Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Relating to the size of solids.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A focal infection is a localized infection that can potentially lead to the development of systemic infectious or non-infectious diseases once it spreads to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (1/9099)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (2/9099)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (3/9099)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (4/9099)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (5/9099)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (6/9099)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (7/9099)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (8/9099)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) are a type of phospholipid that are abundantly found in the cell membranes of living organisms. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. PE contains a hydrophilic head, which consists of an ethanolamine group linked to a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. This unique structure allows PE to form a lipid bilayer, where the hydrophilic heads face outwards and interact with the aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails face inwards and interact with each other.

PE is also involved in various cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, autophagy, and signal transduction. Additionally, PE can be modified by the addition of various functional groups or molecules, which can further regulate its functions and interactions within the cell. Overall, phosphatidylethanolamines are essential components of cellular membranes and play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

A cation is a type of ion, which is a charged particle, that has a positive charge. In chemistry and biology, cations are formed when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons during chemical reactions. The removal of electrons results in the atom having more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge.

Cations are important in many biological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme function. For example, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) are all essential cations that play critical roles in various physiological functions.

In medical contexts, cations can also be relevant in the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. For instance, abnormal levels of certain cations, such as potassium or calcium, can indicate specific diseases or disorders. Additionally, medications used to treat various conditions may work by altering cation concentrations or activity within the body.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Fluorescein is not a medical condition, but rather a diagnostic dye that is used in various medical tests and procedures. It is a fluorescent compound that absorbs light at one wavelength and emits light at another wavelength, which makes it useful for imaging and detecting various conditions.

In ophthalmology, fluorescein is commonly used in eye examinations to evaluate the health of the cornea, conjunctiva, and anterior chamber of the eye. A fluorescein dye is applied to the surface of the eye, and then the eye is examined under a blue light. The dye highlights any damage or abnormalities on the surface of the eye, such as scratches, ulcers, or inflammation.

Fluorescein is also used in angiography, a medical imaging technique used to examine blood vessels in the body. A fluorescein dye is injected into a vein, and then a special camera takes pictures of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and macular degeneration.

Overall, fluorescein is a valuable diagnostic tool that helps medical professionals detect and monitor various conditions in the body.

Clodronic acid is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. It is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fracture, as well as to treat Paget's disease of bone.

Clodronic acid works by inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts, which helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density. This can help reduce the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and intravenous solutions. It is usually taken or administered once a day or once a week, depending on the specific formulation and the individual patient's needs.

Like all medications, clodronic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as esophageal ulcers and bone necrosis of the jaw. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A lipid bilayer is a thin membrane made up of two layers of lipid molecules, primarily phospholipids. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the lipids face outwards, coming into contact with watery environments on both sides, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails point inward, away from the aqueous surroundings. This unique structure allows lipid bilayers to form a stable barrier that controls the movement of molecules and ions in and out of cells and organelles, thus playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular compartmentalization and homeostasis.

1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a type of phospholipid molecule that is a major component of the lipid bilayer in biological membranes, particularly in lung surfactant. It is composed of two palmitic acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone, which is linked to a phosphate group and a choline headgroup. The chemical formula for DPPC is C44H86NO8P.

In the body, DPPC plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of cell membranes, as well as reducing surface tension in the lungs. It is also used in research and medical settings as a component of liposomes, which are used for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

Unilamellar liposomes are a type of liposome that consists of a single phospholipid bilayer membrane enclosing an aqueous compartment. They are spherical vesicles, ranging in size from 20 nanometers to several micrometers, and can be used as drug delivery systems for various therapeutic agents, including hydrophilic drugs (in the aqueous compartment) and hydrophobic drugs (incorporated into the lipid bilayer). The single membrane structure of unilamellar liposomes distinguishes them from multilamellar liposomes, which have multiple concentric phospholipid bilayers.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Proteolipids are a type of complex lipid-containing proteins that are insoluble in water and have a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. They are primarily found in the plasma membrane of cells, where they play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the membrane. Proteolipids are also found in various organelles, including mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.

Proteolipids are composed of a hydrophobic protein core that is tightly associated with a lipid bilayer through non-covalent interactions. The protein component of proteolipids typically contains several transmembrane domains that span the lipid bilayer, as well as hydrophilic regions that face the cytoplasm or the lumen of organelles.

Proteolipids have been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and ion transport. They are also associated with several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The study of proteolipids is an active area of research in biochemistry and cell biology, with potential implications for the development of new therapies for neurological disorders.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Membrane lipids are the main component of biological membranes, forming a lipid bilayer in which various cellular processes take place. These lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type, consisting of a hydrophilic head (containing a phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (composed of fatty acid chains). Glycolipids contain a sugar group attached to the lipid molecule. Cholesterol helps regulate membrane fluidity and permeability. Together, these lipids create a selectively permeable barrier that separates cells from their environment and organelles within cells.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Membrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that involves the merging of two initially separate lipid bilayers, such as those surrounding cells or organelles, to form a single continuous membrane. This process plays a crucial role in various physiological events including neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, fertilization, viral infection, and intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. Membrane fusion is tightly regulated and requires the participation of specific proteins called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) and other accessory factors that facilitate the recognition, approximation, and merger of the membranes. The energy required to overcome the repulsive forces between the negatively charged lipid headgroups is provided by these proteins, which undergo conformational changes during the fusion process. Membrane fusion is a highly specific and coordinated event, ensuring that the correct membranes fuse at the right time and place within the cell.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of disinfectants and antiseptics that contain a nitrogen atom surrounded by four organic groups, resulting in a charged "quat" structure. They are widely used in healthcare settings due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to their death. Common examples include benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. It is important to note that some microorganisms have developed resistance to QACs, and they may not be effective against all types of pathogens.

Phosphatidylglycerols are a type of glycerophospholipids, which are major components of biological membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone to which two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group are attached. In the case of phosphatidylglycerols, the phosphate group is linked to a glycerol molecule through an ester bond, forming a phosphoglyceride.

Phosphatidylglycerols are unique because they have an additional glycerol molecule attached to the phosphate group, making them more complex than other glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. This additional glycerol moiety can be further modified by the addition of various headgroups, leading to the formation of different subclasses of phosphatidylglycerols.

In biological membranes, phosphatidylglycerols are often found in the inner leaflet of the mitochondrial membrane and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of this organelle. They have also been implicated in various cellular processes such as membrane fusion, protein trafficking, and bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid molecule that is commonly found in animal cell membranes. It is composed of two myristoyl fatty acid chains, a phosphate group, and a choline headgroup. DMPC has a gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of around 23-25°C, which makes it a useful compound for studying the physical properties of lipid membranes and for creating model membrane systems in laboratory experiments.

Cardiolipins are a type of phospholipid that are primarily found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. They play a crucial role in several important cellular processes, including energy production, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and maintenance of the structural integrity of the mitochondria.

Cardiolipins are unique because they contain four fatty acid chains, whereas most other phospholipids contain only two. This gives cardiolipins a distinctive conical shape that is important for their function in maintaining the curvature and stability of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Cardiolipins have also been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and bacterial infections. For example, changes in cardiolipin composition or distribution have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and other neurological conditions. Additionally, certain bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, can manipulate host cell cardiolipins to facilitate their own survival and replication.

In summary, cardiolipins are essential phospholipids found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that play a critical role in several cellular processes, and have been implicated in various diseases.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Freeze fracturing is not a medical term itself, but it is a technique used in the field of electron microscopy, which is a type of imaging commonly used in scientific research and medical fields to visualize structures at a very small scale, such as cells and cellular components.

In freeze fracturing, a sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its structure and then fractured or split along a plane of weakness, often along the membrane of a cell. The freshly exposed surface is then shadowed with a thin layer of metal, such as platinum or gold, to create a replica of the surface. This replica can then be examined using an electron microscope to reveal details about the structure and organization of the sample at the molecular level.

