Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Sugar PhosphatesLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Myo-Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.DiglyceridesCarbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.TriglyceridesHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.Annexin A3: A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C: A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.TritiumBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phospholipase C delta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsCholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.EthersRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Inositol Oxygenase: A non-heme IRON enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of MYOINOSITOL to D-glucuronic acid. The reaction is the first committed step in MYOINOSITOL catabolic pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.11 and 1.99.2.6.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Arachidonic AcidsHistamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
PC, Woscholski R, Parker PJ, Waterfield MD (2001). "Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids". Annu. Rev. ... 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-4-phosphate 3-phosphotransferase. Other names in ... whereas its two products are ADP and 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
"Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 70: 535-602. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.70.1. ... 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-phosphotransferase. This ... This enzyme participates in 29 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism, erbb signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol ...
"Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 70: 535-602. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... myo-inositol Giese N (2009). "Cell pathway on overdrive prevents cancer response to dietary restriction". PhysOrg.com. ... This domain lacks critical Asp residues to coordinate binding of Ca2+, which suggests class II PI3Ks bind lipids in a Ca2+- ... Whitman M, Downes CP, Keeler M, Keller T, Cantley L (April 1988). "Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol ...
Vanhaesebroeck B et al., (2001) Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids. Annu Rev Biochem. Ferby I et al., ...
This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 4 of the inositol ring from inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. There is limited ... "Determinants of the tumor suppressor INPP4B protein and lipid phosphatase activities". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INPP4B gene. INPP4B encodes ... Munday AD, Norris FA, Caldwell KK, Brown S, Majerus PW, Mitchell CA (Mar 1999). "The inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase forms ...
Stenmark H, Aasland R (December 1999). "FYVE-finger proteins--effectors of an inositol lipid". J. Cell Sci. 112 (Pt 23): 4175- ... Leevers SJ, Vanhaesebroeck B, Waterfield MD (April 1999). "Signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinases: the lipids take ...
... a target for leukaemogenic tyrosine kinases that affects inositol lipid turnover". Br J Haematol. 141 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1111/ ...
Phill Hawkins has contributed much to the understanding of inositol lipids functions in eukaryotic cells. Together with his ...
Irvine RF (1982). "The enzymology of stimulated inositol lipid turnover". Cell. Calcium. 3 (4-5): 295-309. doi:10.1016/0143- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-lyase (1D-myo-inositol-1,2- ... 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol, and two products, 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. This enzyme ... 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol diacylglycerol-lyase, and (1,2-cyclic-phosphate-forming). This enzyme participates in inositol ...
Once activated, they phosphorylate inositol lipids in the cell membrane, which triggers additional downstream signaling events ...
Free lipids are present and are used as fuel for flight. There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. ... These include inositol, sugar alcohol, hexosamines, mannitol, glycerol and those components that are precursors to chitin. ... These proteins are classified by their functions: chroma proteins, protease inhibitors, storage, lipid transport, enzymes, the ... Some hemolymphic proteins incorporate carbohydrates and lipids into the structure. Nitrogen metabolism end products are present ...
"A receptor-like inositol lipid phosphatase is required for the maturation of developing cochlear hair bundles". J Neurosci. 23 ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the 3-prime OH position of the inositol ring of inositol lipids. The class I ... 1999). "Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro ... PI3Ks display a broad phosphoinositide lipid substrate specificity and include p110α, p110β and p110γ. p110α and p110β interact ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the 3-prime OH position of the inositol ring of inositol lipids. They have ... Lipids. 98 (1-2): 79-86. doi:10.1016/S0009-3084(99)00020-1. PMID 10358930. Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, et al. (2004). " ...
The first is a central inositol 5-phosphatase domain, which can act on both PIP2 and PIP3. The second is an N-terminal Sac1- ... However the actual extension of the neurite involves the insertion of membrane lipids immediately behind the growth one. In ... Synaptojanin has been proposed as the mechanism by which membrane lipids can be trafficked around the developing neuron. During ... This is an important regulatory lipid phosphatase. It dephosphorylates the D-5 position phosphate from phosphatidylinositol (3, ...
The fourth principle is lipid modification. A component of the lipid bilayer, phosphatidyl inositol phosphate (PIP) can be ...
Hannun YA, Obeid LM (July 2002). "The Ceramide-centric universe of lipid-mediated cell regulation: stress encounters of the ... Tripathi,K. "Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA ... Lipid Res. 17 (5): 506-15. PMID 9463. Jung SY, Suh JH, Park HJ, Jung KM, Kim MY, Na DS, Kim DK (September 2000). " ... Lipid Res. 8 (3): 202-9. PMID 4962590. Rao BG, Spence MW (September 1976). "Sphingomyelinase activity at pH 7.4 in human brain ...
