Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
A family of ark shell mollusks, in the class BIVALVIA. They have soft bodies with platelike GILLS enclosed within two shells hinged together.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria isolated from individuals in LONG-TERM CARE facilities and HOSPITALS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A secreted protein that associates with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 and is essential for receptor recognition of LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.

Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (1/20671)

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (2/20671)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates. (3/20671)

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (4/20671)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola. (5/20671)

We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (6/20671)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Neutralization of endotoxin in vitro and in vivo by a human lactoferrin-derived peptide. (7/20671)

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) is the major pathogenic factor of gram-negative septic shock, and endotoxin-induced death is associated with the host overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In the search for new antiendotoxin molecules, we studied the endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of a human lactoferrin-derived 33-mer synthetic peptide (GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGP; designated LF-33) representing the minimal sequence for lactoferrin binding to glycosaminoglycans. LF-33 inhibited the coagulation of the Limulus amebocyte lysate and the secretion of TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipid A and four different endotoxins with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The first six residues at the N terminus of LF-33 were critical for its antiendotoxin activity. The endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of LF-33 and polymyxin B was attenuated by human serum. Coinjection of Escherichia coli LPS (125 ng) with LF-33 (2.5 microg) dramatically reduced the lethality of LPS in the galactosamine-sensitized mouse model. Significant protection of the mice against the lethal LPS challenge was also observed when LF-33 (100 microg) was given intravenously after intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Protection was correlated with a reduction in TNF-alpha levels in the mouse serum. These results demonstrate the endotoxin-neutralizing capability of LF-33 in vitro and in vivo and its potential use for the treatment of endotoxin-induced septic shock.  (+info)

Relationship between UDP-glucose 4-epimerase activity and oligoglucose glycoforms in two strains of Neisseria meningitidis. (8/20671)

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis has demonstrated considerable microheterogeneity in the variable region of LOS due to the presence of novel glycoforms. As a step toward understanding the basis for the expression of these novel glycoforms, we have examined the LOS structures and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (epimerase) activity levels in two strains (NMB and MA-1) and their respective galE mutants. Strain NMB was found to have low epimerase activity and to contain multiple glycoforms, some of which appear to contain only glucose sugars. The galE mutant had only the oligoglucose glycoforms. Strain MA-1 had higher epimerase activity at both log and stationary phases (2- and 12.5-fold, respectively) and one glycoform with a putative lactosyl structure. Strain MA-1 galE had two glycoforms that contained one or two glucose residues. To understand the molecular basis for the different epimerase activities, we examined the predicted amino acid sequences of the respective galE open reading frames and determined the relative amounts of GalE protein. We found no significant differences between the predicted amino acid sequence of the GalE protein in NMB and that in MA-1. We observed no significant differences in the level of GalE protein between MA-1 and NMB at exponential or stationary phase. We also observed an 8.2-fold drop in epimerase activity in NMB between the log and stationary phases that was not due to the GalE protein level or low glucose levels.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Response of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells to lipopolysaccharide injections in postnatal rats - A lectin and ultrastructural study. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Wang, H. J.. AU - Wen, C. Y.. AU - Lien, K. C.. AU - Ling, E. A.. PY - 1997/2/2. Y1 - 1997/2/2. N2 - The present study describes the response of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the corpus callosum to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injections in postnatal rats as examined by lectin histochemical staining and electron microscopy. In 1 day old rats receiving endotoxin injections and sacrificed at various time intervals, the lectin labelling of amoeboid/ramified microglia was greatly enhanced. The increased labelling persisted in some ramified microglia in rats killed at 14 and 21 days of age; otherwise in normal or control animals of the corresponding stages, the same cells were very weakly stained. In rats killed at 2 days of age after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection, the number of microglia ...
1. The effect of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on plasma follistatin (FS) concentrations was investigated. 2. Plasma FS a
Incubation of the human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) rendered the cells responsive to induction of TNF by LPS. Treatment with IL-6 reduced TNF production in GM-CSF-primed U937 cells. The inhibitory effect was most pronounced (approximately equal to 80%) when IL-6 was added either along with GM-CSF or within the first 3 h of GM-CSF treatment. Both GM-CSF or IL-6 inhibited [3H]TdR uptake in U937 cells, and simultaneous treatment with GM-CSF and IL-6 resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. However, the inhibition of TNF production could not be explained by the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell growth, nor was it due to a reduction in cell viability. An inhibition of TNF production by IL-6 was also demonstrated in cultured human peripheral blood monocytes. Treatment with IL-6 also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of the 17-kDa TNF band revealed by SDS-PAGE after labeling monocytes with [35S]cysteine ...
