicchioni, V.; Digiacomo, L (2016). "The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes". Biochim Biophys ...
Liposome formulations encapsulate anti-cancer drugs for selective uptake to tumors via the EPR effect. They are included Doxil ... These efforts include protein capsids and liposomes. However, as some important, normal tissues, such as the liver and kidneys ... Palmer TN, Caride VJ, Caldecourt MA, Twickler J, Abdullah V (March 1984). "The mechanism of liposome accumulation in infarction ... "Direct measurement of the extravasation of polyethyleneglycol-coated liposomes into solid tumor tissue by in vivo fluorescence ...
Osawa M, Anderson DE, Erickson HP (May 2008). "Reconstitution of contractile FtsZ rings in liposomes". Science. 320 (5877): 792 ... showing the protein's contractile force on liposomes with no other proteins present. Erickson (2009) proposed how the roles of ...
Bicelles are much smaller than liposomes, and so can be used in experiments such as NMR spectroscopy where the larger vesicles ... F Szoka and D Papahadjopoulos."Comparative Properties and Methods of Preparation of Lipid Vesicles (Liposomes)." Annual Review ... "Quantifying the effects of melittin on liposomes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 1768 (1): 13-20. doi: ... is achieved by exposure of the lipid coated gold substrate to outer layer lipids either in an ethanol solution or in liposomes ...
"Preparation and characterization of glycolipid-bearing multilamellar and unilamellar liposomes". Liposome Methods and Protocols ... the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions using liposomes. He ...
PEG is also used to induce complete fusion (mixing of both inner and outer leaflets) in liposomes reconstituted in vitro. Gene ... Blume G, Cevc, G (13 April 1990). "Liposomes for the sustained drug release in vivo". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... "Amphipathic polyethyleneglycols effectively prolong the circulation time of liposomes". FEBS Lett. 268 (1): 235-237. doi: ...
Sendai virus-induced agglutination of liposomes containing glycophorin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. ... F protein is responsible for this induction because reconstituted liposomes containing F protein can stimulate IL-6 production ... F protein is responsible for this induction because reconstituted liposomes containing F protein can stimulate IL-6 production ... "Membrane penetration of Sendai virus glycoproteins during the early stages of fusion with liposomes as determined by ...
Surolia, Bachhawat B. K.; Podder S. K. (1975). "Interaction between lectin from Ricinus communis and liposome containing ... Mumtaz, Ghosh C.; Bachhawat B. K. (1991). "Design of liposomes for circumventing the reticuloendothelial cells". Glycobiology. ... a hereditary disease of the brain His studies on sugar-bearing liposomes led to its use as a carrier for in situ delivery of ... using sugar-bearing liposomes. He also worked on the therapy of systemic fungal infections by developing liposomal formulations ...
He is best known for his research on liposomes. He was married to Rosalind; they had four children and eleven grandchildren. ... "Alec Bangham - 'father of liposomes' - dies aged 88". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011 ... was a British biophysicist who first studied blood clotting mechanisms but became well known for his research on liposomes and ...
Liposome-encapsulated mRNA encoding a viral antigen was shown in 1993 to stimulate T cells in mice. The following year self- ... July 1993). "Induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo by liposome-entrapped mRNA". European Journal of ... "Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
Robert Malone; Philip L. Felgner; Inder Verma (August 1, 1989). "Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection". Proceedings of ... discovering in what Nature has described as a landmark experiment that it was possible to transfer mRNA protected by a liposome ...
Ellens, H; Bentz, J; Szoka, FC (1985). "H+- and Ca2+-induced fusion and destabilization of liposomes". Biochemistry. 24 (13): ... 4 April 2022). "Single-particle combinatorial multiplexed liposome fusion mediated by DNA". Nat. Chem. 14 (5): 558-565. Bibcode ... "A DNA-Programmed Liposome Fusion Cascade". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 56 (43): 13228-13231. doi:10.1002/anie. ... "Drug Delivery via Cell Membrane Fusion Using Lipopeptide Modified Liposomes". ACS Central Science. 2 (9): 621-630. doi:10.1021/ ...
MacKay, J. Andrew; Deen, Dennis F.; Szoka, Francis C. (February 2005). "Distribution in brain of liposomes after convection ... There are several types of microcarriers which have been used for CED, including nanospheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, ...