Membrane lipids Phosphatidyl-inositol Inositol Glycerol Phosphatidylinositols at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... trisphosphate inositol pentakisphosphate inositol hexaphosphate inositol triphosphate receptor Mathews, Chrisotphe K.; van ... The inositol ring can be phosphorylated by a variety of kinases on the three, four and five hydroxyl groups in seven different ... Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides yield one mole of glycerol, two moles of fatty acids, one mole of inositol and one, two, or ...
Len Stephens has contributed much to the understanding of inositol lipids functions in eukaryotic cells, and in particular in ... Early highlights were the mapping of new pathways of inositol phosphate synthesis. Together with his long-time collaborator ...
This phosphorylation of PLC induces an enzyme to catalyze the breakdown of lipids to diacyglycerol and inositol(1,4, 5). ... H-ras is found in lipid rafts, embedded within the plasma membrane, while K-Ras is predominantly found in disordered region of ... Diacyglycerol may indirectly activate PI3 kinase or several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, whereas inositol(1,4, 5) promotes ...
... since their most important substrates are phosphorylated inositol lipids. Myotubularins similarly display a preference towards ... certain phosphatidyl inositols. Mitogen-activated protein Kinase Phosphatases (MKPs) MKPs form a rather large family, with some ...
Lipid kinases phosphorylate lipids in the cell, both on the plasma membrane as well as on the membranes of the organelles. The ... The kinase enzymes increase the rate of the reactions by making the inositol hydroxyl group more nucleophilic, often using the ... 2003). "Lipid Kinases Play Crucial and Multiple Roles in Membrane Trafficking and Signalling" (PDF). Histology and ... The phosphorylation state of a molecule, whether it be a protein, lipid, or carbohydrate, can affect its activity, reactivity, ...
Glucose, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol and trehalose were found in overwintering nymphs and are thought to be a factor in their ... Unlike most cockroaches, the major hydrocarbon in P. japonica's cuticular lipids is cis-9-nonacosene. Males have significant ...
Phosphotidyl inositol phosphates (PIPs), one of the most important lipid signaling molecules, is found to differ as the ... These lipids on the surface of the endosomes help in the specific recruitment of proteins from the cytosol, thus providing them ... The inter-conversion of these lipids is a result of the concerted action of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases that are ... van Meer, Gerrit; Voelker, Dennis R.; Feigenson, Gerald W. (2008-02-01). "Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave ...
Metabolites such as Alanine, Saturated lipids, Glycine, Lactate, Myo-Inositol, Nucleotides, Polyunsaturated fatty acids and ... Enhanced fatty acid synthesis provides lipids for membrane biogenesis to tumor cells and hence, it gives advantage in both ... Activated mTOR stimulates protein and lipid biosynthesis and cell growth in response to sufficient nutrient and energy ...
Medicines that control lipid profile, diabetes, and hypertension may increase blood flow to the affected muscles and allow for ... pentoxifylline and inositol nicotinate for the treatment of intermittent claudication in people with peripheral arterial ...
The simplest inositol phospholipid is phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). The inositol moiety can be phosphorylated at several ... Are a class of phospholipids where inositol is the polar headgroup. ... Katan M. (2015) Inositol Lipids. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ... PTEN Gene Pleckstrin Homology Domain Messenger Molecule Polar Headgroup Inositol Lipid These keywords were added by machine and ...
... in its native or lipid derived forms, serves as a master building block which, when phosphorylated, leads to the construction ... Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods and Protocols compiles many of the techniques that underscore phosphorylated inositol ... Inositol, in its native or lipid derived forms, serves as a master building block which, when phosphorylated, leads to the ... In Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers introduce the basic methodological tools to ...
The 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids fulfill roles as second messengers by interacting with the lipid binding domains of a ... Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids.. Vanhaesebroeck B1, Leevers SJ, Ahmadi K, Timms J, Katso R, ... This review is focused on the 3-phosphoinositide lipids, the synthesis of which is acutely triggered by extracellular stimuli, ... Much knowledge has recently been gained through structural insights into the lipid kinases, their interaction with inhibitors, ...
Oncogenes, Inositol Lipids and Cell Proliferation Lead researcher. Dr J A Hamilton ...
Inositol Lipids in Cellular Signaling. by Mitchell, Robert H., Putney, James W., Jr. by Mitchell, Robert H., Putney, James W., ... Mitchell, Robert H. is the author of Inositol Lipids in Cellular Signaling with ISBN 9780879693046 and ISBN 0879693045. ...
