A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Glucose in blood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Relating to the size of solids.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
Abstaining from all food.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
68 building blocks (molecules for DNA, RNA and proteins; categories for lipids; types of sugar linkages for saccharides) ... Usually glycans are found either bound to protein (glycoprotein) or conjugated with lipids (glycolipids). Unlike genomes, ... Proteins have 20 (the amino acids). Saccharides have 32 types of sugar linkages. While these building blocks can be attached ... DNA and RNA have four building blocks each (the nucleosides or nucleotides). Lipids are divided into eight categories based on ...
The genome encodes viral structural proteins. Lipids are not reported. By itself, the genomic nucleic acid is infectious. No ... The 5'-end of the genome has a viral protein genome-linked (VPg). The 3'-terminus has a poly (A) tract. ...
The viral genome encodes structural proteins and non-structural proteins. Lipids are not reported. The virus is serologically ... Proteins constitute around 94% of the virus by weight. ...
Perilipin, also known as lipid droplet-associated protein, Perilipin 1, or PLIN, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... Bickel PE, Tansey JT, Welte MA (June 2009). "PAT proteins, an ancient family of lipid droplet proteins that regulate cellular ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ...
Perilipin 1A is a key protein regulator of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This lipid droplet-associated protein, when deactivated ... a diversity of intracellular lipid droplet proteins". Lipids in Health and Disease. 16 (1): 83. doi:10.1186/s12944-017-0473-y. ... "CGI-58/ABHD5 is phosphorylated on Ser239 by protein kinase A: control of subcellular localization". Journal of Lipid Research. ... Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP-27) (a.k.a. CIDEC) is also a negative regulator of lipolysis. FSP-27 expression is negatively ...
Ideas regarding carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The Chemistry of Digestion, the Circulation, and the Excreto. The ... and that pepsin does not attack the CO-NH links in proteins. Textbook of Biochemistry, being the first concise and ...
S-palmitoylation can also modulate protein-protein interactions of SLC46A3 by changing the affinity of the protein for lipid ... As an MFS protein, SLC46A3 is a membrane transporter, mainly involved in the movement of substrates across the lipid bilayer. ... The protein contains a C-(X)2-C motif (CLLC), which is mostly present in metal-binding proteins and oxidoreductases. A sorting- ... Reithmeier RA (1996). "Assembly of proteins into membranes". Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. New ...
He pioneered the use of time resolved biochemical and biophysical methods to study proteinlipid and proteinprotein ... "Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 23 (1): 67-73. doi: ... Dong, M.; Yeh, F.; Tepp, W. H.; Dean, C.; Johnson, E. A.; Janz, R.; Chapman, E. R. (2006). "SV2 is the protein receptor for ... this approach to make numerous crucial contributions concerning the mechanism by which proteins catalyze the merger of lipid ...
... lipid posttranslational modifications. Fighting parasitic disease by blocking protein farnesylation". J. Lipid Res. 47 (2): 233 ... Many proteins can exist in a cell in various locations, and the addition of a farnesyl group targets proteins to the plasma ... The mechanism by which FTIs work is through inhibition of this enzyme, which adds a fatty acid molecule to proteins (such as ... LNK-754 inhibits the activity of a protein called farnesyl-transferase (FT). This class of molecules are called FTIs (or ...
Structural biology of protein farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type I". J. Lipid Res. 47 (4): 681-99. doi: ... Fighting parasitic disease by blocking protein farnesylation". J. Lipid Res. 47 (2): 233-40. doi:10.1194/jlr.R500016-JLR200. ... modify proteins by adding an isoprenoid lipid called a prenyl group to the carboxyl terminus of the target protein. This ... Most prenylated proteins are involved in cellular signaling, wherein membrane association is critical for function. ...
The precursor protein exists both as a secretory protein and as an integral membrane protein and has neurotrophic activities. ... They probably act by isolating the lipid substrate from the membrane surroundings, thus making it more accessible to the ... Ponting CP (1994). "Acid sphingomyelinase possesses a domain homologous to its activator proteins: saposins B and D". Protein ... 1990). "The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein ...
... or the relative protein content can be increased by removing lipids and other non-protein materials. For example, spray drying ... The protein in cow's milk is 20% whey protein and 80% casein protein, whereas the protein in human milk is 70% whey and 30% ... denaturing the whey protein triggers hydrophobic interactions with other proteins, and the formation of a protein gel. Heat- ... The protein fraction in whey constitutes approximately 10% of the total dry solids in whey. This protein is typically a mixture ...
2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... Lipid Res. 45 (4): 667-73. doi:10.1194/jlr.M300342-JLR200. PMID 14754907. Zhang Z, Henzel WJ (2005). "Signal peptide prediction ... The protein encoded by this gene hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphorylcholine and a free fatty acid. This ... "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins ...
2001). "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". J. Lipid Res. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Jaworski CJ, Moreira E, Li A ... Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL2 gene. This gene encodes a ... This encoded protein contains only the sterol-binding domain. In vitro studies have shown that the encoded protein can bind ... J Lipid Res. 43 (2): 245-55. PMID 11861666. "Entrez Gene: OSBPL2 oxysterol binding protein-like 2". Nagase T, Ishikawa K, ...
2001). "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". J. Lipid Res. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Jaworski CJ, Moreira E, Li A ... Oxysterol-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBP2 gene. Oxysterols are byproducts of cholesterol ... Wang C, JeBailey L, Ridgway ND (Jan 2002). "Oxysterol-binding-protein (OSBP)-related protein 4 binds 25-hydroxycholesterol and ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an oxysterol-binding region. It binds ...
This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intravenous lipid receptors. Like most ... Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL8 gene. ... 2001). "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". J. Lipid Res. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (2): 143-50. doi: ...
Lipids. 216: 132-141. doi:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2018.09.002. PMID 30194925. Review of a lipid visualization application of the ... Hullin-Matsuda F.; Murate M.; Kobayashi T. (25 September 2018). "Protein Probes to Visualize Sphingomyelin and Ceramide ...
2001). "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". J. Lipid Res. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Jaworski CJ, Moreira E, Li A ... Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL1A gene. This gene encodes a ... 2004). "The two variants of oxysterol binding protein-related protein-1 display different tissue expression patterns, have ... member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Most members contain an N- ...
2001). "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". J. Lipid Res. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Jaworski CJ, Moreira E, Li A ... Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL5 gene. This gene encodes a ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... "Family of human oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologues. A novel member implicated in brain sterol metabolism". J. Lipid ...
... s are composed entirely of protein; no lipids or carbohydrates have been detected. Gas vesicles occur primarily in ... Formation of gas vesicles are regulated by two Gvp proteins: GvpD, which represses the expression of GvpA and GvpC proteins, ... Larger vesicles can hold more air and use less protein making them the most economic in terms of resource use, however, the ... There are at least two proteins that compose a cyanobacterium's gas vesicle: GvpA, and GvpC. GvpA forms ribs and much of the ...
ROS can damage lipids, DNA, and proteins. Gradual but steady accretion of such damage can lead to the development of many ... pyrenes to DNA and protein native to epidermal skin cells. Myricetin also has been shown to inhibit the act of genetic mutation ... could have deleterious effects on the cell's capacity to transcribe and translate DNA and RNA to produce vital proteins for the ...
These structures contain proteins, proteoglycans, and lipids. Enamel lamellae should not be confused with two similar entities ...
The proteins and lipids that make up the surfactant have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. By adsorbing to the air- ... These are concentric rings of lipid and protein, about 1 µm in diameter. SP-A and SP-D are collectins. They confer innate ... Neutral lipids and cholesterol are also present. The components for these lipids diffuse from the blood into type II alveolar ... Half of this 10% is plasma proteins but the rest is formed by the apolipoproteins, surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP ...
Apolipoproteins are proteins that binds to lipids. Members of this family promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. ... Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the ... The human, apolipoprotein O is a 198 amino acids protein that contains a 23 amino acids long signal peptide. The apoprotein is ... 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ...
The outer layer is a protein structure of 240 capsid proteins trimers, and the inner one is a proteinaceous lipid membrane ... It encodes about 30 proteins that are transcribed in operons. At least 9 structural proteins are present in the viron. The ... Lipids constitute a further 15% by weight. Carbohydrates are not present. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host ... Capsid proteins polymerize around a lipoprotein vesicle translocated in the cytoplasm by virion assembly factors. Mature virons ...
This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Like most ... Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL11 gene. ... "The OSBP-related protein family in humans". Journal of Lipid Research. 42 (8): 1203-13. PMID 11483621. Jaworski CJ, Moreira E, ... Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J, Gygi SP (October 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein ...
Journal of Lipid Research. 7 (6): 717-732. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)38948-3. PMID 5339485. Ghosh, Raja (2002). "Protein ... This will cause desired proteins to be eluted out of the column. Proteins that have a low net charge will be eluted out first ... The isoelectric point is the pH at which a compound - in this case a protein - has no net charge. A protein's isoelectric point ... Alternatively a peptide tag can be genetically added to the protein to give the protein an isoelectric point away from most ...
Jansen H, Verhoeven AJ, Sijbrands EJ (September 2002). "Hepatic lipase: a pro- or anti-atherogenic protein?". Journal of Lipid ... take off free fatty acids from the plaques through the help of ABCL1 proteins. These proteins help transfer free fatty acids ... Mutated ApoA-I protein caused a decrease in HL release and thus decreased the amount of HL bound to HDL and released into the ... where mouse cells were created to have a mutated HL protein that has lost its function. They found that a build-up of ...
Such complexes in cell nucleus are called ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). DNA-protein complexes: nucleosome. Protein-lipid complexes ... and of proteins within lipid bilayers.[citation needed] During assembly of the bacteriophage (phage) T4 virion, the ... protein, RNA, DNA, carbohydrate) or large non-polymeric biomolecules (lipid). The interactions between these biomolecules are ... "A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 14 (3): 313-324. doi:10.1016/ ...
This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Most ... Ngo M, Ridgway ND (Mar 2009). "Oxysterol binding protein-related Protein 9 (ORP9) is a cholesterol transfer protein that ... Wyles JP, Ridgway ND (Jul 2004). "VAMP-associated protein-A regulates partitioning of oxysterol-binding protein-related protein ... Oxysterol binding protein-like 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSBPL9 gene. ...
... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ...
Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor.. *Phytosterols may be found naturally in plants. Similar to ... lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). They are called lipid-lowering drugs. These are drugs which lower ... CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials. It is expected that these drugs will mainly ... Wójcicki, J.; Pawlik, A.; Samochowiec, L.; Kaldo??Ska, M.; Myśliwiec, Z. (1995). "Clinical evaluation of lecithin as a lipid- ...
Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels (lipoprivation).[20] Both the brain and the liver ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the ...
... lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions ...
Other proteins and lipids can be added to the cell membrane. By these changes, the cell can adjust what it brings in or puts ... Proteins in the membraneEdit. Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These ... It is estimated that up to a third of the human proteome[4] may be membrane proteins.[5] Some of these proteins are linked to ... Some proteins are always stuck into it, these are called integral membrane proteins. It also has some which are only sometimes ...
protein binding. •extracellular matrix constituent conferring elasticity. •extracellular matrix binding. Componente celular. • ... 2009). «Association of genetic variants with chronic kidney disease in individuals with different lipid profiles». Int. J. Mol ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... 2010). «Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin». J. Biol. ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... some lipid solvents such as some alcohol-based products, detergents, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or calcium hypochlorite ( ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
Role of beer lipid-binding proteins in preventing lipid destabilization of foam. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50. vsk, nro 26, s ... Lipids, 2004, 131. vsk, nro 2, s. 215-22. *↑ Conjugated polyene fatty acids as membrane probes: preliminary characterization. ... Gunstone F.D. (1996). Fatty Acid and Lipid Chemistry. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 10. ISBN 0-8342-1342-7.. ... Endo S, Zhiping G, Takagi T. (1991). Lipid components of seven species of Basidiomycotina and three species of Ascomycotina. ...
Kerfeld, Ca; Sawaya, Mr; Tanaka, S; Nguyen, Cv; Phillips, M; Beeby, M; Yeates, To (August 2005). "Protein structures forming ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... C. acnes also provokes skin inflammation by altering the fatty composition of oily sebum.[45] Oxidation of the lipid squalene ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ...
lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. ... Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... lipid transporter activity. Cellular component. • high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
... and contains less protein and lipid than the ordinary rice eaten by the Japanese. Sake rice is used only for making sake, ... vitamins and proteins. Since higher concentration of fat and protein in the sake would lead to off-flavors and contribute rough ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... The composite nature of bone, comprising one-third organic (mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate ...
Alfa-2 (α2) adrenergički receptor (ili adrenoceptor) je G protein-spregnuti receptor koji vezuje Gi heterotrimerni G protein. ... "J. Lipid Res. 22 (8): 1265-70. PMID 6119348. *↑ Fitzpatrick, David; Purves, Dale; Augustine, George (2004). "Table 20:2". ...
Recent results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ...
... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 1647), "cardiovascular system" (ID 1844), "mental state and performance" (ID 1845 ... Quercetin also activates or inhibits the activities of a number of proteins.[22] For example, quercetin is a non-specific ... quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER).[26][27] ... "The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ...
Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... Lipid storage disorder: Fabry's disease. *Mucopolysaccharidosis: Hunter syndrome. *Purine-pyrimidine metabolism: Lesch-Nyhan ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... resulting in formation of messenger RNA that is translated by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. ...
R´´ in position 1 is usually, H but CH3 in that position yields less lipid solubility and duration. Exchanging S for O atom in ... Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... In general, the more lipid-soluble the barbiturate, the more rapid its onset, the shorter its duration and the greater the ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ...
Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are ... Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907.. ... Once glycogen is depleted the body begins to fuel the brain using ketones, while also metabolizing body protein (including but ... Very low calorie diets provide 200-800 calories per day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and ...
Lipid * sw:Lipid. Liquid * sw:Liquid. Literacy * sw:Literacy. Literature * sw:Literature. Litre * sw:Litre. Liver * sw:Liver. ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
It is a type of lipid which is a fat or fat-like molecule. Cholesterol is a special type of lipid that is called a steroid. ... The kidney removes the muscle protein from the blood. If the kidney takes up too much protein, it can be hurt. If it is bad ... Steroids are lipids that have a special chemical structure. This structure is made of four rings of carbon atoms. ... The worse problem though is that when muscle cells die, they release cell proteins into the blood. ...
The elimination half-life is around 2 hours.[8][118] It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However ... as an antidepressant came about after it was initially investigated as a possible lipid lowering drug or antibiotic; when tests ... binding to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA).[111] ...
Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid bilayer of membranes to reveal integral proteins ... His advisor was David Cornwell, a lipid biochemist, so Deamer focused on calcium interactions with fatty acid and phospholipid ... and in 1985 Deamer demonstrated that the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite contained lipid-like compounds that could assemble ...
This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... In 2016, the molecular mechanism was uncovered as damage to the macrophage membrane's lipid raft integrity by decreasing ... "Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract". Free Radic ...
... detoxication of the lipid peroxide-derived reactive aldehydes". Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (12): 1445-55. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf187. ... proteins. In enzymology, a 2-alkenal reductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... Involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal ...
Type V proteins are anchored to the lipid bilayer through covalently linked lipids. Finally Type VI proteins have both ... Integral polytopic proteinEdit. Main article: Transmembrane protein. The most common type of IMP is the transmembrane protein ( ... Integral monotopic proteinsEdit. Main article: Integral monotopic protein. Integral monotopic proteins are associated with the ... Proteins that cross the membrane are surrounded by annular lipids, which are defined as lipids that are in direct contact with ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... Its genome does not have a lipid membrane. Picornaviruses are found in mammals and birds. There are currently 80 species in ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids ... The illustration on the right shows a ribbon model of the membrane protein where the bound calcium ions are shown in purple. ... This is the structure of the TMEM16 lipid scramblase in a membrane. ... The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids ...
... but the site where the lipid binds to the protein depends both on the lipid group and protein. Prenylated proteins are proteins ... Lipid-anchored proteins (also known as lipid-linked proteins) are proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are ... The lipid-anchored protein can be located on either side of the cell membrane. Thus, the lipid serves to anchor the protein to ... Overall, there are three main types of lipid-anchored proteins which include prenylated proteins, fatty acylated proteins and ...
Lipid Annular lipid shell YashRoy, Rakesh c. (1991). "Protein heat denaturation and study of membrane lipid-protein ... Protein-lipid interaction is the influence of membrane proteins on the lipid physical state or vice versa. The questions which ... see annular lipid shell), and what is the nature of the layer of lipids adjacent to the protein? 2) Do membrane proteins have ... approaches to know whether proteins have binding sites which are specific for particular lipids and whether the protein-lipid ...
Therefore, non-lamellar-prone lipids facilitate the docking of amphitropic proteins to the membrane. One of these lipids, PE, ... a non-permanent protein that interacts reversibly with the membrane, a lipid-transfer protein in this particular example; 4, a ... depicting membrane lipid asymmetry as well as microdomains enriched in particular lipids and those induced by membrane proteins ... Membranes: a meeting point for lipids, proteins and therapies.. Escribá PV1, González-Ros JM, Goñi FM, Kinnunen PK, Vigh L, ...
Interpretations of lipid effects in terms of changes in protein volume, lipid free volume, and curvature frustration are also ... Effects of lipid structure on protein aggregation and helix-helix interactions are also discussed, as well as the effects of ... Membrane proteins are not rigid entities, and deform to ensure good hydrophobic matching to the surrounding lipid bilayer. The ... The activities of integral membrane proteins are often affected by the structures of the lipid molecules that surround them in ...
... Kei Yamaguchi,1 Mari Inoue,1 and Naoki Goshima2 ... Wr-T/cationic lipid reagents mixture-mediated selective delivery of proteins into living MRC-5 cells. ...
Studying the structure of protein-lipid complexes, be they in vesicles, planar bilayers, monolayers, or nanodiscs, poses two ... Again the ability to deuterate proteins and lipids enables SANS to resolve the inner structure of big, dynamic, lipid-protein ... Examining Protein-Lipid Complexes Using Neutron Scattering. In: Kleinschmidt J. (eds) Lipid-Protein Interactions. Methods in ... Neutron scattering Reflectometry Small-angle scattering Protein-lipid complexes Deuteration Lipid monolayers ...
The conserved and ubiquitous mammalian glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) serve as potential regulators of cell processes ... This research has been extended to transfer of ceramide-1-phosphate by its transfer protein CPTP. ... Lipid transfer proteins are important in membrane vesicle biogenesis and trafficking, signal transduction and immunological ... a structural biology program toward defining a framework for understanding how GLTPs acquire and release GSLs during lipid ...
Kinsella met at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in Chicago to convene a Symposium on Food Proteins and Lipids to ... Disulfide-Mediated Polymerization of Whey Proteins in Whey Protein Isolate-Stabilized Emulsions ... Interactions between Dietary Proteins and the Human System: Implications for Oral Tolerance and Food-Related Diseases ... A Review of the Interactions between Milk Proteins and Dairy Flavor Compounds ...
The lipid/protein ratio increased by 38% in MGS-expressing cells compared to control cells. Time-dependent screening of lipids ... 1. Anionic Lipid Binding to the Foreign Protein MGS Provides a Tight Coupling between Phospholipid Synthesis and Protein ... The interplay between lipids and membrane proteins is known to affect membrane protein topology and thus have significant ... In this PhD thesis, the influence of lipids on the membrane protein function was studied using three different membrane protein ...
11:10 The Lipid Transfer Protein STARD3: An Architect from Inside the Cell C.L. Tomasetto, F. Alpy, G. Drin and T.P. Levine. ... 1:30 From Lipidomics to Cellular Functions: Lipids as Modulators of Protein Activity B. Brügger. Heidelberg Univ. (492.1) ... 1:55 493.1 Membrane Proteins - the Lipid Connection C. Robinson. Univ. of Oxford. ... Chemical and Optogenetic Manipulation of Lipid Signaling Workshop. Sponsored by an education grant from Avanti Polar Lipids, ...
The lipid heads farther back in the scene are nurbs to cut down on scene size. The proteins, cross sectioned and whole are also ... The first two rows of the lipid bilayer are made of polygonal lipids with the generic hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. ...
