A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Glucose in blood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Relating to the size of solids.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
Abstaining from all food.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/15793)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (2/15793)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (3/15793)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (4/15793)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (5/15793)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov. (6/15793)

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

Reclassification of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans as Methanofollis tationis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov. and description of a new strain of Methanofollis liminatans. (7/15793)

Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of Methanogenium tationis DSM 2702T (OCM 43T) (T = type strain) and Methanogenium liminatans GKZPZT (= DSM 4140T) as well as other members of the family Methanomicrobiaceae revealed that both species belong to a separate line of descent within this family. In addition, a new strain of Methanogenium liminatans, strain BM1 (= DSM 10196), was isolated from a butyrate-degrading, fluidized bed reactor and characterized. Cells of both species are mesophilic, highly irregular cocci that use H2/CO2 and formate for growth and methanogenesis. In addition, Methanogenium liminatans strains GKZPZT and BM1 used 2-propanol/CO2, 2-butanol/CO2 and cyclopentanol/CO2. Both species contained diether and tetraether lipids. The polar lipids comprised amino-phosphopentanetetrol derivatives, which appear to be characteristic lipids within the family Methanomicrobiaceae. The pattern of glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids and amino-phosphoglycolipids was consistent with the assignment of these two species to a taxon within the family Methanomicrobiaceae, but also permitted them to be distinguished from other higher taxa within this family. The G+C contents of the DNA of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans were 54 and 60 mol% (Tm and HPLC), respectively. On the basis of the data presented, the transfer of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans to the genus Methanofollis gen. nov. as Methanofollis tationis comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov., respectively, is proposed, with Methanofollis tationis as the type species.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (8/15793)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

The authors evaluated the contributions of nine genetic (G) variants (selected from 275 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes), five environmental (E) factors (selected from 10), and G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions in explaining population variance of blood lipid concentrations. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio were calculated in a population-based random sample of 1,543 men and women in Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35-74 years in 1999-2001. Explained variances (R2) for HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, were 34%, 33%, and 19%, decomposed into main effects of G (6%, 4%, and 5%) and E (25%, 28%, and 11%), with just 3%, 2%, and 3% due to G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions, respectively. Risk factor clustering was only moderate: 70% of study ...
Supplements of a highly purified lipase were given with fat test meals to human subjects and dogs in order to determine the effect on blood lipid levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested. The total esterified fatty acid and triglyceride determinations confirmed this measurement of the decrease acid and triglyceride determinations confirmed this measurement of the decrease in blood lipid levels. Human subjects with lowered fasting O.D. values and E.F.A. appeared to require more lipase to obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase for over a four week test period. In all human subjects, the serum lipase values were elevated when the blood lipid levels were lowered. The association of elevated blood lipase levels with decreased blood lipids suggest the possibility of a lipolytic action in the
Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is a convenient way to collect blood samples with several advantages over conventional blood collection methods. DBS has gained popularity in fields such as newborn screening, preclinical studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring [2, 4, 7, 8]. DBS coupled with LC-MS/MS system provides the capacity to analyze samples in a high throughput manner once coupled to robust analytical methods. Lipidomics analysis of whole blood, which is comprised of thousands of diverse lipid molecular species, is directly linked to an individuals physiological, nutritional and health status [14, 35]. In this study, we combined DBS collection with high-resolution MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics analysis to analyze the blood lipidome. We demonstrate in one DBS spot, several lipid classes and more than 1,200 lipid species were identified and quantified.. Direct infusion-based MS shotgun lipidomics provides comprehensive profiling and quantitation of lipid species from organic extracts of ...
Background: Previous data on the possible effects of age and gender on serum lipids profile of elderly people showed considerable debates. Aim: to eva..
Lipidomics is the comprehensive analysis of molecular lipid species, including their quantitation and metabolic pathways. The huge diversity of native lipids and their modifications make lipidomic analyses challenging. The method of choice for sensitive detection and quantitation of molecular lipid species is mass spectrometry, either by direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) or coupled with liquid chromatography. Although shotgun lipidomics allows for high-throughput analysis, low-abundant lipid species are not detected. Previous separation of lipid species by liquid chromatography increases ionization efficiency and is better suited for quantifying low abundant and isomeric lipid species. In this review, we will discuss the potential of lipidomics for cardiovascular research. To date, cardiovascular research predominantly focuses on the role of lipid classes rather than molecular entities. An in-depth knowledge about the molecular lipid species that contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular
Background Lipids have critical functions in cellular energy storage, structure and signaling. Many individual lipid molecules have been associated with the evolution of prostate cancer; however, none of them has been approved to be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study is to identify lipid molecules from hundreds plasma apparent lipid species as biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using lipidomics, lipid profiling of 390 individual apparent lipid species was performed on 141 plasma samples from 105 patients with prostate cancer and 36 male controls. High throughput data generated from lipidomics were analyzed using bioinformatic and statistical methods. From 390 apparent lipid species, 35 species were demonstrated to have potential in differentiation of prostate cancer. Within the 35 species, 12 were identified as individual plasma lipid biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer with a sensitivity above 80%, specificity above 50% and accuracy above 80%.
Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases. Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). The lipid profile typically includes: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Triglycerides Total cholesterol Using these values, a laboratory may also calculate: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio Serum triglycerides serum Phospholipids Electrophoretic fractionation to determination percentage of (a) ...