Freeze fracturing is particularly useful for studying membrane structures, such as lipid bilayers and protein complexes, because it allows researchers to visualize these structures in their native state, without the need for staining or other chemical treatments that can alter or damage the samples.

Membrane fluidity, in the context of cell biology, refers to the ability of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane to change its structure and organization in response to various factors. The membrane is not a static structure but rather a dynamic one, with its lipids constantly moving and changing position.

Membrane fluidity is determined by the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids that make up the bilayer. Lipids with unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains, which prevent them from packing closely together and increase membrane fluidity. In contrast, lipids with saturated fatty acids can pack closely together, reducing membrane fluidity.

Membrane fluidity is important for various cellular processes, including the movement of proteins within the membrane, the fusion of vesicles with the membrane during exocytosis and endocytosis, and the ability of the membrane to respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors. Abnormalities in membrane fluidity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Tuftsin is a tetrapeptide (a chain of four amino acids) that plays an important role in the immune system. It is derived from the Fc fragment of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) antibodies after they have interacted with antigens and been cleaved by proteolytic enzymes.

Tuftsin enhances phagocytosis, which is the process by which certain cells in the immune system engulf and destroy foreign substances, bacteria, or dead cells. Specifically, it activates and increases the mobility of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, two types of white blood cells involved in the immune response.

The sequence of amino acids in tuftsin is Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg (Threonine-Lysine-Proline-Arginine). The presence and activity of tuftsin are essential for optimal immune function, and deficiencies or abnormalities in tuftsin have been linked to various immunological disorders.

Fluorescence spectrometry is a type of analytical technique used to investigate the fluorescent properties of a sample. It involves the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then re-emits it at a longer wavelength. This process, known as fluorescence, occurs because the absorbed energy excites electrons in the molecules of the substance to higher energy states, and when these electrons return to their ground state, they release the excess energy as light.

Fluorescence spectrometry typically measures the emission spectrum of a sample, which is a plot of the intensity of emitted light versus the wavelength of emission. This technique can be used to identify and quantify the presence of specific fluorescent molecules in a sample, as well as to study their photophysical properties.

Fluorescence spectrometry has many applications in fields such as biochemistry, environmental science, and materials science. For example, it can be used to detect and measure the concentration of pollutants in water samples, to analyze the composition of complex biological mixtures, or to study the properties of fluorescent nanomaterials.

Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that utilizes nanotechnology, which deals with materials, devices, or systems at the nanometer scale (typically between 1-100 nm), to prevent and treat diseases. It involves the development of novel therapeutics, diagnostics, and medical devices that can interact with biological systems at the molecular level for improved detection, monitoring, and targeted treatment of various diseases and conditions.

Nanomedicine encompasses several areas, including:

1. Drug delivery: Nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drugs, enhancing their solubility, stability, and targeted delivery to specific cells or tissues, thereby reducing side effects.
2. Diagnostics: Nanoscale biosensors and imaging agents can provide early detection and monitoring of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity, enabling personalized medicine and improved patient outcomes.
3. Regenerative medicine: Nanomaterials can be used to create scaffolds and matrices for tissue engineering, promoting cell growth, differentiation, and vascularization in damaged or diseased tissues.
4. Gene therapy: Nanoparticles can be employed to deliver genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or gene-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9) for the targeted correction of genetic disorders or cancer treatment.
5. Medical devices: Nanotechnology can improve the performance and functionality of medical devices by enhancing their biocompatibility, strength, and electrical conductivity, as well as incorporating sensing and drug delivery capabilities.

Overall, nanomedicine holds great promise for addressing unmet medical needs, improving diagnostic accuracy, and developing more effective therapies with reduced side effects. However, it also presents unique challenges related to safety, regulation, and scalability that must be addressed before widespread clinical adoption.

"Pharmaceutical vehicles" is not a standard term in medical or pharmaceutical sciences. However, I can provide some context based on the phrase's possible meaning. If by "pharmaceutical vehicles," you mean the carriers or delivery systems for drugs or medications, then the definition would be:

Pharmaceutical vehicles refer to various formulations, preparations, or technologies that facilitate and control the administration of a drug or therapeutic agent to its target site in the body. These can include different types of drug delivery systems such as tablets, capsules, liposomes, nanoparticles, transdermal patches, inhalers, injectables, and other innovative drug carrier technologies.

These pharmaceutical vehicles ensure that the active ingredients are safely and effectively transported to their intended site of action within the body, enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing potential side effects.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are a type of fatty acid that contains one double bond in its chemical structure. The presence of the double bond means that there is one less hydrogen atom, hence the term "unsaturated." In monounsaturated fats, the double bond occurs between the second and third carbon atoms in the chain, which makes them "mono"unsaturated.

MUFAs are considered to be a healthy type of fat because they can help reduce levels of harmful cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL) while maintaining levels of beneficial cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL). They have also been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and improved insulin sensitivity.

Common sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. It is recommended to consume MUFAs as part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods.

Lecithins are a group of naturally occurring compounds called phospholipids, which are essential components of biological membranes. They are composed of a molecule that contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. This unique structure allows lecithins to act as emulsifiers, helping to mix oil-based and water-based substances together.

Lecithins are found in various foods such as egg yolks, soybeans, sunflower seeds, and some other plants. In the medical field, lecithins may be used in dietary supplements or as a component of nutritional support for patients with certain conditions. They have been studied for their potential benefits in improving liver function, supporting brain health, and reducing cholesterol levels; however, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

A focal infection is a localized infection that can serve as a focus for the development of secondary systemic infections or diseases elsewhere in the body. The infection is typically caused by a bacterium, virus, or fungus and can occur in any organ or tissue.

The theory of focal infection suggests that microorganisms can spread from the initial site of infection to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further complications and illnesses. This concept was widely accepted and studied in the early 20th century but has since been largely replaced by more modern understandings of infectious disease processes.

Nonetheless, the term "focal infection" is still used in medical contexts to describe localized infections that may have systemic consequences or require specific treatment to prevent further spread and complications. Examples of focal infections include dental abscesses, lung infections, and urinary tract infections.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

Surfactants, also known as surface-active agents, are amphiphilic compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. They contain both hydrophilic (water-soluble) and hydrophobic (water-insoluble) components in their molecular structure. This unique property allows them to interact with and stabilize interfaces, making them useful in various medical and healthcare applications.

In the medical field, surfactants are commonly used in pulmonary medicine, particularly for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. The lungs of premature infants often lack sufficient amounts of natural lung surfactant, which can lead to RDS and other complications. Exogenous surfactants, derived from animal sources or synthetically produced, are administered to replace the missing or dysfunctional lung surfactant, improving lung compliance and gas exchange.

Surfactants also have applications in topical formulations for dermatology, as they can enhance drug penetration into the skin, reduce irritation, and improve the spreadability of creams and ointments. Additionally, they are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance contrast between tissues and improve visualization during procedures such as ultrasound and X-ray examinations.