Tsuji, Gakushi; Fujii, Satoshi; Sunami, Takeshi; Yomo, Tetsuya (2016-01-19). "Sustainable proliferation of liposomes compatible ...
Movassaghian, S; Moghimi, HR; Shirazi, FH; Torchilin, VP (Dec 2011). "Dendrosome-dendriplex inside liposomes: as a gene ...
Using liposomes as a carrier for drugs used in the treatment of cancer is beneficial because the liposomes promote passive ... Liposomes tailored for pulmonary delivery for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome. *Parenteral-prime mucosal boost an ... For this reason, drugs encapsulated with liposomes up to the size of 400nm can enter tumor sites easily but are restricted from ... As a result of this formulation utilizing liposomes, the drug may exist in the systemic circulation for longer than the free ...
This coacervate-in-liposome platform provides a versatile tool to understand intracellular phase behavior, and these hybrid ... Here, we use a microfluidics-based methodology to form coacervates inside cell-sized (~10 µm) liposomes, allowing control over ... Here, the authors develop a microfluidic platform to study coacervate formation inside liposomes and show the potential of ... Protein-pore-mediated permeation of small molecules into liposomes triggers LLPS passively or via active mechanisms like ...
a zip file of the full study records in XML for all studies in the search results table (max 10000 ...
The incorporation into liposomes may represent an efficient alternative to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical ... 3) Results: The physicochemical characterization revealed that liposomes were obtained as homogenous populations of spherical ... 4) Conclusions: The incorporation of nerolidol into liposomes improved its antifungal-modulating properties. ... The analysis of fungal dimorphism was performed through optical microscopy and the characterization of liposomes was carried ...
Functionalized, Therapeutic-Loaded Liposomes for the Acute Treatment of TBI. Award Information ... In the proposed program, Luna will demonstrate the feasibility of a liposome-based therapeutic delivery system capable of ... and in Phase II will demonstrate the functionality of these functionalized liposomes in in vivo TBI models. ...
MarqiboWhat is the most important information I should know about vincristine liposome?You should not use this medicine if you ... How is vincristine liposome given?. Vincristine liposome is given as an infusion into a vein, usually once a week. A healthcare ... What is vincristine liposome?. Vincristine liposome is used to treat a type of blood cancer called Philadelphia chromosome ... Vincristine liposome can lower your blood cell counts. Your blood will need to be tested often. Your cancer treatments may be ...
Moreover, the liposome uptake by the infectious focus was significantly high. These results show that long-circulating and ... A significant amount of liposomes were taken up by the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system (liver and spleen). Intense ... In this work, long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing 99mtechnetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime were prepared ... were acquired at different time intervals after the intravenous administration of these liposomes. The target-to-non-target ...
Liposomes are intensively studied in the pharmaceutical as well as in the cosmetical industry. These vehicles can be used as ... The size and zeta potential of liposomes are key elements of the production process and play a crucial role for an effective ... Join the webinar and learn about two different ways of liposome production and how determination of particle size and zeta ... Light Scattering will support you in monitoring the production process as well as in final characterization of liposome ...
After in vitro optimization of the formulation, the in vivo scavenging properties of the liposomes were demonstrated by ... In conclusion, the present work provided clear evidence that liposomes with a transmembrane pH gradient are able to change the ... In this study, we investigated long-circulating liposomes with a transmembrane pH gradient as treatment for diltiazem ... In rats receiving an intravenous bolus of diltiazem, the liposomes tempered the hypotensive decline and maintained higher ...
B12 Folic Acid is a scientifically designed supplement specially formulated to provide maximal absorption of these essential nutrients.*Spray 1 to 2 sprays
The agency issued a draft guidance document on the requirements for submission of applications for liposome drug products. ... It focuses on the unique technical aspects of liposome drug products, but does not provide recommendations on clinical efficacy ... The agency issued a draft guidance document on the requirements for submission of applications for liposome drug products. ... The guidance may also be applicable to biological liposome products reviewed by CDERs Office of Biotechnology Products. ...
Hydrating overnight facial moisturizer with liposome Encapsulated Retinol. Nourish, plump, and smooth skin for a healthier, ... EVE LOM Time Retreat Intensive Night Cream , Hydrating overnight facial moisturizer with liposome Encapsulated Retinol. Nourish ...