The aim of this work was to study the effect of chronic activation of the immune system on the somatotropic axis. Accordingly, the changes in growth hormone (GH) secretion, circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF- I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Acute LPS injection (2.5, 25 or 250 μg/kg) increased serum corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner and decreased serum levels of insulin and IGF-I, serum GH concentration declined linearly as the LPS dose increased. Western ligand blot showed an increase in the 33 kDa band (corresponding to IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) in the rats that received the highest dose of LPS (250 μg/kg). Chronic LPS administration (250 μg/kg daily for 8 days) significantly decreased body weight, serum levels of IGF-I and pituitary GH content, whereas it increased circulating IGFBP-3 (47 kDa band), IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 (33 kDa band) and the 24 kDa band (which possibly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consequences of early postnatal lipopolysaccharide exposure on developing lungs in mice. AU - Shrestha, Amrit Kumar. AU - Bettini, Matthew L.. AU - Menon, Renuka T.. AU - Gopal, Vashisht Y.N.. AU - Huang, Shixia. AU - Edwards, Dean P.. AU - Pammi, Mohan. AU - Barrios, Roberto. AU - Shivanna, Binoy. PY - 2019/1. Y1 - 2019/1. N2 - Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of infants that is characterized by interrupted lung development. Postnatal sepsis causes BPD, yet the contributory mechanisms are unclear. To address this gap, studies have used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during the alveolar phase of lung development. However, the lungs of infants who develop BPD are still in the saccular phase of development, and the effects of LPS during this phase are poorly characterized. We hypothesized that chronic LPS exposure during the saccular phase disrupts lung development by mechanisms that promote inflammation and prevent optimal lung development and repair. Wild-type ...
Ishii, Y; Shinoda, M; and Shikita, M, Migration inhibitory action of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on progenitor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage growing in culture in the presence of colony-stimulating factor (csf-1). (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3652 ...
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor e 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n ¼ 6) or LPS (500 mg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n ¼ 6). Blood samples were performed at 0, 30, 60 and 90 min and 2,4,6 and 24 h after treatment to evaluate interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) plasma concentrations.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Gα(i2) mimics several aspects of LPS priming in a murine macrophage-like cell line. AU - Kugi, M.. AU - Kitamura, K.. AU - Cottam, G. L.. AU - Miller, R. T.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Priming of macrophages with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of substances that act through heterotrimeric G proteins to stimulate immune cell functions. Although LPS-induced alterations in the expression and functions of G proteins of the α(i) family have been reported in hematopoietic cells, their effects on subsequent steps in LPS priming of macrophages have not been defined. To study the role of Gα(i2) in priming of macrophages by LPS, we expressed a mutant, activated form of α(i2) (α(i2Q2051)) in P388D1 cells, and compared its effects on PAF-dependent Ca signalling and arachidonic acid release to those in cells treated with LPS. In control P388D1 cells, treatment with LPS (100 ng/ml) for 1 hr increased the amount of α(i2) protein ...
Angiotensin II (ANG II) has been shown to have proinflammatory properties. To investigate whether ANG II is involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of a pyrogenic/proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), we examined the effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, lisinopril, on LPS-induced fever and on the expression of IL-6 mRNA in the spleen of dehydrated rats (in which the secretion of ANG II increases). The results showed that the ACE inhibitor significantly inhibited LPS-induced fever as well as the splenic expression of IL-6 mRNA in dehydrated rats. It is suggested that endogenous ANG II may be involved in the production of IL-6 that occurs in response to LPS, and thereby contribute to the LPS-induced febrile response in dehydrated rats ...
Dendritic cell (DC) activation is commonly used as a measure of the immunomodulatory potential of candidate exogenous and endogenous molecules. Residual lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination is a recurring theme and the potency of LPS is not always fully appreciated. To address this, polymyxin B (PmB) is often used to neutralise contaminating LPS. However, the limited capacity of this antibiotic to successfully block these effects is neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the minimum LPS concentration required to induce murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) maturation and cytokine secretion and to assess the ability of PmB to inhibit these processes. LPS concentrations as low as 10 pg/ml and 20 pg/ml induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α respectively, while a concentration of 50 pg/ml promoted secretion of IL-12p40. A much higher threshold exists for IL-12p70 as an LPS concentration of 500 pg/ml was required to induce secretion of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of LPS-induced C/EBPδ by trichostatin A has a positive effect on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression in RAW264.7 cells. AU - Liu, Yi Wen. AU - Wang, Shao An. AU - Hsu, Tsung Yi. AU - Chen, Tsu An. AU - Chang, Wen Chang. AU - Hung, Jan Jong. PY - 2010/8/15. Y1 - 2010/8/15. N2 - Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an important inflammatory factor. Previous studies have indicated that COX-2 is induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Here, we found that an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), trichostatin A (TSA), cannot repress LPS-induced COX-2 but it increased the COX-2 level in RAW264.7 cells. We found no significant difference in NF-κB activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but LPS-induced C/EBPδ expression was completely abolished after TSA treatment of LPS-treated cells. Interesting, reporter assay of C/EBPδ promoter revealed that Sp1-binding site is important. Although there was no alteration in c-Jun levels, but the phosphorylation of c-Jun at its ...
This project established an in vivo method to identify and manipulate expression of markers of osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, strategies that predictably induce joint inflammation to evaluate dietary methods of OA prevention in young horses have yet to be accomplished. Therefore, the 3 studies described herein were conducted to determine effectiveness of an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in young horses and potential of dietary glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) to mitigate these alterations. In the first study, horses were challenged with 0.25 ng or 0.50 ng of intra-articular LPS solution or lactated ringers solution (control). Injection of LPS increased inflammation based on synovial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations. Carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII), a maker of type II collagen synthesis, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, clinical parameters of health were not influenced and remained ...