Liposomes can also be designed to deliver drugs in other ways. Liposomes that contain low (or high) pH can be constructed such ... Another strategy for liposome drug delivery is to target endocytosis events. Liposomes can be made in a particular size range ... Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. Liposomes can be used on their own or in combination with traditional ... These liposomes may be digested while in the macrophage's phagosome, thus releasing its drug. Liposomes can also be decorated ...
Cationic liposomes are manufactured similarly to liposomes. There are multiple processes that can be used to form cationic ... Cationic liposomes are spherical structures that contain positively charged lipids. Cationic liposomes can vary in size between ... A common application for cationic liposomes is cancer drug delivery. In the 1960s, Alec D. Bangham discovered liposomes as ... The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposome drastically increases the blood circulation time of cationic liposomes. ...
Types of liposome extruders Hand-driven Liposome Extruder Jacketed liposome extruders Online liposome extruders Berger, N; ... The preparation of liposomes results in the formation of the liposome extruder[clarification needed]. A liposome extruder is ... The hand-driven liposome extruders are further categorized into liposome extruders with a thermal-jacketed option and liposome ... Liposome extruders are applied in the formulation of liposomes of homogeneous size distributions. This type of liposome ...
A unilamellar liposome is a spherical liposome, a vesicle, bounded by a single bilayer of an amphiphilic lipid or a mixture of ... Lipid polymorphism Liposome Lipid bilayer Rideau E, Dimova R, Schwille P, Wurm FR, Landfester K (November 2018). "Liposomes and ... small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs) that with a size range of 20-100 nm, large unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (LUVs) ... Unilamellar liposomes are used to study biological systems and to mimic cell membranes, and are classified into three groups ...
Ligand-targeted liposomes are used for a variety of applications depending on the liposome, ligand, and liposome contents. ... Ligands can be attached to liposomes through ligation to create ligand-targeted liposomes in a variety of ways. Liposomes have ... Ligand-targeted liposomes can also be used for diagnostics through imaging. The liposomes can contain imaging agents to aid in ... Ligand-targeted liposomes for use in this application use this over-expression to folate and a ligand that targets folate to ...
The Journal of Liposome Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes original research on the topics of ... liposomes and related systems, lipid-based delivery systems, lipid biology, and both synthetic and physical lipid chemistry. ... the general scope of the journal and abstracts and conference proceedings including those from the International Liposome ...
The liposome encapsulation of vincristine enhances the efficacy of the vincristine drug while simultaneously decreasing the ... Liposome encapsulation increases vincristine's plasma concentration and circulation lifetime in the body, and allows the drug ... "Acrotech Biopharma LLC; Withdrawal of Approval of New Drug Application for MARQIBO (VinCRIStine Sulfate LIPOSOME Injection), 5 ... Silverman JA, Deitcher SR (March 2013). "Marqibo (vincristine sulfate liposome injection) improves the pharmacokinetics and ...
Liposomes are sphere-shaped vesicular structures self-assembled in a solvent composed of a broad type of lipids or other ... The vesicle structure of liposomes improves the effects on drug penetration through biological membranes, which enhance ... "Liposomes in Cosmetics". Journal of Skin and Stem Cell. Retrieved April 29, 2020. Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie ... "Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications". Nanoscale Research Letters. 8 (1): 102. Bibcode:2013NRL.....8..102A. ...
Medical Applications of Liposomes. Elsevier. pp. 165-180. ISBN 978-0-08-053608-8. -; Wasan, Ellen K. (April 5, 2006). " ...
Dietrich Arndt; Reiner Zeisig; Ines Eue & Iduna Fichtner (1995). "Alkylphosphocholines and Alkylphosphocholine Liposomes". ... Journal of Liposome Research. 5 (1): 91-98. doi:10.3109/08982109509039910. Clark, Paul A.; Al-Ahmad, Abraham J.; Qian, ... "Cytotoxic effects of alkylphosphocholines or alkylphosphocholine-liposomes and macrophages on tumor cells". Anticancer Research ...
Nanomedicine, the general field Micelle, lipid cored Liposome, lipid bilayer shell, an earlier form with some limitations ... Lasic, Danilo D. (1997). Liposomes in Gene Delivery. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780849331091. Retrieved 11 January ... In addition, polymeric nanoparticles, self-emulsifying delivery systems, liposomes, microemulsions, micellar solutions and ...
Liposomes are a common vehicle in drug delivery and specifically for the treatment of cancer. Liposomes contain a phospholipid ... Success with liposomes as drug delivery systems has been shown both in vivo and in vitro. A study by Liu et al. showed that ... In addition, liposomes can entrap hydrophilic molecules in their hydrophilic core. Compared to the common cancer treatment ... investigated the effect of liposome-encapsulated drugs on the efficacy of targeted delivery in SDT. They found that, in ...
Lipoplexes can also be formed from cationic liposomes and DNA solutions, to yield transfection agents. Cationic liposomes cross ... A mechanism for liposome transport across the BBB is lipid-mediated free diffusion, a type of facilitated diffusion, or lipid- ... Liposomes have the potential to protect the drug from degradation, target sites for action, and reduce toxicity and adverse ... Liposomes can also be functionalized by attaching various ligands on the surface to enhance brain-targeted delivery. Another ...
These drug-loaded liposomes travel through the system until they bind at the target site and rupture, releasing the drug. In ... Note- the term "liposome" is in essence synonymous with "vesicle" except that vesicle is a general term for the structure ... The first stealth liposomes were passively targeted at tumor tissues. Because tumors induce rapid and uncontrolled angiogenesis ... The most significant advance in this area was the grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the liposome surface to produce " ...
Doxorubicin HCl liposome (Doxil/Caelyx) - PEGylated liposome containing doxorubicin for the treatment of cancer (Alza, 1995) ... Blume G, Cevc, G (13 April 1990). "Liposomes for the sustained drug release in vivo". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Milla, P; Dosio, F (13 January 2012). "PEGylation of proteins and liposomes: a powerful and flexible strategy to improve the ... ISBN 978-0-444-64082-6. OCLC 1127111107.[page needed] Balazs, Daniel A.; Godbey, WT (15 December 2011). "Liposomes for Use in ...
... large unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (LUVs) with a size range of 100-1000 nm and giant unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (GUVs) ... the vesicles are called unilamellar liposomes; otherwise they are called multilamellar liposomes. The membrane enclosing the ... Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes). ... Artificial vesicles are classified into three groups based on their size: small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs) with a ...
Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Wei; Li, Kejie; Xie, Zhihong; Shi, Zhiguo (2013). "Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial ... encapsulated liposome with targeting bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium)". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 224: 217-224. doi: ...
Ottova-Leitmannova, A. (2006). Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes. Academic Press. v t e (Articles with short ...
Palchetti, S.; Colapicchioni, V.; Digiacomo, L (2016). "The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes". Biochim Biophys ...
As of 2016[update] a few have been approved.[citation needed] Immunoliposomes are antibody-conjugated liposomes. Liposomes can ...
Liposome formulations encapsulate anti-cancer drugs for selective uptake to tumors via the EPR effect. They are included Doxil ... These efforts include protein capsids and liposomes. However, as some important, normal tissues, such as the liver and kidneys ... "The mechanism of liposome accumulation in infarction". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 797 (3): 363-8. ... "Direct measurement of the extravasation of polyethyleneglycol-coated liposomes into solid tumor tissue by in vivo fluorescence ...
Osawa M, Anderson DE, Erickson HP (May 2008). "Reconstitution of contractile FtsZ rings in liposomes". Science. 320 (5877): 792 ... showing the protein's contractile force on liposomes with no other proteins present. Erickson (2009) proposed how the roles of ...
Bicelles are much smaller than liposomes, and so can be used in experiments such as NMR spectroscopy where the larger vesicles ... F Szoka and D Papahadjopoulos."Comparative Properties and Methods of Preparation of Lipid Vesicles (Liposomes)." Annual Review ... "Quantifying the effects of melittin on liposomes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 1768 (1): 13-20. doi: ... is achieved by exposure of the lipid coated gold substrate to outer layer lipids either in an ethanol solution or in liposomes ...
