Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CMicelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Tuftsin: N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Focal InfectionAntibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (1/9099)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (2/9099)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (3/9099)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (4/9099)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (5/9099)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (6/9099)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (7/9099)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (8/9099)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Progressive aggregation of protein Tau into oligomers and fibrils correlates with cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunction, leading to neurodegeneration in vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimers disease. The unmet need of effective therapy for Alzheimers disease, combined with problematic pharmacological approaches, led the field to explore immunotherapy, first against amyloid peptides and recently against protein Tau. Here we adapted the liposome-based amyloid vaccine that proved safe and efficacious, and incorporated a synthetic phosphorylated peptide to mimic the important phospho-epitope of protein Tau at residues pS396/pS404. We demonstrate that the liposome-based vaccine elicited, rapidly and robustly, specific antisera in wild-type mice and in Tau.P301L mice. Long-term vaccination proved to be safe, because it improved the clinical condition and reduced indices of tauopathy in the brain of the Tau.P301L mice, while no signs of neuro-inflammation or other adverse neurological effects were
The incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated lipids in lipid-based carriers substantially prolongs the circulation lifetime of liposomes. However, the mechanism(s) by which PEG-lipids achieve this have not been fully elucidated. It is believed that PEG-lipids mediate steric stabilization, ultimately reducing surface-surface interactions including the aggregation of liposomes and/or adsorption of plasma proteins. The purpose of the studies described here was to compare the effects of PEG-lipid incorporation in liposomes on protein binding, liposome-liposome aggregation and pharmacokinetics in mice. Cholesterol-free liposomes were chosen because of their increasing importance as liposomal delivery systems and their marked sensitivity to protein binding and aggregation. Specifically, liposomes containing various molecular weight PEG-lipids at a variety of molar proportions were analyzed for in vivo clearance, aggregation state (size exclusion chromatography, quasi-elastic light ...
Comparison of liposome-based transfection reagents hr...Transfection of mammalian cell lines is enhanced by the use oflipos...Our lab has recently been interested in the transient transfection of ...The cell line used for many of our experiments is the human adrenalcar...,Transfection,of,Green,Fluorescent,Protein,into,Human,Adrenalcarcinoma,Cells,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Quantum dots (QDs) and silica nanoparticles (SNs) are new classes of fluorescent probes that overcome the limitations encountered by organic fluorophores in bioassay and biological imaging applications. We encapsulated QDs and SNs into liposomes by the reverse-phase evaporation method. Nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by size exclusion chromatography and their characteristics were investigated. Dual-color, two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the number of nanoparticles inside each liposome. Results indicated that nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were formed and separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by using Sepharose gel. As expected, fluorescence self-quenching of nanoparticles inside liposomes was not observed. When a 0.8 mM solution of 50 nm QDs was used for liposome preparation, each liposome encapsulated an average of three QDs. However, we could not measure the number of SNs inside each liposome due to the spectral
A promising strategy to improve the immunogenic potential of DNA vaccines is the formulation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic liposomes. In this respect, particle size may be of crucial importance. This study aimed at the evaluation of high-pressure extrusion as a method for sizing cationic liposomes after entrapment of pDNA. This is a well-known sizing method for liposomes, but so far, it has not been applied for liposomes that are already loaded with pDNA. Liposomes composed of egg PC, DOTAP, and DOPE with entrapped pDNA were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration method and subjected to various extrusion cycles, comparing different membrane pore sizes and extrusion frequencies. At optimized extrusion conditions, liposome diameter (Zave) and polydispersity index (PDI) were reduced from 560 nm and 0.56 to 150 nm and 0.14 respectively, and 35% of the pDNA was retained. Importantly, gel electrophoresis and transfection experiments with pDNA extracted from these extruded liposomes demonstrated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liposomal drug delivery system. AU - Maruyama, Kazuo. AU - Kennel, Stephen. AU - Huang, Leaf. PY - 1990/8/1. Y1 - 1990/8/1. N2 - We have recently described an immunoliposome targeting system which involves the use of monoclonal antibodies specific for the pulmonary endothelial cells. We have employed the antibodies, 34A and 201B, which bind to a surface glycoprotein, gp112, which is specifically expressed in high concentrations in the capillary endothelial cells of the mouse lung. Intravenously injected immunoliposomes (34A- or 201B-liposomes) to the mice gain direct access and bind efficiently to the lung. Approximately 50% of the injected dose was accumulated in the lung for 34A-liposomes which contained an average of 935 antibody molecules per liposome. Lung accumulation of 34A-liposomes is completely blocked by a preinjection of free antibody 34A, indicating that the immunoliposome accumulation at the target site is immunospecific. The level of lung accumulation increases ...
Another new technology to increase the accumulation of liposomes at the target site is immunoliposomes. Immunoglobulins, especially those of the IgG class, are attached to the surface of the liposomes. They act as ligands-molecules that connect to a site on a receptor protein-capable of recognizing and binding to tissue at sites of interest. However, most immunoliposomes are still eliminated by the liver before they can deliver significant results. One way to meet this challenge is to use stealth liposome technology: Coat the immunoliposomes with PEG to create long-circulating liposomes. Currently, one immunoliposome formulation is in clinical trials, a PEGylated DXR formulated to recognize gastric, colon, and breast cancer cells ...
The invention discloses a formula of a liposome preparation containing compound amino acids and a preparation method thereof; a raw material mass ratio of the liposome preparation is determined; the preparation method comprises the following steps: (1) weighing soybean phosphatide and cholesterol, adding water, heating and stirring to prepare an oil phase; (2) weighing cysteine hydrochloride and tryptophan, adding process water for dissolution, orderly adding some or all of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, arginine, glycine, and praline; then orderly adding one or more than one of auxiliary materials of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin K, and a film forming material, finally adding potassium sorbate or ethylparaben, stirring toprepare a water phase; (3) mixing the oil phase and the water phase, shearing by a high-speed shearing machine to obtain the liposome preparation. The invention initiates the technology for preparingliposome ...
Soft nanogels are submicron-sized hydrophilic structures engineered from biocompatible polymers possessing the characteristics of nanoparticles as well as hydrogels, with a wide array of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, namely, drug and protein delivery. In this work, nanogels were obtained using the physical self-assembly technique or layer-by-layer which is based on electrostatic interactions. Liposomal vesicles were coated with alternating layers of hyaluronic acid and chitosan yielding a more viscous hydrogel formulation that previously reported core-shell nanoparticulate suspension, via simply modifying the physico-chemical characteristics of the system. Structural features, size, surface charge, stability and swelling characteristics of the nanogel were studied using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. With a specific cranio-maxillofacial application in mind, the hydrogel was loaded with recombinant human (rh) bone morphogenetic protein-7, also
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Computer-assisted motion analyses (CASA) and flow cytometry were used to evaluate stallion spermatozoa prior to and after cryopreservation. Spermatozoa were pretreated with: (1) Hepes-buffered medium (SHB); (2) phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes; or (3) liposomes composed of both PS and cholesterol (PSCH) prior to dilution in either SHB or skim milk-egg yolk extender (SMEY). After cooling to 5 degrees C in SHB, PS and PSCH pretreatment (23%). Spermatozoal motion parameters were higher for spermatozoa diluted in SMEY than dilution in SHB. In Experiment 2, motion parameters were compared for spermatozoa pretreated with PSCH liposomes and cryopreserved in either SMEY or a high salt-skim milk-egg yolk extender (CO). Spermatozoal motion characteristics were similar for all spermatozoal treatments after cooling at 5 degrees C. After cryopreservation, PSCH liposome-treated samples had higher percentages of motile spermatozoa than untreated samples regardless of freezing extender. Samples frozen in CO medium had
The study of different strategies to improve the stability and bioavailability of bioactive components has increased in the last decades. One of the mechanisms that has acquired great relevance is to formulate using liposomal vesicles. Liposomes are structures that enhance the absorption, stability and transport of active compounds, which is reflected by an increase in the bioactivity of the encapsulated molecules. The guarana extract has proven to be rich in methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. These metabolites are associatedto a wide variety of pharmacological properties, and exert a stimulating effect. For this reason, it has become popular in nutritional products. In this workit was characterized physicochemically a nutritional product based on guarana, vitamins and folic acid. In this product the active components were encapsulated in liposomal vesicles, which were analyzed to know their structure, size (diameter) and membrane thickness. Results and analysis indicate that liposomes are ...