Background: Cross-sectional genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with blood lipids and related cardiovascular traits, but few genetic association studies have focused on long-term changes in blood lipids.. Methods: Participants from the GLACIER Study (N-max = 3492) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array, from which 29 387 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms;replication, fine-mapping regions and wildcard SNPs for lipid traits) were extracted for association tests with 10-year change in total cholesterol (Delta TC) and triglycerides (Delta TG). Four additional prospective cohort studies (MDC, PIVUS, ULSAM, MRC Ely; N-max = 8263 participants) were used for replication. We conducted an in silico look-up for association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) Consortium (N similar to 190 000) and functional annotation for the top ranking variants.. Results: In total, 956 ...
This report presents an analysis of data resulting from a lipidomics experiment. The experiment sought to determine the changes in the lipidome of big bluestem prairie grass when exposed to stressors. The two stressors were drought (versus a watered condition) and a rust infection (versus no infection), and were whole plot treatments arranged in a 2 by 2 factorial. A split plot treatment factor was the position on a sampled leaf (top half versus bottom half). In addition, samples were analyzed at different times, representing a blocking factor. A total of 110 samples were used and, for each sample, concentrations of 137 lipids were obtained. Many lipids were not detected for certain samples and, in some cases, a lipid was not detected in most samples. Thus, each lipid was analyzed separately using a modeling strategy that involved a combination of mixed effects linear models and a categorical analysis technique, with the latter used for certain lipids to determine if a pattern of observed zeros ...
Background: Inactivity is a leading contributor to chronic health problems. Physical activity (PA) is an important element in maintaining the health and functional ability in the population and has favorable effects on lipid profile in adults. Here, we examined the effects of pedometer-based PA (step/day ) in healthy middle age men. Methods: ...
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.21, 0 mmol/l), whereas the whey protein had no effects on circulating TC (-0.11 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.05 mmol/l), LDL-C (-0.08 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.23, 0.07 mmol/l) and HDL-C (0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05 mmol/l). Subgroup analysis showed that significant TG reduction disappeared in participants with low body mass index, low supplemental whey dose or under exercise ...
Background and Aim: Hyperlipidemia, particularly hypercholesterolemia, is one of the major risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. Egg yolk is one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol in human nutrition. Because egg yolk has relative high cholesterol, we wish to investigate the effect of consuming regular eggs on serum lipid ...
Advances in single cell genomics and transcriptomics have shown that at tissue level there is complex cellular heterogeneity. To understand the effect of this inter-cell heterogeneity on metabolism, it is essential to develop a single cell lipid profiling approach that allows the measurement of lipids in large numbers of single cells from a population. This will provide a functional readout of cell activity and membrane structure. Using liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry we have developed a high-throughput method for untargeted single cell lipid profiling. This technological advance highlighted the importance of cellular heterogeneity in the functional metabolism of individual human dopamine neurons, suggesting that A53T alpha-synuclein (SNCA) mutant neurons have impaired membrane function. These results demonstrate that this single cell lipid profiling platform can provide robust data that will expand the frontiers in biomedical research.. ...
The health condition of the man largely depends on excessive energy intake from fat provided by the consumption of meat. Investigation is done of the impact of the consumption of meat on lipid status in humans. Examine covers a group of 236 respondents of which 108 were men and 128 were women and divided into 4 groups according to gender and age. Since blood parameters analysis are examined the lipid status, total cholesterol (HOL), high density lipid (HDL), low density lipid (LDL), and triacilgliceridi (TG). Concentrations of HOL levels in male who consume a small amount of meat (once a week for 200 grams), irrespective of age and sex on average is 5.406 mmol / l, and also the same conditions females were 5.405 mmol / l. Males HDL = 1,26 mmol / l, while in women, HDL = 1,52 mmol / l in men LDL = 3 36 mmol / l, and in women LDL = 3 36 mmol / l. HOL concentration in subjects who regularly consume adequate meals containing meat (about 200grams per day) regardless of age and sex on average for men ...
Lipidomics is a lipid-targeted metabolomics approach aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in biological systems. Recently, lipid profiling, or so-called lipidomics research, has captured increased attention due to the well-recognized roles of lipids in numerous human diseases to which lipid-associated disorders contribute, such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Investigating lipid biochemistry using a lipidomics approach will not only provide insights into the specific roles of lipid molecular species in health and disease, but will also assist in identifying potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic approaches for human health. Recent technological advancements in mass spectrometry and rapid improvements in chromatographic techniques have led to the rapid expansion of the lipidomics research held. In this review, emphasis is given to the recent advances in lipidomics technologies and their applications in disease biomarker discovery. (C) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin-induced de novo lipid synthesis occurs mainly via mTOR-dependent regulation of proteostasis of SREBP-1c. AU - Dong, Qingming. AU - Majumdar, Gipsy. AU - OMeally, Robert N.. AU - Cole, Robert N.. AU - Elam, Marshall B.. AU - Raghow, Rajendra. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Insulin stimulates de novo lipid synthesis in the liver and in cultured hepatocytes via its ability to activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Although PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-p70S6K-signaling kinases are known to drive feed-forward expression of SREBP-1c, the identity of the phosphorylated amino acid residue(s) putatively involved in insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis remains elusive. We obtained in silico and mass spectrometry evidence, that was combined with siRNA strategies, to discover that insulin-induced phosphorylation of serine 418, serine 419, and serine 422 in rat SREBP-1c was most likely mediated by p70S6 kinase. Here, for the first time, we show that ...
Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism for this risk remains unclear. Complicating this association, reducing serum homocysteine (Hcy) has not been shown to decrease cardiovascular disease events in randomized controlled trials. This study aims to examine the relationship between Hcy and several lipid measures.. Methods: Our analyses included a subset of 18,297 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids, who had an extended lipid panel by density gradient ultracentrifugation, which included direct measurement of triglycerides (TG), and the cholesterol concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: IDL-C + VLDL3-C). Additional measurements were levels of Hcy, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Subjects were categorized into Hcy quartiles. Linear ...