Multifunctional gold coated thermo-sensitive liposomes for multimodal imaging and photo-thermal therapy of breast cancer cells ... Multifunctional gold coated thermo-sensitive liposomes for multimodal imaging and photo-thermal therapy of breast cancer cells† ... Also, the gold coated liposomes appear to have excellent biocompatibility and high efficiency to kill cancer cells through ... Distearoyl phosphatidyl choline : cholesterol (DSPC : CHOL, 8 : 2 wt%) liposomes have been synthesized and coated with gold by ...
Additional Information on The Different Types of Liposomes. Liposomes are important candidates researchers use in the ... Forms of chloroform and methanol are also found in this category of liposomes. Once the liposomes are prepared for production, ... Through the study of the different types of liposomes, scientists have categorized liposomes into four main or major types; ... Mulitlamellar vesicles are the simplest form of liposome. Liposomes in this class of lipids are utilized as organic, dried ...
Heat-Induced Recovery of Chitosanase from Streptomyces griseus in the Presence of Liposome ...
Bürgel, S C; Guillaume-Gentil, O; Zheng, L; Vörös, J; Bally, M (2010). Zirconium ion mediated formation of liposome multilayers ... The development of liposome-based biosensors widely relies on the availability of simple and efficient protocols for their ... The development of liposome-based biosensors widely relies on the availability of simple and efficient protocols for their ... we formed vesicle multilayers by sequential injections of solutions containing either liposomes or ZrOCl(2). In situ adlayer ...
Liposomes may be the unsung heroes of the COVID-19 pandemic. Without the protection of these microscopic vesicles, the delicate ... "For the spike-liposomes, we wanted to make sure that the spike protein that we put on the surface of the liposome was in the ... "We knew we had to test the liposomes first, and when we looked at all the ways wed have to validate the liposomes, we found ... proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus which the researchers call "spike-liposomes ...
... a liposome containing the pegylated lipid, a pharmaceutical composition containing the liposome, a preparation thereof, and the ... Due to the presence of a long-chain PEG and the targeting group on the pegylated lipid, the modified liposome can not only ... The pegylated lipid of the present invention can be used for modifying a liposome, and the pegylated lipid can also be further ... Therefore, when the pegylated lipid-modified liposome delivers an active drug to cells or a patient, especially when delivering ...
Microfluidic hydrodynamic flow focusing methods for precise lipid and liposome particles production, generating nanoparticles ... Why are liposomes ideal carriers?. Liposomes are vesicular, biocompatible nanoparticles formed by one or more lipid bi-layer ... In a single word, yes! For example, liposome size can impact how and when the contents of the liposome are released. Size also ... Liposomes and lipid nanoparticles. Liposome and LNP generation using microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing methods. ...
J Liposome Res. 1995; 5: 543-569.. *Sherry M, Charcosset C, Fessi H, Greige-Gerges H. Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes ... The release of essential oils from liposome system was performed by the dialysis bag method. In this method, liposomes ... which is one of the factors that influence the stability of the liposome. The greater the surface charge of the liposome system ... ammi essence of DIL-liposome and in the DIL-liposome treatment group. A similar uptake pattern has been reported for calcein- ...
Spraying the liposomes after applying the aqueous phase of M-phenylenediamine (MPD) could prevent the loss and disruption of ... Liposome-integrated seawater reverse osmosis membrane prepared via facile spray-assisted interfacial polymerization. en_US. ... Upon incorporating 4 mg/m2 of liposomes, the best-performing S4-a membrane is able to achieve 27% higher water permeability ... Characterization showed that dynamic liposomes had affected the IP process by creating a larger miscible reaction zone for IP, ...
Prophylaxis with cationic liposome-DNA complexes protects hamsters from phleboviral disease: importance of liposomal delivery ...
Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization ... Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization ... Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization ... Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization ...
Ipsen to Present Data at ASCO GI 2018, Including New Post-Hoc Analyses from ONIVYDE® (irinotecan liposome injection) Phase 3 ... ONIVYDE® (irinotecan liposome injection) is indicated, in combination with fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV), for the ... On April 3, 2017, Ipsen completed the acquisition from Merrimack Pharmaceuticals of ONIVYDE® (irinotecan liposome injection) ... irinotecan liposome injection) in. combination with fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV). There will be seven ONIVYDE® ...