"Preparation and characterization of glycolipid-bearing multilamellar and unilamellar liposomes". Liposome Methods and Protocols ... the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions using liposomes. He ...
Sendai virus-induced agglutination of liposomes containing glycophorin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. ... F protein is responsible for this induction because reconstituted liposomes containing F protein can stimulate IL-6 production ... F protein is responsible for this induction because reconstituted liposomes containing F protein can stimulate IL-6 production ... "Membrane penetration of Sendai virus glycoproteins during the early stages of fusion with liposomes as determined by ...
Surolia, Bachhawat B. K.; Podder S. K. (1975). "Interaction between lectin from Ricinus communis and liposome containing ... Mumtaz, Ghosh C.; Bachhawat B. K. (1991). "Design of liposomes for circumventing the reticuloendothelial cells". Glycobiology. ... a hereditary disease of the brain His studies on sugar-bearing liposomes led to its use as a carrier for in situ delivery of ... using sugar-bearing liposomes. He also worked on the therapy of systemic fungal infections by developing liposomal formulations ...
He is best known for his research on liposomes. He was married to Rosalind; they had four children and eleven grandchildren. ... Deamer, David A. (1 May 2010). "From "Banghasomes" to liposomes: A memoir of Alec Bangham, 1921-2010". The FASEB Journal. 24 (5 ... "Alec Bangham - 'father of liposomes' - dies aged 88". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011 ... was a British biophysicist who first studied blood clotting mechanisms but became well known for his research on liposomes and ...
Liposome-encapsulated mRNA encoding a viral antigen was shown in 1993 to stimulate T cells in mice. The following year self- ... July 1993). "Induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo by liposome-entrapped mRNA". European Journal of ... "Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
Robert Malone; Philip L. Felgner; Inder Verma (August 1, 1989). "Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection". Proceedings of ... discovering in what Nature has described as a landmark experiment that it was possible to transfer mRNA protected by a liposome ...
Ellens, H; Bentz, J; Szoka, FC (1985). "H+- and Ca2+-induced fusion and destabilization of liposomes". Biochemistry. 24 (13): ... 4 April 2022). "Single-particle combinatorial multiplexed liposome fusion mediated by DNA". Nat. Chem. 14 (5): 558-565. Bibcode ... "A DNA-Programmed Liposome Fusion Cascade". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 56 (43): 13228-13231. doi:10.1002/anie. ... "Drug Delivery via Cell Membrane Fusion Using Lipopeptide Modified Liposomes". ACS Central Science. 2 (9): 621-630. doi:10.1021/ ...
Liposomes can also be designed to deliver drugs in other ways. Liposomes that contain low (or high) pH can be constructed such ... Another strategy for liposome drug delivery is to target endocytosis events. Liposomes can be made in a particular size range ... Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. Liposomes can be used on their own or in combination with traditional ... These liposomes may be digested while in the macrophages phagosome, thus releasing its drug. Liposomes can also be decorated ...
liposomes. Liposomes ha. ve been developed in our research group as bioanalytical tools for signal generation and instantaneous ... We have investigated liposomes for nucleic acid, protein, and whole cell detection, and their use for bioimaging and for ... We also study liposome stability under extreme conditions including dehydration, lyophilization, and storage at temperatures ... Edwards, K.A., Meyers, K. J., Leonard, B., Baeumner, A.J. "Superior performance of liposomes over enzymatic amplification in a ...
This page contains brief information about irinotecan hydrochloride liposome and a collection of links to more information ... Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome is a form of irinotecan hydrochloride contained inside liposomes (very tiny particles of fat ... Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome is approved to be used with fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium to treat:. *Pancreatic cancer ... Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ...
Liposomes were prepared as described above. Liposomes were incubated with cells on ice for 6 hours at a 1:50 liposome:PSMA- ... uniformly distributed over the liposome surface). PSMA-targeted liposomes exhibit increased specific binding to PSMA-positive ... The two liposome compositions were incubated at a 1:1 mole ratio (equivalent to 1:100 GALA:lipid mole ratio). Triton-X 100 (5% ... Methods: Liposomes were prepared by hydrating a thin lipid film with the desired aqueous phase buffer, incubating at 55° ...
When preparing liposomes with mixed lipid composition, the lipids must first be dissolved and mixed in an organic solvent to ... Liposomes (lipid vesicles) are formed when thin lipid films or lipid cakes are hydrated and stacks of liquid crystalline ... 2. Method of Liposome Preparation. Properties of lipid formulations can vary depending on the composition (cationic, anionic, ...
Liposomes are frequently utilized to deliver key actives, with hyaluronic acid winning the award for most popular and hydration ... In it, liposomes deliver essential moisture to the skin.. Finally, Osmosis coats its ingredients with a liposome called ... Liposomes in Action. According to Polla, liposomes can carry hydrophilic (water-loving) substances and/or lipophilic (lipid-, ... Liposomes are tiny delivery vehicles that transport ingredients into the skin. Made from lipids, liposomes simulate skins ...
Learn about Unilamellar Liposomes at ... Unilamellar Liposomes. Synonyms. Liposomes, Monolayer. Liposomes, Unilamellar. Monolayer Liposomes. Monolayer Vesicles. ...
Vincristine liposome is an antineoplastic agent (cancer medicine). It interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are ... Vincristine liposome injection is used to treat Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph- ALL) that ...
ICG liposomes were prepared by adding 5 mg of ICG to 50 mL liposomes. Later, 25 mL of ICG liposomes were diluted with 250 mL of ... In conclusion, the present findings suggest that the effect of PDT using ICG liposomes with LEM and hydrogen gas may eradicate ... In the second case, the patient was treated with endovascular PDT using ICG liposomes and MLDS fiber optics. Later, tumor ... liposomes and a combination of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and hydrogen gas inhalation therapy. ...
Liposomes or phospholipid vesicles are one of the most versatile nanoparticles used to convey drugs, vaccines, genes, enzymes, ... Analytical techniques for single-liposome characterization Chaoxiang Chen,a Shaobin Zhu,a Tianxun Huang,a Shuo Wanga and ... Liposomes or phospholipid. vesicles are one of the most versatile nanoparticles. used to convey drugs. , vaccines, genes, ... Analytical techniques for single-liposome characterization C. Chen, S. Zhu, T. Huang, S. Wang and X. Yan, Anal. Methods, 2013, ...
The liposomes were mannosylated in two ways, by covalent attachment of p-ami... ... The aim of the present study is preparation of mannosylated liposomes with built-in small molecule immunopotentiators for ... mannosylated liposomes; targeted delivery; peptidoglycan monomer; adamantyltripeptide; adjuvants; subunit vaccines Hrčak ID: ... and tetramannosyl-lipoconjugates into the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Four different mannosylated liposome formulations with ...
In this article, we report the observation of a ground-state proton transfer reaction of 3HF in DMPC liposome membrane. ... Ground- and Excited-state Proton Transfer Reaction of 3-Hydroxyflavone in Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Liposome Membrane. ... liposome membrane. 3HF partitions to the lipid bilayer membrane with a reasonably large partition coefficient. On excitation at ... and Excited-state Proton Transfer Reaction of 3-Hydroxyflavone in Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Liposome Membrane," ...
Notably, intravenously injected liposomes can interact with plasma proteins, leading to opsonization, thereby altering the ... Additionally, due to the pharmacokinetics of liposomes in circulation, drugs can end up sequestered in organs of the ... Liposomes hold great potential as gene and drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and modular properties, coupled ... Liposomes hold great potential as gene and drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and modular properties, coupled ...
Love the Liposomes These liposomes help essential oil nutrients reach deep into the skin. A perfect pair. A+. ... Beauty editor love for Liposomes Vitamin C Serum:. "The lesson I learned after years of struggle is to not strip your skin-it ... To reduce the appearance of scars, combine a few drops of vitamin E with 3-4 drops of Liposomes and massage on affected area. ... At night, I deeply moisturize with a mix of PRATIMA Skincares Liposomes Vitamin C Serum and Rejuvenating Essential Oil." - ...