This is calculation with bound lipids. Acyl chains of two lipids were modelled. Calculated hydrocarbon boundary of the lipid bilayer corresponds to the carbonyl groups of the bound lipid. Depending on conformations of bound lipids, the protein can penetrate deeper by ~2 A. Results for the dimer without bound lipids are exactly the same as for lipid-free EEA1 monomer (1hyi). Transfer energy was calculated without contribution from the bound lipid ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of energy-overload metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who bump into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Effect of Ledebouriella seseloides Extracts on Lipid Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats - ALP;collagen;Ledebouriella seseloides;lipid parameters;ovariectomized rats;
Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid ...
article{bcb56acf-af8b-4795-9113-593c8f47c227, abstract = {Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P<5 x 10(-8)), with 59 showing genome-wide significant association with lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits in three non-European populations (East ...
The study of lipid transfer between lipid membranes is of great interest for the fundamental understanding of this complex and important process and, furthermore, for providing a new avenue for the in situ modification of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). SLBs are conveniently formed by vesicle spreading onto a solid support, but this method is limited to conditions (i.e., combination of vesicle lipid composition, surface chemical properties, and buffer) such that the vesicles break spontaneously upon adsorption to the surface. Many SLB compositions are not accessible by this approach. In the present study, we give an example of how lipid transfer can be made use of to form lipid layers with striking new features, notably with respect to stability. After lipid transfer between negatively charged POPS small unilamellar vesicles and a positively charged POEPC SLB on TiO2, an SLB is obtained, which, upon exposure to SDS, leaves behind a lipid monolayer. It is shown how this monolayer can be used for
We found that in youth with type 1 diabetes and relatively short disease duration (mean 4.2 years) mean lipid levels and prevalence of lipid abnormalities are substantially influenced by glycemic control. Youth with type 1 diabetes and optimal A1C levels have lipid profiles that are similar (total and LDL cholesterol) or even less atherogenic (HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and triglyceride-to-HDL ratio) than those observed in nondiabetic youth. In contrast, youth with type 1 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control have higher standard lipid levels and prevalence of lipid abnormalities (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol) than nondiabetic youth. Moreover, youth with type 1 diabetes have significantly elevated apoB levels and more small, dense LDL particles than nondiabetic youth, regardless of glycemic control. We also found that the most frequent lipid abnormalities in youth with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic control subjects are elevated apoB levels and an ...
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating level …
The effects of elevated blood lipid concentrations on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are reviewed, with particular emphasis on how high fat diets and antihypertensive drugs can influence the...
Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. As a population ages, chronic conditions associated with aging such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders take increasing tolls in terms of morbidity and mortality. Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimers, cancer, and asthma. Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is ...
For the 6th Edition of this highly regarded textbook devoted to lipids, the title has been modified from Lipid Biochemistry to Lipids to acknowledge the coming together of biological and medical sciences, the increasingly blurred boundaries between them and the growing importance of lipids in diverse aspects of science and technology. The principal aims of this new edition - to inform students and researchers about lipids, to assist teachers and encourage further research - have not changed since previous editions.. Significant advances in lipid science have demanded yet another extensive rewriting for this edition, with the addition of two new authors, to cover new knowledge of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, the many lipids involved in cell signalling, the roles of lipids in health and disease and new developments in biotechnology in support of agriculture and industry.. An introductory chapter summarizes the types of lipids covered and their identification and provides ...
Aim: To investigate relationship between serum TSH and lipid parameters in subjects with different levels of TSH. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Biochemistry Department of Kasturba Medical College, Hospital Mangalore, between January 2014 to June 2014. Methodology: 348 subjects were screened of which 194 were selected. Lipid parameters, TSH, T3, T4 and glycemic status were determined. Association between TSH and serum lipids were studied by categorizing subjects into three groups based on their thyroid status. Group 1 [TSH= 0.27-2.5 mIU/L], Group 2 [TSH= 2.6-4.12 mIU/L] and Group 3 [TSH= 4.13-9.9mIU/L].Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukeys multiple comparison test. The relationships between TSH and different parameters were evaluated by Pearsons correlation analysis. Results: TSH showed a significant positive linear correlation with total cholesterol (r=0.288; P = 0.001), Triglycerides (r=0.129; P=0.016), LDL cholesterol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. AU - Boonyasopun, Umaporn. AU - Aree, Patcharaporn. AU - Avant, Kay C.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. Fifty-six experimental subjects received the program; 48 control subjects maintained their habitual lifestyle. The statistical methods used were the t-test, Z-test, and χ2/Fishers exact test. After the program, the consumption of high saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugar diets was significantly lower for the experimental group than for the control group. The percentage change of the serum total cholesterol of the experimental subjects was significantly higher than that of the control subjects. The number of experimental subjects that changed from ...
They include low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglycerides. 22-8). Dietary lipids and metabolic syndrome MS, also known as syndrome X, or the insulin resistance syndrome, is a combination of medical disorders comprising an array of metabolic risk factors including central obesity, Plasma lipids are usually measured after a 12-hour fast due to postprandial fluctuations of triglycerides. Exclusion of secondary causes of lipid disorders (see earlier discussion) is important. Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes.In animals, these fats are obtained from food or are synthesized by the liver. 2 Lipid digestion Micelle structure. Xanthelasmas are often treated with topical trichloroacetic acid, electrodesiccation, laser therapy, and excision, but recurrences may occur. ...