... lipids and proteins as sources of chemical energy. Cells break down each into small molecules, which eventually produce carbon ... Bodies use lipids differently than carbohydrates and proteins, though still converting lipids and fats to sources of energy. ... Lipids also make up cell membranes and support hormone regulation.. All cells have a combination of carbohydrates, proteins and ... Cells use carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as sources of chemical energy. Cells break down each into small molecules, which ...
... the complex architecture of a protein that controls the transport of lipids between the two layers of a cell membrane has been ... also proteins that act as lipid scramblases. When activated by calcium, these lipid scramblases located in the plasma membrane ... The structure provides insight into the activation of the protein by calcium and the transport of lipids. The work has now been ... Their work has revealed a novel protein architecture that is com-mon to the entire family and offers insight into lipid ...
Blood Lipids and Lipid Transport Lipids are insoluble (does not dissolve) in water but are soluble (dissolves) in alcohol and ... Chylomicrons are large droplets of lipids with a thin shell of phospholipids , cholesterol, and protein . Once chylomicrons ... Lipid Profile A lipid profile measures total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. A physician may ... A lipid profile should be done after a nine- to twelve-hour fast without food, liquids, or medication. If fasting is not ...
The movement of lipids between membranes is aided by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Some LTPs exhibit broad specificity, ... The movement of lipids between membranes is aided by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Some LTPs exhibit broad specificity, ... High-resolution crystal structure of the non-specific lipid-transfer protein from maize seedlings.. Shin, D.H., Lee, J.Y., ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A Biological assembly 1& ...
Although some of these effects involve specific chemical interactions between lipids and protein residues, many can be ... Studies of membrane proteins have revealed a direct link between the lipid environment and the structure and function of some ... Emerging roles for lipids in shaping membrane-protein function Nature. 2009 May 21;459(7245):379-85. doi: 10.1038/nature08147. ... Studies of membrane proteins have revealed a direct link between the lipid environment and the structure and function of some ...
The main substances found in every cell are a combination of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins. ... Lipid Function in the Body. Lipids, also known as fats, play multiple roles in the body. Fats are broken down in the digestive ... Proteins as Workhorses of the Body. Proteins are large and fairly complex molecules that are responsible for doing most of the ... The main substances found in every cell are a combination of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins. Each of these ...
Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just dont... ... Related Threads on Basics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids Can your body synthesise protein from ... Amino Acids - made of the same elements as protein (as they are the assembly blocks of proteins). Think of them as sub-proteins ... I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about ...
Courtesy of John Burke A new tool used to study how proteins interact with lipid membranes is hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass ... Almost every signaling event in cells has a component that includes the recruitment of signaling proteins to lipid membranes. ... One remaining challenge in characterizing lipid signaling at the molecular level is the study of peripheral membrane proteins ... protein-lipid Förster resonance energy transfer, single molecular total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and so on ...
Postdoc in biomolecular SSNMR - protein aggregation & protein-lipid interactions. Submitted by mariabaias on Thu, 2017-05-18 12 ... Postdoc in biomolecular SSNMR - protein aggregation & protein-lipid interactions. *Postdoc in biomolecular solid-state NMR in ... Postdoc in biomolecular SSNMR - protein aggregation & protein-lipid interactions. *Postdoc in biomolecular solid-state NMR in ... to join our research effort focused on protein aggregation and protein-lipid interactions. More information on our research and ...
Next up is the role of carbohydrates in energy storage and as structural building blocks, followed by the use of lipids in ... Biochemistry II: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids DVD Item # 490793 Online Only This product is not available ... Next up is the role of carbohydrates in energy storage and as structural building blocks, followed by the use of lipids in ... Next up is the role of carbohydrates in energy storage and as structural building blocks, followed by the use of lipids in ...
Traditionally, membrane proteins were pictured as floating around quite independently of the surrounding lipids, yet when this ... State-of-the-art mass spectrometry reveals how many specific lipids are bound to membrane proteins. ... State-of-the-art mass spectrometry reveals how many specific lipids are bound to membrane proteins. ... "a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins" (1). It has taken 40 years to fully ...
... lipids and proteins make up the three macronutrients. Their dietary requirements are high relative to the micronutrients, also ... For example, proteins and carbohydrates are water-soluble, but most lipids are not, so lipids require some extra work for the ... In addition, the body can convert protein to glucose, but neither carbohydrate nor lipid can be converted to protein. Amino ... Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins make up the three macronutrients. Their dietary requirements are high relative to the ...
Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein family/group databases. Allergomei. 194 Cas s 8. Family and domain databases. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. ... Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in ...
Membrane Cholesterol, Protein Phosphorylation, and Lipid Rafts Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Edidin discusses the questions surrounding lipid rafts, membrane microdomains that have been biochemically defined but are ... with differentiation and the formation of adherens junctions in endothelial cells are consistent with a model in which lipid ...
Lipid Transfer Protein Syndrome is an allergy affecting people who have become sensitised to LTPs. ... Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) are found in plants and foods that contain plants. ... Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTP Syndrome). Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) are found in plants and foods that contain plants. Lipid ... Dr Skypala is a co-author of the 2019 paper, "Lipid Transfer Protein allergy in the United Kingdom: Characterization and ...
Specific recruitment of different proteins to distinct intracellular membranes is fundamental in the biology of eukaryotic ... Coincidence detection of proteins and lipids in regulation of cellular membrane dynamics. From 2019-01-01 to 2023-12-31, Grant ... This proposal investigates the hypothesis that coincidence detection of proteins and lipids constitutes a major mechanism for ... Coincidence detection of proteins and lipids in regulation of cellular membrane dynamics ...
... proteins in biological & clinical samples, evaluate their biochemical roles in inflammation, and translate these...,MSCA-ITN- ... MASS Spectrometry TRaining network for Protein Lipid adduct ANalysis. From 2015-10-01 to 2019-09-30, ongoing project , ... Periodic Reporting for period 1 - MASSTRPLAN (MASS Spectrometry TRaining network for Protein Lipid adduct ANalysis) ... Chemistry and analysis of HNE and other prominent carbonyl-containing lipid oxidation compounds Author(s): Bebiana C. Sousa, ...
Molecular Architecture and Cellular Functions of Lipid/Protein Assemblies General Information. City:. Heidelberg; Bonn; Dresden ...
  • This allows for the interaction of proteins with cellular membranes and protein domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Misfolding processes, typically exposing hydrophobic regions of proteins, often are associated with binding to lipid membranes and subsequent aggregation, for example, during neurodegenerative disorders, neuronal stress and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membranes: a meeting point for lipids, proteins and therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins can interact with membranes through lipid co-/post-translational modifications, and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding are all involved in the associations among membrane proteins and lipids. (nih.gov)
  • Callow P, Fragneto G, Cubitt R, Barlow DJ, Lawrence MJ (2009) Interaction of cationic lipid/DNA complexes with model membranes as determined by neutron reflectivity. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, preferential anionic lipid sequestering by MGS was shown to induce a different fatty acid modeling of E. coli membranes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, a working model of MgdA for the biosynthesis and flow of sugar lipids between Synechocystis membranes was proposed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lipids also make up cell membranes and support hormone regulation. (reference.com)
  • The movement of lipids between membranes is aided by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). (rcsb.org)
  • Almost every signaling event in cells has a component that includes the recruitment of signaling proteins to lipid membranes. (asbmb.org)
  • Misregulation of how lipid signaling enzymes are recruited to membranes is implicated directly in cancer and immune deficiencies. (asbmb.org)
  • Courtesy of John Burke A new tool used to study how proteins interact with lipid membranes is hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, or HDX-MS. This approach is conceptually simple, as hydrogens, specifically amide hydrogens, within proteins exchange with solvent, and this exchange is dependent primarily on the stability of protein secondary structure. (asbmb.org)
  • Cells, and the organelles within them, are surrounded by lipid-bilayer membranes that compartmentalize biochemical reactions and pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cholesterol does not supply calories, but it is a building block of very important chemicals such as vitamin D. Lipids are also the major component of cell membranes. (livestrong.com)
  • Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. (uniprot.org)
  • Specific recruitment of different proteins to distinct intracellular membranes is fundamental in the biology of eukaryotic cells, but the molecular basis for specificity is incompletely understood. (europa.eu)
  • This proposal investigates the hypothesis that coincidence detection of proteins and lipids constitutes a major mechanism for specific recruitment of proteins to intracellular membranes in order to control cellular membrane dynamics. (europa.eu)
  • Lipids and proteins, as essential components of biological cell membranes, exhibit a significant degree of freedom for different kinds of motions including lateral long-range mobility. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interactions between lipids and proteins in biological membranes play an important role in e.g., cellular signal transport as well as the exchange of molecules or ions between the cell and the cellular environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protective membranes exist on the surface of all living cells and contain many of our cells' most important proteins, many of which have unique and specialized functions, such as safeguarding the cargo going into and out of the cell that is necessary for cell survival. (labmanager.com)
  • These membranes are largely composed of lipids, which themselves play key roles in maintaining membrane integrity and ensuring that these specialized membrane proteins function properly. (labmanager.com)
  • Consequently, many cellular processes such as endocytosis, migration and morphogenesis rely on proteins that bind directly to membranes and sculpt them into desired shapes. (nanowerk.com)
  • Studies by Pekka Lappalainen laboratory at Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Finland, now reveal that BAR domain proteins not only bend membranes, but also generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by inhibiting the lateral diffusion of certain lipids nearly completely. (nanowerk.com)
  • BAR proteins can create stable lipid microdomains at cell membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • What was previously known is that Amt proteins extend across cellular membranes where they specifically transport the nitrogen into bacteria and plant cells, essential nutrient for their growth and survival. (phys.org)
  • Under sterol depletion, steryl esters of lipid particles are mobilized, and sterols set free through this process are incorporated into cellular membranes ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Surfaces of particular interest in neurodegenerative diseases are cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominately comprised of lipid components. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we review the influence of surfaces in driving and stabilizing protein aggregation with a specific emphasis on lipid membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have also built lipid-lectin and lipid-lipopolysaccharide monolayers/bilayers mimicking biological membranes, and studied the interaction of potential drug systems with them. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • Although gross lipid composition of individual membranes may not change dramatically, local changes of lipid composition within a given membrane do occur. (portlandpress.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, lipid composition varies greatly between different membranes within the same cell [ 16 ], which exposes proteins to a varying lipid environment during intracellular trafficking. (portlandpress.com)