We actually developed these spike-liposomes because we wanted to test a new COVID-19 diagnostic method ... "For the spike-liposomes, we wanted to make sure that the spike protein that we put on the surface of the liposome was in the ... "We knew we had to test the liposomes first, and when we looked at all the ways wed have to validate the liposomes, we found ... proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus which the researchers call "spike-liposomes ...
Keywords: Sitagliptin, liposomes, ocular, neurodegeneration, DPP-4, in vitro drug release, in vitro drug release model. ... Keywords: Sitagliptin, liposomes, ocular, neurodegeneration, DPP-4, in vitro drug release, in vitro drug release model. ... Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery. J. Drug Deliv., 2016, 2016, 1-14. ... Anwekar, H.; Patel, S.; Singhai, A.K. Liposome- as drug carriers. Int. J. Pharm. Life Sci., 2011, 2, 945-951. ...
Liposomes Market Growth and (products, applications & geography). This study presents market analysis, trends, and future ... GLOBAL LIPOSOMES MARKET FOR COSMETIC, BY REGION, 2022-2032 ($MILLION). *TABLE 16. GLOBAL LIPOSOMES MARKET FOR FOOD, BY REGION, ... REST OF LAMEA LIPOSOMES, BY TYPE, 2022-2032 ($MILLION). *TABLE 136. REST OF LAMEA LIPOSOMES, BY TECHNIQUE, 2022-2032 ($MILLION) ... REST OF EUROPE LIPOSOMES, BY TYPE, 2022-2032 ($MILLION). *TABLE 66. REST OF EUROPE LIPOSOMES, BY TECHNIQUE, 2022-2032 ($MILLION ...
... liposomes are investigated for their ability to deliver drug cargoes specifically into subcellular compartments of target cells ... For certain commonly used off-the-shelf FLLs, up to 75% of the dye dissociated from the liposomes, while others dissociated ... Within nanomedicine, liposomes are investigated for their ability to deliver drug cargoes specifically into subcellular ... Overall, our findings suggest that it is crucial for researchers to evaluate the stability of their FLL-labeled liposomes in ...
... purification and liposome binding of SNX-BAR heterodimers in yeast. ... Then extrude the liposomes through the 200 nanometer membrane 19 to 21 times and collect the extruded liposomes into a new ... Expression, Purification, and Liposome Binding of Budding Yeast SNX-BAR Heterodimers. Article DOI: 10.3791/60413-v • 10:28 min ... To prepare the liposomes, use glass syringes to transfer stock lipids into a clean glass culture tube to achieve a final lipid ...
Overcoming barriers by local drug delivery with liposomes. Antimisiaris, S.G.; Marazioti, A.; Kannavou, M.; Natsaridis, E.; ...
Facilitated Diffusion of Proline across Membranes of Liposomes and Living Cells by a Calix[4]pyrrole Cavitand ...
What is a liposome in skin care? It is a delivery vesicle allowing active ingredients to pass through the cellular membrane so ... Liposomes are used to literally wrap around nutrients to deliver through skin layers.. What is a liposome role in skin care ... what is a Liposome A very special delivery system for your anti-aging skin care treatments.. Liposome are used in skin care ... Liposomes are an important component of many skin rejuvenation treatments because of the ability of liposomes to encapsulate ...
Liposome formulation further enhanced the beneficial properties of Bamet-UD2. Thus, the amount of drug in the tumor was ... Usefulness of Liposomes Loaded with Cytostatic Bile Acid Derivatives to Circumvent Chemotherapy Resistance of Enterohepatic ... Usefulness of Liposomes Loaded with Cytostatic Bile Acid Derivatives to Circumvent Chemotherapy Resistance of Enterohepatic ... Usefulness of Liposomes Loaded with Cytostatic Bile Acid Derivatives to Circumvent Chemotherapy Resistance of Enterohepatic ...
... and free drug concentrations for liposome drug products. ... Bioanalysis of Liposome Drugs by LC-MS/MS This webinar presents ... and free drug concentrations for liposome drug products. ...
Secondly, HA-liposome mixtures were studied by SANS. In HA, liposomes kept their integrity. Anionic and PEGylated liposomes ... Cationic liposomes formed less dense aggregates and were better dispersed due to their complexation with HA. Liposome surface ... at high liposome concentration (80 mM lipids). The objective was to elucidate the influence of liposome surface (neutral, ... The center-to-center distance between liposomes corresponded to twice their diameter. A depletion mechanism could explain these ...
Synergistic effects of co-administration of suicide gene expressing mesenchymal stem cells and prodrug-encapsulated liposome on ... Synergistic effects of co-administration of suicide gene expressing mesenchymal stem cells and prodrug-encapsulated liposome on ...
In principle, liposomes can act as a safe solvent for the intravenous administration of alphaxalone. We report the ... In principle, liposomes can act as a safe solvent for the intravenous administration of alphaxalone. We report the ... In principle, liposomes can act as a safe solvent for the intravenous administration of alphaxalone. We report the ... In principle, liposomes can act as a safe solvent for the intravenous administration of alphaxalone. We report the ...
Concentrated Nanosphere Liposome Tincture (2 oz.). Co-Enzyme Q10 or CoQ10 is a concentrated nanosphere liposome tincture ...
The authors show that the anti-inflammatory effects of clodronate liposomes do not result from the depletion of mononuclear ... Stunning of neutrophils accounts for the anti-inflammatory effects of clodronate liposomes Stephan Culemann 0000-0001-9837-2811 ... Clodronate liposomes (Clo-Lip) have been widely used to deplete mononuclear phagocytes (MoPh) to study the function of these ... Addendum Addendum: Stunning of neutrophils accounts for the anti-inflammatory effects of clodronate liposomes ...
  • The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV, with several lamellar phase lipid bilayers), the small unilamellar liposome vesicle (SUV, with one lipid bilayer), the large unilamellar vesicle (LUV), and the cochleate vesicle. (
  • The types of liposomes are multilamellar vesicle, small unilamellar liposome vesicle, large unilamellar vesicle, and cochleate vesicle. (
  • The study also demonstrates how a new DNA-patterning technique, developed by the team last year, can help scientists rapidly characterize and conduct experiments on a variety of different types of liposomes, and their cousins, lipid nanoparticles. (
  • Dean, T 1993, ' Incorporation of alphaxalone into different types of liposomes ', Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 990-992. (
  • For the spike-liposomes, we wanted to make sure that the spike protein that we put on the surface of the liposome was in the correct configuration to allow it to bind to ACE2 receptors," Kozminsky said. (
  • By first attaching biotin to the surface of the liposome and then attaching a drug or therapeutic agent that is conjugated to an anti-biotin protein or streptavidin anti-biotin protein, the liposome can be targeted to specific cells or tissues that express anti-biotin protein/streptavidin anti-biotin protein receptors. (
  • 2) The significant increase in the propensity to react with water, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids (due to the external hydrophilic surface of the liposome) significantly improves the rheological characteristics of dough mixtures as well as the development and the yield of the end product. (
  • Liposomes or phospholipid vesicles are one of the most versatile nanoparticles used to convey drugs , vaccines, genes, enzymes, or other substances to target cells and as a model to mimic biological membranes. (
  • The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs.liposome contains phospholipid molecules enclosing a water droplet, these are mostly used to carry the drugs to the site of action. (
  • Liposomes are sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers. (
  • The liposome structure is spherical and/or phospholipid bilamellar with the hydrophilic side on the outside. (
  • 1)The acquired increased emulsifying effect of the liposome structure, as compared with a simple phospholipid, has a significant effect on the water activity AW, giving bakery products specific shelf life properties (maintaining stability, softness, friability and palatability over time). (
  • Anionic liposomes consisting of a phospholipid bilayer containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and 4% molar dicetylphosphate were prepared and the turbidity measured at 360 nanometers after 16 to 18 hours of incubation with test substances. (
  • Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, but may also include other lipids, such as those found in egg and phosphatidylethanolamine, as long as they are compatible with lipid bilayer structure. (
  • Typically, liposomes are prepared in a solution containing the compound to be trapped, which can either be an aqueous solution for encapsulating hydrophilic compounds like proteins, or solutions in organic solvents mixed with lipids for encapsulating hydrophobic molecules. (