A lipid panel is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might feel faint or lightheaded from the test. A few kids and teens have a strong fear of needles. If your child is anxious, talk with the doctor before the test about ways to make the procedure easier.. A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care for your child if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer. If you have questions about the lipid panel, speak with your doctor or the health professional doing the blood draw.. Back To Top. ...
Awhile ago, TheFatNurse noticed something strange while reviewing some Lipid panels. Normally, when you receive a lab result, a reference range is given and any numbers above or below the reference range is flagged. What was strange about some of these lipid panels was the lack of flags for patient numbers that were clearly in…
Lipids constitute a significant group of biological metabolites and the building blocks of all cell membranes. The abundance and stoichiometries of different lipid species are known to vary across the lifespan and metabolic state, yet the functional effects of these changes have been challenging to understand. Here we review the potentially powerful intersection of lipid metabolism, which determines membrane composition, and aging. We first introduce several key lipid classes that are associated with aging and aging-related disease, where they are found in organisms, and how they act on membrane structure and function. Instead of neutral lipids, which have primary roles in energy storage and homeostasis, we review known functions for polar lipids that control the physicochemical properties of cell membranes. We then focus on aging processes in the central nervous system (CNS), which is enriched in lipids and is highly dependent on membrane structure for function. Recent studies show how lipids act not
Lipids and Lipid-like Molecules are a superclass of organic compounds, including fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds
Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S. Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Triple Lipid Restore 2:4:2 is an anti-aging cream that contains the optimal and patented lipid ratio of 2% pure ceramides 1 and 3, 4% natural cholesterol, and 2% fatty acids, which is proven to nourish skin and correct signs of aging. This unique lipid correction cream contains the first 2:4:2 cholesterol-dominant ratio to help restore skins external barrier and support natural self-repair, while potently nourishing aging skin for improvement in the visible appearance of skin smoothness, laxity, pores, and overall radiance. -Restores essential skin lipids: ceramides, natural cholesterol, and fatty acids -Improves the look of skin fullness, texture, and pore appearance -Improves the appearance of skin evenness and overall radiance -Unique lipid stabilization system in a lightweight and fast-absorbing texture -Shortens the adjustment period to retinoids up to 1 week while reducing dryness (see Science & Proof below) -Paraben-, and dye-free -Ideal for aging, normal, and dry skin types
Shotgun lipidomics enables the detection of lipids from theoretically all kinds of substrate, provided that extraction and processing procedures are adapted, to ensure good coverage and reproducible quantification of the lipidome. The quantification of lipids from Adipose tissue (AT) is particularly challenging due to the predominance of triacylglycerides, which elicit high ion suppression of the remaining lipid classes. We generated this data by applying a new and validated method for shotgun lipidomics of AT, which tailors the lipid extraction procedure to the target specimen. In particular, we analysed three AT types (brown - BAT; gonadal - GAT; inguinal subcutaneous - SAT) from 10 lean (chow diet - CD) and 10 obese (high fat diet - HFD) mice. We observed tissue-specific and diet-related differences, with Brown AT exhibiting a distinct lipidomic profile with the greatest lipid class diversity and responding to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition, so that it becomes more similar to
This image by first author Sarah Hancock shows an iris surrounded by the lipid she and colleagues in the Blanksby and Mitchell labs characterized by mass spectronomy.Journal of Lipid Research. But water alone isnt enough to keep the eye from drying out. A microscopically thin film of oils known as the lipid layer protects the tear film from evaporating. In the August issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, a group of Australian researchers reports the structure of a key long-chain lipid in this layer. Their finding may be used to improve treatments for dry eye.. Although the long-chain lipids in question make up just 5 percent of the tear-film lipid layer, they play an important role in vision. Without them, earlier studies showed, the lipid layer would resemble an oil slick atop a puddle.. This clearly wouldnt be satisfactory for you to look through, said Stephen Blanksby, a professor at the Queensland University of Technology who led the research team in this study.. Blanksby saw the ...
The role of lipid biomarkers in assessing the risk of cancer has not been studied in detail. However, lipid metabolism has now been accepted as a major metabolic pathway involved in many aspects of cancer cell biology (9). In this context, the contribution of dietary factors, such as different types of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and added sugars may be of importance. Hence, it is likely that future therapeutic strategies for cancer will include dietary regimes. Blood lipids and lipoproteins may influence the risk of cancer through insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress (10 ...
Well I went and ordered up some blood work the other day and results began coming in today. While my past Lipid Panel was blogged right here, this is the new one. The past one shows a total serum cholesterol of almost the same (219), while I had an HDL of 106 and a calculated LDL of 104. You know what I think of calculated LDL. Well, this isnt a NMR LipoProfile or a VAP. Its the best I can get from Kaiser and it purports to be a direct measurement of LDL (though not a particle count). However, if accurate, I would expect my particle count to be 660-669 nmol/L, which would be considered optimal in terms of particle number (| 1000). Size is something we can only guess on, but my HDLs make it clear that Im pretty high in fat consumption and thats highly associated with mostly large fluffy LDL and little to no small dense LDL. Its interesting to note that if you look at Patriks NMR LipoProfile and assume my LDL Direct to be accurate (for now -- I am still going to do an NMR as well), then calculated
Description: Lipid profile as such sounds so simple but the simple measurement of lipid profile in subjects gives massive information about the progression of diseases and still many things about lipids yet to be unveiled. Daily new concepts are coined based on the ongoing researches. This book encompasses the diagnostic and prognostic importance of lipid profile assay. Here the author establishes the importance of lipid assay and it covers some of the research based on lipids in Normolipidemic AMI patients, AIDS patients and also multicenter studies. It was once believed that if one is Normolipidemic than the risk of AMI is lowered but the trends of Hyperlipidemia always associated with AMI have changed. In this book the author shares his experience working with Normolipidemic AMI patients. The research is based on stratification of risk factors in these patients, where the author approaches to elucidate the various risk factors associated with Normolipidemic AMI patients. This book would ...
Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women.Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 ± 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at various loads, 3 sessions weekly, every session lasting 45 min, combined with restricted diet (about 1200 kcal daily) for 12 weeks. The following variables were recorded: body height and mass, BMI, relative body fat content (from 7 skinfolds), fat-free mass, triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL).Results: Significant increase in HDL and significant decreases in all other variables (except body height) were noted only in the experimental group.Conclusions: Indoor cycling associated with restricted diet is an excellent option in controlling obesity and serum lipids ...
Colleagues, We are delighted to launch the new LIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway, funded by the Wellcome Trust and jointly hosted by Cardiff University, Babraham Institute and University of California San Diego (UCSD). These are exciting times as we move forward with Phase II of this global project. Our new site provides easier access to the most utilized areas: Lipid Classification System; Structure Database; and Tools. Curation has restarted, with over 500+ new lipid molecules added in the last few months with many now featured in our structure drawing tools. Back in 2016, we asked you what you would like to see on LIPID MAPS, and in response we provide new features including raw MS data deposition in collaboration with Metabolomics Workbench (which already hosts over 500 lipidomics studies), and statistical analysis tools. We include a contact form for you to get in touch with us and provide feedback. We also have a registration facility, and will be using this as a mailing list in the coming ...
These experiments were designed to study the topography of lipid deposition in the stenotic aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats, and to correlate it with flow conditions and intimal stresses and strains studied in a scale biophysical model and in a computer model. A 69% +/- 5% stenosis was produced with a U-shaped metal clip. One month to 8 months later, the aorta was studied en face by light microscopy after fixation and lipid staining. The intima in the throat of the stenosis was almost completely free of lipid, whereas symmetric lipid deposits occurred as bands just above and especially just below the stenosis; elsewhere lipid deposits appeared to be random. The flow data obtained from the scale model showed that the intima in the throat of the stenosis was subjected to an increase of as much as 20 times in shear stress, whereas the lipid deposits just above and just below the stenosis were associated with asymmetric flow conditions: the proximal area corresponded to a region of rapidly increasing
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Use the Lipid Panel with Total Cholesterol:HDL Ration to monitor your cholesterol. With Request A Test, ordering your own lab testing couldnt be easier or more convenient. Order your lab tests, give your sample, get results. Call or go online to order today.
To identify genetic variants influencing plasma lipid concentrations, we first used genotype imputation and meta-analysis to combine three genome-wide scans totaling 8,816 individuals and comprising 6,068 individuals specific to our study (1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables) and 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, reported in a companion study in this issue. We subsequently examined promising signals in 11,569 additional individuals. Overall, we identify strongly associated variants in eleven loci previously implicated in lipid metabolism (ABCA1, the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 and APOE-APOC clusters, APOB, CETP, GCKR, LDLR, LPL, LIPC, LIPG and PCSK9) and also in several newly identified loci (near MVK-MMAB and GALNT2, with variants primarily associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; near SORT1, with variants primarily associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid profiles are associated with lesion formation over 24 months in interferon-β treated patients following the first demyelinating event. AU - Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca. AU - Zivadinov, Robert. AU - Horakova, Dana. AU - Havrdova, Eva. AU - Qu, Jun. AU - Shyh, Grace. AU - Lakota, Elizabeth. AU - OConnor, Kerri. AU - Badgett, Darlene. AU - Tamaño-Blanco, Miriam. AU - Tyblova, Michaela. AU - Hussein, Sara. AU - Bergsland, Niels. AU - Willis, Laura. AU - Krasensky, Jan. AU - Vaneckova, Manuela. AU - Seidl, Zdenek. AU - Ramanathan, Murali. PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the associations of serum lipid profile with disease progression in high-risk clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) after the first demyelinating event. Methods: High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were obtained in pretreatment serum from 135 high risk patients with CIS (≥2 brain MRI lesions and ≥2 ...
Lipids[edit]. Main article: Lipid. The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for ... Lipids in food include the oils of such grains as corn, soybean, from animal fats, and are parts of many foods such as milk, ... Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some ... Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely nonpolar. Generally, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar ...
... of total free lipids), and esters. Arabica beans have a higher content of lipids (13.5 to 17.4 g lipids/100 g dried green ... Lipids[edit]. The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid ... The total content of lipids in dried green coffee is between 11.7 and 14 g/100 g.[31] Lipids are present on the surface and in ... Such compounds form a wax-like cover on the surface of the coffee bean (200 to 300 mg lipids/100 g dried green coffee bean) ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. Orexin-A (OXA) has been recently demonstrated to have a direct effect on an aspect of lipid metabolism ... OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids (triacylglycerol). OXA ... lipid accumulation and adiponectin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and isolated primary rat adipocytes". Diabetologia. 54 (7 ... The link between OXA and the lipid metabolism is new and currently under more research. ...
... which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various ... Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter, ... Lipids comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar ... Lipids are usually made from one molecule of glycerol combined with other molecules. In triglycerides, the main group of bulk ...
Lipid bilayer. Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. The yellow polar head groups ... Phospholipids forming lipid vesicles. Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22 ... Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... Lipid anchored proteins. Covalently bound to single or multiple lipid molecules; hydrophobically insert into the cell membrane ...