Title:Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Generic Doxorubicin HCl Liposome Injection with the Reference Listed Drug. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Kuntal Maiti *, Subhas Bhowmick, Pankaj Jain, Murlidhar Zope, Keyur Doshi and Thennati Rajamannar. Affiliation:Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai. Keywords:Doxorubicin hydrochloride, liposome, sterically stable, generic, physicochemical equivalence, cancer.. Abstract:Background: Liposomal doxorubicin is widely used for treating ovarian cancer and Kaposis sarcoma. Encapsulation of doxorubicin in highly complex polyethylene glycol-coated (stealth) liposomes prolongs residence time and avoids the systemic toxicity associated with administration of the free drug. Small variations in ...
In addition, we find binding of charged nanoparticles to the outer surface of phospholipid liposomes produces particle-stabilized liposomes that repel one another and do not fuse. Subsequently, the volume fraction can be raised as high as ∼50%, reversibly, still without fusion. In studies of liposome longevity, we verify the stability of particle-stabilized liposome suspensions with volume fraction up to 16% for up to 50 days, the longest period investigated. In contrast to the stabilized liposomes, the volume fraction of the same liposomes without nanoparticles is typically less than ∼2% with a longevity of 4∼5 days. Fluorescent dyes are encapsulated within the particle-stabilized liposomes, without leakage. Although these particle-stabilized liposomes are stable against fusion, ∼75% of the outer liposome surface remains unoccupied, which is still biofunctionalizable tested with ligand-receptor binding. This work not only provides a robust nanoparticle-liposome complex system which ...
Coating of liposomes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has proven to prolong the circulation time of liposomes in the blood stream. PEG prevents the binding of opsonins and subsequent uptake of the liposomes by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The reduction in clearance of PEGylated liposomes from the circulation improve the bioavailability of the liposomes in the blood and increase the chance of liposomes being accumulated in tumor tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the incorporation and retention ability of PEGylated liposome formulations of the anticancer agent Camptothecin (CPT), and further try to develop an immunoliposomal formulation of CPT targeting the EGFR receptors on the surface of colorectal cancer cells. The results from the incorporation and retention studies showed that the formulation consisting of 79 % egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), 20 % 1,2-di-oleyl-3- trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 1 % PEG ...
There is a great need of improved anticancer drugs and corresponding drug carriers. In particular, liposomal drug carriers with heat-activated release and targeting functions are being developed for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatments of tumors. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the heat-activation of liposome targeting to biotinylated surfaces, in model experiments where streptavidin is used as a pretargeting protein. The design of the heat-activated liposomes is based on liposomes assembled in an asymmetric structure and with a defined phase transition temperature. Asymmetry between the inside and the outside of the liposome membrane was generated through the enzymatic action of phospholipase D, where lipid head groups in the outer membrane leaflet, i.e. exposed to the enzyme, were hydrolyzed. The enzymatically treated and purified liposomes did not bind to streptavidin-modified surfaces. When activation heat was applied, starting from 22 degrees C, binding of the liposomes
This report aims to target already-existing systems that could enable the use of cloaking concepts in order to achieve control of three-dimensional processes, using coated spheres consisting of concentric layers of homogeneous isotropic diffusivity. Various applications already implicate the use of concentric bilayered vesicles, one example being liposomes used for drug delivery [1]. Liposomes are concentric bilayered vesicles in which an aqueous volume containing a water-soluble drug is enclosed by a membranous lipid bilayer composed of natural or synthetic phospholipids. One popular type of liposomes, known as the stealth liposomes [2], are highly stable, long-circulating liposomes whereby polyethylene glycol has been used as the polymeric steric stabilizer [3]. Stealth and other liposomes use the concept of invisibility in order to hide and evade the immunosystem by coupling water-soluble polymers to the lipid heads. Therefore, the polymer part of the molecule is dissolved in the aqueous ...
Specific targeting of liposome-formulated cytotoxic drugs or antigens to receptors expressed selectively on target cells represents an effective strategy for increasing the pharmacological efficacy of the delivered molecules. We have developed a feasible technique to selectively attach antibodies and fragments thereof, but also small-mol-wt ligands such as peptides, carbohydrates, or any molecules that recognize and bind target antigens or receptors to the surface of small unilamellar liposomes. Our concept is based on the site-specific functionalization of the ligands to be attached to the liposomes by thiol groups. These thiol groups can easily be introduced to antibodies or peptides by addition of cysteines, preferably at sites that do not interfere with the receptor binding domains. Optimally, the site-specific modification is introduced at the C-terminal end of the ligand, separated by an inert spacer sequence located between the thiols and the specific part of the ligand. The ...
DescriptionMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a myriad of infections ranging from mild skin-infection to more serious infections affecting internal organs. A glycopeptide, Vancomycin, remains the last line of defense against MRSA. The aim of this study is to investigate whether liposomal encapsulated Vancomycin had a better antimicrobial action than free Vancomycin in terms of infection-specific targeting and circulation time. For the same, encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics of the liposomes was evaluated along with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the liposomal preparations. The liposomes showcased a 12-15% encapsulation efficiency. Sustained release at pH 6.0 as compared to little to no release at pH 7.4 was demonstrated by the pH sensitive liposomes. Also, in acidic pH, an increase in efficacy was observed with a greater decrease in the MIC of the pH responsive liposomes as compared to the lower decrease in MIC of the non pH-responsive liposomes and ...
The liposome, a closed phospholipid bilayered vesicular system, has received considerable attention as a pharmaceutical carrier of great potential over the past 30 years. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, coupled with their biocompatibility and biodegradability, make liposomes attractive vehicles in the field of drug delivery. In addition, great technical advances such as remote drug loading, triggered release liposomes, ligand-targeted liposomes, liposomes containing combinations of drugs, and so on, have led to the widespread use of liposomes in diverse areas as delivery vehicles for anti-cancer, bio-active molecules, diagnostics, and therapeutic agents ...
In one method, DNA fragments, of approximately 2-200 bases in length, or deoxynucleotides (single bases), are administered topically to the epidermis, either in a liposome preparation or in another appropriate vehicle, such as propylene glycol, in a quantity sufficient to enhance melanin production. As used herein, "DNA fragments" refers to single-stranded DNA fragments, double-stranded DNA fragments, a mixture of both single-and double-stranded DNA fragments, or deoxynucleotides. "Deoxynucleotides" refers to either a single type of deoxynucleotide or a mixture of different deoxynucleotides. The DNA fragments or deoxynucleotides can come from any appropriate source. For example, salmon sperm DNA can be dissolved in water, and then the mixture can be autoclaved to fragment the DNA. The fragments can additionally be UV-irradiated. The liposome preparation can be comprised of any liposomes which penetrate the stratum corneum and fuse with the cell membrane, resulting in delivery of the contents of ...