An essential role for phosphatidylinositol transfer protein in phospholipase C-mediated inositol lipid signaling.. Thomas GM1, ...
Inositol lipid metabolism and signal transduction in clonal pituitary cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... 2-diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Both of these products are important intracellular messengers, and their ... in response to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. With high concentrations of the peptide, the cytosolic free ...
Inositol lipid signal transduction in phytoalexin elicitation T. J. Walton T. J. Walton ... T. J. Walton; Inositol lipid signal transduction in phytoalexin elicitation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 November 1995; 23 (4): 862-867 ... DAG, diacylglycerol, Ins(1,4,5)P3, myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, PKC, protein kinase C, PLC, phospholipase C, PtdIns, ... phosphatidyl-inositol, PtdInsP, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, PtdIns(4,5)P2, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, TPA, 12-O ...
TPTE and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase pseudogene), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ...
A Receptor-Like Inositol Lipid Phosphatase Is Required for the Maturation of Developing Cochlear Hair Bundles. R. J. Goodyear, ... A Receptor-Like Inositol Lipid Phosphatase Is Required for the Maturation of Developing Cochlear Hair Bundles ... A Receptor-Like Inositol Lipid Phosphatase Is Required for the Maturation of Developing Cochlear Hair Bundles ... A Receptor-Like Inositol Lipid Phosphatase Is Required for the Maturation of Developing Cochlear Hair Bundles ...
Cell Biology of Inositol Lipids & Phosphates Biochemical Society Symposia No 74 by M J O Wakelam available in Hardcover on ... Cell Biology of Inositol Lipids & Phosphates Biochemical Society Symposia No 74 by M J O Wakelam ...
This ability of lipid kinases and phosphatases to directly remodel and alter the activity of a non-membrane protein-lipid ... Direct Modification and Activation of a Nuclear Receptor-PIP2 Complex by the Inositol Lipid Kinase IPMK ... Direct Modification and Activation of a Nuclear Receptor-PIP2 Complex by the Inositol Lipid Kinase IPMK ... Direct Modification and Activation of a Nuclear Receptor-PIP2 Complex by the Inositol Lipid Kinase IPMK ...
Inositol lipid turnover in isolated guinea-pig trachealis and lung parenchyma A. M. KARDASZ A. M. KARDASZ ... A. M. KARDASZ, J. M. LANGLANDS, I. W. RODGER, J. WATSON; Inositol lipid turnover in isolated guinea-pig trachealis and lung ...
... Simonsson, Per LU ; ... Furthermore, ethanol had no effect on arginine-vasopressin, bradykinin or phenylephrine stimulated inositol lipid metabolism.. ... Furthermore, ethanol had no effect on arginine-vasopressin, bradykinin or phenylephrine stimulated inositol lipid metabolism ... inositol phosphate formation and an increased incorporation of [3H]-inositol into the three phosphoinositides studied. This ...
Inositol lipids have emerged as universal lipid regulators of protein signaling complexes in defined membrane compartments. The ... Inositol-lipid binding motifs: signal integrators through protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions ... Inositol-lipid binding motifs: signal integrators through protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions ... Inositol-lipid binding motifs: signal integrators through protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions ...
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, inositol lipid metabolism, Pharmacy and materia medica, Pharmaceutical Science. ... Phosphodiesterase-catalysed breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate initiates receptor-stimulated inositol lipid ... 5-bisphosphate initiates receptor-stimulated inositol lipid metabolism. In: Calcium Regulation in Biological Systems. Takeda ...
Additional prospective studies regarding the effect of inositol supplementation on lipid profiles in patients with metabolic ... was performed to summarize the evidence of the effects of inositol supplementation on lipid profiles among population with ... There was no effect of inositol supplementation on HDL-cholesterol levels (SMD 0.20; 95% CI, − 0.27, 0.67; P = 0.40). Inositol ... Pooled results showed that inositol supplementation among patients with metabolic diseases significantly decreased ...
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... he does one of his issues and Finally is it into the read Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods. The applications are and the ... Read Inositol Phosphates And Lipids: Methods And Protocols 2010. Follow @naijarates The read Inositol Phosphates and F of the ... The read Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: Methods and is not presented to social inauguration and is l retains a l. past free ... A only read Inositol Phosphates and Lipids: back to become killed. basic s alterability nuts of mine have the Altruism of a ...