  • Understanding the effects of membrane lipid composition even in membranes where composition may not vary is of importance, since topogenic signals have evolved in the context of the host lipid composition [ 15 ], which varies between different organisms. (portlandpress.com)
  • The results indicate that a substantial fraction of the phospholipids and the proteins of the membranes can change structure independently of one another, suggesting a mosaic pattern for the organization of the lipids and proteins in membranes. (caltech.edu)
  • Interactions of lipids with proteins are essential events in the framework of biological membranes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes. (rupress.org)
  • These proteins reversibly bind specific lipids in a hydrophobic pocket with a 1:1 stoichiometry, a property that allows them to transfer the bound lipid between membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Our hypothesis is that PAT proteins modulate LD metabolism and therefore insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We used a cell culture model (murine AML12 loaded with oleic acid) and small interfering RNA to directly assess the impact of PAT proteins on LD accumulation, lipid metabolism, and insulin action. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Apart from the fact that CO2 regulates glutamine synthesis, it also participates in chemical reactions involving the metabolism of various vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates , and many other substances. (normalbreathing.com)
  • Clinical experience of about 200 Russian Buteyko MDs, suggests that many severe abnormalities in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates arise when a person has less than 20 seconds for the DIY body oxygen test. (normalbreathing.com)
  • The topical area of fatty acid transport and metabolism was the focus of the Third International Conference on Lipid-Binding Proteins held at the University of Minnesota in May 1997. (waterstones.com)
  • Here, we investigate the mechanisms mediating the action of dietary phytoestrogens on lipid and glucose metabolism in rodents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A better understanding of the factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism are of eminent interest due to the pandemic development of obesity and its related metabolic disorders. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Additionally, adipocytes directly transfer lipids to melanoma cells, which alters tumor cell metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA's role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • All lipid particle proteins identified by function so far, such as Erg1p, Erg6p, and Erg7p (ergosterol biosynthesis) and Faa1p, Faa4p, and Fat1p (fatty acid metabolism), are involved in lipid metabolism. (asm.org)
  • Strains with YBR177c, YMR313c, and YKL140w deleted exhibited phospholipid and/or neutral lipid patterns that were different from the wild-type strain and thus may be further candidate ORFs involved in yeast lipid metabolism. (asm.org)
  • We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. (mdpi.com)
  • A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC) were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN). (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. (mdpi.com)
  • The dietary composition can affect the plasma lipid profile and its metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in all cells and play critical roles in lipid metabolism. (rupress.org)
  • These proteins insert and assume a place in the bilayer structure of the membrane alongside the similar fatty acid tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most 2H-NMR experiments with deuterated phospholipids demonstrate that the presence of proteins has little effect on either the order parameter of the lipids in the bilayer or the lipid dynamics, as measured by relaxation times. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13C-NMR spectrum also gives information on specific lipid-protein interactions of biomembranes Recent results using non labeled optical methods such as Dual Polarisation Interferometry which measure the birefringence(or order) within lipid bilayers have been used to show how peptide and protein interactions can influence bilayer order, specifically demonstrating the real time association to bilayer and critical peptide concentration after which the peptides penetrate and disrupt the bilayer order. (wikipedia.org)
  • But there is a diverse group of proteins which interact directly with the surface of the lipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of water-soluble proteins can bind to the bilayer surface transiently or under specific conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optical anisotropy of supported lipid structures probed by waveguide spectroscopy and its application to study of supported lipid bilayer formation kinetics" Anal. (wikipedia.org)
  • One important parameter is the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayer, defined by the lengths of the lipid fatty acyl chains. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane proteins are not rigid entities, and deform to ensure good hydrophobic matching to the surrounding lipid bilayer. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of lipid structure on protein aggregation and helix-helix interactions are also discussed, as well as the effects of charged lipids on ion concentrations close to the surface of the bilayer. (nih.gov)
  • Non-bilayer lipids had a negative impact on CpxA phosphotransfer activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The first two rows of the lipid bilayer are made of polygonal lipids with the generic hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. (turbosquid.com)
  • It was demonstrated that the GP120 protein "sinks" into the lipid bilayer over time, a significant ability when considering its biological role . (rsc.org)
  • It is possible to distinguish individual GP120/CD4 complexes when the receptor is reconstituted into the lipid bilayer with the force required to unfold the complex greater than the force required to unfold either of the individual components. (rsc.org)
  • Membrane proteins carry out essential cellular functions, including signaling and transport of molecules across the blood-brain bilayer, which most drugs have a difficult time crossing. (labmanager.com)
  • The proposed bridging technique is the supported lipid bilayer (SLB). (cornell.edu)
  • In Chapter 3, I characterize a novel technique for delivery of membrane proteins from cell blebs into a cushioned supported lipid bilayer. (cornell.edu)
  • In Chapter 5, I provide an outlook of how our work has increased the biological relevance of the supported lipid bilayer and has increased its utility for studying a wide range of biological processes. (cornell.edu)
  • Importantly for misfolding diseases, these bilayer properties can not only modulate protein conformation, but also exert influence on aggregation state. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell-free expression systems in combination with nanodiscs (discoidal lipid bilayer particles) offer a valuable approach to probe membrane proteins in situ. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The structures of the solvent lipid molecules are important in determining the conformational state of a membrane protein, and hence its activity, through charge and hydrogen bonding interactions between the lipid headgroups and residues in the protein, and through hydrophobic matching between the protein and the surrounding lipid bilayer. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Increasing the positive charge density of the cytoplasmically exposed surface of LacY counters TM misorientation in the absence of neutral lipids, demonstrating that charge interactions between these domains and the surface of the membrane bilayer are determinants of TM orientation. (portlandpress.com)
  • The process by which polytopic membrane proteins are initially inserted into the membrane bilayer has been reviewed extensively [ 1 , 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • The orientation of TMs with respect to the plane of the lipid bilayer is largely determined by the positive-inside rule [ 14 ], which is based on the observed bias for exposure of positively charged extramembrane domains to the cytoplasm with neutral or negatively charged extramembrane domains oriented to the opposite side of the membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, molecular genetic manipulation of membrane lipid composition has revealed a role for the properties of the lipid bilayer in determining TM orientation of polytopic membrane proteins [ 15 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the present report, we demonstrate that for multi-bilayer lipid samples containing the plant photosynthetic pigment-protein complex LHCII, the resolution of this latter technique can be better than 20 nm. (epfl.ch)
  • Membrane lipids are crucial in the fission and fusion of lipid bilayers and they also act as sensors to control environmental or physiological conditions. (nih.gov)
  • These bilayers, with a frustrated (lɛ) lamellar phase, can be stabilized by proteins (green) or other lamellar-prone lipids (orange). (nih.gov)
  • The loose packing of these bilayers allows some acyl chains to exit the membrane plane and become located in hydrophobic protein sockets (upper scheme). (nih.gov)
  • Neutrons because of their short wavelengths (4-15 Å) and H/D sensitivity can, in reflectometry mode, provide accurate cross sections of lipid monolayers and bilayers. (springer.com)
  • 2 ) report mass spectrometry of intact integral membrane protein complexes solubilized from bilayers. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is in this context that the HIV GP120 viral envelope protein interactions with lipid bilayers and CD4 receptors have been studied. (rsc.org)
  • GP120 can also assemble into larger structures on lipid bilayers and forms unusual micron scale aggregates when preformed complexes are deposited on mica. (rsc.org)
  • In this work I discuss development of additional function for the SLB platform in two key areas: 1) generation of patterned supported lipid bilayers that mimic membrane heterogeneities such as the "lipid raft" to evaluate associated dynamics and 2) the inclusion of membrane proteins in a robust and simplified manner. (cornell.edu)
  • In Chapter 4, I detail patterning of two-phase supported lipid bilayers as a mimic for lipid rafts. (cornell.edu)
  • The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and non-specific interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • These involve the use of lipid analogues in reconstituted phospholipid vesicles containing the protein of interest: 1) Spin-labeled phospholipids are motionally restricted when they are adjacent to membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analogous to ion channels, lipid scramblases facilitate the passage of phospholipids beween the two layers of a membrane, a process that plays a key role in the intitiation of blood coagulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • MASSTRPLAN will train the next generation of interdisciplinary research leaders in advanced molecular analytical techniques to detect oxidized phospholipids & proteins in biological & clinical samples, evaluate their biochemical roles in inflammation, and translate these findings to develop new diagnostic tools. (europa.eu)
  • Complementing our previous findings that all three proteins bind phospholipids, results presented here indicate that multi-domain proteins evolved in Proteobacteria for specific functions in maintaining cell envelope homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • We have examined the interactions of hemoglobin containing liposomes and of liposomes composed of polymerizable phospholipids with blood cells and proteins. (dtic.mil)
  • Studies on monomolecular layers of phospholipids containing the antenna protein B800-850 (LHCP) and in some cases additionally the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides are reported. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Prenylated proteins are proteins with covalently attached hydrophobic isoprene polymers (i.e. branched five-carbon hydrocarbon) at cysteine residues of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic protein domains, which may correspond to amino acid sequences or lipid modifications, may also be inserted into the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Crystal structures establish C1P binding via a surface-localized, phosphate head-group recognition center connected to an interior hydrophobic pocket that adaptively ensheaths lipid chains via a cleft-like gating mechanism. (mskcc.org)
  • In silicio analysis revealed that all lipid particle proteins contain several hydrophobic domains but none or only few (hypothetical) transmembrane spanning regions. (asm.org)
  • These particles consist of a highly hydrophobic core formed from neutral lipids (triacylglycerols and steryl esters) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer in which only a few proteins are embedded. (asm.org)
  • Lipid binding is stabilized by multiple non-covalent interactions from protein residues to lipid head groups and hydrophobic tails. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The four major classes of organic compounds are nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. (reference.com)
  • The four major macromolecules necessary for life are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. (reference.com)
  • The main substances found in every cell are a combination of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • The main role of nucleic acids is to store information that is used to make proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • Consider the three major classes of biologically important molecules: proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. (enotes.com)
  • What is the molecular structure of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids?Is it. (enotes.com)
  • carbohydrates and proteins fat and phosphorous proteins and iron nucleic acids and calcium 2. (jiskha.com)
  • Out of all four major organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) which ones are present in blood? (jiskha.com)