There are about 20 publications about liposomal formulations of Cyclosporin A (CyA) in the pharmaceutical and preclinical literature. Liposomal formulations were developed in order to reduce the nephrotoxicity of CyA and to increase pharmacological effects. However, conflicting results have been published as to the therapeutic properties of these formulations. This is also true for the change in pharmacokinetics and organ distribution of the liposomally encapsulated CyA as compared to conventionally formulated CyA. Using biophysical methods, it could be shown that CyA is not tightly entrapped in liposomal membranes, despite its high lipophilicity. CyA shows retardation only at high lipid concentrations in blood, following a massive injection of liposomes.This effect may diminish nephrotoxicity, as could be demonstrated by in vitro studies using a model tubule system. The results of these studies can be used to predict the formulation behavior in vivo and to optimize liposomal formulations. When ...
Elixinols new rapidly dissolving Hemp Oil Liposomes are the latest enhancements to cannabinoid delivery. Now you can receive cannabinoids into the body faster, deeper and easier than ever before. With 100% natural fruit and herb extracts, this is a delicious hemp oil supplement you will enjoy taking daily without any bitter taste.Product informationThis 3.5 oz (100 ml) spray pump dispenser bottle of Elixinol™ Liposome contains 1000 mg of cannabidiol extract (CBD hemp oil) with a citrus flavor.How our hemp oil liposomes are madeWe pre-dissolve our CBD hemp oil and embed it into microscopic liposomes. This safe technology allows you to absorb more cannabinoids with the aid of naturally occurring phospholipids. These support cellular health and delivery of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids directly into the cell.The reason that liposomes are so effective is that hemp oil, in its natural form, is a sticky dense oil. As you may know, getting any oil-based substance to pass through a cell wall is a
Read "DNA-Induced Aggregation and Fusion of Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes in the Presence of Multivalent Cations Observed by the Cryo-TEM Technique, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Much of the work on liposomal drug delivery has focused on cancer treatment because conventionally delivered cancer chemotherapy has been far from satisfactory. Major problems with conventional chemotherapy are the inability of the drug to reach the tumor site at pharmacologically active concentrations, intrinsic as well as acquired cross-resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, and toxicity that contributes to many of the treatment failures.. Doxorubicin encapsulated in long-circulating, PEGylated liposomes has proven to be more effective than the free drug in several tumor models, including murine tumors and human tumor xenografts, regardless of tumor type and site of implantation (27) . In all of the experiments conducted, the liposomal preparation clearly performed better than Free-Dox, and the peak tumor drug levels obtained by liposome delivery were at least 3-fold greater. Notable differences in toxicity between free drug and liposomal drug have also been observed, including ...
Kawakami, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yamashita, F.; Hashida, M., 2005: Induction of apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells by all-trans retinoic acid incorporated in DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct Comparison of Standard Transmission Electron Microscopy and Cryogenic-TEM in Imaging Nanocrystals Inside Liposomes. AU - Li, Tang. AU - Nowell, Cameron J.. AU - Cipolla, David. AU - Rades, Thomas. AU - Boyd, Ben J.. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - The use of electron microscopy techniques in the understanding of shape and size of nanoparticles are commonly applied to drug nanotechnology, but the type of microscopy and suitability for the particles of interest can have a significant impact on the result. The size and shape of the nanoparticles are crucial in clinical applications; however, direct comparison of the results from standard transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-TEM have rarely been reported. As a useful case for comparison, liposomal drug nanocrystals are studied here. In this study, the effect of thawing temperature on the size and shape of the ciprofloxacin nanocrystals was determined. A quantitative standard TEM assay was developed to allow for ...
A new technique for the quantification of cellular receptor-mediated endocytosis has been developed based on the analysis by flow cytometry of ligand-bearing liposomes containing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein. Carboxyfluorescein encapsulated at high concentrations in protein A-bearing liposomes is self-quenched. Binding and internalization of such liposomes by cells via antibodies directed towards membrane surface determinants results in the release of the liposome-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein into the cytoplasm causing an increase in cell-associated fluorescence. This increase can be quantified on a flow cytofluorometer. ...
Consumer information about the medication CYTARABINE LIPOSOME - INJECTION (Depocyt), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug CYTARABINE LIPOSOME - INJECTION.
The efficacy of a liposomal formulation for intracerebral delivery of borocaptate (BSH) to brain tumor cells has been investigated using cell culture to study BSH uptake and persistence and using tumor-bearing rats to determine BSH distribution in the brain. During a 16-hr incubation, cellular uptake of BSH solution or BSH liposomal formulation was similar. However, the cellular persistence of BSH greatly increased when BSH was present in liposome. The differences in cellular persistence for BSH solution and BSH-loaded liposomes were significant both in 12-hr and 24-hr incubation experiments (p | 0.05 and p | 0.01, respectively). For the studies involving tumor-bearing rats, BSH level in tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissue at 2 hr and 6 hr after intracerebral injection of BSH-loaded liposomes (p | 0.01). Our study indicated that the liposomal formulation enhanced cellular persistence of BSH in tumor cells and therefore favored the boron accumulation in the cells. With
1. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6387-92 2. Maeda H. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting. Adv Enzyme Regul. 2001;41:189-207 3. Maeda H. Macromolecular therapeutics in cancer treatment: the EPR effect and beyond. J Controlled Release. 2012;164:138-44 4. Harrington KJ, Mohammadtaghi S, Uster PS, Glass D, Peters AM, Vile RG. et al. Effective targeting of solid tumors in patients with locally advanced cancers by radiolabeled pegylated liposomes. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:243-54 5. Allen C. Why Im holding onto hope for nano in oncology. Mol Pharm. 2016;13:2603-4 6. Minchinton AI, Tannock IF. Drug penetration in solid tumours. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6:583-92 7. Tan Q, Saggar JK, Yu M, Wang M, Tannock IF. Mechanisms of drug resistance related ...
We present a novel thylakoid based bio-solar cell capable of generating a photoelectric current of 0.7 µA/cm2. We have introduced an electro conductive polymer, PEDOT-S, to the thylakoid membrane. PEDOT-S intervenes in the photosynthesis, captures electrons from the electron transport chain and transfers them directly across the thylakoid membrane, thus generating a current. The incorporation of the electro conductive polymer into the thylakoid membrane is therefore vital for the function of the bio-solar cell. A liposomal model system based on liposomes formed by oleic acid was used to develop and study the incorporation of PEDOT-S to fatty acid membranes. The liposomes allow for a more controllable and easily manipulated system compared to the thylakoid membrane. In the model system, PEDOT-S could successfully be incorporated to the membrane, and the developed methods were applied to the real system of thylakoid membranes. We found that a bio-compatible electrolyte and redox couple was ...
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena lie at the core of drug formulation, drug delivery, as well as drug binding and action at diseased sites, e.g., in cancer therapy. We review a class of liposome-based drug-delivery systems whose design and functional properties are intimately controlled by the stability of sub-micron structures, lipid-bilayer interfaces, and interfacially activated enzymes that can be exploited to target and deliver drugs. Moreover these drugs can themselves be special lipid molecules in the form of lipid prodrugs that both form the liposomal carrier as well as the substrate for endogenously upregulated lipases that turn the prodrugs into potent drugs precisely at the diseased site. ...
Proteins and polysaccharide components were colocalized through a liposomal delivery system. LEPS liposomal carriers were composed of DOPC/DOPG/DOGS-NTA-Ni/cholesterol/DSPE-PEG2000 at a molar ratio of 3:3:1:4:0.1 to a total lipid mass of 500 μg. After dissolving lipids in chloroform, the solution was sonicated for 1 min using a Branson 450D Sonifier (at 20% amplitude using a tapered tip) and then evaporated using a rotary evaporator to form a film. Lipids were then rehydrated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the polysaccharide antigens to form liposomes, which were then passed 10 to 12 times through a handheld extruder (Avanti Polar Lipids) with a pore size of 200 nm. On ice, the background liposome solution was passed twice through a filter with 50-nm pore size and replaced each time with PBS. Next, proteins were incubated with liposomes for 30 min at 4°C with surface attachment mediated via polyhistidine tag-Ni chelation. CRM197 was included in the LEPS formulations used for ...