  • Encapsulation techniques can be categorized into two types: passive, which relies on the stochastic trapping of molecules during liposome formation, and active, which relies on the presence of charged lipids or transmembrane ion gradients. (
  • When preparing liposomes with mixed lipid composition, the lipids must first be dissolved and mixed in an organic solvent to assure a homogeneous mixture of lipids. (
  • Made from lipids, liposomes simulate skin's structure to more easily pass through or manipulate the skin barrier to deliver their contents. (
  • Such studies are often based on flow cytometry or microscopy, where researchers rely on fluorescently labeled lipids (FLLs) incorporated into the liposomal membrane to determine the localization of the liposomes within cells. (
  • Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a valuable tool to characterize these systems in the semi-dilute entangled regime (1.5% HA) at high liposome concentration (80 mM lipids). (
  • Cationic liposomes formed less dense aggregates and were better dispersed due to their complexation with HA. (
  • clodronate liposomes BOC Sciences provides a wide range of liposome products, including cationic liposomes, anionic liposomes, fluorescently labeled liposomes, clodronate liposomes, ATP liposomes, etc., as well as a variety of high-quality liposome preparation materials. (
  • This property can be utilized to load liposomes with hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic molecules, a process known as encapsulation. (
  • According to Polla, liposomes can carry hydrophilic (water-loving) substances and/or lipophilic (lipid-, oil- or fat-loving) substances. (
  • Liposomes act as drug carriers for entrapment of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. (
  • Liposomes are spherical vesicles made up of phospholipids that are biocompatible with cells and tissues, and can encapsulate a wide range of drugs, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. (
  • Liposomes as Carriers of Hydrophilic Small Molecule Drugs: Strategies for Improving Entrapment Efficiency and Drug Loading" by Lian et al. (
  • 2014) - This study investigates different methods to optimize the encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs within liposomes. (
  • A liposome is a small artificial vesicle, spherical in shape, having at least one lipid bilayer. (
  • Liposomes are tiny, spherical vessels constructed of lipid membranes very similar to those that encase most biological cells. (
  • Liposomes can also gravitate to the skin surface, where encapsulated molecules directly transfer to the skin. (
  • To fulfil their roles in drug delivery and biotechnology, the physical and chemical properties of liposomes, such as size, shape, chemical composition, lamellarity, encapsulation efficiency of cargo molecules, and the density of proteins reconstituted in the membrane, need to be characterized to ensure reproducible preparation of the vesicles. (
  • Liposomes are vesicles or bags that contain an aqueous volume that is entirely enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid (fat) molecules, usually phospholipids. (
  • Excitement over liposomes has been most pronounced in the pharmaceutical industry, where drugmakers have experimented with outfitting liposomes with proteins that only interact with very specific cells in the body, allowing them to target the delivery of drug molecules to only the tissues where they are needed. (
  • Liposomes are used in a variety of fields (physics, biophysics and chemistry), but it is their ability to deliver active molecules to the site of action, that makes them the perfect partner for CBD. (
  • This bilayer created by the liposomes acts as a barrier, protecting the molecules located within. (
  • The addition of fluorescent molecules to these liposomes enables real-time visualization and tracking of the drug delivery process. (
  • We can label for example liposomes, antibodies and proteins all the way down to small molecules. (
  • A crucial parameter to consider is the "encapsulation efficiency," which is defined as the amount of compound present in the liposome solution divided by the total initial amount of compound used during the preparation. (
  • In more recent developments, the application of liposomes in single-molecule experiments has introduced the concept of "single entity encapsulation efficiency. (
  • The objective was to elucidate the influence of liposome surface (neutral, cationic, anionic or anionic PEGylated), drug encapsulation and HA concentration in a buffer mimicking biological fluids (37 °C). First, liposomes were characterized by SANS, cryo-electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering and HA by SANS, size exclusion chromatography, and rheology. (
  • Anionic and PEGylated liposomes were in close contact within dense clusters with an amorphous organization. (
  • And, in the same way that the membranes of biological cells are dotted with a variety of proteins that help the cell interact with the outside world, researchers have learned to attach different types of proteins into the membranes of liposomes, giving the particles different functions and abilities. (
  • The objective of this study is to design a new class of liposomes that can target tumor vasculature via Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and rapidly and extensively release therapeutic agents intracellularly by using the pH-sensitive peptide GALA conjugated to lipid moieties to destabilize the integrity of intracellular endosomes and achieve better tumor killing outcomes. (
  • Leakage of calcein (EX/EM 495 nm/515 nm) from an endosome analogue EggPC membrane incubated with GALA-bearing liposomes resulting in self-quenching fluorescence release was monitored over time over the pH range from 7.4 to 4.0 (Q t ). pH was adjusted with HCl. (
  • 3-Hydroxyflavone (3HF), a molecule that exhibits excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, has been studied for its fluorescence characteristics in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposome membrane. (
  • In this article, we report the observation of a ground-state proton transfer reaction of 3HF in DMPC liposome membrane. (
  • Thirunavukkuarasu Shyamala and Ashok K. Mishra "Ground- and Excited-state Proton Transfer Reaction of 3-Hydroxyflavone in Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Liposome Membrane," Photochemistry and Photobiology 80(2), 309-315, (1 September 2004). (
  • Structurally, liposomes are bilayer vesicles, which can encapsulate water-soluble drugs within their membrane itself. (
  • Liposome Extruder Membrane is made from high quality polycarbonate film and has sharply defined pore sizes. (
  • Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication). (
  • Liposomes are prepared by disrupting biological membranes by the sonication process. (
  • We sought to overcome the delivery of this hydrophobic neurotoxin by entrapping it in a lipid bilayer of positively charged multilamellar lipid vesicles (liposomes) or in a hydrophobic polymer matrix of thermosensitive hydrogel.Liposomes, hydrogel and 30% ethanol/normal saline were prepared with or without 1 mM capsaicin (0.5 ml) and administered intravesically for 30 minutes to 7 groups of age matched, normal female adult Sprague-Dawley rats under halothane anesthesia. (
  • Here we present the application of ML models towards the microfluidic -based synthesis of liposomes loaded with a model hydrophobic therapeutic agent, curcumin . (
  • Based on vesicle structure, there are seven main categories for liposomes: multilamellar large (MLV), oligolamellar (OLV), small unilamellar (SUV), medium-sized unilamellar (MUV), large unilamellar (LUV), giant unilamellar (GUV) and multivesicular vesicles (MVV). (
  • The Intercellular Skin Care Delivery System uses liposomes or another matrix to penetrate the outer layers of skin, in essence creating a highway through the skin layers to deliver the active agents to living skin cells. (
  • Another method for inserting genes uses liposomes, which are microscopic sacs that have a layer of lipid (fat). (
  • Serial sampling of serum cytokines from mice prior to injection with i.v. Clodronate liposomes are inherantly "leaky"…and should be. (
  • research using clodronate liposomes to study or manipulate macrophage function will continuously be extended, there will be many scientists having information that could be of much help to other scientists in macrophage research. (
  • A liposome possesses properties such as versatile, biodegradable, hypoallergenic nature, along with their similarity to biological membranes, which are the important factors in the continued efforts to develop liposomal drug delivery forms. (
  • Liposomal drug delivery systems are used in treatment of cancer by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical resection, owing to increasing cancer patients, which in turn can increase the liposomes market. (
  • The increasing adoption of the low-cost generic product such as liposomal drugs over the branded product that provide more effective result can also increase the market demand for liposome. (
  • This webinar presents the history, introduction, applications, and regulatory considerations for liposomal drugs and also discusses the development and validation of LC-MS/MS methods for the quantitation of total (encapsulated plus free), encapsulated, and free drug concentrations for liposome drug products. (