  • The activities of integral membrane proteins are often affected by the structures of the lipid molecules that surround them in the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins are large and fairly complex molecules that are responsible for doing most of the work that occurs in cells. (livestrong.com)
  • But proteins are not boring, they are the most fantastically, well, protean molecules on earth and possibly anywhere else! (physicsforums.com)
  • Membrane-embedded proteins control the flux of molecules, energy, and information such that the segregated compartments function as a unified living cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Its primary function is to build and maintain body structures, such as muscle, bones and internal organs, and to synthesize important molecules such as antibodies, enzymes, neurotransmitters and various blood proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • These regions concentrate certain signaling molecules ( 3 , 4 ), including heterotrimeric and small G proteins ( 5 - 7 ), Src-family tyrosine kinases ( 8 , 9 ), endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( 10 , 11 ), G-protein-coupled receptors ( 12 ), and certain tyrosine kinase receptors ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • In a similar fashion, our study has demonstrated that the membrane protein can influence its surrounding lipid environment, and this environment may influence, for example, how molecules are sensed. (labmanager.com)
  • Now they have added the protein to a layer of lipid molecules, enabling them to measure the ion currents directly. (phys.org)
  • The scientific debate on Amt/Rh proteins stems from the difficulty of distinguishing between ammonia and ammonium in measurements, as the two molecules are transformed into each other in a continuous state of balance with protons. (phys.org)
  • Membrane proteins in a biological membrane are surrounded by a shell or annulus of 'solvent' lipid molecules. (soton.ac.uk)
  • These lipid molecules in general interact rather non-specifically with the protein molecules, although a few 'hot-spots' may be present on the protein where anionic lipids bind with high affinity. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Evidence is also accumulating for the presence of 'co-factor' lipid molecules binding with high specificity to membrane proteins, often between transmembrane a-helices, and often being essential for activity. (soton.ac.uk)
  • By doing so, the membrane is a rather complex system on its own, consisting mainly of lipid molecules and membrane proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transmembrane proteins can function on both sides of the membrane or transport molecules across it. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cell-surface receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind water-soluble signal molecules in the extracellular space and generate different intracellular signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An extensive range of binding analyses can be performed by SPR such as protein-protein, protein-membrane (lipids), protein-carbohydrate, protein-nucleic acid and even protein-small molecules. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Lipid droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with bound proteins. (ornl.gov)
  • For example, lipid groups can play an important role in increasing molecular hydrophobicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the influence of lipids on protein function is reflected in the possibility to use these molecular species as targets for therapies against cancer, obesity, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular pathologies and other diseases, using a new approach called membrane-lipid therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the molecular basis for selective recognition and binding among signaling lipids with phosphate headgroups, namely C1P, phosphatidic acid or their lyso-derivatives, remains unclear. (mskcc.org)
  • This allows for molecular analysis of how integral membrane proteins are regulated and provides insight into novel strategies to treat myriad human diseases including cancer and metabolic syndrome. (asbmb.org)
  • One remaining challenge in characterizing lipid signaling at the molecular level is the study of peripheral membrane proteins and how they interact with lipids. (asbmb.org)
  • Researchers have used a variety of techniques to study this problem, including nuclear magnetic resonance, molecular dynamic simulations and other biophysical approaches (surface plasmon resonance, protein-lipid Förster resonance energy transfer, single molecular total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and so on). (asbmb.org)
  • Protein is composed of molecular units called amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • An important question arises: what molecular mechanisms regulate lipid storage in nonadipogenic tissues? (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial lipid distribution was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using HeLa cells expressing either wild-type Nm23-H4 or a membrane binding-deficient mutant at a site predicted based on molecular modeling to be crucial for cardiolipin binding and transfer mechanism. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on these data and molecular modeling, we propose that Nm23-H4 acts as a lipid-dependent mitochondrial switch with dual function in phosphotransfer serving local GTP supply and cardiolipin transfer for apoptotic signaling and putative other functions. (cdc.gov)
  • With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular organized films of lipids, proteins and amphiphilic polymers : Application to innovative pharmaceutical systems. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • In the present paper, the molecular genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli membrane lipid composition is reviewed. (portlandpress.com)
  • EMC3 was essential for the processing and routing of surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and the biogenesis of the phospholipid transport protein ABCA3. (jci.org)
  • The Mla pathway in E. coli is important for maintaining this lipid asymmetry as mutations in the pathway, including MlaD, result in phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane 14 . (nature.com)
  • To determine how the lipid environment affects membrane protein structure and function, strains of Escherichia coli were developed in which normal phospholipid composition can be altered or foreign lipids can be introduced. (portlandpress.com)
  • More specifically, these isoprenoid groups, usually farnesyl (15-carbon) and geranylgeranyl (20-carbon) are attached to the protein via thioether linkages at cysteine residues near the C terminal of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acylated proteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified to include the covalent attachment of fatty acids at certain amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid-state NMR techniques have the potential to yield detailed information about the dynamics of individual amino acid residues within a membrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some of these effects involve specific chemical interactions between lipids and protein residues, many can be understood in terms of protein-induced perturbations to the membrane shape. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore membrane protein organization or reorganization is determined either during initial assembly or post-insertionally through direct interactions between the protein and the lipid environment, which affects the topogenic potency of opposing charged residues as topological signals independent of the translocon. (portlandpress.com)
  • The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a protein interaction domain (PID) contained within SRC and other intracellular signal-transducing proteins, many of which drive tumorigenesis, which mediates protein-protein interactions via the docking of SH2 domain-containing proteins to phosphotyrosine (pY) residues on other proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The illustration on the right shows a ribbon model of the membrane protein where the bound calcium ions are shown in purple. (eurekalert.org)
  • 5, a non-permanent protein reversibly bound to a secretion vesicle and then transferred to a target membrane. (nih.gov)
  • When a protein is shifted into a different chemical environment, in this case bound to a membrane, any regions with differences in protein conformation will experience a change in amide exchange. (asbmb.org)
  • This can be compared across different conditions (apo, membrane bound, bound to specific lipids, disease-linked mutants and so on), revealing unique conformational changes for each. (asbmb.org)
  • The results show that specific structural lipids remain bound in the gas phase and can be counted. (sciencemag.org)
  • State-of-the-art mass spectrometry reveals how many specific lipids are bound to membrane proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this artwork, free and lipid bound membrane proteins are emerging from droplets in the nESI process prior to entering the mass spectrometer. (labmanager.com)
  • All types of liposomes studied bound a variety of serum proteins with IgG being the most abundant component in each case. (dtic.mil)
  • Polymerized methacrylate liposomes specifically bound a 53 kilodalton protein not bound by other liposome types. (dtic.mil)
  • While membrane bound organelles are undoubtedly advantageous, their isolation requires mechanisms for communication with the rest of the cell, delivery of proteins and lipids, and selective removal of unnecessary or damaged proteins. (cornell.edu)
  • Tightly bound lipids in membrane protein structures are described and general principles of the binding interactions are deduced. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • On phosphorylation of Cbl, the c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP)/Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and translocates to a lipid raft membrane fraction to form a ternary complex with flotillin. (pnas.org)
  • We observed that insulin stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl ( 14 ) and its subsequent translocation to a caveolin-enriched, lipid raft membrane fraction ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tissue samples were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting to investigate changes of gene expression and phosphorylation state of key metabolic proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS- In peripheral tissues of soy-fed mice, especially in white adipose tissue, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was increased, and expression of genes implicated in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis was upregulated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, treatment of DMLDLR −/− mice with S17834 prevented the decrease in AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and the lipid accumulation in the liver, and it also inhibited hyperlipidemia and the acceleration of aortic lesion development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, FLAP inhibition induced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in parallel with decreases in hormone-sensitive lipase activity and the expression and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. (jimmunol.org)
  • A monotopic membrane protein, monoglucosyldiacylglyecerol synthase (MGS) from Acholeplasma laidlawii is known to induce intracellular vesicles when expressed in Escherichia coli . (diva-portal.org)
  • In order to probe the influence of a peptide, a transmembrane sequence of the transferrin receptor (TFRC) protein, on the dynamics of 1,2-dimyristoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) on a nanosecond time scale, high-resolution QENS experiments and complementary MD simulations have been utilized. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interactions of Lipid Vesicles with Blood Proteins and Platelets. (dtic.mil)
  • The lipid groups play a role in protein interaction and can contribute to the function of the protein to which it is attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prenylation of lipid chains to proteins facilitate their interaction with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dynamic interaction of prenylated proteins with the cell membrane is important for their signalling functions and is often deregulated in disease processes such as cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein-lipid interaction is the influence of membrane proteins on the lipid physical state or vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP)/Cbl complex interacts with the insulin receptor and dissociates after insulin stimulation, subsequently migrating to rafts because of the interaction of CAP with the lipid raft-associated protein flotillin ( 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, this interaction is crucial for the localization of SH3-binding proteins such as Cbl to the lipid raft and propagation of the downstream signal. (pnas.org)
  • Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein-misfolding diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction between the receptor and its target protein is mediated by a third protein, a trimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mestdagh F, Kerkaert B, Cucu T, De Meulenaer B. Interaction between whey proteins and lipids during light-induced oxidation. (ugent.be)
  • Information on monolayer preparation as well as on protein /lipid and protein/protein interaction is obtained by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy at the air/water interface in combination with film balance experiments. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • N-myristoylation (i.e. attachment of myristic acid) is generally an irreversible protein modification that typically occurs during protein synthesis in which the myrisitc acid is attached to the α-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue through an amide linkage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty different amino acids make up proteins, which support every process. (reference.com)
