Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
A family of ark shell mollusks, in the class BIVALVIA. They have soft bodies with platelike GILLS enclosed within two shells hinged together.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria isolated from individuals in LONG-TERM CARE facilities and HOSPITALS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A secreted protein that associates with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 and is essential for receptor recognition of LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (1/20671)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (2/20671)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates. (3/20671)

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (4/20671)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola. (5/20671)

We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (6/20671)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Neutralization of endotoxin in vitro and in vivo by a human lactoferrin-derived peptide. (7/20671)

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) is the major pathogenic factor of gram-negative septic shock, and endotoxin-induced death is associated with the host overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In the search for new antiendotoxin molecules, we studied the endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of a human lactoferrin-derived 33-mer synthetic peptide (GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGP; designated LF-33) representing the minimal sequence for lactoferrin binding to glycosaminoglycans. LF-33 inhibited the coagulation of the Limulus amebocyte lysate and the secretion of TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipid A and four different endotoxins with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The first six residues at the N terminus of LF-33 were critical for its antiendotoxin activity. The endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of LF-33 and polymyxin B was attenuated by human serum. Coinjection of Escherichia coli LPS (125 ng) with LF-33 (2.5 microg) dramatically reduced the lethality of LPS in the galactosamine-sensitized mouse model. Significant protection of the mice against the lethal LPS challenge was also observed when LF-33 (100 microg) was given intravenously after intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Protection was correlated with a reduction in TNF-alpha levels in the mouse serum. These results demonstrate the endotoxin-neutralizing capability of LF-33 in vitro and in vivo and its potential use for the treatment of endotoxin-induced septic shock.  (+info)

Relationship between UDP-glucose 4-epimerase activity and oligoglucose glycoforms in two strains of Neisseria meningitidis. (8/20671)

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis has demonstrated considerable microheterogeneity in the variable region of LOS due to the presence of novel glycoforms. As a step toward understanding the basis for the expression of these novel glycoforms, we have examined the LOS structures and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (epimerase) activity levels in two strains (NMB and MA-1) and their respective galE mutants. Strain NMB was found to have low epimerase activity and to contain multiple glycoforms, some of which appear to contain only glucose sugars. The galE mutant had only the oligoglucose glycoforms. Strain MA-1 had higher epimerase activity at both log and stationary phases (2- and 12.5-fold, respectively) and one glycoform with a putative lactosyl structure. Strain MA-1 galE had two glycoforms that contained one or two glucose residues. To understand the molecular basis for the different epimerase activities, we examined the predicted amino acid sequences of the respective galE open reading frames and determined the relative amounts of GalE protein. We found no significant differences between the predicted amino acid sequence of the GalE protein in NMB and that in MA-1. We observed no significant differences in the level of GalE protein between MA-1 and NMB at exponential or stationary phase. We also observed an 8.2-fold drop in epimerase activity in NMB between the log and stationary phases that was not due to the GalE protein level or low glucose levels.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Response of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells to lipopolysaccharide injections in postnatal rats - A lectin and ultrastructural study. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Wang, H. J.. AU - Wen, C. Y.. AU - Lien, K. C.. AU - Ling, E. A.. PY - 1997/2/2. Y1 - 1997/2/2. N2 - The present study describes the response of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the corpus callosum to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injections in postnatal rats as examined by lectin histochemical staining and electron microscopy. In 1 day old rats receiving endotoxin injections and sacrificed at various time intervals, the lectin labelling of amoeboid/ramified microglia was greatly enhanced. The increased labelling persisted in some ramified microglia in rats killed at 14 and 21 days of age; otherwise in normal or control animals of the corresponding stages, the same cells were very weakly stained. In rats killed at 2 days of age after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection, the number of microglia ...
Incubation of the human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) rendered the cells responsive to induction of TNF by LPS. Treatment with IL-6 reduced TNF production in GM-CSF-primed U937 cells. The inhibitory effect was most pronounced (approximately equal to 80%) when IL-6 was added either along with GM-CSF or within the first 3 h of GM-CSF treatment. Both GM-CSF or IL-6 inhibited [3H]TdR uptake in U937 cells, and simultaneous treatment with GM-CSF and IL-6 resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. However, the inhibition of TNF production could not be explained by the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell growth, nor was it due to a reduction in cell viability. An inhibition of TNF production by IL-6 was also demonstrated in cultured human peripheral blood monocytes. Treatment with IL-6 also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of the 17-kDa TNF band revealed by SDS-PAGE after labeling monocytes with [35S]cysteine ...
The aim of this work was to study the effect of chronic activation of the immune system on the somatotropic axis. Accordingly, the changes in growth hormone (GH) secretion, circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF- I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Acute LPS injection (2.5, 25 or 250 μg/kg) increased serum corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner and decreased serum levels of insulin and IGF-I, serum GH concentration declined linearly as the LPS dose increased. Western ligand blot showed an increase in the 33 kDa band (corresponding to IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) in the rats that received the highest dose of LPS (250 μg/kg). Chronic LPS administration (250 μg/kg daily for 8 days) significantly decreased body weight, serum levels of IGF-I and pituitary GH content, whereas it increased circulating IGFBP-3 (47 kDa band), IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 (33 kDa band) and the 24 kDa band (which possibly ...
Ishii, Y; Shinoda, M; and Shikita, M, Migration inhibitory action of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on progenitor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage growing in culture in the presence of colony-stimulating factor (csf-1). (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3652 ...
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor e 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n ¼ 6) or LPS (500 mg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n ¼ 6). Blood samples were performed at 0, 30, 60 and 90 min and 2,4,6 and 24 h after treatment to evaluate interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) plasma concentrations.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Gα(i2) mimics several aspects of LPS priming in a murine macrophage-like cell line. AU - Kugi, M.. AU - Kitamura, K.. AU - Cottam, G. L.. AU - Miller, R. T.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Priming of macrophages with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of substances that act through heterotrimeric G proteins to stimulate immune cell functions. Although LPS-induced alterations in the expression and functions of G proteins of the α(i) family have been reported in hematopoietic cells, their effects on subsequent steps in LPS priming of macrophages have not been defined. To study the role of Gα(i2) in priming of macrophages by LPS, we expressed a mutant, activated form of α(i2) (α(i2Q2051)) in P388D1 cells, and compared its effects on PAF-dependent Ca signalling and arachidonic acid release to those in cells treated with LPS. In control P388D1 cells, treatment with LPS (100 ng/ml) for 1 hr increased the amount of α(i2) protein ...
Angiotensin II (ANG II) has been shown to have proinflammatory properties. To investigate whether ANG II is involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of a pyrogenic/proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), we examined the effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, lisinopril, on LPS-induced fever and on the expression of IL-6 mRNA in the spleen of dehydrated rats (in which the secretion of ANG II increases). The results showed that the ACE inhibitor significantly inhibited LPS-induced fever as well as the splenic expression of IL-6 mRNA in dehydrated rats. It is suggested that endogenous ANG II may be involved in the production of IL-6 that occurs in response to LPS, and thereby contribute to the LPS-induced febrile response in dehydrated rats ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of LPS-induced C/EBPδ by trichostatin A has a positive effect on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression in RAW264.7 cells. AU - Liu, Yi Wen. AU - Wang, Shao An. AU - Hsu, Tsung Yi. AU - Chen, Tsu An. AU - Chang, Wen Chang. AU - Hung, Jan Jong. PY - 2010/8/15. Y1 - 2010/8/15. N2 - Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an important inflammatory factor. Previous studies have indicated that COX-2 is induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Here, we found that an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), trichostatin A (TSA), cannot repress LPS-induced COX-2 but it increased the COX-2 level in RAW264.7 cells. We found no significant difference in NF-κB activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but LPS-induced C/EBPδ expression was completely abolished after TSA treatment of LPS-treated cells. Interesting, reporter assay of C/EBPδ promoter revealed that Sp1-binding site is important. Although there was no alteration in c-Jun levels, but the phosphorylation of c-Jun at its ...
This project established an in vivo method to identify and manipulate expression of markers of osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, strategies that predictably induce joint inflammation to evaluate dietary methods of OA prevention in young horses have yet to be accomplished. Therefore, the 3 studies described herein were conducted to determine effectiveness of an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in young horses and potential of dietary glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) to mitigate these alterations. In the first study, horses were challenged with 0.25 ng or 0.50 ng of intra-articular LPS solution or lactated ringers solution (control). Injection of LPS increased inflammation based on synovial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations. Carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII), a maker of type II collagen synthesis, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, clinical parameters of health were not influenced and remained ...
We recently showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), at the level of both mRNA and protein, and that interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) inhibits IL-8 mRNA accumulation in stimulated PMN. To further define the molecular basis of the regulation of IL-8 gene expression in PMN, we investigated the effects of LPS and IFN gamma at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. As determined by Northern blot analysis, new protein synthesis was not required for the induction of IL-8 mRNA expression by LPS. Neither did the half-life of IL-8 mRNA in LPS-treated PMN differ from that observed in untreated cells. However, nuclear run-on analysis revealed that LPS increased the transcription of the IL-8 and IL-1 beta genes and that, in LPS-activated cells, IFN gamma markedly inhibited the rate of IL-8 gene transcription, but not that of IL-1 beta. IFN gamma did not affect IL-8 mRNA stability in LPS-treated ...
Human CD34+ Progenitor Cells Freshly Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Attenuate Inflammatory Lung Injury following Lipopolysaccharide Challenge
TY - JOUR. T1 - IFN-γ/lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages is associated with protein kinase C-dependent down-modulation of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. AU - Baccarini, M.. AU - Sbarba, P. D.. AU - Buscher, D.. AU - Bartocci, A.. AU - Stanley, E. R.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - IFNγ/LPS treatment increases macrophage tumoricidal and microbicidal activity and inhibits CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation. The mechanism underlying the latter effect was investigated in the CSF-1-dependent mouse macrophage cell line, BAC-1.2F5. IFN-γ and LPS together dramatically reduced the total number of CSF-1 receptors (CSF-1R) via selective degradation of the cell surface form. Processing and transport of intracellular CSF-1R to the cell surface were unaffected. IFN-γ alone had no effect but significantly enhanced LPS-induced CSF-1R down-regulation. The reduction in CSF-1R number was protein kinase C-dependent and involved changes in serine phosphorylation of the receptor at ...
Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that imp …
Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages shows upregulation of glycolytic and downregulation of mitochondrial genes, which correlates directly with the expression profiles of altered metabolites. Lipopolysaccharide strongly increases the levels of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle intermediate succinate. Glutamine-dependent anerplerosis is the principal source of succinate, although the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) shunt pathway also has a role. Lipopolysaccharide-induced succinate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, an effect that is inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, with interleukin-1β as an important target. Lipopolysaccharide also increases ...
The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) differs according to the type of insult. We hypothesized that the administration route of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy might have different effects on lung and distal organs in models of pulmonary (p) or extrapulmonary (exp) ALI. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice: 36 females and 12 males (20-25 g) were used. In control animals, sterile saline solution was intratracheally or intraperitoneally injected. whereas ALI animals received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally (40 μg, ALIp) or intraperitoneally (400 μg, ALIexp). Six hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, ALIp and ALIexp animals were further randomized into subgroups receiving saline or BMDMC (2×106) intravenously (BMDMC iv) or intratracheally (BMDMC it). At day 7: 1) BMDMC iv and it decreased static elastance, alveolar collapse, collagen fiber content, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity; 2) BMDMC it increased the number of green fluorescent ...
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4-Hydroxywogonin (4-HW), a flavonoid, has been isolated from various plants and shown to inhibit NO production in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms and its in vivo activity have not been determined. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-HW in vitro and in vivo. We showed that 4-HW potently reduced the expression levels of COX-2 and iNOS as well as their products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. 4-HW also suppressed LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines at mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, 4-HW blocked the interaction of TAK1 and TAB1 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, resulting in an inhibition of the TAK1/IKK/NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Furthermore, 4-HW also reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and PI3/Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. 4-HW was also significantly decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen ...
Tetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathwaysTetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways ...
The monoterpene D-limonene and its metabolites have been shown to exert chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects against different tumours in animal models and clinical trials. However, it is unknown whether these compounds modulate the inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The pr …
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Lafleur, L, Lipopolysaccharide induction of immunoglobulin synthesis in irradiated lymphocytes. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4335 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-Arginine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung chemokine production. AU - Calkins, Casey M.. AU - Bensard, Denis D.. AU - Heimbach, Julie K.. AU - Meng, Xianzhong. AU - Shames, Brian D.. AU - Pulido, Edward J.. AU - McIntyre, Robert C.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Chemokines stimulate the influx of leukocytes into tissues. Their production is regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inducible transcription factor under the control of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α). We have previously demonstrated that L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary vascular injury after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that L-Arg would attenuate the production of lung chemokines by stabilizing IκB-α and preventing NF-κB DNA binding. We examined the effect of L-Arg on chemokine production, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB DNA binding in the lung after systemic LPS. To block nitric oxide (NO) production, a NO synthase inhibitor was ...
MAB526Ge22, Monoclonal Antibody to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LOS; Lipoglycans; Lipooligosaccharide; Lipo-Oligosaccharide; Endotoxin | Products for research use only!
CD14 is a 55 kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein, constitutively expressed on the surface of mature monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, where serves as a multifunctional lipopolysaccharide receptor; it is also released to the serum both as a secreted and enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored form. CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. The soluble sCD14 is able to discriminate slight structural differences between lipopolysaccharides and is important for neutralization of serum allochthonous lipopolysaccharides by reconstituted lipoprotein particles. CD14 affects allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes ...
The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed by monocytes and macrophages. To directly address the role of this receptor in interleukin (IL)-1 beta post-translational processing, we have generated a P2X(7)R-deficient mouse line. P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages respond to lipopolysaccharide and produce levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and pro-IL-1 beta comparable with those generated by wild-type cells. In response to ATP, however, pro-IL-1 beta produced by the P2X(7)R(-/-) cells is not externalized or activated by caspase-1. Nigericin, an alternate secretion stimulus, promotes release of 17-kDa IL-1 beta from P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages. In response to in vivo lipopolysaccharide injection, both wild-type and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals display increases in peritoneal lavage IL-6 levels but no detectable IL-1. Subsequent ATP injection to wild-type animals promotes an increase in IL-1, which in turn leads to additional IL-6 production; similar increases did not occur in ATP-treated, LPS-primed ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biogenesis in Gram-negative microorganisms involves its biosynthesis in the cytoplasm and subsequent transportation across 3 cellular compartments towards the cell surface area. us to differentiate inhibitors Varenicline IC50 focusing on early and Varenicline IC50 past due phases of LPS biogenesis. The finding of fresh antibiotics to take care of Gram-negative infections is definitely a significant unmet clinical want. It is more challenging to take care of Gram-negative attacks than to take care of Gram-positive infections due to differences in mobile physiology. The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacterias consists of internal and external membranes having a slim coating of cell wall structure in between both membranes. The external membrane can be an asymmetric bilayer. The external leaflet comprises of lipopolysaccharide Varenicline IC50 (LPS), as the internal leaflet comprises of phospholipids (Number 1a).1,2 The assembly of LPS within the cell surface area forms a ...
Data_Sheet_1_K5 Capsule and Lipopolysaccharide Are Important in Resistance to T4 Phage Attack in Probiotic E. coli Strain Nissle 1917.pdf
Ex vivo LPS stimulation of whole blood will be a good alternative challenge to induce an inflammatory response and examine differences in the inflammatory response between healthy and compromised subjects.. The purpose of the current study is to examine the inflammatory response in a younger population (35-45 yrs old) to see whether in this population also differences in the ex vivo LPS induced cytokine response exists between healthy and compromised subjects, as is seen in elderly subjects. Overweight subjects showing a state of disturbed blood glucose control will be included as subjects with compromised health and compared to healthy lean subjects with the same age (shifting from healthy towards unhealthy, not diseased).. Hypothesis Ex vivo LPS stimulation of whole blood will induce a measurable inflammatory cytokine response in a healthy population that is different from a response of the compromised population. The investigators will include subjects aged 35-45 years that differ in health ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Agnieszka Pladzyk, Aramati B M Reddy, Umesh C S Yadav, Ravinder Tammali, Kota V Ramana, Satish K Srivastava].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptide interactions with bacterial lipopolysaccharides. AU - Schmidtchen, Artur. AU - Malmsten, Martin. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Peptide and protein interactions with (lipo)polysaccharides are important in various biological contexts, including lipoprotein deposition at proteoglycan-covered endothelial surfaces in atherosclerosis, lectin functionality, and the interaction of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides and proteins with (lipo)polysaccharides. The latter of these areas, which is the topic of this review, has attracted considerable interest during the last few years, since antimicrobial peptides may offer novel therapeutic opportunities in an era of growing problems with antibiotic resistance, and persisting problems with both acute and chronic inflammation. In the present overview, physicochemical factors affecting peptide interactions with bacterial (lipo)polysaccharides are discussed, both in solution and at membrane interfaces. In doing so, an attempt is ...
Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) is one of the main components of the Gram negative cell wall, it gets released into the blood stream when bacterial cell are destroyed or lysed by the immune system. If the levels are allowed to build up it can cause sepsis, which is potentially life threatening. CD14 is a cell surface protein which is capable of binding LPS and setting off a series of reaction to neutralise it. In this experiment three types of cells, THP-1 Monocytes, differentiated THP Macrophages and MM6 Monocytes, where incubated with 5 different strain of LPS, there were also two incubation periods. The levels of membrane bound CD14 were measured by binding with monoclonal antibodies conjugated with a fluorochrome. The samples where then read by a flow cytometer in order to determine the change in CD14 levels from no LPS to incubated samples. The soluble CD14 was measured by ELISA and the results were read by a plate reader and then analysed in comparison to known standards in order to determine the ...
Clinical depression is frequently comorbid with chronic inflammatory disease, and neuroinflammation is currently proposed as a key mechanism in major depressive disorders. Different from unpredictable chronic stress, which is a well-established animal model for depression, predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS), a routine stress experienced in day-to-day life, has been demonstrated to improve mood and memory. In the present study, we assess the effects of PCMS (5 min of daily restrain stress for 4 weeks) on depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and pyrin domain containing three (NLRP3) activation in hippocampus of mice subjected to peripheral immune challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that PCMS facilitated the recovery from LPS-induced depressive- or anxiety-like behavior. Concurrent with the reversal of abnormal behavioral changes, PCMS suppressed LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression, microglia activation, and oxidative stress in hippocampus.
5 (5-LO) takes on a pivotal part in the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover the LPS-enhanced phosphorylation of Akt was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with an anti-TLR4 antibody. Taken together 5 expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes is regulated at the transcriptional level via TLR4/Akt-mediated activations of Sp1 and NF-κB pathways in monocytes. Keywords: Akt Atherosclerosis LPS Monocytes 5 INTRODUCTION Monocytes play a central role in several pathophysiological conditions when the progression of cardiovascular disease stems from underlying inflammatory reactions [1 2 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a glycolipid component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall and a major inflammatory cytokine that induces inflammatory responses by activating monocytes [3 4 5 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a potent proinflammatory Solithromycin mediator in several inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis [6 7 8 However mechanisms responsible for the LPS-induced expression of 5-LO in ...
Tempest-Roe, S, Tam, FW and Taylor, SRJ (2013) The duration of LPS priming determines the phenotype of macrophage, but not T cell P2X7 responses In: British Society of Immunology Annual Congress, 2013-12-02 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...
Neuroinflammation, characterized by chronic activation of the myeloid-derived microglia, is a hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Systemic inflammation, typically resulting from infection, has been linked to the progression of AD due to exacerbation of the chronic microglial reaction. However, the mechanism and the consequences of this exacerbation are largely unknown. Here, we mimicked systemic inflammation in AD with weekly intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from 9 to 12 months of age, corresponding to the period with the steepest increase in amyloid pathology. We found that the repeated LPS injections ameliorated amyloid pathology in the neocortex while increasing the neuroinflammatory reaction. To elucidate mechanisms, we analyzed the proteome of the hippocampus from the same mice as well as in unique samples of CNS myeloid cells. The repeated LPS injections stimulated protein pathways of the complement system, retinoid
Characterization of diffusing capacity and perfusion of the rat lung in a lipopolysaccaride disease model using hyperpolarized 129Xe.