1989) The use of cells doubly labelled with [14C]inositol and [3H]inositol to search for a hormone-sensitive inositol lipid ... Analysis of Inositol Lipids. Inositol phospholipids were analyzed from either COS-7 cells transfected with the AT1a Ang II ... 1998) Regulation of inositol lipid-specific phospholipase Cδ by changes in Ca2+ion concentrations. Biochem J 327:545-552, pmid: ... Louis, MO). Myo-[3H]inositol (68 Ci/mmol) and [3H]inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (48 Ci/mmol) was from Amersham Corp. (Arlington ...
... a relatively unstudied signaling lipid, is required in all eukaryotes and cell-types tested. Defects in PI3,5... ... Inositol lipid regulation of membrane fusion and fission Weisman, Lois S. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, ... 2014) The signaling lipid PI(3,5)Pâ‚‚ stabilizes Vâ‚ -V(o) sector interactions and activates the V-ATPase. Mol Biol Cell 25: ... In order to identify and ultimately treat these diseases, we must first determine how the levels of this lipid are regulated, ...
The gut immune system and its modification by diet have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). (PLN) of diabetic rats. The jejunum of 50-day LEW.1AR1-rats contained fewer CD3+ T cells, CD163+ M2 macrophages and Foxp3+ Treg cells. expression was increased in MLN and expression was decreased in the jejunum of LEW.1AR1-rats; was decreased in jejunum of…. ...
Epidermal growth factor alters metabolism of inositol lipids and activity of protein kinase C in mouse embryo palate mesenchyme ... We interpret these data to mean that 1) in contrast to the findings with some cell lines, alterations in inositol lipid ... Epidermal growth factor alters metabolism of inositol lipids and activity of protein kinase C in mouse embryo palate mesenchyme ... The release of inositol 1-phosphate was sustained over a period of at least 60 min, whereas the release of inositol 1,4- ...
Irvine, R. (1992). "Inositol lipids in cell signaling". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 4 (2): 212-9. doi:10.1016/0955-0674(92 ... Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein ... and by inositol lipid metabolic pathways. Up to date, there are at least 26 distinct enzymes with varied subcellular ... because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be ...
2-APB blocks the inositol lipid signaling ofXenopus oocytes at the level of the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores.A, B, Measurements ... Previous studies suggest that the action of 2-APB is on the InsP3 branch and not the DAG branch of inositol lipid signaling (Ma ... 2-APB blocks the inositol-lipid signaling ofXenopus oocytes. The permeant InsP3 receptor antagonist 2-APB has been studied in ... Figure 1, thus, shows that 2-APB efficiently, rapidly, and reversibly blocks the inositol lipid signaling of the oocytes at a ...
  • We found that mammalian inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) stimulated p53-mediated transcription by binding to p53 and enhancing its acetylation by the acetyltransferase p300 independently of its inositol phosphate and lipid kinase activities. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), a proximal tubular enzyme, exacerbates cellular redox injury in acute kidney injury (AKI). (jci.org)
  • Stimulation of human platelets with low concentrations of thrombin: Evidence for equimolecular formation of inositol triphosphate and phosphatidic acid. (uib.no)
  • Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids. (nih.gov)
  • C18) synthesis, whereas N herbicides are described as inhibitors of lipid synthesis. (pnas.org)
  • Particularly, brain ischemia is caused by the occlusion of blood vessels, depriving of oxygen and glucose, resulting in an energy failure that alters mitochondrial ATP synthesis and upregulates the production of oxidative stress, free radicals and lipid peroxidation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Until recently, almost all information on the formation and properties of MCSs was obtained in yeasts, where they were mainly studied in the context of lipid synthesis and transfer, and yeasts remain a major model to study MCSs. (embopress.org)
  • Instead it generates several inositol phosphates, converting IP 3 to IP 4 and IP 4 to IP 5 , with its primary physiologic role in this pathway being to form the bulk of IP 5 in cells ( 5 , 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Hepatic Glucose, Lipid Homeostasis and Gene Expression in the PPAR Pathway in the Early Life of Offspring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Altogether, the frequency of deregulation of this pathway suggests that the lipid kinases that produce PtIns(3,4,5)P 3 are attractive targets for cancer drug discovery ( 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Downstream of the lipid phosphorylation step regulated by PI3K and PTEN, AKT is amplified and overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and pancreatic cancers ( 17 , 18 ), and TSC2 mutations inhibit the formation of the tumor suppression complex TSC1-2 ( 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, anion exchange chromatography indicated that inositol phosphate accumulation occurred in fluoride-treated cells in association with calcium mobilization. (osti.gov)
  • Ratios of N -acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and lipid/lactate (Lip1 and Lip2) to creatine (Cr) were measured and correlated with the presence of contrast enhancement (CE) in PML lesions. (neurology.org)