We recently showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), at the level of both mRNA and protein, and that interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) inhibits IL-8 mRNA accumulation in stimulated PMN. To further define the molecular basis of the regulation of IL-8 gene expression in PMN, we investigated the effects of LPS and IFN gamma at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. As determined by Northern blot analysis, new protein synthesis was not required for the induction of IL-8 mRNA expression by LPS. Neither did the half-life of IL-8 mRNA in LPS-treated PMN differ from that observed in untreated cells. However, nuclear run-on analysis revealed that LPS increased the transcription of the IL-8 and IL-1 beta genes and that, in LPS-activated cells, IFN gamma markedly inhibited the rate of IL-8 gene transcription, but not that of IL-1 beta. IFN gamma did not affect IL-8 mRNA stability in LPS-treated ...
Human CD34+ Progenitor Cells Freshly Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Attenuate Inflammatory Lung Injury following Lipopolysaccharide Challenge
TY - JOUR. T1 - IFN-γ/lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages is associated with protein kinase C-dependent down-modulation of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. AU - Baccarini, M.. AU - Sbarba, P. D.. AU - Buscher, D.. AU - Bartocci, A.. AU - Stanley, E. R.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - IFNγ/LPS treatment increases macrophage tumoricidal and microbicidal activity and inhibits CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation. The mechanism underlying the latter effect was investigated in the CSF-1-dependent mouse macrophage cell line, BAC-1.2F5. IFN-γ and LPS together dramatically reduced the total number of CSF-1 receptors (CSF-1R) via selective degradation of the cell surface form. Processing and transport of intracellular CSF-1R to the cell surface were unaffected. IFN-γ alone had no effect but significantly enhanced LPS-induced CSF-1R down-regulation. The reduction in CSF-1R number was protein kinase C-dependent and involved changes in serine phosphorylation of the receptor at ...
Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that imp …
SETTING. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies in a murine model of pulmonary TB have identified a role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the development of chronic lung infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Asp299Gly polymorphism in the human TLR4 gene is associated with in vivo hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Caucasians.. OBJECTIVE. To determine whether TLR4 Asp299Gly influences LPS responses or susceptibility to pulmonary TB in humans in a Gambian population sample.. DESIGN. We compared whole blood monokine responses to LPS in 245 healthy blood donors stratified by TLR4 Asp299Gly genotype to assess whether this polymorphism was functional in this population. A case-control study of 640 subjects was conducted to investigate whether TLR4 Asp299Gly was associated with TB.. RESULTS. LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 production was not influenced by TLR4 Asp299Gly genotype. There was ...
Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages shows upregulation of glycolytic and downregulation of mitochondrial genes, which correlates directly with the expression profiles of altered metabolites. Lipopolysaccharide strongly increases the levels of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle intermediate succinate. Glutamine-dependent anerplerosis is the principal source of succinate, although the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) shunt pathway also has a role. Lipopolysaccharide-induced succinate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, an effect that is inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, with interleukin-1β as an important target. Lipopolysaccharide also increases ...
The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) differs according to the type of insult. We hypothesized that the administration route of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy might have different effects on lung and distal organs in models of pulmonary (p) or extrapulmonary (exp) ALI. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice: 36 females and 12 males (20-25 g) were used. In control animals, sterile saline solution was intratracheally or intraperitoneally injected. whereas ALI animals received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally (40 μg, ALIp) or intraperitoneally (400 μg, ALIexp). Six hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, ALIp and ALIexp animals were further randomized into subgroups receiving saline or BMDMC (2×106) intravenously (BMDMC iv) or intratracheally (BMDMC it). At day 7: 1) BMDMC iv and it decreased static elastance, alveolar collapse, collagen fiber content, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity; 2) BMDMC it increased the number of green fluorescent ...
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TY - BOOK. T1 - Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. T2 - Structure, chemical synthesis, biogenesis and interaction with host cells. AU - Knirel, Yuriy A.. AU - Valvano, Miguel. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Book. SN - 978-3-7091-0732-4. BT - Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PB - Springer-Verlag. CY - Wien. ER - ...
4-Hydroxywogonin (4-HW), a flavonoid, has been isolated from various plants and shown to inhibit NO production in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms and its in vivo activity have not been determined. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-HW in vitro and in vivo. We showed that 4-HW potently reduced the expression levels of COX-2 and iNOS as well as their products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. 4-HW also suppressed LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines at mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, 4-HW blocked the interaction of TAK1 and TAB1 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, resulting in an inhibition of the TAK1/IKK/NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Furthermore, 4-HW also reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and PI3/Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. 4-HW was also significantly decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen ...
Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by the innate immune system elicits strong pro-inflammatory responses that can eventually cause a fatal sepsis syndrome in humans. LPS-mediated activation of mammalian cells is believed to involve the interaction of LPS with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in the serum and, subsequently with CD14. Although there is no doubt that CD14 binds LPS, CD14 is not capable of initiating a transmembrane activation signal because it is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Accumulating evidence has suggested that LPS must interact with a transmembrane receptor(s) that is responsible for signal transduction. Integrins CD11c and/or CD18, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as well as CD55, have been suggested to serve this function. Recently, we have revealed that a signalling complex of receptors is formed following LPS stimulation, which comprises heat-shock proteins (Hsps) 70 and 90, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and growth differentiation ...
Tetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathwaysTetracyclines downregulate the production of LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells via ERK, p38, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways ...
The monoterpene D-limonene and its metabolites have been shown to exert chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects against different tumours in animal models and clinical trials. However, it is unknown whether these compounds modulate the inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The pr …
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Lafleur, L, Lipopolysaccharide induction of immunoglobulin synthesis in irradiated lymphocytes. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4335 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-Arginine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung chemokine production. AU - Calkins, Casey M.. AU - Bensard, Denis D.. AU - Heimbach, Julie K.. AU - Meng, Xianzhong. AU - Shames, Brian D.. AU - Pulido, Edward J.. AU - McIntyre, Robert C.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Chemokines stimulate the influx of leukocytes into tissues. Their production is regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inducible transcription factor under the control of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α). We have previously demonstrated that L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary vascular injury after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that L-Arg would attenuate the production of lung chemokines by stabilizing IκB-α and preventing NF-κB DNA binding. We examined the effect of L-Arg on chemokine production, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB DNA binding in the lung after systemic LPS. To block nitric oxide (NO) production, a NO synthase inhibitor was ...
MAB526Ge22, Monoclonal Antibody to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LOS; Lipoglycans; Lipooligosaccharide; Lipo-Oligosaccharide; Endotoxin | Products for research use only!
CD14 is a 55 kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein, constitutively expressed on the surface of mature monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, where serves as a multifunctional lipopolysaccharide receptor; it is also released to the serum both as a secreted and enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored form. CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. The soluble sCD14 is able to discriminate slight structural differences between lipopolysaccharides and is important for neutralization of serum allochthonous lipopolysaccharides by reconstituted lipoprotein particles. CD14 affects allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes ...
The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed by monocytes and macrophages. To directly address the role of this receptor in interleukin (IL)-1 beta post-translational processing, we have generated a P2X(7)R-deficient mouse line. P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages respond to lipopolysaccharide and produce levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and pro-IL-1 beta comparable with those generated by wild-type cells. In response to ATP, however, pro-IL-1 beta produced by the P2X(7)R(-/-) cells is not externalized or activated by caspase-1. Nigericin, an alternate secretion stimulus, promotes release of 17-kDa IL-1 beta from P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages. In response to in vivo lipopolysaccharide injection, both wild-type and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals display increases in peritoneal lavage IL-6 levels but no detectable IL-1. Subsequent ATP injection to wild-type animals promotes an increase in IL-1, which in turn leads to additional IL-6 production; similar increases did not occur in ATP-treated, LPS-primed ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biogenesis in Gram-negative microorganisms involves its biosynthesis in the cytoplasm and subsequent transportation across 3 cellular compartments towards the cell surface area. us to differentiate inhibitors Varenicline IC50 focusing on early and Varenicline IC50 past due phases of LPS biogenesis. The finding of fresh antibiotics to take care of Gram-negative infections is definitely a significant unmet clinical want. It is more challenging to take care of Gram-negative attacks than to take care of Gram-positive infections due to differences in mobile physiology. The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacterias consists of internal and external membranes having a slim coating of cell wall structure in between both membranes. The external membrane can be an asymmetric bilayer. The external leaflet comprises of lipopolysaccharide Varenicline IC50 (LPS), as the internal leaflet comprises of phospholipids (Number 1a).1,2 The assembly of LPS within the cell surface area forms a ...
Data_Sheet_1_K5 Capsule and Lipopolysaccharide Are Important in Resistance to T4 Phage Attack in Probiotic E. coli Strain Nissle 1917.pdf
Ex vivo LPS stimulation of whole blood will be a good alternative challenge to induce an inflammatory response and examine differences in the inflammatory response between healthy and compromised subjects.. The purpose of the current study is to examine the inflammatory response in a younger population (35-45 yrs old) to see whether in this population also differences in the ex vivo LPS induced cytokine response exists between healthy and compromised subjects, as is seen in elderly subjects. Overweight subjects showing a state of disturbed blood glucose control will be included as subjects with compromised health and compared to healthy lean subjects with the same age (shifting from healthy towards unhealthy, not diseased).. Hypothesis Ex vivo LPS stimulation of whole blood will induce a measurable inflammatory cytokine response in a healthy population that is different from a response of the compromised population. The investigators will include subjects aged 35-45 years that differ in health ...