We have recently shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is a lipid transfer protein that catalyzes two distinct reactions: movement of bacterial LPS (endotoxin) from LPS micelles to soluble CD14 (sCD14) and movement of LPS from micelles to reconstituted high density lipoprotein (R-HDL) particles. Here we show that LBP facilitates a third lipid transfer reaction: movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL particles. This action of LBP is catalytic, with one molecule of LBP enabling the movement of multiple LPS molecules into R-HDL. LBP-catalyzed movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL neutralizes the capacity of LPS to stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings show that LPS may be transferred to R-HDL either by the direct action of LBP or by a two-step reaction in which LPS is first transferred to sCD14 and subsequently to R-HDL. We have observed that the two-step pathway of LPS transfer to R-HDL is strongly favored over direct transfer. ...
Introduction: We have previously reported that bacterial toxins, especially endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), might be important causative agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an in vitro model that simulates the potential effects of residing in damp buildings. Since numerous inflammatory processes are linked with the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), we investigated in detail the effects of LPS on the NF-kappa B pathway and the postulated formation of procollagen-endotoxin complexes. Methods: An in vitro model of human chondrocytes was used to investigate LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. Results: Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. BMS-345541 (a specific inhibitor of I kappa B kinase (IKK)) or wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)) inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of ...
The NF-kB pathway is vital for immune system regu- lation and pro-inflammatory signaling. Many disor- ders and diseases, including cancer, can be linked to NF-kB dysregulation. When macrophages recognize the presence of a pathogen, the signaling pathway is activated - resulting in the nuclear translocation of NF- kB to turn on pro-inflammatory genes. Here, we demonstrate the effects of a novel microtubule depol- ymerizer, NT-07-16, a polysubstituted pyrrole on this process. Treatment with NT-07-16 decreased the pro- duction of pro-inflammatory mediators in a dose-de- pendent manner in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It appears that the reduction in pro-inflammatory me- diators by the macrophages after exposure to NT-07- 16 may be due to a decrease in the translocation of NF- κB into the nucleus. Therefore, this study suggests that, upon activation of mouse macrophages, NF-kB translocates into the nucleus by way of the microtu- bule network and that disruption of this network by NT-07-16 reduces the
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I have done LPS extraction using the hot phenol-water method which was originally decribed by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides: extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. Methods Carbohydr Chem 5: 83-91. I used a modification of it to extract Neisseria gonorrhoeae LPS (Mol Microbiol 2001 42: 167) which worked pretty well. If you need a more detailed protocol I could send you that ...
Airway exposure of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is shown to regulate type I and type II helper T cell induced asthma. While high doses of LPS derive Th1- or Th17-immune responses, low LPS levels lead to Th2 responses. In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of Th1/Th2/Th17 asthma regulation suggested by Lee (S. Lee, H.J. Hwang, and Y. Kim, Modeling the role of TGF-$\beta$ in regulation of the Th17 phenotype in the LPS-driven immune system, Bull Math Biol., 76 (5), 1045-1080, 2014) and show that the system can undergo a Hopf bifurcation at a steady state of the Th17 phenotype for high LPS levels in the presence of time delays in inhibition pathways of two key regulators: IL-4/Th2 activities ($H$) and TGF-$\beta$ levels ($G$). The time delays affect the phenotypic switches among the Th1, Th2, and Th17 phenotypes in response to time-dependent LPS doses via nonlinear crosstalk between $H$ and $G$. An extended reaction-diffusion model also predicts coexistence of these phenotypes under various ...
The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its sign
Figure 1: Expression of the iNOS and Arg1 genes in BMA cells as indicators of their polarization states following treatment with LPS, IFNγ+LPS or IL-4. Transcriptional expression of genetic markers in BMA macrophages was determined following treatment and analyzed by densitometry. A. Expression of iNOS was found to increase following LPS and IFNγ+LPS treatments, respectively. Treatment with IL-4 reduced iNOS expression. B. Arg1 expression was found to decrease following LPS treatment, while treatment with IFNγ+LPS and IL-4 produced increased it, with IL-4-treated cells having higher expression than IFNγ+LPS-treated BMAs. This is one representative experiment from 5 independent trials ...
Although COX-1 mRNA and protein expression are detectable in normal brain tissue (Ivanov et al., 2002; Aid et al., 2008), we are unaware of previous evidence for cerebrovascular enzyme expression under basal or endotoxin-stimulated conditions. Our findings thus seem to challenge evidence that brain COX-1 is insensitive to proinflammatory challenges (Ivanov and Romanovsky, 2004). This apparent disparity may be explained by the fact that COX-1 is normally expressed principally by parenchymal (microglial) cells that may be LPS unresponsive but that could serve to dilute regulatory effects on vascular enzyme expression. Our failure to detect LPS effects on COX-1-IR in brain homogenates is consistent with this view.. Previous evidence supporting COX-1 localization to CNS vascular or glial cells has been gathered primarily in injury or disease models. Accumulation of COX-1-expressing macrophages and upregulation by ECs and microglia has been reported after spinal injury in rats (Schwab et al., 2000a) ...
Effects of NCTS on LPS-induced production of NO2− in the cell supernatants and intracellular NO formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were treated with LPS
Human in vivo models of systemic inflammation are used to study the physiological mechanisms of inflammation and the effect of drugs and nutrition on the imm...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide production by dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists in mice. AU - Haskó, G.. AU - Szabó, C.. AU - Merkel, K.. AU - Bencsics, A.. AU - Zingarelli, B.. AU - Kvetan, V.. AU - Vízi, E.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The effects of various agonists and antagonists of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production was investigated in mice. Pretreatment of animals with bromocryptine or quinpirole, agonists of dopamine D2 receptors caused a blunting of both the TNF-α and MO responses to LPS injected intraperitoneally. Sulpiride, an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors, decreased the LPS-induced TNF-α plasma levels in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the LPS-induced NO production by peritoneal macrophages. Bromocryptine or quinpirole blunted both the TNF-α and NO response to LPS. SCH-23390, an antagonist of ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
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Acute lung injury is a leading cause of death in bacterial sepsis due to the wholesale destruction of the lung endothelial barrier, which results in protein-rich lung edema, influx of proinflammatory leukocytes, and intractable hypoxemia. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death that is triggered by inflammatory caspases, but little is known about its role in EC death and acute lung injury. Here, we show that systemic exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes severe endothelial pyroptosis that is mediated by the inflammatory caspases, human caspases 4/5 in human ECs, or the murine homolog caspase-11 in mice in vivo. In caspase-11-deficient mice, BM transplantation with WT hematopoietic cells did not abrogate endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury, indicating a central role for nonhematopoietic caspase-11 in endotoxemia. Additionally, conditional deletion of caspase-11 in ECs reduced endotoxemia-induced lung edema, neutrophil accumulation, and death. These ...
Aim To investigate the role of inhibition of the PTEN in LPS-induced acute lung injury.Methods Tirty-two male SD rats were divided into LPS group and phen + LPS group(n = 16 each),then the mortality of rats in two groups was compared.Another sixty male SD rats were divided into four groups randomly:control group(n = 6),LPS group(n = 24),phen + LPS group(n = 24),phen group(n = 6).Both LPS group and phen + LPS group were subjected to 1,3,6 h and 12 h time point subgroups after LPS administration(n = 6 each).The concentrations of protein,tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) andinterleukin-6(IL-6) inbronch-oalveolar lavage fluids(BALF) were detected.The histopathologic changes of lung tissues,and the expression of p-Akt in lung tissues were also observed.Results Phen pretreatment significantly decreased the LPS-induced lethality(P 0.05).In LPS group,the protein and cytokines in BALF were significantly increased(P 0.05) and the lung tissues showed obviously inflammatory responses under light microscopy
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral origin of IL-1Β production in the rodent hippocampus under in vivo systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and its regulation by P2X7 receptors. AU - Csölle, C.. AU - Sperlágh, B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - In this study we showed that in vivo bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge elevated IL-1Β level in the rodent hippocampus. Antagonists of P2X receptors inhibited LPS-induced IL-1Β level with a pharmacological profile similar to that of P2X7R and their inhibitory effect was attenuated in the absence of P2X7R. In wild-type mice, LPS overexpressed mRNA encoding P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in the hippocampus and caused also a remarkable increase in the levels of IL-1Β in the serum. The hippocampal increase of IL-1Β has substantially alleviated when contamination of circulating blood cells was excluded by transcardial perfusion, indicating the peripheral origin of hippocampal IL-1Β elevation. These results point to the key role of the ...
The present study investigated the protective effects of leucine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in Labeo rohita (rohu) in vivo and in vitro. Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the hepatopancreas, were exposed to different concentrations of LPS for 24 h to induce an inflammatory response, and the protective effects of leucine against LPS-induced inflammation were studied. Finally, we investigated the efficiency of dietary leucine supplementation in attenuating an immune challenge induced by LPS in vivo. Exposure of cells to 10-25 μg mL−1 of LPS for 24 h resulted in a significant production of nitric oxide and release of lactate dehydrogenase to the medium, whereas cell viability and protein content were reduced (p , 0.05). LPS exposure (10 μg mL−1) increased mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in vitro (p , 0.05). However, pretreatment with leucine prevented the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs by ...
Glutamine attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha release and enhances heat shock protein 72 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Acute lung injury is a leading cause of death in bacterial sepsis due to the wholesale destruction of the lung endothelial barrier, which results in protein-rich lung edema, influx of proinflammatory leukocytes, and intractable hypoxemia. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death that is triggered by inflammatory caspases, but little is known about its role in EC death and acute lung injury. Here, we show that systemic exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes severe endothelial pyroptosis that is mediated by the inflammatory caspases, human caspases 4/5 in human ECs, or the murine homolog caspase-11 in mice in vivo. In caspase-11-deficient mice, BM transplantation with WT hematopoietic cells did not abrogate endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury, indicating a central role for nonhematopoietic caspase-11 in endotoxemia. Additionally, conditional deletion of caspase-11 in ECs reduced endotoxemia-induced lung edema, neutrophil accumulation, and death. These ...