The cytotoxicity of the liposomes for various cell lines was also studied. From the results obtained, the liposomes formed with ... The cytotoxicity of the liposomes for various cell lines was also studied. From the results obtained, the liposomes formed with ... Multivalent Calixarene-Based Liposomes as Platforms for Gene and Drug Delivery.pdf. 7.771Mb. PDF. View/. Open. Versión editor. ... Multivalent Calixarene-Based Liposomes as Platforms for Gene and Drug Delivery.pdf. 7.771Mb. PDF. View/. Open. Versión editor. ...
CD Bioparticles provides you a series of fluorescent plain liposomes for tracking and imaging. ... Liposome Size Price. Clipos™ FITC-Dextran Labeled DOTAP Liposomes. CDEDXF-001. DOTAP/DOPC/Cholesterol (5/65/30 molar ratio). ... Clipos™ pHrodo-Red-Dextran Labeled DOTAP Liposomes. CDEDXF-005. DOTAP/DOPC/Cholesterol (5/65/30 molar ratio). 100 nm. INQUIRY ... Clipos™ Rhodamine B-Dextran Labeled DOTAP Liposomes. CDEDXF-003. DOTAP/DOPC/Cholesterol (5/65/30 molar ratio). 100 nm. INQUIRY ...
  • The study also demonstrates how a new DNA-patterning technique , developed by the team last year, can help scientists rapidly characterize and conduct experiments on a variety of different types of liposomes, and their cousins, lipid nanoparticles. (
  • Liposomes and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are very well known, and their popularity is increasing with new applications and technologies emerging steadily. (
  • Liposomes are vesicular, biocompatible nanoparticles formed by one or more lipid bi-layer membranes that surround an aqueous core. (
  • To circumvent these challenges, a wide range of synthetic delivery vectors ( liposomes , lipid nanoparticles , polymer micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, dendrimers, etc.) have been developed over the past few decades, some of which have been clinically approved. (
  • Of all the available maps of nanoparticles, the most successful and clinically approved vector on the market to date is liposome. (
  • During the past decades, FFF has been applied successfully for the separation, characterization and fractionation of a wide variety of large-size materials, including nanocarriers for drug delivery, such as liposomes and nanoparticles. (
  • Based on the drug type, the injectable nanomedicines market is segmented into liposomes, micelles, nanocrystals, polymeric nanoparticles and metallic nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and others. (
  • LipoParticles: Lipid-Coated PLA Nanoparticles Enhanced In Vitro mRNA Transfection Compared to Liposomes. (
  • Prophylaxis with cationic liposome-DNA complexes protects hamsters fro" by B B. Gowen, J Fairman et al. (
  • Cationic liposome, nisin-loaded dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/phytosphingosine, exhibited higher bactericidal activities than those of electroneutral liposome and anionic liposome. (
  • Bactericidal efficiency of the cationic liposome revealed that the vesicles exhibited sustained inhibition of glucan synthesis and the lowest rate of release of nisin from the vesicles. (
  • Inhibition of cancer cell growth by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/cationic liposome complex: a new biological activity. (
  • It is through the preparation and delivery of liposomes agents that patients and researchers are able to benefit from the different types of liposomes and their uses. (
  • The bone-targeted long-circulating liposomal 99m technetium-ceftizoxime showed higher uptake in regions of septic inflammation than did the non-long-circulating and/or alendronate-non-coated liposomes, showing that both the presence of PEGylated lipids and alendronate coating are important to optimize the bone targeting. (
  • Liposomes in this class of lipids are utilized as organic, dried solvents with a combination of other lipids found in phosphatidyl glycerol, cholesterol and egg lecithin. (
  • in 2004, utilises these typical characteristics of microfluidics to produce highly controlled lipids and liposomes. (
  • Thiol-Triggered Release of Intraliposomal Content from Liposomes Made of Extremophile-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. (
  • A cell viability assay revealed that DOX- loaded liposomes composed of pure GcGT(S-S)PC-CH lipids were ∼20 times more toxic than DOXIL, with an IC 50 value comparable to that of free DOX. (
  • Here we examined the bactericidal effect of charged lipids on nisin-loaded liposomes against S. mutans and inhibitory efficiency for insoluble glucan synthesis by the streptococci for prevention of dental caries. (
  • In Phase I, Luna will demonstrate the feasibility of this delivery system using in vitro models, and in Phase II will demonstrate the functionality of these functionalized liposomes in in vivo TBI models. (
  • After in vitro optimization of the formulation, the in vivo scavenging properties of the liposomes were demonstrated by examining the drug's pharmacokinetics. (