Lipid-lowering agents[edit]. *Simvastatin[note 72]. Dermatological medicines (topical)[edit]. Antifungal medicines[edit]. * ...
Lipid replacement therapy[edit]. Nicolson provided a sound scientific ground for and extended the medicinal values of lipid ... Nicolson, Garth L.; Ash, Michael E. (2014). "Lipid Replacement Therapy: A natural medicine approach to replacing damaged lipids ... Nicolson, GL (2005). "Lipid replacement/antioxidant therapy as an adjunct supplement to reduce the adverse effects of cancer ... The phospholids are not just stationary, but are able to move, and the proteins can move in the fluid lipid layer. These ...
... many lipid-binding proteins are cytosolic and localise to the membrane by binding only the headgroups of lipids. Perhaps the ... "Profiling membrane lipids in plant stress responses. Role of phospholipase D alpha in freezing-induced lipid changes in ... because DAG is the precursor for so many other lipids, it too is soon metabolised into other membrane lipids. This means that ... PA as a signalling lipid[edit]. As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant ...
Although lipid rescue mechanism of action is not completely understood, the added lipid in the blood stream may act as a sink, ... Home-made Lipid Rescue Kit *^ Harvey M, Cave G (February 2007). "Intralipid outperforms sodium bicarbonate in a rabbit model of ... Treatment of overdose: "Lipid rescue"[edit]. This method of toxicity treatment was invented by Dr. Guy Weinberg in 1998, and ... This theory is compatible with two studies on lipid rescue for clomipramine toxicity in rabbits[24][25] and with a clinical ...
May 2005). "A comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research. 46 (5): 839-61. doi:10.1194/jlr. ... "Lipid nomenclature Lip-1 & Lip-2". www.qmul.ac.uk. Retrieved 6 June 2020. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Gatto Jr GJ, Stryer L (8 April ... Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals. Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal ... Organic compounds (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) contain the majority of the carbon and nitrogen; most of the oxygen and ...
NADA is an endogenous arachidonic acid based lipid found in the brain of rats, with especially high concentrations in the ... Lipids. 48 (4): 383-393. doi:10.1007/s11745-013-3758-6. ISSN 1558-9307. PMID 23377981. S2CID 3995567. Shu-Jung Hu, Sherry; ... Journal of Lipid Research. 25 (3): 310-312. ISSN 0022-2275. PMID 6726084. Retrieved 2017-12-15. General information about NADA. ... "Mechanisms of HIV-1 inhibition by the lipid mediator N-arachidonoyldopamine". Journal of Immunology. 175 (6): 3990-3999. doi: ...
Sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke". Lipids. 38 (7): 773-80. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1126-5. PMID 14506841. S2CID 4026737.. ...
Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 960 (3): 417-26. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(88)90050-1. PMID 2898261. Berge RK, Thomassen MS (1985). " ... They are highly regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, which led to their involvement in lipid metabolism. ... Lipids. 19 (8): 578-582. doi:10.1007/bf02534714. PMID 6148682. S2CID 4045839. Tilton G, Shockey J, Browse J (2004). " ... "Effects of high fat diets on the activity of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase in rat liver". Lipids. 20 (1): 49-52. doi:10.1007/ ...
Non-specific lipid-transfer protein also known as sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2) or propanoyl-CoA C-acyltransferase is a ... 1999). "Lipid-binding proteins in rat and human kidney". Kidney Int. Suppl. 71: S159-62. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.07141.x. ... Lipids. 76 (1): 73-84. doi:10.1016/0009-3084(95)02436-M. PMID 7788802. Vesa J, Hellsten E, Barnoski BL, et al. (1994). " ... This gene is highly expressed in organs involved in lipid metabolism, and may play a role in Zellweger syndrome, in which cells ...
Lipids. 38 (2): 129-132. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1042-8. PMID 12733744. S2CID 4061326. Sonntag, Norman O. V. (1982). " ...
Lipids. 15 (6): 407-411. doi:10.1007/BF02534064. Ito, R; Mori, K; Hashimoto, I; Nakano, C; Sato, T; Hoshino, T (20 May 2011). " ...
Powell, William S.; Rokach, Joshua (2013). "The eosinophil chemoattractant 5-oxo-ETE and the OXE receptor". Progress in Lipid ... Lipids. 44 (2): 97-102. doi:10.1007/s11745-008-3252-8. ISSN 0024-4201. PMID 18941818. S2CID 4011759. Hammarström S (1981). " ...
Lipids. 32 (1): 79-84. doi:10.1007/s11745-997-0012-5. PMID 9075197. S2CID 4024524. Miljković, Momčilo (2009). Carbohydrates ...
A working group from the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommended 300 mg/day of DHA for ... Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong (2015). "Discovery of essential fatty acids". Journal of Lipid Research. 56 (1): 11-21. doi: ... Spector, Arthur A. (1999). "Essentiality of fatty acids". Lipids. 34: S1-S3. doi:10.1007/BF02562220. PMID 10419080. S2CID ... Progress in Lipid Research. 56: 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2014.06.002. ISSN 0163-7827. PMC 4258547. PMID 24992464. Singh, ...
Abnormal blood lipid levels, that is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density ... Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R (1997). "Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of ... Different saturated fatty acids have differing effects on various lipid levels. A meta-analysis published in 2003 found a ... Feinman RD (October 2010). "Saturated fat and health: recent advances in research". Lipids. 45 (10): 891-2. doi:10.1007/s11745- ...