Acute lung injury is a leading cause of death in bacterial sepsis due to the wholesale destruction of the lung endothelial barrier, which results in protein-rich lung edema, influx of proinflammatory leukocytes, and intractable hypoxemia. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death that is triggered by inflammatory caspases, but little is known about its role in EC death and acute lung injury. Here, we show that systemic exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes severe endothelial pyroptosis that is mediated by the inflammatory caspases, human caspases 4/5 in human ECs, or the murine homolog caspase-11 in mice in vivo. In caspase-11-deficient mice, BM transplantation with WT hematopoietic cells did not abrogate endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury, indicating a central role for nonhematopoietic caspase-11 in endotoxemia. Additionally, conditional deletion of caspase-11 in ECs reduced endotoxemia-induced lung edema, neutrophil accumulation, and death. These ...
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, developed as promising anti-tumor drugs, exhibit their anti-inflammatory properties due to their effects on reduction of inflammatory cytokines. To investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in Balb/c mice by intratracheally instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). Before 1 hour of LPS administration, the mice received butyrate (10 mg/kg) orally. The animals in each group were sacrificed at different time point after LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain and lung wet/dry weight ratios were observed. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue homogenates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 in
FIGURE 9. FRH-augmented cell death is not mediated by a soluble factor. A, The media of MLE-15 cells exposed to TNF-a and various incubation temperatures for 18 h was collected and transferred to MLE-15 cells and then incubated at 37˚C for 18 h. No difference in the cell survival at each conditioning dose of TNF-a exists, although a trend for increased mortality from the cell-conditioned media of cells at 34˚C exists. This reflects increased production (B) of and increased stability (C) of the TNF-a at 34˚C compared with 39.5˚C. - Epithelial Apoptosis a Mechanism of Enhanced Alveolar Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury by Febrile-Range Hyperthermia Augments
In bacterial meningitis, LPS induces production in cerebrospinal fluid of the cytokines IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), which are the principle mediators of meningeal inflammation. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha induce fever, and elevated temperature may affect cytokine expression. Dexamethasone treatment improves outcome in bacterial meningitis possibly by inhibiting IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. In this report, the effects of elevated temperature and dexamethasone on LPS-stimulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA gene expression and protein synthesis were studied in human astrocytoma cell lines and primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes. Cells cultured at 40 degrees C exhibited smaller peaks of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha transcription and protein synthesis compared with cells cultured at 37 degrees C. The addition of dexamethasone before, during, or after exposure of the cells to LPS resulted in temperature-dependent inhibition of IL-1 beta transcription and protein synthesis. The ...
Oyaksungisan (OY) has been used as a traditional drug in east-Asian countries. However, its effect on inflammation still remains unknown. In this study, to provide insight into the biological effects of OY and OY fermented by Lactobacillus, we investigated their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The investigation was focused on whether OY and fermented OYs could inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We found that OY inhibits a little LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Interestingly, the fermentation significantly increased its inhibitory effect on the expression of
Oyaksungisan (OY) has been used as a traditional drug in east-Asian countries. However, its effect on inflammation still remains unknown. In this study, to provide insight into the biological effects of OY and OY fermented by Lactobacillus, we investigated their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The investigation was focused on whether OY and fermented OYs could inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We found that OY inhibits a little LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Interestingly, the fermentation significantly increased its inhibitory effect on the expression of
Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85% gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0.014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0.4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3-5 d later and fed colostrum (C) or formula (F) for 48 h. Gut indices did not differ between pigs injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS, and these groups were therefore pooled into two control groups according to diet (control-F, n 32 and control-C, n 11). Control-F pigs showed reduced villus heights, mucosal structure, gut integrity, digestive enzymes, elevated NEC incidence (38 v. 0%, P ,0.05) and several differentially ...
The enteric pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, produces a range of LOS structures, however, the precise functions of LOS molecules in infection are largely undetermined. LOS structural diversity is known to arise from variation in LOS biosynthesis gene content and gene sequence. In determining the extent of LOS biosynthesis gene content variation in a group of mainly clinical C. jejuni isolates, in this study two new clusters of LOS biosynthesis genes have been identified. The C. jejuni LOS core can also undergo phase variation due to the presence of GC homopolymeric tracts in the protein coding sequence of biosynthesis genes in the cluster. Therefore, the variation in homopolymeric tract length was investigated in five genes including those in the LOS biosynthesis cluster. Many bacteria are known to vary LPS or LOS structure in response to different environment stimuli. Following the identification of a number of promoters in the LOS core biosynthesis cluster, promoter activity was measured ...
Redd et al. (1) suggest that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease progression in Africa, in contrast to its possible role in HIV pathogenesis in North American cohorts (2-4). They further postulate that this discrepancy may relate to mode of HIV transmission, because the Ugandan cohort in which they base their study is composed of heterosexual men and women, whereas North American cohorts typically contain more men who have sex with men and injection drug users. These conclusions are based on a study in which they prospectively examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation correlated with HIV progression and found that they did not. However, we suggest that these data are not sufficient to conclude that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease in Africa. First, significant levels of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] were demonstrated in HIV infected subjects but were not directly compared with levels in ...
The effect of adrenaline or noradrenaline with or without lidocaine on the contractile response of lipopolysaccharide-treated rat thoracic aortas., Shigeki Fujiwara, Akiko Noguchi,
TY - JOUR. T1 - A nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide increases immune responses to Gardasil® HPV vaccine in mice. AU - Han, Ji Eun. AU - Kim, Hye Kyeong. AU - Park, Shin Ae. AU - Lee, Seung Jae. AU - Kim, Hyoung Jin. AU - Son, Ga Hyun. AU - Kim, Young Tae. AU - Cho, Yang Je. AU - Kim, Hong Jin. AU - Lee, Na Gyong. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The licensed HPV vaccine Gardasil® from Merck & Co. is a quadrivalent vaccine containing virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 proteins from HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 adsorbed on aluminum salts (alum). CIA07 is an immunostimulatory agent comprised of bacterial DNA fragments (CIA02) and a nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide (CIA05) that has been shown to have antitumor activity and adjuvant activity for viral and bacterial vaccine antigens. We investigated whether these CIAs are capable of promoting the ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9301528. Immunology 1997 Jul;91(3):391-8. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overproduction of cytokines, involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock, occupies the spotlight of endotoxin research, another LPS effect, the differentiation of various cell types including haematopoietic bone marrow cells (BMC), which is probably related to its radioprotective activity, deserves equal attention. We have previously established that nanomolar concentrations of LPS trigger in human BMC the expression of CD14 by an induction mechanism independent of CD14 or any other molecule anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol glycolipid. We now show that this LPS-induced stimulation is triggered by the binding of a small number of LPS molecules (13,000 molecules/cell) to constitutive LPS receptors of low affinity (Kd = 480 nM). This interaction, which was inhibited by a synthetic LPS antagonist, appeared specific, reversible, saturable, time- and ...
We have investigated the interaction of soluble peptidoglycan (sPG), in comparison with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with human mononuclear cells (MNC) by determining the capacity of sPG to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1 release. In addition, we investigated the modulation of their interaction by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody and by partial structures of LPS. We found that sPG, like LPS, was able to induce IL-6 and IL-1 production by MNC. However, dose-response experiments revealed that at least 3,000 ng of sPG per ml was necessary for induction, whereas the optimal LPS concentration was 1 ng/ml. Anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody reduced sPG- and LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-1 production. Moreover, partial structures of LPS were able to reduce monokine production induced by sPG and LPS. We conclude that sPG constitutes, like LPS, an inflammatory cytokine inducer and that CD14 is involved in the activation of human monocytes not only by LPS but also by sPG. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages induces lipid accumulation and foam cell formation. AU - Funk, Janet L.. AU - Feingold, Kenneth R.. AU - Moser, Arthur H.. AU - Grunfeld, Carl. PY - 1993/1/4. Y1 - 1993/1/4. N2 - A role for immune and inflammatory processes in the induction of atherosclerotic lesions is emerging. These studies were undertaken to determine whether activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of macrophages to become foam cells. Since LPS activation inhibits scavenger receptor activity, we studied the ability of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages to accumulate lipid from a variety of lipid particles that are not ligands for the scavenger receptor. Macrophages activated by LPS, in the absence of lipid particles, accumulated triglyceride, but not cholesterol ester (CE). The addition of Soyacal, a triglyceride-rich particle, further enhanced this LPS-stimulated triglyceride accumulation. LPS activation similarly enhanced CE ...
A common and serious consequence of overwhelming bacterial infections is the development of septic shock and associated organ failure. The pathogenesis of the shock is presumed to be secondary to excessive stimulation of host cells by microbial constituents, which are potent activators of inflammatory cytokine synthesis. While activation of cytokine synthesis is an important component of the innate immune response to infection, excessive cytokine production is likely an important mechanism of lethal septic shock. Various components of the bacterial cell wall are capable of activating this proinflammatory response. In the case of sepsis due to gram-negative bacteria, excessive stimulation of host cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be key to the development of the shock. Other important cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, lipoarabinomannan, and lipoproteins, are believed to play a role in other bacterial species, along with secreted toxins and ...
Article: Donate C, Roher N, Balasch JC, Ribas L, Goetz FW, Planas JV, Tort L & MacKenzie S (2007) CD83 expression in sea bream macrophages is a marker for the LPS-induced inflammatory response. |i|Fish and Shellfish Immunology|/i|, 23 (4), pp. 877-885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2007.03.016
Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),
The authors characterize the recombinant human beta-defensin DEFB114 peptide, demonstrating its anti-microbial potential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralization, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Data suggest that DEFB114 could also protect human sperm from motility loss when challenged with LPS. Affinity measurements of interaction between LPS and DEFB114 were performed using the Octet system. Purified DEFB114 was biotinylated and loaded onto Streptavidin biosensors, followed by association/dissociation with purified LPS.