Exposure of macrophages to bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in activation of the NF-κB transcription factor, which orchestrates a gene expression programme that underpins the macrophage-dependent immune response. These changes include the induction or repression of a wide range of genes that regulate inflammation, cell proliferation, migration and cell survival. This process is tightly regulated and loss of control is associated with conditions such as septic shock, inflammatory diseases and cancer. To study this response, it is important to have in vitro model systems that reflect the behaviour of cells in vivo. In addition, it is necessary to understand the natural differences that can occur between individuals. In this report, we have investigated and compared the LPS response in macrophage derived cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived macrophages. Gene expression profiles were determined following LPS treatment of THP-1 cells for 1 and 4 hours.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Agnieszka Pladzyk, Aramati B M Reddy, Umesh C S Yadav, Ravinder Tammali, Kota V Ramana, Satish K Srivastava].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptide interactions with bacterial lipopolysaccharides. AU - Schmidtchen, Artur. AU - Malmsten, Martin. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Peptide and protein interactions with (lipo)polysaccharides are important in various biological contexts, including lipoprotein deposition at proteoglycan-covered endothelial surfaces in atherosclerosis, lectin functionality, and the interaction of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides and proteins with (lipo)polysaccharides. The latter of these areas, which is the topic of this review, has attracted considerable interest during the last few years, since antimicrobial peptides may offer novel therapeutic opportunities in an era of growing problems with antibiotic resistance, and persisting problems with both acute and chronic inflammation. In the present overview, physicochemical factors affecting peptide interactions with bacterial (lipo)polysaccharides are discussed, both in solution and at membrane interfaces. In doing so, an attempt is ...
Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) is one of the main components of the Gram negative cell wall, it gets released into the blood stream when bacterial cell are destroyed or lysed by the immune system. If the levels are allowed to build up it can cause sepsis, which is potentially life threatening. CD14 is a cell surface protein which is capable of binding LPS and setting off a series of reaction to neutralise it. In this experiment three types of cells, THP-1 Monocytes, differentiated THP Macrophages and MM6 Monocytes, where incubated with 5 different strain of LPS, there were also two incubation periods. The levels of membrane bound CD14 were measured by binding with monoclonal antibodies conjugated with a fluorochrome. The samples where then read by a flow cytometer in order to determine the change in CD14 levels from no LPS to incubated samples. The soluble CD14 was measured by ELISA and the results were read by a plate reader and then analysed in comparison to known standards in order to determine the ...
Clinical depression is frequently comorbid with chronic inflammatory disease, and neuroinflammation is currently proposed as a key mechanism in major depressive disorders. Different from unpredictable chronic stress, which is a well-established animal model for depression, predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS), a routine stress experienced in day-to-day life, has been demonstrated to improve mood and memory. In the present study, we assess the effects of PCMS (5 min of daily restrain stress for 4 weeks) on depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and pyrin domain containing three (NLRP3) activation in hippocampus of mice subjected to peripheral immune challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that PCMS facilitated the recovery from LPS-induced depressive- or anxiety-like behavior. Concurrent with the reversal of abnormal behavioral changes, PCMS suppressed LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression, microglia activation, and oxidative stress in hippocampus.
5 (5-LO) takes on a pivotal part in the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover the LPS-enhanced phosphorylation of Akt was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with an anti-TLR4 antibody. Taken together 5 expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes is regulated at the transcriptional level via TLR4/Akt-mediated activations of Sp1 and NF-κB pathways in monocytes. Keywords: Akt Atherosclerosis LPS Monocytes 5 INTRODUCTION Monocytes play a central role in several pathophysiological conditions when the progression of cardiovascular disease stems from underlying inflammatory reactions [1 2 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a glycolipid component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall and a major inflammatory cytokine that induces inflammatory responses by activating monocytes [3 4 5 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a potent proinflammatory Solithromycin mediator in several inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis [6 7 8 However mechanisms responsible for the LPS-induced expression of 5-LO in ...
Tempest-Roe, S, Tam, FW and Taylor, SRJ (2013) The duration of LPS priming determines the phenotype of macrophage, but not T cell P2X7 responses In: British Society of Immunology Annual Congress, 2013-12-02 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...
Neuroinflammation, characterized by chronic activation of the myeloid-derived microglia, is a hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Systemic inflammation, typically resulting from infection, has been linked to the progression of AD due to exacerbation of the chronic microglial reaction. However, the mechanism and the consequences of this exacerbation are largely unknown. Here, we mimicked systemic inflammation in AD with weekly intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from 9 to 12 months of age, corresponding to the period with the steepest increase in amyloid pathology. We found that the repeated LPS injections ameliorated amyloid pathology in the neocortex while increasing the neuroinflammatory reaction. To elucidate mechanisms, we analyzed the proteome of the hippocampus from the same mice as well as in unique samples of CNS myeloid cells. The repeated LPS injections stimulated protein pathways of the complement system, retinoid
Characterization of diffusing capacity and perfusion of the rat lung in a lipopolysaccaride disease model using hyperpolarized 129Xe.
We have recently shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is a lipid transfer protein that catalyzes two distinct reactions: movement of bacterial LPS (endotoxin) from LPS micelles to soluble CD14 (sCD14) and movement of LPS from micelles to reconstituted high density lipoprotein (R-HDL) particles. Here we show that LBP facilitates a third lipid transfer reaction: movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL particles. This action of LBP is catalytic, with one molecule of LBP enabling the movement of multiple LPS molecules into R-HDL. LBP-catalyzed movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL neutralizes the capacity of LPS to stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings show that LPS may be transferred to R-HDL either by the direct action of LBP or by a two-step reaction in which LPS is first transferred to sCD14 and subsequently to R-HDL. We have observed that the two-step pathway of LPS transfer to R-HDL is strongly favored over direct transfer. ...