Aoyama C, Liao H, Ishidate K (Mar 2004). "Structure and function of choline kinase isoforms in mammalian cells". Prog Lipid Res ... 1997). "Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes in human brain". Lipids. 32 (4): 351-8. doi:10.1007/s11745-997-0044-x. PMID 9113621. ...
Hamberg, M. (November 1998). "A pathway for biosynthesis of divinyl ether fatty acids in green leaves". Lipids. 33 (11): 1061- ... Jiang, Z. D.; Gerwick, William H. (1 March 1997). "Novel oxylipins from the temperate red alga Polyneura latissima". Lipids. 32 ... Hamberg, M. (June 2004). "Isolation and structures of two divinyl ether fatty acids from Clematis vitalba". Lipids. 39 (6): 565 ...
Lipids. 51 (4): 377-397. doi:10.1007/s11745-016-4135-z. ISSN 0024-4201. PMID 26968402. S2CID 3941392. Gong, Mengyue; Hu, Yulin ... shown that conjugated fatty acids confer physiological benefits such as the regulation of the synthesis and breakdown of lipids ...
Lipids. 43 (11): 979-87. doi:10.1007/s11745-008-3230-1. PMC 4710486. PMID 18795358. Andreou AZ, Hornung E, Kunze S, Rosahl S, ... Lipids. 44 (2): 85-95. doi:10.1007/s11745-008-3245-7. PMID 18949503. Linoleate+9S-lipoxygenase at the US National Library of ... Feussner I (March 2009). "On the substrate binding of linoleate 9-lipoxygenases". Lipids. 44 (3): 207-15. doi:10.1007/s11745- ...
Scientists have found a way to achieve substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in "E. coli", allowing for ... 3 Biosynthesis of wax esters from acyl-CoA and long-chain alcohols". Lipids. 16 (12): 897-902. doi:10.1007/BF02534995. Biology ... Jetter, R; Kunst, L (2008). "Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and ... Kalscheuer, R; Stöveken T; Luftmann H; Malkus U; Reichelt R; Steinbüchel A. (Feb 2006). "Neutral lipid biosynthesis in ...
Zdzislaw Z. E. Sikorski; Anna Kolakowska (30 July 2002). Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Lipids. CRC Press. pp. 218 ... Diglyceride Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage Lipid Triglyceride ... Lipids. 38 (2): 129-132. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1042-8. Hansen, KB; Rosenkilde, MM; Knop, FK; Wellner, N; Diep, TA; Rehfeld, JF ...
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism. Arthur G, Page L, Mock T, Choy PC (1986). "The catabolism of ... Ellingson JS; Lands WEM (1968). "Phospholipid reactivation of plasmalogen metabolism". Lipids. 3 (2): 111-120. doi:10.1007/ ...
These lipid mediators are collectively referred to as eicosanoids and are generated by distinct enzymatic systems initiated by ... "3. Eoxins". The AOCS Lipid Library. 26 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015. Recently ... Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 96 (1-4): 27-36. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.08.004. PMC 4051344. PMID 21864702. A ... Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 89 (3-4): 120-5. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.12.003. PMID 19130894. Forsell PK, ...
Euro Fed Lipid is a federation of 13 scientific associations concerned with Lipids, Fats and Oils. The federation represents ... Euro Fed Lipid e.V.. European Federation for the Science and Technology of Lipids. ... It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress (20-23 October 2019) that will take place in one of ... There are two different ways to become a member of Euro Fed Lipid, either: 1. via membership in one of the associations listed ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=lipids&oldid=50792264" ...
The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, ... services to organizations and laboratories worldwide to improve the accuracy and reliability of cholesterol and other lipid ...
Lipids in Plants. Lipids are used to create the structural membranes that all life forms are made out of. Lipids are commonly ... Plants contain lipids that are needed by animals. (Image: Dougal Waters/Digital Vision/Getty Images). The word "lipid" ... The solid form of the lipid is the fat, while the liquid form of a lipid is the oil. Most people do not think of plants as ... Lipids found in plants play an important part in market values. Vegetable oil, olive oil, canola oil and avocado oil are all ...
Lipids (fats and oils) have borne the brunt of the blame for the degenerative diseases (heart disease [1] and cancer) that are ... The negative view of lipids has obscured their essentiality for human health. ... Lipids Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Lipids. Lipids are a group of compounds that are rich in carbon- ... Lipids Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Lipids. Lipids are a class of biomolecules ...
Katan M. (2015) Inositol Lipids. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ... PTEN Gene Pleckstrin Homology Domain Messenger Molecule Polar Headgroup Inositol Lipid These keywords were added by machine and ... Among different inositol lipids, the importance in transmembrane signaling and regulation of cell functions are best documented ... There are several ways in which these low-abundance inositol lipids (less than 1 % of membrane phospholipids) could provide a ...
LIPID MAPS - Comprehensive lipid and lipid-associated gene/protein databases.. *LipidBank - Japanese database of lipids and ... Sterol lipids[edit]. Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,[43] ... Although the term "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids ... The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids ...
Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol). Both types share the defining ... characteristic of lipids-they dissolve readily in organic solvents-but in addition they both have a region that is attracted to ... This type of lipid bilayer, formed by the self-assembly of lipid molecules, is the basic structure of the cell membrane. It is ... Membrane lipids. Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol). Both types ...
Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4):590-614. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Sep 2. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these ... Lipids of mitochondria.. Horvath SE1, Daum G.. Author information. 1. Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology ... Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4):590-614. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Sep 2. ...
WRIGHT, D. Hydrogenation of Lipids by Rumen Protozoa. Nature 184, 875-876 (1959) doi:10.1038/184875a0 ...