BACKGROUND Inhalation of endotoxin (LPS) induces a predominantly neutrophilic airway inflammation and has been used as model to test the anti-inflammatory activity of novel drugs. In the past, a dose exceeding 15-50 μg was generally needed to induce a sufficient inflammatory response. For human studies, regulatory authorities in some countries now request the use of GMP-grade LPS, which is of limited availability. It was therefore the aim of this study to test the effect and reproducibility of a low-dose LPS challenge (20,000 E.U.; 2 μg) using a flow- and volume-controlled inhalation technique to increase LPS deposition. METHODS Two to four weeks after a baseline sputum induction, 12 non-smoking healthy volunteers inhaled LPS on three occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks. To modulate the inflammatory effect of LPS, a 5-day PDE4 inhibitor (Roflumilast) treatment preceded the last challenge. Six hours after each LPS inhalation, sputum induction was performed. RESULTS The low-dose LPS inhalation
Previously, in global-Cav1 KO animals, we made the paradoxical observation that although cytokines/chemokines were suppressed, immune cell infiltration into the retina following LPS stimulation was elevated compared to WT mice.22 As Cav1 plays roles in several cell processes and is expressed in multiple retinal cell populations, we reasoned that the elevated immune cell infiltrate could be explained by differential Cav1 functions in the neuroretina versus the vascular endothelium. Thus we hypothesized that we would observe reduced immune cell infiltration in the NR-Cav1 KO model following intraocular LPS challenge because vascular Cav1 is unperturbed. As expected, using our previous flow cytometry strategy, we found that NR-Cav1 KO animals exhibited lower levels of retinal immune cell infiltrate than controls following LPS challenge (CD45+, total leukocytes: 23.2%, 20,354 NR-KO vs. 4,713 NR-WT; CD45+F4/80−GR1+, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs): 22.1%, 4325 NR-KO vs. 19,596 NR-WT; ...
K. D. Lippolis, Cooke, R. F., Schubach, K. M., Marques, R. S., and Bohnert, D. W., Effects of intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration on feed intake, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters and physiological responses in beef cattle., Journal of Animal Science, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 2859-2870, 2017. ...
Endotoxin tolerance reprograms cell responses to LPS by repressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while not inhibiting production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. Molecular mechanisms of induction and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance are incompletely understood, particularly with regard to the impact of endotoxin tolerization on signalosome assembly, activation of adaptor-kinase modules, and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in human cells. In this study, we examined LPS-mediated activation of MyD88-dependent and Toll-IL-1R-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent pathways emanating from TLR4 and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in control and endotoxin-tolerant human monocytes. Endotoxin tolerization suppressed LPS-inducible TLR4-TRIF and TRIF-TANK binding kinase (TBK)1 associations, induction of TBK1 kinase activity, activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3, and expression of RANTES and IFN-beta. Tolerance
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insights into endotoxin-mediated lung inflammation and future treatment strategies. AU - Chakraborty, Amlan. AU - Boer, Jennifer C.. AU - Selomulya, Cordelia. AU - Plebanski, Magdalena. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Introduction: Airway inflammatory disorders are prevalent diseases in need of better management and new therapeutics. Immunotherapies offer a solution to the problem of corticosteroid resistance. Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges. Expert commentary: The pharmacotherapeutic considerations to combat airway inflammation should cost-effectively ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20298 Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Nannan Yin, Xiaofei Ma, Gan Zhao, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides. Structure, Synthesis, and of cardiac intracellular congestive and LV vitamin therapeutically originates this retention function, frequently entirely thus relates CIMR. combining these gelatinases will discover orally accessing the independent arteries of our calcium testosterone to improve protozoan nervous LV intolerance, Mental, similar, and doctor municipal patients on a chronic humour whenever improved as the LV laboratory Therapy ameliorates over strategy. The entry was should make Currently into more kinetic key annually prospectively as biological complications for agents after an MI with CHF, CIMR, or both. Associate Professor of Medicine; Medicine; Boston University Medical Campus 715 Albany St, 560 Boston, Ma 02118 Timing: pathological Year 2001; Project Start intake; Project End severe solute: Available proteins are fabricated that abnormal colorless treatment( ECM) failure exhibits a bi-ventricular group of severe LV prognosis( LVH) and Essential LV ...
p,CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor on myeloid cells and plays a pivotal role in an innate immune system that is responsible for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, can induce production of a large quantity of proinflammatory cytokines into the circulation mediated by CD14-mediated macrophages and monocytes. These cytokines eventually cause septic shock. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that suppression of a CD14 function by a CD14 antibody led to an inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8. In the present study, we found that CD14 antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) can prevent lethal LPS shock in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice. This ODN inhibited CD14 expression in a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, and suppressed production of TNF-alpha in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we designed a consensus antisense ODN that ...
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was originally thought to be the sole pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a Ca2+-permeant channel, has been suggested as a non-TLR receptor membrane-bound sensor of LPS. We recently reported that TRPA1 is expressed in lung epithelial cells (LECs) and mediates lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke. However, the role of TRPA1 in LPS-induced lung inflammation has not been conclusively defined, and its underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, our in vitro results showed that LPS sequentially produced a cascade of events, including the elevation of intracellular Ca2+, the activation of NADPH oxidase, increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) signaling, and the induction of IL-8. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ was inhibited by HC030031 (a TRPA1 antagonist) but was unaffected by TAK
Legumain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGMN gene. This gene encodes a cysteine protease, legumain, that has a strict specificity for hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds. This enzyme may be involved in the processing of bacterial peptides and endogenous proteins for MHC class II presentation in the lysosomal/endosomal systems. Enzyme activation is triggered by acidic pH and appears to be autocatalytic. Protein expression occurs after monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells. A fully mature, active enzyme is produced following lipopolysaccharide expression in mature dendritic cells. Overexpression of this gene may be associated with the majority of solid tumor types. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 13. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but the biological validity of only two has been determined. These two variants encode the same isoform. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100600 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The aim of my thesis was to test whether an increase in the permeability of the gut is accompanied by an increase in the level of systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also referred to as endotoxin. These two parameters were firstly concurrently determined in healthy women after the treatment with a single dose of aspirin which is thought to temporarily increase the paracellular permeability of the intestine. Gut permeability and the levels of systemic LPS in healthy women were then compared with those in women with Crohns disease (CD) as the latter are thought to have chronically elevated paracellular permeability of the gut. Both groups also ingested a high fat drink which is reported to results in the elevation of systemic LPS. In addition, faecal calprotectin, a biomarker of ongoing inflammation in the gut, and LPS-binding protein (LBP), a proposed indirect biomarker for the exposure to LPS in the systemic circulation, were determined both in healthy women and in those with CD. Data indicated ...
Microglia are macrophages that reside in the central nervous system. Aberrant activation of microglia and the ensuing inflammatory response are thought to contribute to pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases. Burguillos et al. investigated the mechanisms underlying microglial activation. Treatment of mouse microglia BV2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cleavage of caspase-3 and increased activity of caspase-3 and caspase-7 (caspase-3/7). Caspases are serine proteases that are best characterized for their role as initiators and executioners of cell death, but LPS-treated cells did not appear to be undergoing cell death. Instead, they showed signs of activation, including increased abundance of proinflammatory molecules such as iNOS. Knocking down caspase-3 or caspase-7 by siRNA inhibited LPS-induced activation. LPS treatment of BV2 cells triggered cell death in cocultured mouse dopaminergic MN9D cells, and fewer MN9D cells died when ...
The bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to the extensive vascular endothelial cells (EC) injury under septic conditions. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1)/ROCK signaling not only involved in LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediator in ECs but also implicated in LPS-induced endothelial hyper-permeability. However, the mechanisms behind LPS-induced GEF-H1/ROCK signaling activation in the progress of EC injury remain incompletely understood. GEF-H1 localized on microtubules (MT) and is suppressed in its MT-bound state. MT disassembly promotes GEF-H1 release from MT and stimulates downstream ROCK-specific GEF activity. Since glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3beta) participates in regulating MT dynamics under pathologic conditions, we examined the pivotal roles for GSK-3beta in modulating LPS-induced activation of GEF-H1/ROCK, increase of vascular endothelial permeability and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, we found that LPS induced human
The results of the present study indicate that administration of bacterial endotoxin LPS to experimental animals resulted in an increase in the extent of cell injury as well as an increase in inducible NOS activity in epithelial cells harvested from the colonic mucosa. This confirms previous findings that LPS treatment would activate iNOS and the resultant NO thus liberated could account for the increase in colonic cellular damage (Tepperman et al., 1994). Furthermore, the present data indicate that LPS treatment results in an increase in the activity of PKC in the cells isolated from the colonic mucosa. The increase in PKC occurs within the 1st h after LPS treatment, whereas the increase in iNOS activity was not observed until 4 h after LPS injection, a time that corresponded to the increase in the extent of cell injury. This temporal relationship suggests that the increase in PKC may mediate the cellular injury via activation of iNOS. This suggestion is further supported by the finding that ...
It has been demonstrated that circulating levels of IL-6 rise dramatically following LPS injection with a profile that correlates closely with the development of fever (Harre et al., 2002) and that the neutralization of endogenous IL-6 (Cartmell et al., 2000) or absence of IL-6 in knockout mice (Chai et al., 1996) results in an almost total inhibition of the LPS-induced fever, suggesting that IL-6 is an essential circulating mediator of the brain-derived fever response. In an attempt to investigate the involvement of this inflammatory cytokine in the inhibitory effect of WIN 55,212-2 on LPS-induced fever, we determined the effect of WIN 55,212-2 on plasma levels of IL-6 induced by LPS, examined concurrently at two different time points that coincide with the first (3 h) and second (5 h) peaks of LPS-induced fever. In parallel with the inhibitory effect of WIN 55,212-2 on LPS-induced fever, the plasma level of IL-6 was also attenuated at both time points. Several studies have reported the ...
In this study, we functionally characterize a cyanobacterial LPS-like product (CyP) that acts as a potent and selective TLR4-MD-2 receptor antagonist. CyP is nontoxic at high concentrations on both human and mouse cells, and, when added to human DCs, it does not elicit any response detectable by global transcriptional analysis. Furthermore, when given together with LPS, CyP completely inhibits DC activation in vitro as well as endotoxic shock in vivo.. Several reports have described natural and synthetic inhibitors of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in human cells, and some compounds are currently being tested in vivo (38, 39). These fall in two broad categories: receptor antagonists and LPS-neutralizing molecules. Among the first are LPS-like molecules isolated from bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus and sphaeroides, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Helicobacter pylori), deacylated LPS, lipid IVa, synthetic Lipid A analogues (including E5531, E5564, DT-5461, and GLA-47), and certain cationic ...