  • To solve this issue, novel delivery systems, amikacin liposomes (Ak-lip) were developed and evaluated for its antibacterial efficacy (agar plate diffusion and resazurin microtiter assay) and in vivo drug release in Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • The final product of the synthetic process is a biomimetic nanoparticle type covered by a proteonucleotidic corona, or 'proteoDNAsome', which maintains its synthetic identity in vivo and is able to slip past the immune system more efficiently than PEGylated liposomes. (
  • Opsonin-deficient nucleoproteic corona Endows unPEGylated liposomes with stealth properties in vivo / Giulimondi, F. (
  • Liposomes are compartments consisting of selectively permeable phospholipid bilayers, similar to those found in living cells in the form of cell membrane as well as various intracellular organelles including mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, and secretory vesicles. (
  • Mulitlamellar vesicles are the simplest form of liposome. (
  • Unilamellar vesicles are the main or perhaps the most popular of liposomes. (
  • Liposomes, small vesicles produced by the dispersion of phospholipids in the aqueous medium, trap the aqueous medium between their closed concentric spheres of the phospholipid membranes [24-25]. (
  • Usually, these vesicles (in this case also known as "liposomes") are prepared from phospholipids, that also form cell membranes. (
  • The absence of pores then allows encapsulation in a sustainable way of solutes added to the aqueous core of the vesicles, with a performance equal or superior than those of liposomes (Figure 2). (
  • amikacin liposome inhalation increases effects of prabotulinumtoxinA by pharmacodynamic synergism. (
  • In this study, we investigated long-circulating liposomes with a transmembrane pH gradient as treatment for diltiazem intoxication. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Characteristics of phosphatidylcholine/peptidylglycolipid liposomes. (
  • Dimeric Artesunate-Phosphatidylcholine-Based Liposomes for Irinotecan Delivery as a Combination Therapy Approach. (
  • In this work , dimeric artesunate - phosphatidylcholine conjugate (dARTPC)-based liposomes encapsulated with irinotecan (Ir) were developed for anticancer combination therapy . (
  • Join the webinar and learn about two different ways of liposome production and how determination of particle size and zeta potential via Dynamic and Electrophoretic Light Scattering will support you in monitoring the production process as well as in final characterization of liposome dispersions. (
  • Characterization showed that dynamic liposomes had affected the IP process by creating a larger miscible reaction zone for IP, which led to the formation of a rougher PA surface with more nanovoids in the ultra-thin selective layer, thus, contributing to higher effective surface area and less hydraulic resistance for improving water permeability. (
  • The formation of calixarene-based liposomes was investigated, and the characterization of these nanostructures was carried out using several techniques. (
  • The results of these post-hoc analyses may offer physicians insight into treatment strategies for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients who have progressed following gemcitabinebased therapy and are being treated with ONIVYDE ® (irinotecan liposome injection) in combination with fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV). (
  • PEP02 (also known as MM-398, nal-IRI) is a novel nanoparticle formulation of irinotecan encapsulated in liposomes. (
  • Anionic liposomes consisting of a phospholipid bilayer containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and 4% molar dicetylphosphate were prepared and the turbidity measured at 360 nanometers after 16 to 18 hours of incubation with test substances. (
  • The use of cationic liposomes and polymers as carriers of DNA is based on observations that positively charged carriers bind to anionic DNA protecting its premature degradation and facilitating its cellular uptake in transfection. (
  • Carriers in this study were DOTAP/DOPE/PS liposomes, methacrylamide based (PDMAEMA) micelles, and anionic lipid coated DNA complexes (LCDCs). (
  • In this work, we demonstrated the effectiveness of using spray-assisted interfacial polymerization (IP) technique in fabricating liposome-integrated thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). (
  • Liposomes are tiny, spherical vessels constructed of lipid membranes very similar to those that encase most biological cells. (
  • And, in the same way that the membranes of biological cells are dotted with a variety of proteins that help the cell interact with the outside world, researchers have learned to attach different types of proteins into the membranes of liposomes, giving the particles different functions and abilities. (
  • As Kozminsky points out, liposomes can also be used to create simple models of viruses and other pathogens that have lipid membranes, including SARS-CoV-2. (