  • When proteins are digested, they create pools of amino acids that cells use to create new proteins. (reference.com)
  • The body uses the information stored in DNA to create proteins, which are made up of subunits called amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just don't understand the basic structure, formulas and such. (physicsforums.com)
  • You say amino acids and proteins. (physicsforums.com)
  • Once in here, the pancreas secretes trypsin and chymotrypsin , enzymes which helps break down complex proteins into simple amino acids. (mindmeister.com)
  • To express a protein by a cell-free system, purified and separated components from cell lysates, e.g. of prokaryotic or eucaryotic origin, get re-combined with certain additives (e.g. amino acids, energy or buffer components, transcription enzymes) in a test tube in a respective manner to process a complete bio-protein synthetic cycle of an offered gene, which encodes for a certain protein. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The crucial role of lipids in the folding, structure and function of membrane proteins is emerging through multiple research reports and channels-findings that are uncovering the intimate roles lipid-protein interactions play in controlling protein structure and function. (labmanager.com)
  • Proteins that have been myristoylated are involved in signal transduction cascade, protein-protein interactions and in mechanisms that regulate protein targeting and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mounting evidence demonstrates that lipids themselves regulate the location and activity of many membrane proteins, as well as defining membrane microdomains that serve as spatio-temporal platforms for interacting signalling proteins. (nih.gov)
  • LDs are coated with perilipin, adipose differentiation-related protein, tail interacting protein of 47 kd (PAT) proteins that are thought to regulate LD turnover by modulating lipolysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the negative consequences of high cellular lipids may be related to the ability of the cell to regulate lipid storage and utilization. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, there is increasing evidence that the cell membrane is heterogeneous with dynamic "raft" domains with different compositions and the dynamics of these domains could regulate membrane protein function via lipid-protein interactions. (cornell.edu)
  • In mammals, Rhesus proteins regulate acid and ion balance in kidney and liver cells. (phys.org)
  • My data support a model in which ESCRT-III proteins act in a novel pathway to regulate lipid synthesis, and that this pathway is required when cells lose the regulatory feedback provided at ER-PM contact sites. (cornell.edu)
  • Membrane lipids have recently been shown to regulate protein-protein interactions mediated by a different PID and to bind to several SH2 domains. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies ( 10 , 11 ) identified a proteomic "signature," consistently including at least one member of the PAT protein family: perilipin, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP), tail interacting protein of 47 kDa (Tip47), S3-12, and lipid dosage droplet protein-5 (LSDP-5). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Much of the information on lipid droplet function comes from proteomic and lipodomic studies that identify the components of droplets isolated from organisms throughout the phylogenetic tree. (ornl.gov)
  • Here, we add to that important inventory by reporting lipid droplet factors from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (ornl.gov)
  • We identified a previously undiscovered lipid droplet protein, Vip1p, which affects droplet size distribution. (ornl.gov)
  • Perilipin 5 (PLIN5/OXPAT) is a lipid droplet (LD) coat protein mainly present in tissues with a high fat-oxidative capacity, suggesting a role for PLIN5 in facilitating fatty acid oxidation. (wur.nl)
  • The questions which are relevant to understanding of the structure and function of the membrane are: 1) Do intrinsic membrane proteins bind tightly to lipids (see annular lipid shell), and what is the nature of the layer of lipids adjacent to the protein? (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) How do peripheral membrane proteins which bind to the layer surface interact with lipids and influence their behavior? (wikipedia.org)
  • Many peripheral membrane proteins bind to the membrane primarily through interactions with integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that lipid composition differs throughout the organs of the body, understanding how the lipid environment in these areas influences protein structure will be critical to opening new possibilities for pharmaceutical drugs designed to affect how these lipids bind with one another. (labmanager.com)
  • Other recent reports have suggested that all ORP/Osh proteins bind PI(4)P and recognize a second lipid that is not necessary sterol. (portlandpress.com)
  • Many membrane proteins selectively bind defined lipid species. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Lipids bind to variable sites in SH2 domains to control SH2-mediated protein-protein interactions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding of PtdIns P to the SYK family member zeta-chain T-cell receptor (TCR) associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP70), which contains SH2 domains that bind to TCR, was crucial for ZAP70-mediated downstream T-cell signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • He also discusses whether experiments showing correlation of changes in plasma membrane cholesterol with differentiation and the formation of adherens junctions in endothelial cells are consistent with a model in which lipid rafts influence the regulation of these processes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, to examine short-term and long-term effect of a high protein intake on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenese (DIT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hongxia Zhao is now continuing studies on regulation of lipid dynamics as an Academy Research Fellow at University of Helsinki. (nanowerk.com)
  • Some LTPs exhibit broad specificity, transferring many classes of lipids, and are termed non-specific LTPs (ns-LTPs). (rcsb.org)
  • Because of the low structural specificity of most of the annular sites, the composition of the lipid annulus will be rather similar to the bulk lipid composition of the membrane. (soton.ac.uk)
  • This specificity has an impact on correct insertion, folding, structural integrity and full functionality of the protein. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Assessment of the affinity and specificity of protein-lipid binding can give useful information to elucidate cell membrane functions. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Like carbohydrates, proteins are water-soluble. (reference.com)
  • For example, proteins and carbohydrates are water-soluble, but most lipids are not, so lipids require some extra work for the body to process. (livestrong.com)
  • We suggest that a deficiency of PAT proteins relative to the quantity of ectopic fat could contribute to cellular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HIV viral protein interactions with cellular receptors are vital to the infection process. (rsc.org)
  • However, as negatively charged macromolecules, proteins require carriers for achieving cellular uptake and maintaining their activity in the cytoplasm. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By capitalizing on their technological expertise to "see" membrane proteins as they interact with different lipids, Texas A&M chemist Dr. Arthur Laganowsky's research group has discovered compelling evidence that these proteins may be capable of recruiting their own lipid microenvironments through allostery, a biological phenomenon first observed in the 1900s and identified in numerous biological processes, including cellular signaling, transcriptional control, and disease. (labmanager.com)
  • Membrane proteins represent one of the most important targets for pharmaceutical drug discovery, with a staggering 60 percent of drugs on the current market targeting them for their integral role in cellular processes. (labmanager.com)
  • By shedding new light on how lipid-protein interactions can enhance or weaken binding of other lipid types, their research is changing our understanding of the structural dynamics of proteins at cellular membrane levels and providing novel insights with the power to transform drug design, development, and delivery. (labmanager.com)
  • Lipid translocation between the different cellular compartments predominantly takes place through vesicular transport. (doria.fi)
  • Specialized lipid transport proteins (LTPs) have also emerged as important players in lipid movement, as well as other cellular processes. (doria.fi)
  • Ceramides are important lipids that are implicated in several cellular functions. (doria.fi)
  • In a new study published in Cell Reports ( 'Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains' ), Hongxia Zhao working in the Lappalainen laboratory discovered that all BAR domain proteins induce strong clustering of phosphoinositides, which are important lipids involved in regulating protein functions and cellular signalling. (nanowerk.com)
  • These extremely stable protein-lipid scaffolds may contribute to diverse cellular processes by generating lipid phase boundaries at the tips of the BAR domain scaffolds. (nanowerk.com)
  • There are a vast number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD), associated with the rearrangement of specific proteins to non-native conformations that promotes aggregation and deposition within tissues and/or cellular compartments. (frontiersin.org)
  • A detailed understanding of the influence of (sub)cellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • A common motif of several neurodegenerative diseases is the ordered aggregation of specific proteins, leading to their deposition in tissues or cellular compartments ( Chiti and Dobson, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • which organic compounds and cellular organelles are in protein synthesis? (jiskha.com)
  • Sterols are moved between cellular compartments by both vesicular and less-well understood nonvesicular pathways, most of which probably use lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). (rupress.org)
  • Increased lipids in DIO mice livers were accompanied by changes in PAT composition but also increased ATGL, suggesting a relative PAT deficiency. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fatty acids of viruses with antigenically related envelope proteins show greater resemblance than those of an unrelated strain, which suggests that these proteins influence the composition of membrane lipids at the site of viral release. (sciencemag.org)
  • Even though weight loss may not be different between isocaloric high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets, the diet composition can alter a number of other variables. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Some studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrient composition and lipids ( 13 , 14 ) with greater decrease in triglycerides on a low-carbohydrate diet but no change in other lipid parameters ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effects of changes in protein sequence and changes in membrane lipid composition on polytopic membrane protein TM orientation are integrated. (portlandpress.com)
  • The results strongly indicate that protein sequence and membrane lipid composition have co-evolved as synergistic determinants of membrane protein organization. (portlandpress.com)
  • The results indicated a doubling of lipid synthesis in the cell, which was triggered by the selective binding of MGS to anionic lipids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Adaptation to respiration at birth depends upon the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli and prevents lung collapse during the ventilatory cycle. (jci.org)
  • Conditional deletion of Emc3 in murine embryonic lung epithelial cells disrupted the synthesis and packaging of surfactant lipids and proteins, impaired the formation of lamellar bodies, and induced the unfolded protein response in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. (jci.org)
  • Transcriptomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses demonstrated that EMC3 coordinates the assembly of lipids and proteins in AT2 cells that is necessary for surfactant synthesis and function at birth. (jci.org)
  • Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • GLTP also seems to be involved in the synthesis of globotriacylceramide, perhaps in a manner that is similar to that of the fourphosphate adaptor protein 2, another GlcCer-transporting LTP. (doria.fi)
  • To examine whether lipid particle proteins of unknown function are also involved in lipid synthesis, mutants with deletions of the respective ORFs were constructed and subjected to systematic lipid analysis. (asm.org)
  • Currently we focus on membrane protein folding in situ using cell-free expression systems and nanodiscs to monitor synthesis and folding events of bacteriorhodopsin during the protein translation by the ribosome. (fz-juelich.de)
  • I showed that the synthetic lethality was not due to the ESCRTs canonical function in the multivesicular body pathway, but instead, that ESCRT-III proteins were required to maintain normal lipid synthesis in cells lacking ER-PM contact sites. (cornell.edu)
  • Proteins also increase the thermic effect of feeding ( 12 ), mostly by increasing protein synthesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, both the synthesis and uptake of cholesterol are regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein transcription factors ( Espenshade and Hughes, 2007 ). (rupress.org)
  • Bodies use lipids differently than carbohydrates and proteins, though still converting lipids and fats to sources of energy. (reference.com)
  • Lipids, also known as fats, play multiple roles in the body. (livestrong.com)
  • What Is the Main Component of Protein That Differs From Carbs and Fats? (livestrong.com)
  • The two main dietary lipids are fats/oils and cholesterol. (livestrong.com)