The influence of vitamin D3 and its metabolites calcifediol (25(OH)D) and calcitriol on immune regulation and inflammation is well described, and raises the question of potential benefit against bacterial infections. In the current study, 25(OH)D was encapsulated in liposomes to enable aerosolisation, and tested for the ability to prevent pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Prepared 25(OH)D-loaded liposomes were nanosized and monodisperse, with a negative surface charge and a 25(OH)D entrapment efficiency of approximately 23%. Jet nebulisation of liposomes was seen to yield an aerosol suitable for tracheo-bronchial deposition. Interestingly, 25(OH)D in either liposomes or ethanolic solution had no effect on the release of the proinflammatory cytokine KC from Pseudomonas-infected murine epithelial cells (LA-4); treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. Together with the importance of ...
Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) prepared from phospholipids are becoming popular membrane model systems for use in biophysical studies. The quality, size and yield of GUVs depend on the preparation method used to obtain them. In this study, hydrogels consisting of dextran polymers crosslinked by poly(ethyl
PEG altered the pharmacokinetic property of the DSPC/cholesterol liposomal doxorubicin by decreasing the Vss and clearance, and thereby increasing plasma AUC. These results are consistent with the notion that sterically stabilized liposome may reduce the RES uptake and enhance the longevity of liposomal doxorubicin in circulation, but above 3%, the gain in pharmacokinetic advantage was only slight. Compared with conventional liposomes, sterically stabilized liposomes have a 100-fold increase in AUC (3) . However, for the DSPC system used in this study, the AUC of liposomal doxorubicin with 6% PEG-modified lipid was only approximately twice that of liposomal doxorubicin without PEG, regardless of dosage or tumor-bearing status. Daunorubicin liposomes composed of DSPC/cholesterol without PEG also had a similar AUC (20) . The higher transition temperature and homogeneity in fatty acid of DSPC confers the higher stability to this DSPC/cholesterol liposomal system.. The movement of drugs from the ...
The use of liposomes has been crucial for investigations in biomimetic chemical biology as a membrane model and in medicinal chemistry for drug delivery. Liposomes are made of phospholipids whose biophysical characteristics strongly depend on the type of fatty acid moiety, where natural unsaturated lipids always have the double bond geometry in the cis configuration. The influence of lipid double bond configuration had not been considered so far with respect to the competence of liposomes in delivery. We were interested in evaluating possible changes in the molecular properties induced by the conversion of the double bond from cis to trans geometry. Here we report on the effects of the addition of trans-phospholipids supplied in different amounts to other liposome constituents (cholesterol, neutral phospholipids and cationic surfactants), on the size, ζ-potential and stability of liposomal formulations and on their ability to encapsulate two dyes such as rhodamine B and fluorescein. From a
Liposomes are proposed as drug delivery systems and can in principle be designed so as to cohere with specific tissue types or local environments. However, little detail is known about the exact mechanisms for drug delivery and the distributions of drug molecules inside the lipid carrier. In the current work, a coarse-grained (CG) liposome model is developed, consisting of over 2500 lipids, with varying degrees of drug loading. For the drug molecule, we chose hypericin, a natural compound proposed for use in photodynamic therapy, for which a CG model was derived and benchmarked against corresponding atomistic membrane bilayer model simulations. Liposomes with 21-84 hypericin molecules were generated and subjected to 10 microsecond simulations. Distribution of the hypericins, their orientations within the lipid bilayer, and the potential of mean force for transferring a hypericin molecule from the interior aqueous droplet through the liposome bilayer are reported herein.. ...
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1996), 271(46), 28757-65. A series of natural peptides and mutants, derived from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide, was synthesized, and the potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was ... [more ▼]. A series of natural peptides and mutants, derived from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide, was synthesized, and the potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was investigated. These peptide domains were identified by computer modeling and correspond to respectively the C-terminal (e.g. residues 29-40 and 29-42) and a central domain (13-28) of the beta-amyloid peptide. The C-terminal peptides are predicted to insert in an oblique way into a lipid membrane through their N-terminal end, while the mutants are either parallel or perpendicular to the lipid bilayer. Peptide-induced vesicle fusion was demonstrated by several techniques, including lipid-mixing and core-mixing assays using pyrene-labeled ...
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1996), 271(46), 28757-65. A series of natural peptides and mutants, derived from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide, was synthesized, and the potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was ... [more ▼]. A series of natural peptides and mutants, derived from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide, was synthesized, and the potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was investigated. These peptide domains were identified by computer modeling and correspond to respectively the C-terminal (e.g. residues 29-40 and 29-42) and a central domain (13-28) of the beta-amyloid peptide. The C-terminal peptides are predicted to insert in an oblique way into a lipid membrane through their N-terminal end, while the mutants are either parallel or perpendicular to the lipid bilayer. Peptide-induced vesicle fusion was demonstrated by several techniques, including lipid-mixing and core-mixing assays using pyrene-labeled ...
LIPOSOMES PHYTO-SERUM REVITALISANT Anti-wrinkle, firming and moisturising serum based on Liposomes with natural herbal extracts. Specially developed to prevent premature aging of the skin and loss of elasticity. Wrinkles are smoothed and the skin is better hydrated and less fragile. Suitable for all skin types. Can be
A fusogenic liposome composition for delivering a liposome-entrapped compound into the cytoplasm of a target cell is described. The liposomes have an outer surface coating of …chemically releasable hydrophilic polymer chains which shield hydrophobic polymers on the liposome outer surface. Release of the hydrophilic polymer chains exposes the hydrophobic polymers for interaction with outer cell membranes of the target cells to promote fusion of the liposome with the target cells. Also disclosed is a method for using the composition to deliver a compound to target cells, and a method for selecting suitable hydrophobic polymers for use in the composition. (MORE) ...
A process for the preparation of proteoliposomes comprising: (1) mixing a fusogen with lipid components used to form unilamellar lipid vesicles to thereby form fusogenic unilamellar lipid vesicles; an
The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ ...
Page contains details about RG7 mAb-conjugated Cy5-labeled soy phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] lipid-based nanoparticles-anti-mouse CD4-PE (clone GK1.5) complex . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Exponentially growing human melanoma cells (M14 cell line) were pretreated with various amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-containing multilamellar liposomes and then exposed to heat treatment (42.5°C). Cell damage produced by the treatments, given separately or in combination, was evaluated in terms of cell survival.. Our results demonstrate that the cell survival at 37°C was not affected by liposome concentrations up to 1000 nmol of phospholipid/2.5 × 106 cells, while liposome treatment of cells before heat exposure determined a marked damaging effect even at 100 nmol of phospholipid/2.5 × 106 cells.. The mechanisms of liposome-cell interaction have been investigated by electron microscopy or by electron spin resonance measurements of spin-labeled membranes of intact cells. Evidence has been obtained that liposomal lipids are either taken up by M14 cells or become incorporated in the cell membrane.. The present data suggest the possibility that liposome treatments per se could be of ...
We have examined the interactions of hemoglobin containing liposomes and of liposomes composed of polymerizable phospholipids with blood cells and proteins. All types of liposomes studied bound a variety of serum proteins with IgG being the most abundant component in each case. Polymerized methacrylate liposomes specifically bound a 53 kilodalton protein not bound by other liposome types. None of the liposomes tested provoked platelet aggregation; however, unpolymerized methacrylate liposomes markedly inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation. Most liposomes tested did not affect clotting of plasma; however, polymerized methacrylate liposomes bound clotting factor V and thus inhibited clotting.*BLOOD PLATELETS
The efficiency of encapsulating a drug into a liposomal formulation is increased by use of a lipid having a carbon chain containing from about 13 to about 28 carbons during preparation of the liposomes. Preferably the liposomes are multivesicular liposomes.