  • The mechanism of interaction of particulates of different types with the membranes of cells was also studied using erythrocytes, cultured epithelial cells and liposomes with silica (7631869), talc (14807966), montmorillonite (1318930), bentonite (1302789), crocidolite (12001284) and chrysotile (12001295). (
  • From the results obtained, the liposomes formed with the least cytotoxic calixarene, (TEAC12)4 , were used as nanocarriers of both nucleic acids and the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin, DOX. (
  • The therapeutic benefits of encapsulating anti-cancer drugs such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin and cytarabine in liposomes have been documented [ 2 ]. (
  • The amphiphilic structure of liposome particles enables the encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pharmaceutical drugs and nutrients. (
  • Microfluidic encapsulation methods have demonstrated potentials for achieving higher control over the physical properties of the final lipid or liposome product than conventional batch methods. (
  • The low inherent membrane-leakage properties of GcGT(S-S)PC-CH liposomes in the presence of serum, combined with an intracellular triggered release of encapsulated cargo, represents a promising approach for developing improved drug-delivery formulations for the treatment of cancer and possibly other diseases. (
  • As a result of this formulation utilizing liposomes, the drug may exist in the systemic circulation for longer than the free drug. (
  • An appropriately designed liposome formulation may reduce the toxicity of cytotoxic agents to healthy tissues while maintaining its anti-tumor potency, which in turn improves treatment efficacy. (
  • A liposome is a vesicle composed of one or more concentric phospholipid bilayers and can be used to deliver microscopic substances to body cells. (
  • It focuses on the unique technical aspects of liposome drug products, but does not provide recommendations on clinical efficacy and safety studies, nonclinical pharmacology/toxicology studies, or drug-lipid complexes. (
  • Here we exploit the electric charge of DNA to generate unPEGylated liposome/DNA complexes that, upon exposure to human plasma, gets covered with an opsonin-deficient protein corona. (
  • Call your doctor for instructions if you miss an appointment for your vincristine liposome injection. (
  • Multilamellar Vesicle or MLV, Small unilamellar liposome vesicle or (SUV), Large unilamellar vesicle or (LUV), and the Cochleate vesicle or (LUV). (
  • We present a novel approach toward the creation of three-dimensional phospholipid vesicle constructs using multivalent zirconium ions as linkers between the liposomes. (
  • After demonstrating the affinity of Zr(4+) toward the phospholipids, we formed vesicle multilayers by sequential injections of solutions containing either liposomes or ZrOCl(2). (
  • We describe here the synthesis and purification of such LiPNAs using an automated peptide synthesizer and the preparation of LiPNA functionalized liposomes. (
  • Löffler, PMG, Rabe, A & Vogel, S 2020, Lipid-Modified Peptide Nucleic Acids: Synthesis and Application to Programmable Liposome Fusion . (
  • According to the results, PBuA-PDMAEMA-polymers and DOTAP/DOPE/PS-liposomes complexed with episomal plasmid or minicircles are potential gene delivery agents for further studies in AMD. (
  • The new multifunctional liposomes (Gd-PLP-L) (120nm diameter, 5.8mg PLP/60?mol lipid, bioexponential blood-clearance kinetics (T(1/2? (
  • The guidance may also be applicable to biological liposome products reviewed by CDER's Office of Biotechnology Products. (
  • Kozminsky realized that the DNA-printing technique, which was originally developed by the Sohn Lab to "print" different types of cells into patterns that model biological tissues, could also be used to quickly verify that the spike-liposomes were presenting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein correctly. (
  • This makes liposomes a very attractive biological system, widely employed as a drug delivery vehicle. (
  • Liposomes in biological systems / edited by Gregory Gregoriadis and Anthony C. Allison. (
  • Spraying the liposomes after applying the aqueous phase of M-phenylenediamine (MPD) could prevent the loss and disruption of liposome distribution over the substrate layer. (
  • Other areas of treatment include bacterial infections which some antibiotic treatments are ineffective alone, but when administered with liposomes are quite effective in curing the infection. (
  • 2019) Intratumoral microdistribution and therapeutic response of enzyme sensitive liposomes in human prostate cancer xenografts after ultrasound mediated delivery. (
  • 2018) Effect of focused ultrasound on biodistribution, tumour uptake and intratumoral microdistribution of enzyme sensitive liposomes in human prostate cancer xenografts. (
  • Retrieved on November 28, 2022 from (
  • Currently, groups of pharmaceutical molecules are surrounded by a single bilayer (unilamellar) of liposomes via a method of ion trapping. (