Introduction: We have previously reported that bacterial toxins, especially endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), might be important causative agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an in vitro model that simulates the potential effects of residing in damp buildings. Since numerous inflammatory processes are linked with the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), we investigated in detail the effects of LPS on the NF-kappa B pathway and the postulated formation of procollagen-endotoxin complexes. Methods: An in vitro model of human chondrocytes was used to investigate LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. Results: Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. BMS-345541 (a specific inhibitor of I kappa B kinase (IKK)) or wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)) inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of ...
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of murine colitis, interleukin (IL)-10-deficient ( IL-10 − / − ) mice. In Th1-mediated inflammation, CO abrogates the synergistic effect of interferon (IFN)- γ on lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-12 p40 in murine macrophages and alters IFN- γ signaling by inhibiting a member of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, IRF-8. A specific signaling pathway, not previously identified, is delineated that involves an obligatory role for HO-1 induction in the protection afforded by CO. Moreover, CO antagonizes the inhibitory effect of IFN- γ on HO-1 expression in macrophages. In macrophages and in Th1-mediated colitis, ...
The NF-kB pathway is vital for immune system regu- lation and pro-inflammatory signaling. Many disor- ders and diseases, including cancer, can be linked to NF-kB dysregulation. When macrophages recognize the presence of a pathogen, the signaling pathway is activated - resulting in the nuclear translocation of NF- kB to turn on pro-inflammatory genes. Here, we demonstrate the effects of a novel microtubule depol- ymerizer, NT-07-16, a polysubstituted pyrrole on this process. Treatment with NT-07-16 decreased the pro- duction of pro-inflammatory mediators in a dose-de- pendent manner in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It appears that the reduction in pro-inflammatory me- diators by the macrophages after exposure to NT-07- 16 may be due to a decrease in the translocation of NF- κB into the nucleus. Therefore, this study suggests that, upon activation of mouse macrophages, NF-kB translocates into the nucleus by way of the microtu- bule network and that disruption of this network by NT-07-16 reduces the
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... alpha-D-glucosyl-lipopolysaccharide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and lipopolysaccharide, whereas its ... In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase II (EC 2.4.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP- ... Edstrom RD, Heath EC (1967). "The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. VI. Enzymatic transfer of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:galactosyl-lipopolysaccharide alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names ...
... and lipopolysaccharide, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and lipopolysaccharide. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.39) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (lipopolysaccharide-exporting). Fath MJ, Kolter R (1993). "ABC ...
2000). "Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein and Phospholipid Transfer Protein Release Lipopolysaccharides from Gram-Negative ... Tuomi K, Logomarsino JV (2016). "Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide, Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein, and Other Inflammatory ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene. LBP is a soluble acute-phase ... Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14, TLR2, TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Other names in common use include UDP-glucose:lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase I, lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase ... D-glucosyl-lipopolysaccharide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and lipopolysaccharide, whereas its two ... uridine diphosphate glucose:lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase, I, and uridine diphosphoglucose-lipopolysaccharide ... In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase I (EC 2.4.1.58) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP- ...
4-lipopolysaccharide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosaminouronate and lipopolysaccharide ... In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide N-acetylmannosaminouronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.180) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosaminouronate:lipopolysaccharide N-acetyl-beta-D- ... whereas its two products are UDP and N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosaminouronosyl-1,4-lipopolysaccharide. This enzyme belongs to the ...
In enzymology, a lipopolysaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.56) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:lipopolysaccharide N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase. ... Osborn MJ, D'Ari L (August 1964). "Enzymatic incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine into cell wall lipopolysaccharide in a mutant ... This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and glycan structures - biosynthesis 2. This enzyme belongs to the ...
Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
Raetz C. Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
If lipid A, part of the lipopolysaccharide, enters the circulatory system it causes a toxic reaction by activating toll like ... LptC is required for the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. LptE forms a ... Raetz CR, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of many gram-negative bacteria includes a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid ...
Lipopolysaccharides are present in all cyanobacteria. Though not as potent as other cyanotoxins, some researchers have claimed ... Stewart I, Schluter PJ, Shaw GR (2006). "Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health - a review". Environ Health. 5 (1 ... alkaloids and lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins). Most cyanotoxins have a number of variants (analogues). As of 1999, altogether ... that all lipopolysaccharides in cyanobacteria can irritate the skin, while other researchers doubt the toxic effects are that ...
Lipopolysaccharide "somatic antigen". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 7 May 2019. v t e (Bacterial proteins, Bacteriology, All ...
Like many cyanobacteria O. brevis have lipopolysaccharides which can cause illness in humans and animals through ingestion or ... Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J.; Shaw, Glen R. (2006-03-24). "Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health - a review ...