The efficiency of encapsulating a drug into a liposomal formulation is increased by use of a lipid having a carbon chain containing from about 13 to about 28 carbons during preparation of the liposomes. Preferably the liposomes are multivesicular liposomes.
"Long circulating liposomes encapsulating organophosphorus acid anhydrolase in diisopropylfluorophosphate antagonism". ... organophosphorous intoxication and protect against the effects of diisopropylfluorophosphate when encapsulated in liposomes. ...
Micelles, liposomes and biological membranes are examples of supramolecular assemblies. The dimensions of supramolecular ...
... liposome-mediated transformation can be used. In this method DNA is coated with lipid. Fusion of this lipid and the membrane ...
For instance, the Ca2+ requirement for the fusion of complex liposomes is not greatly affected by the addition of annexin I, ... GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Phospholipase D activity facilitates Ca2+-induced aggregation and fusion of complex liposomes". Am. J. Physiol. 272 (4 Pt 1): ...
Transferrin-polyethylene glycol liposomes Boronated sugars. aThe delivery agents are not listed in any order that indicates ...
Dieter Arndt; Reiner Zeisig; Ines Eue & Iduna Fichtner (1995). "Alkylphosphocholines and Alkylphosphocholine Liposomes". 5 (1 ... "Cytotoxic effects of alkylphosphocholines or alkylphosphocholine-liposomes and macrophages on tumor cells". Anticancer Research ...
Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22] These structures are used in ... solubilizing the desired proteins in the presence of detergents and attaching them to the phospholipids in which the liposome ...
Immunoliposomes are antibody-conjugated liposomes. Liposomes can carry drugs or therapeutic nucleotides and when conjugated ...
Lipoplexes can also be formed from cationic liposomes and DNA solutions, to yield transfection agents. Cationic liposomes cross ... A mechanism for liposome transport across the BBB is lipid-mediated free diffusion, a type of facilitated diffusion, or lipid- ... Liposomes have the potential to protect the drug from degradation, target sites for action, and reduce toxicity and adverse ... Liposomes can also be functionalized by attaching various ligands on the surface to enhance brain-targeted delivery. Another ...
Liposomes, nanofibers, nanocolloids, and aerogels were also of the most common nanomaterials in consumer products.[55] ...
Histologically, steatosis is physically apparent as lipid within membrane bound liposomes of parenchymal cells.[6] When this ... Microvesicular steatosis is characterized by small intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles (liposomes) which accumulate in the cell. ...
The plant extract QS21 is a liposome made up of plant saponins.[13] It is a part of the Shingrix vaccine approved in 2017.[14] ... which include liposomes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), molecular cages for antigen, components of bacterial cell walls, and ...
These drug-loaded liposomes travel through the system until they bind at the target site and rupture, releasing the drug. In ... Note- the term "liposome" is in essence synonymous with "vesicle" except that vesicle is a general term for the structure ... The first stealth liposomes were passively targeted at tumor tissues. Because tumors induce rapid and uncontrolled angiogenesis ... The most significant advance in this area was the grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the liposome surface to produce " ...
Doxorubicin HCl liposome (Doxil/Caelyx) - PEGylated liposome containing doxorubicin for the treatment of cancer (Ortho Biotech/ ... Milla, P; Dosio, F (13 January 2012). "PEGylation of proteins and liposomes: a powerful and flexible strategy to improve the ... "Liposomes for Use in Gene Delivery". Journal of Drug Delivery. 2011: 12. doi:10.1155/2011/326497. Retrieved 6 September 2017. ...
Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes). ... Batzri S, Korn ED (April 1973). "Single bilayer liposomes prepared without sonication". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 298 (4): 1015-9 ... If there is only one phospholipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called ...
脂質體(liposomes)是磷脂分散在水中形成的一個包封着部分水相(aqueous phase)的類球狀封閉囊泡。脂質體的形態與細胞膜相似,並且能夠融合各種物質。脂質體被認為是體外和體內生物活性物質的最佳遞送系統,以及最成功的藥物載體系
The drug is encased in liposomes, which helps to extend the life of the drug that is being distributed. Liposomes are self- ... Nanoparticles (top), liposomes (middle), and dendrimers (bottom) are some nanomaterials being investigated for use in ... The liposomes also help to increase the functionality and it helps to decrease the damage that the drug does to the heart ... Onivyde, liposome encapsulated irinotecan to treat metastatic pancreatic cancer, was approved by FDA in October 2015.[32] ...
Liposome formulations that encapsulate anti-cancer drugs for selective uptake to tumors via the EPR effect include: Doxil and ... Palmer, T.N.; Caride, V.J.; Caldecourt, M.A.; Twickler, J.; Abdullah, V. (1984). "The mechanism of liposome accumulation in ... These efforts include protein capsids and liposomes. However, as some important, normal tissues, such as the liver and kidneys ... "Direct measurement of the extravasation of polyethyleneglycol-coated liposomes into solid tumor tissue by in vivo fluorescence ...
In liposomes Osawa (2009) showed FtsZ is capable of exerting a contractile force with no other proteins present. Erickson (2009 ... Masaki Osawa; David E. Anderson; Harold P. Erickson (2009). "Reconstitution of Contractile FtsZ Rings in Liposomes". Science. ...
... vesicles are prepared in a similar manner as liposomes, except that no separation of the vesicle-associated and ... Since its basic organization is broadly similar to a liposome, a Transfersome differs from more conventional vesicles primarily ... "What is the difference between liposomes and Transfersomes?". Scientific FAQ. IDEA AG. Medical trial that started in 2005 " ... Examples include sonicating, extrusion, low shear rates mixing (multilamellar liposomes), or high high-shear homogenisation ...
Goldmann WH, Niggli V, Kaufmann S, Isenberg G (Aug 1992). "Probing actin and liposome interaction of talin and talin-vinculin ...
The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin in liposome delivery system is formulated by extrusion, for example. Hot melt extrusion is ... polymeric filters is being used to produce suspensions of lipid vesicles liposomes or transfersomes with a particular size of a ...
Ellens, H; Bentz, J; Szoka, FC (1985). "H+- and Ca2+-induced fusion and destabilization of liposomes". Biochemistry. 24 (13): ... "A simple fluorescent method to determine complement-mediated liposome immune lysis". Journal of Immunological Methods. 15 (3): ... "Fusion of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing liposomes and mechanism of L.alpha.-HII phase transition". Biochemistry. 25 (14 ...
Forssen, E. A.; Tökes, Z. A. (1979). "In vitro and in vivo studies with adriamycin liposomes". Biochemical and Biophysical ... are less toxic to cardiac tissue than the non-liposomal form because a lower proportion of drug administered in the liposome ...
Movassaghian, S; Moghimi, HR; Shirazi, FH; Torchilin, VP (Dec 2011). "Dendrosome-dendriplex inside liposomes: as a gene ...
On the basis of type of carrier, liposomes and microspheres collectively attribute the largest share in the market in terms of ... biologically active materials encapsulated within liposomes are protected to varying extent from immediate dilution or ... revenue (USD). The key factors assisting the growth of liposomes market are such as, ...
Vishvakrama P, Sharma S, Liposomes: An Overview. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2014; 47-55.. 13. Khar RK, Jain NK ... Vesicular System (Niosomes and Liposomes) for Delivery of Sodium Stibogluconate in Experimental Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis. ... liposomes and micelles. Two major mechanisms can be distinguished for addressing the desired sites for drug release, (a) ...