  • Giant or large Unilamellar Liposomes are prepared using distilled water, zwitterious or non-electrolyte. (
  • We herein introduce a microbubble and liposome complex (MB-Lipo) developed for ultrasound (US) imaging and activation. (
  • In the proposed program, Luna will demonstrate the feasibility of a liposome-based therapeutic delivery system capable of delivering hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics to the traumatically injured brain. (
  • This microscope image of their technique shows that mixing spike-liposomes (top right, tagged with green fluorescent protein) with ACE2 receptor (bottom red, tagged with red fluorescent protein), results in a composite of both proteins (left), indicating that their spike-liposomes bind to ACE2 receptor in the same way as SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • Further, we describe the measurement of LiPNA-induced fusion using a fluorescence-based assay for the content mixing between a liposome population with an encapsulated self-quenching fluorescent dye (SRB) and a buffer-filled liposome population. (
  • In the current study, inspired by recent findings on the anti-tumor activity of liposomal glucocorticoids, we introduce paramagnetic and fluorescent liposomes, encapsulating prednisolone phosphate (PLP), to evaluate the local delivery of liposomal glucocorticoids to the tumor and its importance for the therapeutic response. (
  • In rats receiving an intravenous bolus of diltiazem, the liposomes tempered the hypotensive decline and maintained higher average blood pressure for 1 h. (
  • In conclusion, the present work provided clear evidence that liposomes with a transmembrane pH gradient are able to change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diltiazem and its metabolite and confirmed their potential as efficient detoxifying nanocarriers. (
  • Upon incorporating 4 mg/m2 of liposomes, the best-performing S4-a membrane is able to achieve 27% higher water permeability than the liposome-free membrane, demonstrating a permeability of 3.24 L/m2·h·bar along with 99.3% NaCl rejection for seawater desalination. (
  • CHIP28 proteoliposomes exhibit P f which is up to 50-fold above that of control liposomes, but permeability to urea and protons is not increased. (
  • lidocaine increases toxicity of bupivacaine liposome by Other (see comment). (
  • Liposomes are artificially formed tiny spherical sacs that are used to deliver drugs and other substances into tissues at higher rates of absorption. (
  • We build all-natural liposomes to deliver nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or herbs. (
  • Liposomes maximize the bioavailability of skin-soothing nutrients to affected cells and holds moisture to keep your skin hydrated, nourished & radiant. (
  • with Liposome Technology- A DELIVERY SYSTEM made out of the same material as cell membrane that delivers nutrients directly to the skin. (
  • Moreover, the liposome uptake by the infectious focus was significantly high. (
  • Here, we explore the use of liposomes as controllable containers for in vitro studies of coacervation. (
  • Also, the gold coated liposomes appear to have excellent biocompatibility and high efficiency to kill cancer cells through photothermal transduction. (
  • Specific drug delivery systems, such as those with liposome carriers, can be employed to improve the therapeutic index of anticancer agents with serious side effects. (
  • Why are liposomes ideal carriers? (
  • Liposomes as drug carriers : recent trends and progress / edited by Gregory Gregoriadis. (
  • Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization with such lipidated peptide nucleic acids (LiPNAs). (
  • Using liposomes as a carrier for drugs used in the treatment of cancer is beneficial because the liposomes promote passive targeting for the cancer cells. (
  • Protein-pore-mediated permeation of small molecules into liposomes triggers LLPS passively or via active mechanisms like enzymatic polymerization of nucleic acids. (
  • Liposomes are ideal candidates for serving as bio-compatible micro-environments, since one can encapsulate biomolecules in their interior and membrane proteins (e.g., membrane pores) within the bilayer. (
  • UC Berkeley engineers attached SARS-CoV-2 "spike" proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus called "spike-liposomes," which, when paired with a new DNA-patterning technique, could enable efficient testing of antibody therapies. (
  • In a new study , a team of engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, attached SARS-CoV-2 "spike" proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus which the researchers call "spike-liposomes. (
  • Excitement over liposomes has been most pronounced in the pharmaceutical industry, where drugmakers have experimented with outfitting liposomes with proteins that only interact with very specific cells in the body, allowing them to target the delivery of drug molecules to only the tissues where they are needed. (