Inohara N, Ogura Y, Chen FF, Muto A, Nuñez G (2001). "Human Nod1 confers responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharides". J ...
However, more recent studies have found that the lipopolysaccharides in organisms other than Gram-negative bacteria, for ... A 2002 study showed that Chlorella cell walls contain lipopolysaccharides, endotoxins found in Gram-negative bacteria that ... Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R (2006). "Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health - a review". ... "Immunohistochemical demonstration of a lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of a eukaryote, the green alga, Chlorella". The ...
Ohno N, Morrison DC (March 1989). "Lipopolysaccharide interaction with lysozyme. Binding of lipopolysaccharide to lysozyme and ... In Gram-negative bacteria, the lipopolysaccharide acts as a non-competitive inhibitior by highly favored binding with lysozyme ... recognize bacterial carbohydrate antigen without lytic activity was reported for tetrasaccharide related to lipopolysaccharide ...
Osborn MJ, Tze-Yuen RY (1968). "Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VII. Enzymatic formation of the first ...
Their outer membrane is mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are nonmotile, or rely ...
It is a constituent of the in O‐specific chains in lipopolysaccharides that occur in certain serotypes of Salmonella and ... Osborn, M. J.; Weiner, I. M. (1968). "Biosynthesis of a Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (10 ...
Ferguson JA, Ballou CE (1970). "Biosynthesis of a mycobacterial lipopolysaccharide. Properties of the polysaccharide ...
In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium has a potent lipopolysaccharide. Altered Schaedler flora List of bacteria genera ...
Osborn MJ, Weiner IM (1968). "Biosynthesis of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VI. Mechanism of incorporation of abequose into ...
It was also found in lipopolysaccharides from E. coli. In certain higher plants, such as Primula, volemitol plays several ...
Also see "AOAH". Erwin AL, Munford RS (1990). "Deacylation of structurally diverse lipopolysaccharides by human acyloxyacyl ... This reaction inactivates the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin); the tetraacyl lipid A product can inhibit LPS signaling. ... Munford RS, Hunter JP (1992). "Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that deacylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides, has ... Munford RS, Weiss JP, Lu M (2020). "Biochemical transformation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by acyloxyacyl hydrolase ...
The immunochemistry of Hafnia lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are extremely complicated. All H. alvei LPS appear to contain glucose, ...
... for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding ... It helps to detect bacteria in the body by binding lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). ... Ranoa DR, Kelley SL, Tapping RI (April 2013). "Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver ... Kitchens RL (2000). "Role of CD14 in cellular recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides". Chemical Immunology. Chemical ...
This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 7 structures have been solved for this class of ...
that l ring stands for lipopolysaccharide. Jones CJ, Homma M, Macnab RM (July 1989). "L-, P-, and M-ring proteins of the ...
Species in this group lack lipopolysaccharide. The clade includes Hadobacteria and Chlorobacteria. Cavalier-Smith T (2006). " ...
This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Ray PH, Benedict CD (1980). "Purification and Characterization of ...
This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically ...
... Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Sep 5;121(17): ... to examine the effect and mechanisms of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion in rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS ...
Human monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes in the core-lipid A region of lipopolysaccharides.. ... Human monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes in the core-lipid A region of lipopolysaccharides.. ... of the IgM class that recognized conserved epitopes in the core-lipid A region of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Three of the mAbs ...
... alterations more extensively by setting up a full-term newborn lamb model of systemic inflammation using lipopolysaccharide ( ... alterations more extensively by setting up a full-term newborn lamb model of systemic inflammation using lipopolysaccharide ( ... Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Injection on Body Core Temperature. The dose of LPS used (2.5 μg/kg) in our study induced a ... Neonatal ovine model of systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Systemic inflammation was induced in ...
Here, the biological activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, the most prominent ... Coli lipopolysaccharide function at human tlr4 via interaction with the human md-2 lipopolysaccharide binding site. Cell ... Lipopolysaccharide on b cell activation and toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Toxicol. Lett. 2017, 275, 101-107. [Google Scholar ... Lipopolysaccharide-treated rat microglia in vitro. Toxicol. Sci. 2016, 149, 484-495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
Gene Expression in Lipopolysaccharide-treated Human Monocytes Following Interaction with Hepatic Cancer Cells TERUKO HONDA and ... Lipopolysaccharides Derived from Pantoea agglomerans Can Promote the Phagocytic Activity of Amyloid β in Mouse Microglial Cells ... Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Derived from Pantoea agglomerans on the Phagocytic Activity of Amyloid β by Primary Murine ... Dewaxed Brown Rice Contains a Significant Amount of Lipopolysaccharide Pointing to Macrophage Activation via TLRs HIROYUKI ...
Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Proteins - Yersinia massiliensis. [ Brite menu , Download htext , Download json , Copy URL , ...
Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Microglia and Macrophages via COX-2. Wang, Ya; Plastina, Pierluigi; Vincken ...
The structure of lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum and its role in cherry canker ...
... ... Silverstein, P. S., Audus, K. L., Qureshi, N., & Kumar, A. (2010). Lipopolysaccharide Increases the Expression of Multidrug ...