  • Overall, there are three main types of lipid-anchored proteins which include prenylated proteins, fatty acylated proteins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins (GPI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common fatty acids that are covalently attached to the protein are the saturated myristic (14-carbon) acid and palmitic acid (16-carbon). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins can be modified to contain either one or both of these fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bodies store lipids in fatty tissue, which protects and cushions internal organs. (reference.com)
  • Dr. Locniskar continued studying linoleic acid, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the role it seems to play in protein kinase C activation and distribution, that is essential for normal cell communication. (aicr.org)
  • Although the importance of fatty acids in the cohesion and barrier function of SC has been widely demonstrated, their role could be associated not only to the presence of these lipids in the intercellular lamellae but also in the CE, in the same way that Cer. (csic.es)
  • Wr-T/cationic lipid reagents mixture-mediated selective delivery of proteins into living MRC-5 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Fibroin particle-supported cationic lipid layers for highly efficient intracellular protein delivery. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we present an intracellular protein delivery system based on fibroin particles coated with cationic lipid layers, denoted as Fibroplex, the surface charge of which can be modulated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we present a combinatorial approach for the creation of cationic lipid-like nanoparticles (termed "lipidoids") to facilitate intracellular cytotoxic protein delivery for the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Some, such as myelin basic protein, and spectrin have mainly structural roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The roles of specific lipid binding and the probable mechanism leading to intracellular vesicle formation were also investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Research on MCE domain-containing proteins (henceforth termed 'MCE proteins') has largely focused on elucidating their roles in Actinobacteria. (nature.com)
  • These proteins are embedded in the chemically complex lipid environment of the biological membrane, which presents unique challenges in deciphering the roles that lipids play in modulating membrane protein structure and function. (labmanager.com)
  • Membrane proteins play vital roles in cell function and as such represent the targets of over 60% of pharmaceuticals on the market1. (cornell.edu)
  • The importance of lipid binding for vertical positioning and tight integration of proteins in the membrane, for assembly and stabilization of oligomeric and multisubunit complexes, for supercomplexes, as well as for functional roles are pointed out. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Carbohydrates and proteins share more in common with each other than they do with lipids. (reference.com)
  • Lipids and lipid structures participate directly as messengers or regulators of signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the lipid headgroup region is likely to be important in defining the structures of those parts of a membrane protein that are located in the lipid headgroup region. (nih.gov)
  • Secondly we need to resolve the lipid and protein structures within the complex. (springer.com)
  • Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) can resolve the structures of protein-lipid complexes if they are present as homogeneous dispersions. (springer.com)
  • Distinct lipid-binding motifs have been identified for lipids with defined head groups in membrane protein structures. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • CpxA autophosphorylation activity was found to be positively regulated by phosphatidylethanolamine and negatively by anionic lipids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Indeed, lipids have commonly been considered a mere support for the transient or permanent association of membrane proteins, while acting as a selective cell/organelle barrier. (nih.gov)
  • We show here that such protein-lipid complexes inhibit nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity but are necessary for another function of Nm23-H4, selective intermembrane lipid transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids across the membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pepsin breaks down protein into intermediate particles. (mindmeister.com)
  • Using styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer, we reported the first purification of active GPCR encapsulated in nano-scale SMA lipid particles (SMALPs), in the complete absence of detergent, thereby preserving the native lipid environment of the GPCR. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Lipid particles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated at high purity, and their proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (asm.org)
  • Principal studies of lipid particles from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were carried out by Clausen et al. (asm.org)
  • 8 ). Triacylglycerols and steryl esters were identified as the main components (approximately 50% each), and it was suggested that lipid particles function as a storage for components needed for membrane formation. (asm.org)
  • The protein pattern of yeast lipid particles is rather simple. (asm.org)
  • One of the major proteins of yeast lipid particles is sterol-Δ 24 -methyltransferase (Erg6p) ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Localization studies of this protein revealed a 700- to 800-fold enrichment in lipid particles over the homogenate ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • It was demonstrated that Erg1p is not exclusively localized to lipid particles but is also present in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus pointing to a relationship between these two compartments. (asm.org)
  • Slc1p was identified as a component of lipid particles by two-dimensional electrophoresis and functional analysis by using an slc1 deletion strain. (asm.org)
  • In addition, a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity catalyzed by the hypothetical Gat1p was detected in lipid particles ( 3 , 8 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Lipid Transfer Protein Syndrome is an allergy affecting people who have become sensitised to LTPs. (anaphylaxis.org.uk)
  • Dr Skypala is a co-author of the 2019 paper, "Lipid Transfer Protein allergy in the United Kingdom: Characterization and comparison with a matched Italian cohort. (anaphylaxis.org.uk)
  • protein STARD7 as an intramitochondrial lipid transfer protein for phosphatidylcholine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Van der Wel lab is looking for a postdoc candidate with a background in NMR, preferably solid-state NMR, to join our research effort focused on protein aggregation and protein-lipid interactions. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • One focus in the lab is the use of MAS NMR to study amyloid structure and protein aggregation with a particular focus on polyglutamine-expanded proteins implicated in Huntington's Disease. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. (frontiersin.org)
  • This proves the quantitative reconstitution of both types of proteins and indicates protein aggregation also in the monolayer. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In this PhD thesis, the influence of lipids on the membrane protein function was studied using three different membrane protein models. (diva-portal.org)
  • In recent years, we have seen a sea change in our ability to study lipid signaling systems, primarily through major advancements in cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography. (asbmb.org)
  • This is particularly useful in the study of large, complicated multidomain signaling complexes with experiments on the phosphoinositide 3-kinases revealing how previously undescribed disease-causing mutations mediate altered lipid signaling through unexpected allosteric conformational changes. (asbmb.org)
  • This provides the larger lipid signaling community with novel opportunities to more carefully define how peripheral membrane signaling complexes are regulated. (asbmb.org)
  • These results suggest a mechanism for localization of signaling proteins to the lipid raft that mediates the compartmentalization of crucial signal transduction pathways. (pnas.org)
  • The similar organization of these proteins suggests that they may similarly function as adapters, linking signaling or cytoskeletal proteins to the lipid raft. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest a signaling paradigm in which the SoHo domain of these adapter proteins can mediate interactions with the lipid raft that are crucial to intracellular communication. (pnas.org)
  • Targeting lipid-binding sites on SH2 domains may abrogate pY-mediated signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, these results show that lipids spatiotemporally modulate protein-protein interactions mediated by SH2 domains in intracellular pY-containing signal transducers to control signaling pathways, and that this pathway represents a potential therapeutic target for patients with cancers driven by SH2 domain-containing proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SH2 domains serve as lipid-binding modules for pTyr-signaling proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The experimental results revealed a restricted lipid lateral mobility in the presence of the TFRC transmembrane peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the article presents an estimation for the radius of influence of the peptides on the lipid long-range dynamics which could be determined by consistently combining results from experiment and simulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whey protein consumption is reported to reduce serum lipids, however the responses to derived peptides have not yet been fully characterized. (go.jp)
  • In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein-hydrolyzed peptides (WPP) on serum and hepatic lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipogenic gene expression in SD rats consuming a high-sucrose AIN-76 based diet. (go.jp)
  • Not only do they define the entity of cells and cytosolic organelles but they also display a wide variety of important functions previously ascribed to the activity of proteins alone. (nih.gov)
  • Cells use carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as sources of chemical energy. (reference.com)
  • Muscles and organs are made up of proteins, and proteins help cells communicate and serve as an energy source. (reference.com)
  • All cells have a combination of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. (reference.com)
  • Enzymes, which help speed chemical reactions in cells, are a specialized type of protein. (livestrong.com)
  • MAM-7 is reported to be an integral outer membrane protein on the cell surface that acts as an adhesin by binding to mammalian cells via phosphatidic acid and fibronectin 22 . (nature.com)
  • RESULTS- Cells lacking PAT proteins exhibited a dramatic increase in LD size and a decrease in LD number. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. (nih.gov)
  • Directly delivering therapeutic proteins into cells has promise as an intervention without side effects for protein deficiencies caused by genetic defects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lipid movement in cells occurs by a variety of methods. (doria.fi)
  • Adipocyte-derived lipids are transferred to melanoma cells through the FATP/SLC27A family of lipid transporters expressed on the tumor cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pharmacologic blockade of FATPs with the small-molecule inhibitor Lipofermata abrogates lipid transport into melanoma cells and reduces melanoma growth and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When studying membrane proteins in cells, these types of lipid-protein interactions are preserved, but decoupling to elucidate specific mechanisms is difficult because of the complexity of the cell system. (cornell.edu)
  • The polyphenols also prevented the lipid accumulation that occurred in HepG2 cells exposed to high glucose, and their ability to do so was mimicked and abrogated, respectively, by overexpression of constitutively active and dominant-negative AMPK mutants. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BAR domain proteins are among the central membrane-sculpting proteins in all eukaryote cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Transport proteins are responsible for moving materials such as nutrients and metabolic products through a cell's outer membrane, which seals and protects all living cells, to the cell's interior. (phys.org)
  • By studying how cells communicate between organelles and selectively remove proteins, I found that the ESCRTs function in discrete pathways to maintain lipid and protein homeostasis. (cornell.edu)
  • To maintain protein homeostasis, cells use ubiquitin to mark unnecessary or damaged proteins in organelles of the secretory pathway. (cornell.edu)
  • Hence it is desirable to develop efficient and effective tools as well as strategies that will enable us to deliver therapeutic proteins in their active forms to tumor cells or tissues. (techconnectworld.com)
  • The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. (rupress.org)
  • A large research effort involves approaches to know whether proteins have binding sites which are specific for particular lipids and whether the protein-lipid complexes can be considered to be long-lived, on the order of the time required for the turnover a typical enzyme, that is 10−3 sec. (wikipedia.org)
  • This comes from the great penetrating power of neutrons and their sensitivity to the difference between hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D). Both membrane proteins and lipids can be produced with varying degrees of deuteration, thus allowing us to dissect complexes with great accuracy. (springer.com)