  • However, researchers must first verify that the liposome proteins are able to properly interact with their environment. (
  • Scintigraphic images of septic or aseptic inflammation-bearing Wistar rats, as well as healthy rats, were acquired at different time intervals after the intravenous administration of these liposomes. (
  • Researchers use strong physiological buffers in the demonstration of giant liposomes preparations through the use of several popular methods. (
  • For several decades, surface grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been a go-to strategy for preserving the synthetic identity of liposomes in physiological milieu and preventing clearance by immune cells. (
  • The development of liposome-based biosensors widely relies on the availability of simple and efficient protocols for their surface immobilization. (
  • Nisin, a bacteriocin, has been demonstrated to be microbicidal against S. mutans, and liposome-encapsulated nisin improves preventive features that may be exploited for human oral health. (
  • In this work, long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing 99m technetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime were prepared and their ability to identify infectious foci (osteomyelitis) in animal models was evaluated. (
  • These results show that long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing 99m technetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime have a tropism for infectious foci. (
  • Overall, liposomes target infectious cells that ultimately affect healthy cells. (
  • Liposomes are important candidates researchers use in the preparation stage and the delivery of life- saving drugs. (
  • Researchers constantly expand their testing and treatment of using liposomes to the delivery treatment of various illnesses and diseases in several forms. (
  • The researchers also determined that the effect was quicker and more effective when CBD was delivered encapsulated in liposomes than when it was administered 'naked. (
  • Here, we use a microfluidics-based methodology to form coacervates inside cell-sized (~10 µm) liposomes, allowing control over the dynamics. (
  • Méthodologie des liposomes appliquée à la pharmacologie et à la biologie cellulaire : séminaire technologique, INSERM U. 136, Marseille, 2-8 mai 1982 = Liposome methodology in pharmacology and cell biology / publié sous la direction de Lee D. Leserman, Jacques Barbet. (
  • Liposome methodology in pharmacology and cell biology. (
  • This coacervate-in-liposome platform provides a versatile tool to understand intracellular phase behavior, and these hybrid systems will allow engineering complex pathways to reconstitute cellular functions and facilitate bottom-up creation of synthetic cells. (
  • By encapsulating the vitamins in liposomes, which can host both water and fat soluable materials, enhanced delivery of the vitamins can be achieved. (
  • Some methods are generally used to prepare liposomes for diagnosis and drug delivery purposes [29]. (
  • Due to the similarity between liposomes and exosomes, physicochemical properties and drug delivery capabilities of the two will be compared next. (
  • A device would be connected to the head of the patient, and drug-containing liposomes - a drug delivery vehicle - will be injected into the blood stream. (
  • Vitamin C (Ascorbyl Palmitate) is developed through the liquid dispersion of Vitamin C into liposomes. (
  • To solve this issue, anthracyclines have been encapsulated in liposomes enabling changes to the properties of the drug vessel and allowing the active component to target specific sites. (
  • The application of drugs encapsulated in liposomes has the potential to reduce side effects by increasing specificity for cancer cells. (
  • Vincristine liposome is used to treat a type of blood cancer called Philadelphia chromosome negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). (
  • Vincristine liposome is given after at least two other cancer treatments did not work or have stopped working. (
  • For instance, in the treatment of cancer liposomes are used as anti-cancer agents. (
  • However, the limited clinical translation of PEGylated liposomes is mainly due to the protein corona formation and the subsequent modification of liposomes' synthetic identity, which affects their interactions with immune cells and blood residency. (
  • The dataset contains data on aggregation and melting experiments in samples of DNA-functionalised liposomes as described in the paper "Controlling Self-Assembly Kinetics of DNA-Functionalized Liposomes Using Toehold Exchange Mechanism. (
  • This record is pending publication in ACS Nano ("Controlling Self-Assembly Kinetics of DNA-Functionalized Liposomes Using Toehold Exchange Mechanism. (
  • Fluorescently labeled liposomes were prepared for the purpose of drug treatment with liposomes. (
  • These results suggest that liposomes encapsulated with drug may be feasible for antibody treatment of retinal vein occlusion. (