A Lipopolysaccharide Microarray for Analysis of Human Antibodies Highlights of Analytical Sciences in Switzerland Authors. * ...
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Lipopolysaccharide patterns from strains isolated throughout the years in the same hospital were similar. This suggests an ... Profiles of isolated lipopolysaccharides from the 18 strains and the reference serogroup 6 strain were visualised in ... The strain from a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hospital A displayed a lipopolysaccharide profile ... Differences in lipopolysaccharide profiles of serologically identical Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 strains. ...
... and neuro-immune changes induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in mice. Methods Socially isolated rodents were administered with ... Pifithrin-μ Attenuates Acute Sickness Response to Lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6J Mice. *Rongping Zhang, Jili Wang, +4 authors. ... Lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in mice. *J. OConnor ... Cannabidiol prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior and alters cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels in the ...
... of rats on systemic lipopolysaccharide and to identify the factor that affects the intestinal endotoxin translocation. Ninety- ... lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mesenteric lymph node, percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg, Th1/Th2 ratio. ... The influence of Th1/Th2 and CD4+ regulatory t cells of mesenteric lymph nodes on systemic lipopolysaccharide. Wenli Yu ... At the same time, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the abdominal aortic blood was detected. In the CLP group, the Th1/Th2 ratio ...
Justicidin A Inhibits the Transport of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α to Cell Surface in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 ... Exposure of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which is initially ... Justicidin A Inhibits the Transport of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α to Cell Surface in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 ... Justicidin A Inhibits the Transport of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α to Cell Surface in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 ...
This was followed by the in vitro evaluation of the ability of KGF, CSF and CCF to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from gram-negative bacteria are considered to be the most potent activators of the production ... Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory response by polysaccharide fractions of Khaya grandifoliola (C ... Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory response by polysaccharide fractions of Khaya grandifoliola (C ...
Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide. PLoS ONE. ... Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide. In: PLoS ... Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide. / ... title = "Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide", ...
We investigated the protective effect of ciproxifan on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment by altering the ... Ciproxifan attenuates the memory impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide through modulation of cholinergic transmission in the ... OBJECTIVE: We investigated the protective effect of ciproxifan on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment by ... Ciproxifan attenuates the memory impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide through modulation of cholinergic transmission in the ...
... administration would attenuate brain inflammation and injury in near-term fetal sheep exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ... blockade attenuates white matter inflammation and oligodendrocyte loss after progressive systemic lipopolysaccharide exposure ...
Animals Article Articular Cartilage Dysbiosis Feces Humans Inflammation Lipopolysaccharides Male Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL ... Blood samples were used for multiplex cytokine analysis and measures of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Germ- ... Association of Increased Serum Lipopolysaccharide but not Microbial Dysbiosis with Obesity-related Osteoarthritis. ... Association of Increased Serum Lipopolysaccharide but not Microbial Dysbiosis with Obesity-related Osteoarthritis ...
Find out how lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can affect the joints. ... Lipopolysaccharide Has a Key Role in Gut Bacteria. *It Can ... 1. Lipopolysaccharide Has a Key Role in Gut Bacteria. What is lipopolysaccharide? Also known as LPS, it receives a lot of flak ... 4. The Lipopolysaccharide Is Also an O Antigen. Another major component of LPS is O antigen, which is a repeated sequence of ... One lipopolysaccharide function is to act as a protection for the outer membrane of the Gram-negative bacteria, which can be ...
Immunomodulation of murine cytomegalovirus-induced myocarditis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis ... Immunomodulation of murine cytomegalovirus-induced myocarditis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis ...
Growth and lipopolysaccharide (O-antigen) levels of salmonella in cultures of agar media] ... Occurrence of 2 heptoses in lipopolysaccharides of enterobacterial cell walls: L-glycero-and D-glycero-D-mannoheptose] ... The relation of hexoses and 6-desoxyhexoses in Salmonella lipopolysaccharides to the D and L group.] ... I. EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF 2-KETO- 3-DEOXYOCTONATE IN THE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM ...
Dive into the research topics of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of ICAM-1 through ... Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of ICAM-1 through modulation of toll-like receptor-4 ...
Lipopolysaccharide-activated IL-10-secreting dendritic cells suppress experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by MHCII-dependent ... Dive into the research topics of Lipopolysaccharide-activated IL-10-secreting dendritic cells suppress experimental autoimmune ...
Effect of ultrapure lipopolysaccharides derived from diverse bacterial species on the modulation of platelet activation ... lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The method of preparation of LPS may explain these discrepancies however this is not fully understood ... Effect of ultrapure lipopolysaccharides derived from diverse bacterial species on the modulation of platelet activation. ...
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.. ... were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n ...
A novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is an important negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide-mediated c-Jun N- ... A novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is an important negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide-mediated c-Jun N- ... A novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is an important negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide-mediated c-Jun N- ... T1 - A novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is an important negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide-mediated c- ...
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. Ruei-Ming Chen, Tyng-Guey ... Dive into the research topics of Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharide-activated ...
... CASSATELLA, Marco Antonio;TAMASSIA, Nicola;Crepaldi L; ...

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