  • Furthermore, cellular uptake of liposomal doxorubicin enriched with C6 and C8-ceramide was higher than both free doxorubicin and liposome formulation without ceramide. (
  • Liposome-encapsulated clodronate (liposomal clodronate) is specifically phagocytized by macrophages. (
  • October 31, 2011 - The US Food and Drug Administration today approved a novel long-acting nonopioid anesthetic/analgesic for postsurgical pain: bupivacaine extended-release liposome injection ( Exparel , Pacira Pharmaceuticals). (
  • lidocaine increases toxicity of bupivacaine liposome by Other (see comment). (
  • The liposomes were mannosylated in two ways, by covalent attachment of p-aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside to the preformed liposomes and by incorporation of synthetic mono-, di- and tetramannosyl-lipoconjugates into the lipid bilayer of liposomes. (
  • This study explores the mechanism of GALA anchored to gel-phase lipid vesicles in both clustered (pH and non-pH responsive) and uniform presentations with the goal of optimizing GALA presentation for improving therapeutic efficacy of tumor vasculature targeted liposome compositions. (
  • Since every industry is badly hampered by the vital outbreak, some market players in Europe are putting forward to test the efficacy of liposome drug against COVID-19. (
  • There were significant histological changes in bladders treated with 30% ethanol alone.In comparison with 30% ethanol liposomes are a superior vehicle for the intravesical administration of capsaicin, producing comparable efficacy with less tissue damage. (
  • Fluorescent drug-loaded liposomes offer several advantages over traditional drug delivery systems, including improved targeting and specificity, reduced toxicity, and enhanced drug efficacy. (
  • By encapsulating active ingredients within liposomes, their efficacy and targeted delivery can be optimized, resulting in enhanced skincare benefits such as moisturization, nourishment, and rejuvenation. (
  • Liposomes were prepared by hydrating a thin lipid film with the desired aqueous phase buffer, incubating at 55° Celsius for 2 hours, and extruding the resultant suspension through 100 nm -pore polycarbonate membranes to generate unilamellar vesicles. (
  • Due to their hydrophobicity and/or hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, particle size and many other properties, liposomes can be used as drug delivery vehicles for administration of pharmaceutical drugs and nutrients, such as lipid nanoparticles in mRNA vaccines, and DNA vaccines. (
  • Additionally, due to the pharmacokinetics of liposomes in circulation, drugs can end up sequestered in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, affecting liver and spleen function. (
  • Liposomes serve as promising active carriers of drugs to posterior segment eye disorders due to improvement in intravitreal half-life and targeted sustained drug delivery to the retina. (
  • The liposome bubble is filled with active ingredients such as drugs to treat a variety of conditions, diseases and even cancer. (
  • The Liposome serves as the special delivery vehicle for administering nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs to the cellular level. (
  • Here we show that liposomes can also target the delivery of drugs to zebrafish macrophages to selectively manipulate their function. (
  • Unfortunately, it is not until even more recently, that the nutraceutical industry has started to adopt liposomes as a means to increase the bioavailability of nutrients and drugs. (
  • Liposomes have been used to deliver drugs (e.g. in. (
  • Conducting a proof of concept research with liposomes on organ-on-chip may encourage the use of the method in industry leading to faster drug development and cheaper drugs for the public. (
  • 2017). 'Mannosylated Liposomes with Built-in Peptidoglycan Based Immunomodulators for Subunit Vaccine Formulations', Croatica Chemica Acta , 90(4), str. (
  • Štimac A, Bendelja K, Dutour Sikirić M, Frkanec L, Frkanec R. Mannosylated Liposomes with Built-in Peptidoglycan Based Immunomodulators for Subunit Vaccine Formulations. (
  • Four different mannosylated liposome formulations with incorporated model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and immunomodulators, PGM and Ad2TP2, were prepared and characterized. (
  • The influence of mannosylated liposome formulations on the antigen-specific humoral immune response was investigated. (
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) results of the formulations also showed that the antigen OVA maintained its integrity except liposome in chitosan gel formulation. (
  • Liposomes technology in skincare refers to the use of liposomes, which are tiny vesicles made of lipid bilayers, in cosmetic formulations. (
  • Overall, liposomes technology in skincare allows for improved delivery and absorption of key ingredients, leading to more effective and targeted skincare formulations. (
  • Both effects were further enhanced by liposome formulation. (
  • Liposome formulation further enhanced the beneficial properties of Bamet-UD2. (
  • Doxorubicin enriched with C6 and C8-ceramide exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cells compared to liposome formulation that does not contain ceramide and free doxorubicin. (
  • We have also developed OVA containing liposome formulation for nasal administration. (
  • Inside this structure there is a "combined" aqueous phase that represents and characterizes the functionalities of the liposome structure. (
  • 4) The increased anti-crystallization effect due to the liposome structure (aqueous phase lipidic structure), gives specific important features to refrigerated and frozen dough mixtures by acting as a thermal regulator during an increase or a decrease in temperature. (
  • We have established protocols that allow for reliable liposome synthesis and for physical, chemical and biological characterization. (
  • Kozminsky realized that the DNA-printing technique, which was originally developed by the Sohn Lab to "print" different types of cells into patterns that model biological tissues, could also be used to quickly verify that the spike-liposomes were presenting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein correctly. (
  • Overall, our findings suggest that it is crucial for researchers to evaluate the stability of their FLL-labeled liposomes in biological environments, and the simplicity of the SEC assay put forward here makes it very applicable for the purpose. (
  • In cultured primary neurons, clodronate liposome exposure also attenuated ATP synthesis. (
  • Customizability: With GMP-grade synthesis capabilities and technical support, BOC Sciecnes offers a range of individually tailored biotinylated liposomes to meet customers' needs for different projects. (
  • Machine learning instructed microfluidic synthesis of curcumin-loaded liposomes. (
  • Liposomes are an important component of many skin rejuvenation treatments because of the ability of liposomes to encapsulate active anti-aging ingredients and deliver them through the layers of skin right down to the cellular level where they can do the most good. (
  • In skincare, liposomes are designed to encapsulate and protect various active compounds such as vitamins, antioxidants, and moisturizing agents. (
  • Consequently, the choice of FLL can dramatically influence the conclusions drawn from liposome uptake and localization studies due to uptake of dissociated FLLs. (
  • A less desirable form is multivesicular liposomes in which one vesicle contains one or more smaller vesicles. (
  • Research from Seoul explored how liposomes containing epidermal growth factors (EGFs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) could aid in the treatment of wounds. (
  • Mixtures of hyaluronic acid (HA) with liposomes lead to hybrid colloid-polymer systems with a great interest in drug delivery. (
  • Herein, we review the recent advances in techniques for single-liposome characterization. (
  • While initially believed to penetrate intact into skin, traditional liposomes have more recently been shown to instead act like penetration enhancers, bonding with outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum and bursting, allowing contents to enter skin. (
  • Liposomes penetrate the skin via five main mechanisms and a sixth peripheral route. (
  • Transfersomes and deformable liposomes, appear to penetrate fully intact into skin. (
  • Peripherally, liposomes can also penetrate skin through cutaneous annexes such as hair follicles. (
  • Liposomes act as delivery systems or carriers for active ingredients, allowing them to penetrate the skin more effectively. (
  • Methods: Sitagliptin liposomes were prepared by the ethanol injection method and were evaluated for various physicochemical properties such as visual appearance, particle size distribution, zeta potential, % drug entrapment efficiency, % drug loading capacity and in vitro drug release studies. (
  • Liposomes hold great potential as gene and drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and modular properties, coupled with the major advantage of attenuating the risk of systemic toxicity from the encapsulated therapeutic agent. (