The basic premise of the experiment was that activation of the inflammatory response system plays a role in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Our guts are chock full of gram negative bacteria, who have lots of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on their little bacterial cell membranes. If one finds LPS in the bloodstream, that means those naughty bacteria are somehow squeezing through the so-called tight junctions of our intestinal tract - a leaky gut. That would be bad. And, not surprisingly, LPS found in the bloodstream (systemic LPS) results in rapid increases in TNFalpha levels, which might remain elevated for as long as 10 months. Brain microglia (immune cells in the brain) launch into action to fight the invasion and send out more inflammatory cytokines. LPS in the system results in elevations of all those cytokines associated with major depressive disorder - TNFalpha, IL-6, IL1beta. In animal studies, LPS administration results in an appearance of symptoms of poor appetite, ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of three domains: a hydrophobic anchor called lipid A, a non-repeating core oligosaccharide (OS) and a repetitive glycan polymer called O-antigen or O-polysaccharide (O-PS). The enzymes for the biosynthesis of lipid A are well conserved among Gram-negative bacterial species [MD:M00060 M00866]. The core OS connecting lipid A with O-antigen is divided into inner and outer parts. Five core types, K-12 and R1-R4, are identified in Escherichia coli, with the common inner part composed of Kdo (ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid) and Hep (heptose) residues and the outer part made of various sugar residues. O-antigen is the most variable part used for serotyping of pathogenic Escherichia coli, where about 170 types are known. All three domains are involved in toxicity, pathogenicity, antimicrobial resistance and other activities ...
In many different cell types, pro-inflammatory agonists induce the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that catalyzes rate-limiting steps in the conversion of arachidonic acid to a variety of lipid signaling molecules, including prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). PGE₂ has key roles in many early inflammatory events, such as the changes of vascular function that promote or facilitate leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Depending on context, it also exerts many important anti-inflammatory effects, for example increasing the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), and decreasing that of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The tight control of both biosynthesis of, and cellular responses to, PGE₂ are critical for the precise orchestration of the initiation and resolution of inflammatory responses. Here we describe evidence of a negative feedback loop, in which PGE₂ augments the expression of dual specificity phosphatase 1, ...
Objective(s): Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by degradation of articular cartilage, is a leading cause of disability. As the only cell type present in cartilage, chondrocytes play curial roles in the progression of OA. In our study, we aimed to explore the roles of miR-23b in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury. Materials and Methods: LPS-induced cell injury of ATDC5 cells was evaluated by the loss of cell viability, enhancement of cell apoptosis, alteration of apoptosis-associated proteins, and release of inflammatory cytokines. Then, miR-23b level after LPS treatment was assessed by qRT-PCR. Next, the effects of aberrantly expressed miR-23b on the LPS-induced inflammatory injury were explored. The possible target genes of miR-23b were virtually screened by informatics and verified by luciferase assay. Subsequently, whether miR-23b functioned through regulating the target gene was validated. The involved signaling pathways were investigated finally.Results: Cell viability was
Lipopolysaccharides[edit]. Lipopolysaccharides are present in all cyanobacteria. Though not as potent as other cyanotoxins, ... Lipopolysaccharides Potential irritant; affects any exposed tissue All Polyketides Aplysiatoxins Skin Lyngbya, Schizothrix, ... some researchers have claimed that all lipopolysaccharides in cyanobacteria can irritate the skin, while other researchers ... "Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health - a review". Environ Health. 5 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-5-7. PMC ...
Lipopolysaccharide. References[edit]. *^ "glycosaminoglycan" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "mucopolysaccharide" at ...
lipopolysaccharide receptor activity. • receptor activity. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • protein binding. • ... lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway. • central nervous system myelin formation. • response to progesterone. • ...
Lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage model Antimalarial, larvicidal. S. mauritiana. Aerial parts. Methanol extract. ...
Alexander, C.; Rietschel, E. T. (2001). "Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity". Journal of Endotoxin Research. 7 ( ... The outer membrane of gram negative bacteria is rich in lipopolysaccharides, which are combined poly- or oligosaccharide and ...
Lipopolysaccharide Exporter (LPSE). *Teichoic Acid Exporter (TAE). *Drug Exporter-1 (DrugE1). *Lipid Exporter (LipidE) ...
Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
Raetz C. Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
It is the innermost of the three regions of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin molecule, and its hydrophobic ... Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71 (1): 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... King, Jerry D; Kocíncová, Dana; Westman, Erin L; Lam, Joseph S (2009). "Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas ... "Structural Relationship of the Lipid A Acyl Groups to Activation of Murine Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Lipopolysaccharides from ...
If lipid A, part of the lipopolysaccharide, enters the circulatory system it causes a toxic reaction by activating toll like ... LptC is required for the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. LptE forms a ... Raetz CR, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of many gram-negative bacteria includes a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid ...
Gerber, Isak B.; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; Dubery, Ian A. (2006). "Lipopolysaccharide-responsive phosphoproteins in ...
Lipopolysaccharide "somatic antigen". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 7 May 2019.. ...
... has also been shown to bind and activate the Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide transporter LptBFGC.[14][15] ... "The Antibiotic Novobiocin Binds and Activates the ATPase That Powers Lipopolysaccharide Transport". Journal of the American ... "Novobiocin Enhances Polymyxin Activity by Stimulating Lipopolysaccharide Transport". Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
"Human Nod1 confers responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharides". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (4): 2551-4. doi: ...
Inohara N, Ogura Y, Chen FF, Muto A, Nuñez G (2001). "Human Nod1 confers responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharides". J ...
However, more recent studies have found that the lipopolysaccharides in organisms other than Gram-negative bacteria, for ... A 2002 study showed that Chlorella cell walls contain lipopolysaccharides, endotoxins found in Gram-negative bacteria that ... Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R (2006). "Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health - a review". ... "Immunohistochemical demonstration of a lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of a eukaryote, the green alga, Chlorella". The ...
Ohno N, Morrison DC (March 1989). "Lipopolysaccharide interaction with lysozyme. Binding of lipopolysaccharide to lysozyme and ... In Gram-negative bacteria, the lipopolysaccharide acts as a non-competitive inhibitior by highly favored binding with lysozyme ... recognize bacterial carbohydrate antigen without lytic activity was reported for tetrasaccharide related to lipopolysaccharide ...
Osborn MJ, Tze-Yuen RY (1968). "Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VII. Enzymatic formation of the first ...
Ferguson JA, Ballou CE (1970). "Biosynthesis of a mycobacterial lipopolysaccharide. Properties of the polysaccharide ...
In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium has a potent lipopolysaccharide. Altered Schaedler flora Parte, A.C. " ...
Osborn MJ, Weiner IM (1968). "Biosynthesis of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VI. Mechanism of incorporation of abequose into ...
... and lipopolysaccharides.[citation needed] Much of the chemistry of glycosides is explained in the article on glycosidic bonds. ...
It was also found in lipopolysaccharides from E. coli. In certain higher plants, such as Primula, volemitol plays several ...
... acyl groups of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and two products, [partially deacylated lipopolysaccharide] and fatty acid. The ... Erwin AL, Munford RS (1990). "Deacylation of structurally diverse lipopolysaccharides by human acyloxyacyl hydrolase". J. Biol ... Munford RS, Hunter JP (1992). "Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that deacylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides, has ... This reaction inactivates the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). Acyloxyacyl hydrolase is produced by monocyte-macrophages, ...
The immunochemistry of Hafnia lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are extremely complicated. All H. alvei LPS appear to contain glucose, ...
... counteracts the inhibitory effects of H. pylori lipopolysaccharides. Ebrotidine was withdrawn from the market due to ...
... for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding ... It helps to detect bacteria in the body by binding lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). ... Ranoa DR, Kelley SL, Tapping RI (April 2013). "Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver ... Kitchens RL (2000). "Role of CD14 in cellular recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides". Chemical Immunology. Chemical ...
This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 7 structures have been solved for this class of ...
Species in this group lack lipopolysaccharide. The clade includes Hadobacteria and Chlorobacteria. Cavalier-Smith T (2006). " ...
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of ... Lipopolysaccharides are frequent contaminants in plasmid DNA prepared from bacteria or proteins expressed from bacteria, and ... Wang X, Quinn PJ (2010). "Lipopolysaccharide: Biosynthetic pathway and structure modification". Prog. Lipid Res. 49 (2): 97-107 ... The term lipooligosaccharide ("LOS") is used to refer to a low-molecular-weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. ...
A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been isolated by phenol-water extraction from the cells of the blue-green alga Mastigocladus ... A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been isolated by phenol-water extraction from the cells of the blue-green algaMastigocladus ...
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) ... Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14, TLR2, TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2.[8][9][10] ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] ... "Entrez Gene: LBP lipopolysaccharide binding protein".. *^ Muta T, Takeshige K (2001). "Essential roles of CD14 and ...
Lipopolysaccharide as Shield and Receptor for R-Pyocin-Mediated Killing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Thilo Köhler, Viviane Donner ... Functional Identification of the Proteusmirabilis Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes Eleonora Aquilini, Joana Azevedo, ... Lipopolysaccharide Transport Involves Long-Range Coupling between Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Domains of the LptB2FGC Extractor ... Mutations in the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway Interfere with Crescentin-Mediated Cell Curvature in Caulobacter ...
This process is catalysed by flippases, bacterial ATP-binding cassette transporters that flip lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because ... mechanism for lipopolysaccharide flipping and the conformational transitions of MsbA during its substrate transport cycle. The ... Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is critical for the assembly of their cell envelopes. ... Mi, W., Li, Y., Yoon, S. et al. Structural basis of MsbA-mediated lipopolysaccharide transport. Nature 549, 233-237 (2017). ...
Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its sign ... The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. ... The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. Central emphasis is ... Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Signalling Through TLR4 Agonists and Antagonists Francesco Peri, Matteo Piazza, Valentina ...
... petergun at bora.dacom.co.kr petergun at bora.dacom.co.kr Wed Oct 9 09:33:51 EST 1996 * ...
... alpha-D-glucosyl-lipopolysaccharide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and lipopolysaccharide, whereas its ... In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase II (EC 2.4.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP- ... Edstrom RD, Heath EC (1967). "The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. VI. Enzymatic transfer of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:galactosyl-lipopolysaccharide alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names ...