  • Again the ability to deuterate proteins and lipids enables SANS to resolve the inner structure of big, dynamic, lipid-protein complexes. (springer.com)
  • Due to great advances in the last decade in the instrumentation and software for HDX-MS experiments, studies examining protein complexes larger than 500 kDa on membrane surfaces are now commonplace. (asbmb.org)
  • LDs are energy-storage organelles but have a surprisingly complex function in lipid homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, PARL preserves mitochondrial membrane homeostasis via STARD7 processing and is emerging as a critical regulator of protein localization between mitochondria and the cytosol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In human skeletal muscle, we observed that PLIN5 (but not PLIN2) protein content correlated tightly with OXPHOS content and in rat muscle PLIN5 content correlated with mitochondrial respiration rates on a lipid-derived substrate. (wur.nl)
  • The results can, in a large part, be transferred to the Rhesus proteins from mammals," says Andrade as Amt proteins bear a close resemblance to the Rhesus proteins found in humans. (phys.org)
  • 2) Do membrane proteins have long-range effects on the order or dynamics of membrane lipids? (wikipedia.org)
  • Another key focus is on the study by ssNMR of membrane structure and dynamics, as well as protein-lipid interactions, in particular in context of mitochondrial apoptosis, which has important implications for neurodegenerative disease and cancer research. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • By using different scattering contrasts in the experiment (chain-deuterated lipids and protonated lipids, respectively), a model could be developed which allows to examine the lipid and peptide dynamics separately. (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVE- Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in non-adipose tissues is recognized as a strong prognostic factor for the development of insulin resistance in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Can the AllPrep DNA/RNA/Protein Mini Kit be used with fibrous or lipid tissues? (qiagen.com)
  • The AllPrep DNA/RNA/Protein Mini Kit is optimized for use with easy-to-lyse tissues. (qiagen.com)
  • For fibrous (e.g., heart) and lipid tissues (e.g., brain), we recommend using a portion of the tissue sample for RNA purification with the RNeasy Fibrous Tissue Mini Kit and RNeasy Lipid Tissue Mini Kit , respectively. (qiagen.com)
  • Hydrogen-deuterium exchange is a useful technique to probe conformational changes that occur upon small molecule, protein, and membrane interactions. (asbmb.org)
  • The technique measures exchange rates throughout the entire protein, and conformational changes due to either direct membrane interactions or allosteric conformational changes will be observed. (asbmb.org)
  • Lipids impart conformational stability and modulation on membrane proteins, which is closely tied to their function. (cornell.edu)
  • Often referred to as protein conformational or misfolding disorders, such diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyloidoses, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, and the prion encephalopathies to name a few. (frontiersin.org)
  • When a ligand binds to the extracellular domain of the GPCR, the receptor undergoes a conformational change that enables the activation of the G-protein [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The dietary standard called Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges issued by the Institute of Medicine recommends that 45 percent to 65 percent of total calorie intake come from carbohydrate, 20 percent to 35 percent from fat and 10 percent to 35 percent from protein. (livestrong.com)
  • An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in order to assess the effects of different levels of L-carnitine (0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) and dietary protein (22, 25, and 28%) on blood sugar and blood lipid contents of the new juvenile GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. (hindawi.com)
  • Results showed that dietary protein and L-carnitine had significant influences on glucose (GLU), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the blood serum. (hindawi.com)
  • The contents of GLU and HDL-C increased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels, while the contents of TC, LDL-C, and TG decreased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels. (hindawi.com)
  • The interactive effect of both dietary protein and L-carnitine was most significant on GLU ( p = 0.0001), followed by TG ( p = 0.001), TC ( p = 0.005), HDL-C ( p = 0.056), and LDL-C ( p = 0.109). (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggested that high levels of dietary protein and L-carnitine supplementation reduce blood lipids and the burden of the fish liver. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have shown that SDA is partially fueled by oxidizing dietary nutrients, yet it remains unclear whether the proteins and the lipids in their meals contribute equally to this energy demand. (biologists.org)
  • Oxidation of the dietary proteins peaked 24 h after ingestion, at which point these proteins provided ∼90% of the metabolic requirement of the snakes, and by 14 days the oxidation of these proteins decreased to nearly zero. (biologists.org)
  • The oxidation of the dietary lipids peaked 1 day later, at which point these lipids supplied ∼25% of the energy demand. (biologists.org)
  • Pureeing also reduced the oxidation of dietary proteins by 43%, but it had no effect on the rates of dietary lipid oxidation. (biologists.org)
  • Effect of dietary manipulation on the lipid abnormalities and urinary protein loss in nephrotic patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Edidin discusses the questions surrounding lipid rafts, membrane microdomains that have been biochemically defined but are difficult to visualize in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The overexpression of a CAP mutant in which the SoHo domain had been deleted (CAPΔSoHo) prevented the translocation of Cbl to lipid rafts and subsequently blocked the recruitment of CrkII and C3G. (pnas.org)
  • Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These studies 1 ) reveal that inactivation of hepatic AMPK is a key event in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia in diabetes, 2 ) point to a novel mechanism of action of polyphenols to lower lipids by activating AMPK, and 3 ) emphasize a new therapeutic avenue to benefit hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis specifically in diabetes via activating AMPK. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • What Are the Similarities & Differences Between Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins? (livestrong.com)
  • The controlled flow of ions across the membrane, which is essential for the transmission of nerve impulses, is facilitated by ion channels, membrane proteins that provide gated pathways for ions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protein restriction affects fat intake and serum lipids in children with chronic renal failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3) How do the lipids influence the structure and/or function of membrane proteins? (wikipedia.org)
  • Our laboratory has published the following reviews on the structure and function of lipid transfer proteins. (mskcc.org)
  • The last model system was another integral membrane protein with a distinct structure but also a different function. (diva-portal.org)
  • In order to under-stand this process, the researchers have characterized the structure and function of a closely related fungal TMEM16 lipid scramblase. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have now gained insight into the architecture and function of a family of proteins, the malfunctioning of which causes various hereditary diseases," says the biochemist from UZH. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies of membrane proteins have revealed a direct link between the lipid environment and the structure and function of some of these proteins. (nih.gov)
  • I don't have any of the right books, someone else may suggest, but you could browse your uni bookshop, or Amazon etc. for a book on protein structure and function. (physicsforums.com)
  • These proteins (enzymes) reside in a cytosolic location in the absence of signals and, upon activation by various stimuli, are recruited to specific membrane surfaces to carry out their function. (asbmb.org)
  • Dual function of mitochondrial Nm23-H4 protein in phosphotransfer and intermembrane lipid transfer: a cardiolipin-dependent switch. (cdc.gov)
  • How a membrane protein is associated with the lipid membrane reflects the function of the protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors studied cardiac systolic function in elderly hypertensive patients after eating meals with different contents of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The properties of LacY (lactose permease) were investigated as a function of lipid environment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although protein-based drugs have shown success, they have been limited mostly to cytokines, growth factors, enzymes and monoclonal antibodies, all of which function primarily extracellularly. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Then get on to how they typically interact with each other and how the peptide bond folds and how proteins fold and how this makes them work and some examples of them working. (physicsforums.com)
  • All these approaches have distinct advantages and disadvantages, but together they provide unique insight into how proteins interact with and are recruited to specific membrane surfaces. (asbmb.org)
  • Traditionally, membrane proteins were pictured as floating around quite independently of the surrounding lipids, yet when this fluid-mosaic model was described, Singer and Nicolson qualified that "a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins" ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Texas A&M University chemists are using it to determine how lipids talk to each other when they interact with membrane proteins, one of the primary targets for drug discovery and potential treatments for any number of different diseases. (labmanager.com)
  • The team's work, published Mar. 5 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and led by Texas A&M chemistry postdoctoral researchers Christopher Boone and John W. Patrick, shows that allostery extends to lipid-membrane protein interactions, enabling these proteins to alter their remote binding sites to accept lipids of different types and opening up new possibilities for pharmaceutical drug design and delivery. (labmanager.com)
  • From this work and our previous work, it is becoming increasingly clear that membrane proteins are exquisitely sensitive to the chemistry of the lipid," Laganowsky says. (labmanager.com)
  • Abnormal blood lipids are risk factors for CVD. (faqs.org)
  • The National Cholesterol Education Program, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association recommend diet and lifestyle modification as the first line of defense against abnormal blood lipids. (faqs.org)
  • Lipid-anchored proteins (also known as lipid-linked proteins) are proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are covalently attached to lipids embedded within the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid-anchored protein can be located on either side of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the lipid serves to anchor the protein to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenylated proteins are particularly important for eukaryotic cell growth, differentiation and morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, protein prenylation is a reversible post-translational modification to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, Ras is the protein that undergoes prenylation via farnesyltransferase and when it is switched on it can turn on genes involved in cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example in which the myristoylation of a protein is important is in apoptosis, programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid) has been myristoylated, it targets the protein to move to the mitochondrial membrane to release cytochrome c, which then ultimately leads to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When activated by calcium, these lipid scramblases located in the plasma membrane of blood platelets trigger blood coagulation by facilitating the transport of the lipid phosphatidylserine to the surface of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • In case a good book is slow to find you can more easily find one on how proteins are made in the living cell. (physicsforums.com)
  • We confirmed colocalization of major factors with lipid droplets using live-cell fluorescent microscopy. (ornl.gov)
  • Lipid interactions with membrane proteins are a crucial but often overlooked effector of cell physiology. (cornell.edu)
  • Proteins of the Amt family transport ammonium across the lipid membrane of the cell. (phys.org)
  • Nanodisc with cell-free expressed bacteriorhodopsin (bR, purple), an α-helical transmembrane retinal protein (originally from H.salinarum). (fz-juelich.de)
  • Fluorescence techniques were used to study the motion of protein domains in adenylate kinase, and to characterize the formation of myelin in neuron Schwann cell co-cultures. (illinois.edu)
  • Additionally, the rate of lipid transport along the internode was slow since there was a quicker increase in fluorescence intensity near the cell body of the Schwann cell than near the nodes of Ranvier. (illinois.edu)
  • P2 is the lysis buffer which breaks down the cell wall and membrane, denatures proteins, and separates double stranded DNA into single stranded DNA. (enotes.com)
  • The largest family of cell surface receptors is formed by the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are responsible for most transmembrane signal transduction by hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as for the senses of vision, smell and taste [ 1 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, proteins alone are not usually able to cross the cell membrane in order to reach their intracellular targets. (techconnectworld.com)