  • The aim of this study was to develop a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the nasal delivery system of liposomes. (
  • At night, I deeply moisturize with a mix of PRATIMA Skincare's Liposomes Vitamin C Serum and Rejuvenating Essential Oil . (
  • Mix 3 -4 drops of Liposomes Vitamin C Serum with your appropriate PRATIMA Face Essential Oil. (
  • The rate of efflux of this anaesthetic from a range of liposomes was measured in serum. (
  • We also study liposome stability under extreme conditions including dehydration, lyophilization, and storage at temperatures above 40 °C, in blood, urine and other matrices. (
  • After generating over 200 different liposome configurations by systematically modulating flow rates, lipid concentrations, organic water mixing volume ratios, support-vector machine models and feed-forward artificial neural networks were trained to predict, respectively, the liposome dispersity/stability and size. (
  • Vincristine liposome injection is used to treat Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph- ALL) that has worsen or come back or in patients who have received at least 2 previous cancer treatments that did not work well. (
  • DepoCyte (cytarabine liposome injection) and DepoDur (morphine sulfate extended-release liposome injection). (
  • Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome is a form of irinotecan hydrochloride contained inside liposomes (very tiny particles of fat). (
  • The aim of the present study is preparation of mannosylated liposomes with built-in small molecule immunopotentiators for targeted, receptors mediated, delivery of antigens. (
  • Ca2+ had a maximal effect on the liposomes at concentrations between increase in turbidity. (
  • The custodians of this focus are none other than liposomes, microscopic phospholipids, that can form a protective barrier around vital ingredients, increasing their absorption into the body. (
  • Liposomes are typically referred to and utilized as an agent in many anti-aging skin care products to convey critical nutrients directly to the skin cells to more effectively promote rejuvenation. (
  • In relation, work from The Arctic University of Norway showed how benzoyl peroxide and the antibiotic chloramphenicol could be encapsulated together in liposomes to achieve synergistic effects against conditions such as acne. (
  • A correct extruder assembly is essential to preventing liposome loss during the extrusion process. (
  • Jacketed Liposome Extruder. (
  • Online Liposome Extruder. (
  • The animals were subsequently sacrificed and whole bladders were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry.In normal urethane anaesthetized rats capsaicin in 30% ethanol and liposomes completely blocked micturition reflexes. (
  • The results of cystometry with capsaicin in liposomes and capsaicin in 30% ethanol correlated with a significant decrease in calcitonin gene-related peptide staining of afferent nerves in the bladder wall. (
  • Shown here, DNA-directed patterning is used to test whether neutralizing antibodies interfere with the ability of ACE receptor to bind with spike-liposomes that have been created using spike protein from two different variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • Biotinylated liposomes have a biotin moiety and are primarily used for conjugation to proteins with (streptavidin) affinity or biotin, such as antibodies. (
  • BOC Sciences manufactures biotinylated liposomes that have been widely used in preclinical and laboratory applications, and have demonstrated good efficiency and success in conjugating antibodies especially downstream, assisting customers in advancing the development of immunotherapies. (
  • Secondly, HA-liposome mixtures were studied by SANS. (
  • We have investigated liposomes for nucleic acid, protein, and whole cell detection, and their use for bioimaging and for multiplexing. (
  • This microscope image of their technique shows that mixing spike-liposomes (top right, tagged with green fluorescent protein) with ACE2 receptor (bottom red, tagged with red fluorescent protein), results in a composite of both proteins (left), indicating that their spike-liposomes bind to ACE2 receptor in the same way as SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer . (
  • Vincristine liposome is an antineoplastic agent (cancer medicine). (
  • We reported the development of an effective cancer treatment using a multidisciplinary treatment, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) with indocyanine green (ICG) liposomes and a combination of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and hydrogen gas inhalation therapy. (
  • This study presents the analytical depiction of the Liposomes industry along with the current trends and future estimations to determine the imminent investment pockets. (
  • Notably, intravenously injected liposomes can interact with plasma proteins, leading to opsonization, thereby altering the healthy cells they come into contact with during circulation and removal. (
  • UC Berkeley engineers attached SARS-CoV-2 "spike" proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus called "spike-liposomes," which, when paired with a new DNA-patterning technique, could enable efficient testing of antibody therapies. (
  • In a new study , a team of engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, attached SARS-CoV-2 "spike" proteins to the surface of liposomes, creating lab-made mimics of the deadly virus which the researchers call "spike-liposomes. (
  • However, researchers must first verify that the liposome proteins are able to properly interact with their environment. (
  • What Are The Benefits Of Liposomes As Carriers Of CBD? (
  • Liposomes as drug carriers : recent trends and progress / edited by Gregory Gregoriadis. (
  • Liposomes are tiny delivery vehicles that transport ingredients into the skin. (
  • Recent applications of liposomes in ophthalmic drug delivery. (
  • From these studies it can be concluded that liposomes offer a suitable alternative for intravenous delivery of steroidal anaesthetics. (
  • The report offers an entire company profiling of leading players competing within the Liposome Drug Delivery (Liposomes Drug Delivery) market with a high specialise in the share, margin of profit , net income , sales, product portfolio, new applications, recent developments, and a number of other other factors. (
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  • The Liposome Drug Delivery (Liposomes Drug Delivery) Market covers the market landscape and their growth prospect over the approaching years, this report covers the industry structure and even landscape, the issues along side business strategies and industry effectiveness. (
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  • The research study of the Liposome Drug Delivery (Liposomes Drug Delivery) market covers Introduction, product scope, market outline, market openings, market hazard, significant market-main thrust alongside the highest makers and examinations their business, sales, and value choices for the term 2021 and 2030. (
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  • Scholars@Duke publication: Urodynamic and immunohistochemical evaluation of intravesical capsaicin delivery using thermosensitive hydrogel and liposomes. (
  • Biotinylated liposomes can be used for targeted drug delivery. (
  • Fluorescent drug-loaded liposomes are a promising drug delivery system that have gained significant attention in recent years. (
  • CD Bioparticles manufactures and supplies fluorescent drug loaded liposomes for drug delivery research. (
  • Liposomes as a topical delivery system: A review" by Nasrullah and Shahzad (2017) - This review article discusses the use of liposomes in topical drug delivery, including their applications in skincare. (
  • Interestingly, a patent application from the Sogang University Research Foundation describes a liposome capable of promoting cell attachment and growth by delivering ECM itself to cells. (
  • Within nanomedicine, liposomes are investigated for their ability to deliver drug cargoes specifically into subcellular compartments of target cells. (
  • Liposome are used in skin care treatments to deliver active ingredients through the skin layers to the living skin cells. (
  • The method is specific with respect to phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) for the following reasons: (1) The natural fate of liposomes is phagocytosis. (
  • Treatment with clodronate liposome deletes Kupffer cells but does not affect other cell populations. (
  • After the liposomes are digested by lysosomal phospholipases, the free clodronate released into the cells induces rapid apoptosis of the macrophages. (
  • Liposomes can be configured to contain DNA that can be absorbed by the person's cells, thereby delivering their DNA to the cell nucleus. (
  • Sometimes this method does not work because the liposomes are not absorbed into the person's cells, the new gene does not work as intended, or the new gene is eventually lost. (
  • Liposome is preferred in clinics due to its low toxicity and high efficiency, which is driving the market growth. (