In particular, the present invention provide methods of generating gas-containing liposomes where the gas is introduced under ... liposomes with gas, to generate a gas-liposome dispersion; and thawing said gas-liposome dispersion to generate a plurality of ... liposomes with gas, to generate a gas-liposome dispersion; and thawing said gas-liposome dispersion to generate a plurality of ... wherein the liposomes comprise nitric oxide gas. In certain embodiments, the liposomes the liposomes comprise at least 5 ul, at ...
Liposomes are used in drug delivery, including vaccines. They prevent healthy cells from receiving the drug and prevent the ... A liposome is a vesicle with walls made of phospholipids. ... A liposome is a vesicle with walls made of phospholipids. ... Liposomes were first discovered in England by Alec C. Bangham in 1961. He found that when phospholipids were combined with ... Liposomes are used in drug delivery, including vaccines. They prevent healthy cells from receiving the drug and prevent the ...
The scientific research about liposomes and how they can be applied for use has contributed to a breakthrough method for ... New method for quantification of liposome formulated drugs. *Revolutionary instrument for characterizing liposomes and liposome ... The liposomes are now referred to as stealth liposomes.. Prospective Research. The scientific research regarding the properties ... Additionally, most stealth liposomes are connected to a biological species ligand that has an effect on the expression and drug ...
The HORIBA SZ-100 Nanoparticle Size Analyzer can measure the size of liposomes quickly and easily. Additionally, the SZ-100 can ... SZ-100 Liposome Size Results. A small volume of liposome sample was purchased for analysis. The small volume necessitated using ... The amount of drug loaded into the liposomes and the size of the liposomes play pivotal roles in the pharmacokinetic and ... Particle Size Analysis of Liposomes using Dynamic Light Scattering. Liposomes are bilayer vesicles made of phospholipids ...
The great structural versatility of liposomes, their relatively inoccuous nature and ability to incorporate a wide spectrum of ... Y.E. Rahman, Liposomes and chelating agents, in: "Liposomes in Biological Systems", G. Gregoriadis, ed., John Wiley, Chichester ... G. Gregoriadis, Liposomes as carriers for drugs and vaccines, Trends in Biotechnology, 3:235 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... B. Wolff and G. Gregoriadis, The use of monoclonal anti-Thy1 IgG1 for the targeting of liposomes to AKR-A cells in vitro and in ...
... Anna Tanka-Salamon,1 Attila Bóta,2 András Wacha,2 Judith ... "Structure and Function of Trypsin-Loaded Fibrinolytic Liposomes," BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 5130495 ...
... Anna Tanka-Salamon,1 Attila Bóta,2 András Wacha,2 Judith ... V. Saxena, C. G. Johnson, A. H. Negussie, K. V. Sharma, M. R. Dreher, and B. J. Wood, "Temperature-sensitive liposome-mediated ... conjugated thermosensitive liposomes (HER2 + affisomes)," Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 187-194, 2011. ...
Trehalose liposomes for the suppression of tumor growth along with apoptosis [in Japanese] 松本 陽子 ... Basic Challenges for Liposome Applications and Their Possible Solutions: Membrane Structure and Confinement [in Japanese] ... Development of drug and cell delivery system for active targeting based on magnetic liposomes [in Japanese] Kono Yusuke ... Handling System of Minute Volume Using the Hydrogel Encapsulating Liposomes [in Japanese] Katsuta S. , Okano T. , Suzuki H. ...
Liposomes - HAPPI is the industrys leading magazine covering the global personal care, household and industrial and ...
Purchase Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 5 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123736871, ... Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 5 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Liposomes as a Tool for the Study of the Chronic Actions of Short-lived Peptides in Specific Sites of the Brain (F. Frézard et ... The Novel Liposome Preparation Methods Based on In-water Drying and Phase Separation: Microencapsulation Vesicle Method and ...
Purchase Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 12 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123812667, ... Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 12 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... 7. Transformation between liposomes and cubic phases of biological lipid membranes induced by modulation of electrostatic ... Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 9, continues to include invited chapters on a broad range of topics, ...
Deml, R.A., Bruckdorfer, K.R. and van Deenen, L.L.M.: The effect of sterol structure on the permeability of liposomes to ... de Gier, J. Mandersloot, J. G. and van Deenen, L.L.M.: Lipid composition and permeability of liposomes.Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... Bittman, R., Leventhal, A.M., Karp, S., Blau, B., Tremblay, P.A., and Kates, M.: Osmotic behavior of liposomes of ... Yoshikawa, W., Akutsu, H. and Kyogoku, Y.: Light-scattering properties of osmotically active liposomes.Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Here we report that the attachment of hollow gold nanoshells to the surface of robust liposomes results in a construct that is ... To our knowledge, this is the first example of nanoparticle-liposome system that can be activated by both laser and acoustic ... Here hollow gold nanoshells tethered to liposomes allows the controlled release of encapsulated neurochemicals by acoustic or ... The unique surface plasmon resonance of hollow gold nanoshells can be used to achieve drug release from liposomes upon laser ...
Advice and warnings for the use of Vincristine liposome (Marqibo) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category D - Positive ... Vincristine liposome Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Vincristine liposome is also known as: Marqibo ... Vincristine liposome Breastfeeding Warnings. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal ...
... liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for ... In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, ... Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be ... Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ...
C) 124 nm PEG-liposomes (both feet); (D) 124 nm Negative-liposomes (both feet). ... Lymphatic drug delivery using engineered liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles.. Cai S1, Yang Q, Bagby TR, Forrest ML. ... Thoracic images in posterior view obtained after 99mTc-Liposome aerosol inhalation, in the pig n° 18. a) 5 min after the ... Gamma camera images of the lower portion of rabbits following subcutaneous injection (0.3 ml) of various [99mTc] liposomes in ...
Tags: Alcohol, Capillaries, Cell, Drugs, Lab-on-a-Chip, Liposome, Liposomes, micro, Microfluidics, Pipetting, Research, T-Cell ... Liposomes are spheres made of a double layer of phospholipids, the fat complexes that are the building blocks for animal cell ... The new liposome generator consists of a 3-millimeter-diameter glass cylinder containing a bundle of seven tiny glass capillary ... With our 3D capillary device, we can increase production of high-quality liposomes threefold from what our 2D planar system can ...
Experimental: Liposomes Intravesical instillation of Liposomes in sterile water totally 40 cc at four weekly treatments. ... Intravesical Liposomes for Ulcerative Cystitis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... At each treatment visit, the patients will have a solution of liposomes instilled in the bladder with a catheter, retained for ... The primary objective is to determine the impact of 4 weekly bladder instillations of liposomes on symptoms in one patient with ...
Taiwan Liposome has been struggling lately, but the selling pressure may be coming to an end soon. ... Taiwan Liposome Company, Ltd. TLC has been struggling lately, but the selling pressure may be coming to an end soon. That is ... Taiwan Liposome Company, Ltd. Unsponsored ADR (TLC) : Free Stock Analysis Report. To read this article on Zacks.com click here. ...
The polymerized imaging enhancement liposome particles interact with receptor targets holding the image enhancement agent to ... Polymerized liposome particles based upon lipids having a polymerizable functional group and a metal chelator to attach an ... imaging enhancement agent and lipids having an active targeting group to provide targeted polymerized liposome contrast agents ... 1. A polymerized liposome image contrast agent composition consisting essentially of: liposome forming lipids, said liposome ...
Tell your doctor or nurse right away if you have the following symptoms with this medicine: anxiety; blurred vision; depression; drowsiness; lightheadedness; nausea or vomiting; numbness and tingling of the mouth or lips; restlessness; ringing in the ears; speech problems; or tremors. This medicine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash; itching; fever; increased sweating; lightheadedness or fainting; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; or any swelling of your hands, face, mouth, or throat after receiving this medicine. ...