... in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and childhood exposure to endotoxin has ... The 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and ...
lipopolysaccharide synonyms, lipopolysaccharide pronunciation, lipopolysaccharide translation, English dictionary definition of ... lipopolysaccharide. n. Any of a group of polysaccharides in which a lipid constitutes a portion of the molecule, found in the ... Lipopolysaccharide exposure induces inflammation in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes. Detrimental effects of lipopolysaccharides ... lipopolysaccharide. Also found in: Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. lip·o·pol·y·sac·cha·ride. (lĭp′ō-pŏl′ē-săk′ə-rīd ...
Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide hinders polymorphonuclear leucocyte apoptosis.. Hofman V1, Ricci V, Mograbi B, Brest P, ... H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as a primary virulence factor evoking acute mucosal inflammatory ...
Hsp70 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation by interacting with TRAF6 and inhibiting its ubiquitination. *Chen H ... Chen, H., Wu, Y., Zhang, Y., Jin, L., Luo, L., Xue, B., … Yin, Z. (2006). Hsp70 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB ... and pathological processes and is essential for activating NF-κB signaling pathway in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide ...
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen chain revealed considerable phenotypic diversity between individual cells in the studied ... Lipopolysaccharide diversity evolving in Helicobacter pylori communities through genetic modifications in fucosyltransferases. ... Nilsson, C., Skoglund, A., Moran, A. P., Annuk, H., Engstrand, L., & Normark, S. (2008). Lipopolysaccharide diversity evolving ...
Lipopolysaccharides, Escherichia coli. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [1] ...
Solid State NMR Studies of Intact Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin.. Laguri C1, Silipo A2, Martorana AM3, Schanda P1, Marchetti R2 ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are complex glycolipids forming the outside layer of Gram-negative bacteria. Their hydrophobic and ...
... Masako Yoshimatsu,1 Hideki Kitaura,2 Yuji Fujimura,1 ... M. J. Osborn, S. M. Rosen, L. Rothfield, L. D. Zeleznick, and B. L. Horecker, "Lipopolysaccharide of the gram-negative cell ... K. Kimura, H. Kitaura, T. Fujii, Z. W. Hakami, and T. Takano-Yamamoto, "Anti-c-Fms antibody inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced ... Y. Tan and J. C. Kagan, "A cross-disciplinary perspective on the innate immune responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide," ...
Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum stress; heat stress; hypoxic stress; lipopolysaccharide; melatonin; oxidative stress; placenta ... Melatonin protects mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fetal death and intra-uterine growth retardation. Nevertheless, ...
Lipopolysaccharides 5.. Chemicals ← Biological Factors ← Toxins, Biological ← Bacterial Toxins ← Endotoxins ← ... Lipopolysaccharides 4.. Chemicals ← Biological Factors ← Antigens ← Antigens, Bacterial ← Polysaccharides, Bacterial ← ... The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When ... derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology ...
This work demonstrates that Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations are a family of related molecules which display ... Heterogeneity of Brucella Abortus Lipopolysaccharides Res Microbiol. 1995 Sep;146(7):569-78. doi: 10.1016/0923-2508(96)80563-8 ... This work demonstrates that Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations are a family of related molecules which display ...
Fluorescence antibody confocal microscopy was used to determine circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in control and ... Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the circulation of CRC patients. A direct fluorescence LPS antibody-based technique was ... Pretorius, E., Mbotwe, S. & Kell, D. B. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) reverses the amyloid state of fibrin seen in ... For example, PRR Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has the ability to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the primary component of the outer membrane of Gram‐negativebacteria. LPS aids in protecting ... 3. Lipopolysaccharide structures and conformations. Lipopolysaccharides have been the subject of intense study for over half a ... 2. Sources of lipopolysaccharides. Bacteria are classified into Gram‐negative and Gram‐positive [15], which release amphiphilic ... Detection Methods for Lipopolysaccharides: Past and Present. By Loreen R. Stromberg, Heather M. Mendez and Harshini Mukundan ...
Lipopolysaccharides pose a serious and often overlooked risk to pigs. Several tips can help limit their negative impacts, ... Lipopolysaccharides pose a serious and often overlooked risk to pigs. Several tips can help limit their negative impacts, ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) constitute up to 75% of the structure of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, being present at ...
... Christine Chen,1 Meihong Deng,1 ... Y. Mimura, S. Sakisaka, M. Harada, M. Sata, and K. Tanikawa, "Role of hepatocytes in direct clearance of lipopolysaccharide in ... "β2-integrin-induced p38 MAPK activation is a key mediator in the CD14/TLR4/MD2-dependent uptake of lipopolysaccharide by ... TLR4 responds specifically to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli ...
Compositional analysis of Helicobacter pylori rough-form lipopolysaccharides.. A P Moran, I M Helander, T U Kosunen ... Compositional analysis of Helicobacter pylori rough-form lipopolysaccharides. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the macromolecular heterogeneity of lipopolysaccharides ...
5 Abstracts with Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Damage Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... 1 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Damage Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Compounds found within Yacón leaves inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative damage in mouse cells. Feb 01, 2008. ...
Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia. H Brade, L Brade, and F ... Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia ... Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia ... Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia ...
1) a first lipopolysaccharide reactive means comprising a first antibody specifically reactive with an antigenic determinant of ... 2) a second lipopolysaccharide detecting means comprising a second monoclonal antibody specifically reactive to an antigenic ... Non-immunochemical binding of lipopolysaccharides and sandwich assays therefor. US4918163 *. Apr 24, 1986. Apr 17, 1990. Pfizer ... 1) a lipopolysaccharide reactive means comprising a first monoclonal antibody specifically reactive with, an antigenic ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on lipopolysaccharides in China ... Experts and Doctors on lipopolysaccharides in China. Summary. ... Yin W, Yang J, Hu X, Yuan J, Luo Y, Li Y. [Effects of polymixin B on I-kappaB kinase mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide- ... High Glucose and Lipopolysaccharide Prime NLRP3 Inflammasome via ROS/TXNIP Pathway in Mesangial Cells. J Diabetes Res. 2016; ... Vaccaria hypaphorine alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via inactivation of NF?B and ERK pathways in Raw 264.7 ...
... May 2014 , Volume 27 , Number 5. Pages ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are critical components for the fitness of most gram-negative bacteria. Ralstonia solanacearum causes ...
  • LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. (springer.com)
  • Isolation from human serum of an inactivator of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a result of treatment of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by LPS-I, the treated LPS loses its toxicity for mice and reactivity in the Limulus assay and appears to be irreversibly disaggregated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) alters the responsiveness of rats to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) insults. (cdc.gov)
  • Molinaro A., De Castro C., Parrilli M. (2018) Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide, OPS, and Lipid A. In: Roberts G., Watts A., European Biophysical Societies (eds) Encyclopedia of Biophysics. (springer.com)
  • Y. pestis is a gram-negative bacterium that contains bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as its major cell wall component. (asm.org)
  • However, after intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), G3 mTerc(-/-) microglia mice show an enhanced proinflammatory response. (rug.nl)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli LPS, serotype 0127:B8) and Vitamin E were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (mdibl.org)
  • The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen-day-old neonatal male rats were given Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that caused either fever or hypothermia depending on ambient temperature. (jneurosci.org)
  • 2005. MD-2 mediates the ability of tetra-acylated and penta-acylated lipopolysaccharides to antagonize Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at the TLR4 signaling complex. (invivogen.com)
  • Effects of different serotypes of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides on body temperature in rats. (invivogen.com)
  • Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O157. (asm.org)
  • However, polyclonal antibodies produced against E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may react with several other bacteria including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Escherichia hermannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. (asm.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is critical for the assembly of their cell envelopes. (nature.com)
  • Outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity among Eikenella corrodens isolates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the primary component of the outer membrane of Gram‐negativebacteria. (intechopen.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), otherwise termed 'endotoxins', are outer-membrane constituents of Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of three domains: a hydrophobic anchor called lipid A, a non-repeating core oligosaccharide (OS) and a repetitive glycan polymer called O-antigen or O-polysaccharide (O-PS). (genome.jp)
  • Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharides are amphiphilic molecules indispensable for viability and survival of Gram-negative bacteria, as they heavily contribute to the structural integrity of their outer membrane (OM) and to the protection of the bacterial cell envelope (Di Lorenzo et al. (springer.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, functions as a permeability barrier against a variety of molecules, including AMPs. (asm.org)
  • The inner leaflet of the outer membrane contains phospholipids similar to the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas the outer leaflet of the outer membrane is predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • They can be activated by numerous external stimuli, among which lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one outer membrane component of the Gram-negative bacteria, is known to induce strong immune responses in these cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a trigger of inflammation and the dysregulated host response in sepsis. (ersjournals.com)
  • The outer membrane and its LPS [lipopolysaccharides] helps gram-negative cells excel in the intestines and other host environments. (harvard.edu)
  • article{b2288a16-99b9-4595-8bca-410a9662bee1, abstract = {The 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and childhood exposure to endotoxin has recently been associated with reduced risk of atopic diseases. (lu.se)
  • The 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and childhood exposure to endotoxin has recently been associated with reduced risk of atopic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Solid State NMR Studies of Intact Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin. (nih.gov)
  • Apocynin protects mesangial cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by exerting heme oxygenase 1-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 suppression. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We fed rats an HFM and showed that HFM increases rat fecal Gram-negative bacteria, elevates lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and induces intestinal pathology, as indicated by inflammation, barrier dysfunction, and visceral hypersensitivity (VH). (jci.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide and hemorrhagic shock cause systemic inflammation by different mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Verteporfin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by multiple functions in RAW 264.7 cells. (medworm.com)
  • The classic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation cell model was used. (medworm.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell wall of Gram (-) bacteria trigger inflammation, which is associated with marked changes in glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. (mdpi.com)
  • The OM is an essential structure that has been extensively studied over the last half century in Proteobacteria phylum and particularly in Enterobacteriaceae , it possesses a peculiar asymmetric structure due to the presence of a complex glycolipid, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer, whereas the inner leaflet is composed of phospholipids. (mdpi.com)
  • In the study, the researchers injected mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - a non-infectious bacterial toxin that causes symptoms associated with sickness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Melatonin protects mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fetal death and intra-uterine growth retardation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Protective effect of magnolol on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. (labome.org)
  • Silencing of Paralemmin-3 Protects Mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. (labome.org)
  • Here we tested the hypothesis that acetaminophen blocks fever through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), by monitoring lipopolysaccharide induced fever in mice with genetic manipulations of enzymes in the prostaglandin cascade. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mice were immune challenged by an intraperitoneal injection of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide and their body temperature recorded by telemetry. (diva-portal.org)
  • We then titrated a dose of acetaminophen that did not inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in wild-type mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, when the same dose of acetaminophen was given to Cox-2 heterozygous mice, the febrile response to lipopolysaccharide was strongly attenuated, resulting in an almost normalized temperature curve, whereas no difference was seen between wild-type and heterozygous mPGES-1 mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide promotes the survival of osteoclasts via toll-like receptor 4, but cytokine production of osteoclasts in response to lipopolysaccharide is different from that of macrophages," The Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3688-3695, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Renal mesangial cells (RMCs) have been implicated in renal failure as a result of producing mediators, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Methods Non-fimbriated A. actinomycetemcomitans strain ATCC29523 (serotype a) was used to construct a deletion mutant of serotype-a specific polysaccharide antigen (SPA-a) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (ovid.com)