A cluster of liposomes. These are spherical lipid bilayers used in drug delivery and gene therapy. They fuse with the cell ... A cluster of liposomes. These are spherical lipid bilayers used in drug delivery and gene therapy. They fuse with the cell ... Credit: Liposomes. Credit: Annie Cavanagh. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) ...
Liposome. Liposomes are artificially prepared vesicles made of lipid bilayer. Liposomes can be filled with drugs, and used to ... Though liposomes can vary in size from low micrometer range to tens of micrometers, unilamellar liposomes, as pictured here, ... Building a better liposome. Using computational modeling, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, the Colorado School of ... Liposomes can be composed of naturally derived phospholipids with mixed lipid chains (like egg phosphatidylethanolamine) or ...
  • Gamma camera images of the lower portion of rabbits following subcutaneous injection (0.3 ml) of various [99mTc] liposomes in each hind foot at either 30 minutes, 60 minutes or 24 hours post injection. (nih.gov)
  • Bupivacaine liposome injection is used to relieve pain after surgery. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of bupivacaine liposome injection in the pediatric population. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of bupivacaine liposome injection in the elderly. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have kidney or liver problems, which may require caution for patients receiving bupivacaine liposome injection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Bupivacaine liposome injection (Exparel™) works differently than other forms of bupivacaine, even at the same dose. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, liposomes that are administered through intravenous injection are rapidly uptaken by reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells in the liver and spleen. (omicsonline.org)
  • As opposed to the conventional (non-surface modification) liposomes, we briefly address the issue of the accelerated clearance of PEGylated-liposomes (sterically stabilized liposomes, long-circulating liposomes) on repeated injection, a process that has recently been observed. (portlandpress.com)
  • After injection of EXPAREL into soft tissue, bupivacaine is released from the multivesicular liposomes over a period of time. (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur (morphine sulfate) extended-release liposome injection is a sterile suspension of multivesicular liposomes using proprietary DepoFoam® formulation technology containing morphine sulfate, intended for epidural administration. (rxlist.com)
  • The pH of DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) is in the range of 5.0 to 8.0. (rxlist.com)
  • What are the precautions when taking morphine sulfate xr liposome injection (DepoDur)? (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur is an extended-release liposome injection of morphine sulfate intended for single-dose administration by the epidural route, at the lumbar level, for the treatment of pain following major surgery. (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) is administered prior to surgery or after clamping the umbilical cord during cesarean section. (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) is not intended for intrathecal, intravenous or intramuscular administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Administration of DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) into the thoracic epidural space or higher has not been evaluated and therefore is not recommended. (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) may be administered via needle or catheter at the lumbar level. (rxlist.com)
  • Administration of DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) at the thoracic level or higher is not recommended because it has not been studied. (rxlist.com)
  • DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) may be administered undiluted or may be diluted up to 5 mL total volume with PRESERVATIVE-FREE 0.9% normal saline. (rxlist.com)
  • Vials of DepoDur (morphine sulfate xr liposome injection) should be gently inverted to re-suspend the particles immediately prior to withdrawal from the vial. (rxlist.com)
  • (EN) Disclosed are positively-charged, cytotoxic nanoparticle compositions comprising immune modulators (such as the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 ligand, monophosphoryl lipid (MPL)-A), and Interleukin (IL)-12)), which exhibit enhanced uptake by mammalian cancer cells, and cause increased cancer cell death and/or an increased release of cancer antigens following direct injection to populations of cancer or tumor cells. (wipo.int)
  • Recovery of 111In-labeled liposomes in blood, liver, and spleen was assessed at specific time points after injection and the percentage of liposomes still intact in liver and spleen was determined by measurement of the time-integrated angular perturbation factor [G22(infinity)] of the 111In label. (pnas.org)
  • Right now, the pain treatment system developed by Kohane's team can be activated by ultrasound up to three days after injection of liposomes, making it well-positioned for future translation as a post-operative pain management strategy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dr Reddy's Laboratories announced that it has received approval from USFDA to launch Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection, a therapeutic equivalent generic version of Doxil, for intravenous use, in the United States market. (business-standard.com)
  • Vyxeos® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome for injection 44mg/100mg is a liposome formulation of a fixed combination of daunorubicin and cytarabine for intravenous infusion. (biospace.com)
  • 7. The hydrogel particles of claim 1, wherein said liposomes are formed from a lipid material selected from the group selected from the group consisting of phosphatidyl ethers, phosphatidyl esters, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, glycerides, cerebrosides, gangliosides, sphingomyelin, steroids and cholesterol. (google.co.uk)
  • Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, but may also include other lipids, such as egg phosphatidylethanolamine, so long as they are compatible with lipid bilayer structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/yeast phosphatidylinositol/1,2-dioleoyl glycerol ester of melphalan, 8:1:1, by mol, and varying percentages of lipophilic SiaLeX conjugate were labelled with BODIPY-phosphatidylcholine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two liposome compositions consisting of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol are examined. (rti.org)
  • Paclitaxel was administered intravenously in either multilamellar (MLV) liposomes composed of phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine (L-pac) or in the Cremophor EL/ethanol vehicle used for the Taxol formulation (Cre-pac). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Rates of diffusion of uncharged and charged solute molecules through porin channels were determined by using liposomes reconstituted from egg phosphatidylcholine and purified Escherichia coli porins OmpF (protein 1a), OmpC (protein 1b), and PhoE (protein E). All three porin proteins appeared to produce channels of similar size, although the OmpF channel appeared to be 7 to 9% larger than the OmpC and PhoE channels in an equivalent radius. (asm.org)
  • The polymerized imaging enhancement liposome particles interact with receptor targets holding the image enhancement agent to specific sites providing in vivo study by magnetic resonance, radioactive, x-ray or optical imaging of the expression of molecules in cells and tissues during disease and pathology. (google.com)
  • Liposomes are composite structures made of phospholipids and may contain small amounts of other molecules. (phys.org)
  • Liposomes can also gravitate to the skin surface, where encapsulated molecules directly transfer to the skin. (skininc.com)
  • Liposomes are successfully used for encapsulating various drug molecules such as acyclovir, tropicamaide, chloroquine diphosphate, paclitaxel, and cyclosporine. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Biologically active molecules ranging from anti-cancer and anti-microbial agents to chelating agents, peptides, hormones, enzymes, pro-teins, vaccines and genetic materials have all come under consideration for delivery by synthet-ic liposomes. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • Liposomes are microscopic molecules that have been used for years in cosmetic and drug delivery. (drugstorenews.com)
  • The walls of the liposomes contain small molecules called sono-sensitizers, which are sensitive to ultrasound. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The small sono-sensitizer molecules that the team built into the liposomes are the active component of an already-FDA-approved drug that is currently used in photodynamic therapy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The other important developments such as use of genetic components as therapeutic molecules have further enhanced the scope of Liposomes based therapy. (researchimpact.com)
  • Part I. Physical PropertiesPreparation, Isolation, and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Natural and Synthetic LipidsSubroto Chatterjee and Dipak K. BanerjeePreparation and Use of Liposomes for the Study of Sphingolipid Segregation in Membrane Model SystemsMassimo Masserini, Paola Palestini, Marina Pitto, Vanna Chigorno, and Sandro SonninoPart II. (indigo.ca)
  • Characterization of Doxorubicin and Vincristine Coencapsulated within Liposomes through Use of Transition Metal Ion Complexation and pH Gradient" Clin Cancer Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • Since laser-stimulated release from HGN-liposome systems has been attributed to a mechanism similar to that underlying ultrasound release 7 , we hypothesised that the system developed for laser use could be further developed to release using ultrasound at therapeutic frequencies. (nature.com)
  • 3 . The process of manufacture of non-pegylated liposomes of claim 1 further comprising loading the liposomes with a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. (google.it)
  • 18 . The liposome of claim 16 , wherein the non-pegylated liposome further comprises a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. (google.it)
  • 19 . The liposome of claim 18 , wherein said therapeutic agent comprises an antineoplastic agent. (google.it)
  • Liposomes in particular are a promising nanotechnology that can be used for more effective delivery of therapeutic agents to treat melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • In terms of application, the global liposomes drug delivery market can be segmented into therapeutic and clinical. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Continued improvements of bio-membrane sensors and liposome delivery systems that are competent in the association of other membrane-bound proteins in vivo could allow selective delivery of therapeutic compounds to chosen intracellular target areas. (researchimpact.com)
  • The present invention relates to the use of copper ions to achieve enhanced retention of a therapeutic agent within a liposome. (patentgenius.com)
  • The liposome may comprise an interior buffer solution containing the therapeutic agent, the solution having a pH less than 6.5 and most preferably approximating pH 3.5. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. A composition comprising a liposome encapsulating a single therapeutic agent, wherein said therapeutic agent is loaded into said liposome in the presence ofintra-liposomal copper ions and a divalent proton cation exchange ionophore within the lipid bilayer of said liposome, wherein said divalent proton cation exchange ionophore is A23187. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9 Next, these combinations were incorporated into cationic elastic liposomes (ELs) and in test models, liposomes with HA showed 23% higher wound recovery. (skininc.com)
  • To this end, we have studied the enhancement of antigen uptake by murine dendritic cell line, DC2.4 cells, by the cationic liposomes and the specific pathways involved in the process. (scirp.org)
  • We have observed that the uptake of ovalbumin (OVA) into DC2.4 cells is greatly increased when co-cultured with the cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol). (scirp.org)
  • Our results implied, at least in part, that enhanced uptake of antigens induced by the cationic liposomes could be a possible mechanism for the induction of immune responses. (scirp.org)
  • We recently demonstrated that the cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol), termed as DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, are served as a potent adjuvant. (scirp.org)
  • The detailed molecular mechanism(s) behind the adjuvant effects of the cationic liposomes are not completely elucidated. (scirp.org)
  • The disclosed cationic liposomes represent an important advance in the area of cancer immunotherapeutics. (wipo.int)
  • The Novel Liposome Preparation Methods Based on In-water Drying and Phase Separation: Microencapsulation Vesicle Method and Coacervation Method (Tomoko Nii, Fumiyoshi Ishii). (elsevier.com)
  • Efficacy and toxicity profiles of liposomes are based on their characteristic pharmacokinetics, drug release, and disposition after administration. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The non-pegylated liposomes are stable, exhibit low toxicity and have been found to be efficacious in different tumor models. (google.it)
  • Advantages such as improvement and control over pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, decreased toxicity, and enhanced activity of drugs against intracellular pathogens are key divers for pharmaceutical companies to invest in the global liposomes drug delivery market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Liposomes have helped to magnify the efficacy - while reducing the toxicity - of chemotherapeutic drugs, for exam-ple. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • A majority of liposome formulations are designed to bring down toxicity. (researchimpact.com)
  • The granted claims were directed to pro-liposome compositions, to aerosol compositions and to a method of making an aqueous dispersion of liposomes. (epo.org)
  • Hence accurate and rapid measurement of the size of liposomes is essential for novel and effective drug delivery systems. (horiba.com)
  • Morphology and size of liposomes were obtained by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering technology. (medworm.com)
  • North America is a leading market for liposomes drug delivery systems due to increase in novel technologies in targeted drug delivery systems. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The market for liposomes presents attractive growth opportunities, driven by growing demand for increasingly effective drugs in the field of pharmaceuticals, and niche applications in other emerging areas. (researchimpact.com)
  • With these readily reproducible methods, investigators can illuminate such critical questions as the attachment of liposmes to cell surfaces, the permeation of liposomes through the plasma membranes, and the stability of liposomes in cellular and nuclear matrices. (indigo.ca)
  • Thus, the comb-type copolymer composed of ODA-HPOEM-HEMA can be a promising surface modifier for enhancement of the stability of liposomes in systemic circulation. (scientific.net)
  • The unique surface plasmon resonance of hollow gold nanoshells can be used to achieve drug release from liposomes upon laser stimulation, and adapted to mimic the intricate dynamics of neurotransmission ex vivo in brain preparations. (nature.com)
  • This column will review new research and applications for liposomes, which are well-known and prevalent in today's skin care products. (skininc.com)
  • Sugarman, Steven is the author of 'Applications for Liposomes in Human Malignancy : Current Status and Future Directions', published 1996 under ISBN 9783540601975 and ISBN 354060197X. (valorebooks.com)
  • A method of fabricating hydrogel particles within liposomes, which entails: a) encapsulating an effective amount of each of one or more hydrogel substances and one or more release agents in liposomes in a liquid medium, b) removing any unencapsulated hydrogel substances and release agents from the liquid. (google.co.uk)
  • By enrobing such low-bioavailability substances in liposomes, it's possible to bypass some of the pitfalls of passing through the digestive tract, and to enhance delivery to the bloodstream. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. (dovepress.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Compare the anti-tumor efficacy of two treatment schedules of lurtotecan liposome, in terms of clinical/radiological response and CA125 tumor marker, in patients with previously treated advanced or recurrent ovarian epithelial cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Currently, there are limited methods available for longitudinal and non-invasive in vivo assessment of the transport kinetics of carrier-based therapeutics, such as those relying on liposomes. (nsti.org)
  • Though liposomes can vary in size from low micrometer range to tens of micrometers, unilamellar liposomes, as pictured here, are typically in the lower size range with various targeting ligands attached to their surface allowing for their surface-attachment and accumulation in pathological areas for treatment of disease. (phys.org)
  • Claims 24 to 41 of the same set of claims were directed to aerosol compositions or pro-liposome compositions. (epo.org)
  • It was argued that all the requests included claims for compositions and processes in which the presence of the water was an optional feature, despite the fact that there was no disclosure in the application as filed of processes carried out by using anhydrous pro-liposome compositions. (epo.org)
  • In fact, in the view of the opposition division, the expressions 'up to 20% of water' or 'up to 40% of water', which were used in several passages of the application as filed and which, as the appellant contended, implicitly covered anhydrous pro-liposome compositions, did not disclose the figure 0% of water. (epo.org)
  • Particle size results for the liposome. (horiba.com)
  • Out of all the particle delivery systems, I think liposomes are one of the most clinically-acceptable and customizable options out there," Rwei says. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes, for example by sonication. (phys.org)
  • To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the adsorption of positively charged liposomes to HA in a salivary environment was interfered as they were found to aggregate with components of saliva (Paper II). (uio.no)
  • 8. An immunoreactive, stable liposome in accordance with claim 7 and further comprising a plurality of like liposomes being combined in the presence of a substrate for said enzyme with said liposomes being uniformly dispersed in said substrate. (google.com)
  • Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To create the ultrasound-triggered pain relief system, Kohane's team developed liposomes -artificial sacs that are micrometers in size-and filled them with a nerve-blocking drug. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A. Rahman, A. Joher and J.R. Neefe, Immunotoxicity of multiple dosing regiments of free doxorubicin entrapped in cardiolipin liposomes, Br. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to modify liposomes with a novel mannosylated polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (M-PEG-PE) ligand to achieve active targeted gene delivery. (dovepress.com)
  • Liposomes were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and brain-tissue-derived monosialoganglioside (GM1). (diva-portal.org)