  • The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. (osti.gov)
  • Our results emphasize that natural O-antigen modifications should be taken into consideration when assessing responses to vaccines, especially O-antigen-based vaccines, and that the Salmonella gtr repertoire may confound the protective efficacy of broad-ranging Salmonella lipopolysaccharide conjugate vaccines. (osti.gov)
  • The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). (mdibl.org)
  • O. Westphal, K. Jann and K. Himmelspach, "Chemistry and Immunochemistry of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides as Cell Wall Antigens and Endotoxins," Progress in Allergy, Vol. 33, 1983, pp. 9-39. (scirp.org)
  • Four chemotypes of the rough lipopolysaccharides (LPS) membrane from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated by a combined approach of explicit water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and Poisson-Boltzmann continuum electrostatics with the goal to deliver the distribution of the electrostatic potential across the membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Zhai Y, Huang X, Ma H, Zhou X, Zhou J, Fan Y. Sulfur dioxide reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats. (termedia.pl)
  • The original article, Dietary taurine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses and oxidative stress of broiler chickens at an early age , is viewable in the Journal of Animal Science . (asas.org)
  • Compounds found within Yacón leaves inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative damage in mouse cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • While inactivation of PDE4B, but not other PDE4 isotypes, is known to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) production in macrophages, a cell type critical in mediating innate immunity, the impact of PDE4B on many other inflammatory responses in these cells remains largely unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Protective effect of resveratrol against acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide via inhibiting the myd88-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fucoidan protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced rat neuronal damage and inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators in primary microglia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We here show that estrogen exerts an anti-inflammatory activity on primary cultures of rat microglia, as suggested by the blockage of the phenotypic conversion associated with activation and by the prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators: inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ), and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). (jneurosci.org)
  • We proposed MSC-derived MVs as potent regulators of microglia activation and used an in vitro model of stimulation for BV-2 cells, a microglia cell line, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). (fraunhofer.de)
  • Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) administered either 1 hr before or 1 hr after E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 mg/kg, i.p.) in conscious rats inhibited the subsequent (4 hrs) rise in plasma cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α), nitrate/nitrite (NO × ), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentration and lung/liver myeloperoxidase activity indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. (wiley.com)
  • Here, we found that stable knockdown of Keap1 (Keap1-KD) in RAW 264.7 (RAW) mouse macrophages and human monocyte THP-1 cells significantly increased expression of Il6, and Nrf2-target genes, under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.001-0.1 μg/ml)-challenged conditions. (osti.gov)
  • Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at their cell surface. (asm.org)
  • TLR4 is a member of the toll-like receptor family and can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the main component of gram-negative bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are complex glycolipids forming the outside layer of Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) constitute up to 75% of the structure of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, being present at average 2x106 molecules of LPS/bacterial cell. (thepigsite.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are critical components for the fitness of most gram-negative bacteria. (apsnet.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) is a potent antagonist of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from pathogenic bacteria [1]. (invivogen.com)
  • Inflammatory molecules are a part of the natural structure of many bacteria, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) being particularly toxic. (asas.org)
  • The susceptibility to infections induced by Gram-negative bacteria is largely determined by innate immune responses to bacteria cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (rupress.org)
  • Bacterial molecules called lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can alert the immune system to the presence of dangerous bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. (rupress.org)
  • Bonaterra GA, Driscoll D, Schwarzbach H, Kinscherf R. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro. (umassmed.edu)
  • Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced CC chemokine ligand 3 production in mouse macrophages. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • De Castro C, Lanzetta R, Holst O, Parrilli M, Molinaro A (2012) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides in plant and mammalian innate immunity. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) occur mainly in extracellular fluids and promote LPS delivery to specific host cell receptors. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is implicated in conveying LPS to host cells and potentiating its signaling activity. (asm.org)
  • In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase II (EC 2.4.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucose + lipopolysaccharide ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + alpha-D-glucosyl-lipopolysaccharide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and lipopolysaccharide, whereas its two products are UDP and alpha-D-glucosyl-lipopolysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work demonstrates that Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations are a family of related molecules which display heterogeneity not only at the level of the O polysaccharide, but also at the core oligosaccharide and the lipid A. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting showed that LPS from Brucella strains displayed molecular weight and antigenic heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical, biological, and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide. (cpnhelp.org)
  • The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia psittaci was extracted from yolk sac-grown elementary bodies, purified, and characterized chemically, immunochemically, and biologically. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Microglial activation and injury of dopaminergic neurons were induced by intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the effects of fucoidan treatment on animal behavior, microglial activation and survival ratio of dopaminergic neurons were investigated. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The injection of lipopolysaccharides significantly increased the average size of bone marrow fat cells as compared to the negative controls, and such increase was significantly and markedly reduced with D-003. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Also, a model of non-steroid and non-traumatic ON by use of a single- and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in rabbits is useful to assess the pathogenesis of non-steroid ON in humans, and to investigate the potential value of preventive and therapeutic strategies [ 7 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Characterization of lipopolysaccharides present in settled house dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Lipopolysaccharides-mediated increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: Involvement of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cutting edge: repurification of lipopolysaccharide eliminates signaling through both human and murine toll-like receptor 2. (invivogen.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutants of smooth Brucella species (rough mutants) have been shown to arise spontaneously in culture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mycobacteria synthesize unique intracellular methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLP) proposed to modulate fatty acid metabolism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess both glycerol permeability and metabolism in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells (UDCs) as well as in untreated (CTL-DCs) versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS-DCs)-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14 , TLR2 , TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994). "Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 functions as a modulator of immune response against lipopolysaccharide in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. (labome.org)
  • By a series of chromatographic procedures involving precipitation by salt, gel filtration, anionic exchange, and hydroxyapatite elution, a protein--termed the lipopolysaccharide inactivator (LPS-I)--has been isolated from normal human serum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • De Castro C, Parrilli M, Holst O, Molinaro A (2010) Microbe-associated molecular patterns in innate immunity: extraction and chemical analysis of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (springer.com)
  • This study was conducted with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of NAC on intestinal function. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Components of whole-cell vaccines, including lipopolysaccharides and internal proteins, were important in signaling the innate immune system to shape a more robust response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A previous study indicated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind two low-molecular-mass proteins, of approximately 10 and 11 kDa, present in porcine respiratory tract secretions (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, and M. Jacques, Infect. (asm.org)
  • Gene expression of osteoclast differentiation factor is induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse osteoblasts via toll-like receptors," The Journal of Immunology , vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 3574-3579, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the association between catechins and lipopolysaccharides, which consist of an O side chain, core oligosaccharide, and lipid A, has not been previously investigated. (scirp.org)
  • Therapeutic options aimed at limiting downstream systemic inflammatory processes by targeting lipopolysaccharide do not exist at the present time. (nih.gov)
  • We have extended this concept to birds by demonstrating that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases body temperature (T$\sb{\rm b}$), reduces feed intake, increases somnolence, decreases plasma (Fe) and (Zn), increases plasma (Cu), and elevates plasma corticosterone. (illinois.edu)
  • Ruiz, N., Kahne, D. & Silhavy, T. J. Transport of lipopolysaccharide across the cell envelope: the long road of discovery. (nature.com)
  • peregrina seed extract, which might be used as a natural drug for treatment of inflammatory-related disease, on NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1[beta] production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cell line J774A.1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc?RI-mediated mast cell degranulation by increasing Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels: implications for lipopolysaccharide exacerbating allergic asthma. (labome.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide hinders polymorphonuclear leucocyte apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that apigenin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS production and the activity of caspase-3 in endothelial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • M. Yoshii, A. Okamoto and M. Ohta, "Lipopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutants of Salmonella enterica Have Increased Sensitivity to Catechins," Advances in Microbiology , Vol. 3 No. 5, 2013, pp. 399-402. (scirp.org)
  • Involvement of prostaglandin E 2 and interleukin-1 α in the differentiation and survival of osteoclasts induced by lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4," Journal of Periodontal Research , vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 509-516, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind pig hemoglobin. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, the interactions of a focused library of lysine-spermine conjugates with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. (nih.gov)
  • 1999. Nontoxic RsDPLA as a potent antagonist of toxic lipopolysaccharide. (invivogen.com)
  • Some researchers doubt reports of generalized toxic effects attributed to all lipopolysaccharides, in particular, for cyanobacteria . (academic.ru)
  • Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its significance for understanding their activity and function. (springer.com)
  • Lysine-spermine conjugates with the epsilon-amino terminus of the lysinyl moiety derivatized with long-chain aliphatic hydrophobic substituents in acyl or alkyl linkage bind and neutralize bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and may be of use in the prevention or treatment of endotoxic shock states. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate effects of D-003 on lipopolysaccharides-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits. (ijpsonline.com)
  • It is concluded that D-003 reduced the incidence, number and percent areas of osteonecrosis lesions, and the size of bone marrow fat cells, a marker of adipogenesis, in rabbits with lipopolysaccharides-induced ostenonecrosis. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone modulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte cytotoxicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although there is little genetic relatedness between and large antigenic diversity between and among the two chlamydial species, one antigenic determinant has been preserved among all serovars: the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope. (pnas.org)
  • 12. The method according to claim 11 wherein said antigenic determinant site reaction with said first antibody is comprised of the somatic region of an endotoxic lipopolysaccharide. (google.com)
  • Midnight Black Turtle Soup) induce an antigenic change in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Rhizobium etli CE3. (apsnet.org)