... gb-gplus-shareBiochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings. ... Lipids_Proceedin.html?id=eLcQAQAAMAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 ReviewsWrite reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Biochemical_Problems_of_Lipids_Proceedin.html?id=eLcQAQAAMAAJ ...
Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings. Volume 1 of Biochimica et biophysica acta library. ... Interscience, 1960 - Lipids. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Biochemical_Problems_of_Lipids_Proceedin.html?id= ... Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings, Volume 7, Part 1962. Snippet view - 1963. ... Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings, Volume 2, Part 4. Snippet view - 1956. ...
Model of interaction of polar lipids, cholesterol and proteins in biological membranes. Lipids 9: 645-650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... 13C NMR studies of lipid interactions in single-and multicomponent lipid vesicles. Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 355: 1367- ... Some recent studies of lipids, lipid cholesterol and membrane systems. In: Biological Membranes. D. Chapman and D. F. H. ... Asymmetrical lipid bilayer structure for biological membranes. Nature (New Biol.) 236: 11-12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Fats, or lipids, are the third main class of the macronutrients needed in human nutrition. The lipids are found primarily in ...
Eukaryotic lipid metabolic pathway is essential for functional chloroplasts and CO2 and light responses in Arabidopsis guard ... Lipidomics reveals diurnal lipid oscillations in human skeletal muscle persisting in cellular myotubes cultured in vitro Ursula ... Argininosuccinate synthetase regulates hepatic AMPK linking protein catabolism and ureagenesis to hepatic lipid metabolism ... Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins control vacuole trafficking and developmental programs through the regulation of lipid ...
Autophagy promotes lipid hydrolysis and generation of free fatty acids by releasing the content of lipid droplets to lysosomes ... Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol. Under conditions of nutrient ... A critical role of autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism is identified, and may provide a new approach to prevent lipid ... During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for ...
In a water medium, the phospholipids of the two sheets align so that their water-repellent, lipid-soluble tails are turned and… ... Membrane lipids: …each forming half of a bilayered wall. A bilayer is composed of two sheets of phospholipid molecules with all ... Other articles where Lipid bilayer is discussed: cell: ... In lipid: Lipids in biological membranes. …a continuous ... lipid bilayer; cell membranePhospholipid molecules, like molecules of many lipids, are composed of a hydrophilic "head" and one ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute ... If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. Or the enzymes may not work properly ...
In a recent Reflections article in The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas talk about 46 years of friendship and science together.
Lipid oxidation is an important challenge for the food industry as it reduces nutritional value and generates off-flavour. ... Better understanding the mechanisms behind lipid oxidation will help developing innovative ways to prevent it. ... Lipids refers to a wide class of molecules, the main ones being fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, ... Food lipids. The term Lipids refers to a wide class of molecules, the main ones being fatty acids, glycerolipids, ...
... are molecular building blocks that form the most fundamental structures in biology, including the serum lipoproteins, ... Thousands of different lipid species are found in biological membranes, but they can be organised into a few major lipid ... Journal of Lipid Research 60: 913-918.. Yeagle PL (2014) Non‐covalent binding of membrane lipids to membrane proteins. ... Lipids regulate, often in specific ways, the functionality of biological membranes, through the properties of the lipid bilayer ...
in serum lipids, independent of weight, are associated with changes in. symptoms during long-term clozapine treatment. J ... other types of lipid might have a positive effect. The class="Z3988". title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt% ... 1) Lipids have a direct effect on symptoms. independent of clozapine.. 2) The partitioning of clozapine into the LDL and VLDL ... suggests that other lipids (but not all) might have a positive effect,. at least in the presence of an clozapine. The ...
The 15th International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Okazaki, Japan, in May 12th to 17th, 2002, at the Okazaki ... Symposium was organized by the Japanese Organizing Committee with the cooperation of the Japanese Association of Plant Lipid ... Advanced Research on Plant Lipids. Editors: Murata, N., Yamada, M., Nishida, I., Okuyama, H., Sekiya, J., Hajime, W. (Eds.) ... Modulation of Lipid Body Size and Protein Profiles in the Oleaginous Fungus by Changing Nitrogen Concentration in Culture ...
Milk Lipids - Chemical Properties. The fat content of milk is of economic importance because milk is sold on the basis of fat. ... The main milk lipids are a class called triglycerides which are comprised of a glycerol backbone binding up to three different ... Other classes of lipids include phospholipids (0.8%) which are mainly associated with the fat globule membrane, and cholesterol ... The fatty acid pattern is important when determining the physical properties of the lipids. In general, the SN1 position binds ...
Role of lipids in the body Lipids have several roles in the body, these include acting as chemical messengers, storage and ... These for membrane lipids. Membrane lipids are made of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important ... Lipids are synthesized in the body using complex biosynthetic pathways. However, there are some lipids that are considered ... Lipoproteins are complex aggregates of lipids and proteins that make travel of lipids in a watery or aqueous solution possible ...
The Chair and committee members of SCIs Lipids Group cordially invite members to their Annual General Meeting (AGM). Further ...
... Follow the conversation on Twitter: #lipids. Theme Organizers: James Ntambi, Univ. of Wisconsin, ... 5:25 A Conserved Family of Proteins Facilitates Nascent Lipid Droplet Budding from the ER. V. Choudhary, N. Ojha,A. Golden, W.A ... 10:30 243.2 Transcriptional Control of Lipid Homeostasis. P. Totonoz. UCLA.. 10:55 HPV16-E7 Oncoprotein Enhances Ceramide- ... 5:15 394.2 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by SREBPs. P. Espenshade. Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. of Med. ...
Website: Nutritional Lipids & Oils 2014 As consumer demand for functional foods and supplements containing healthy lipids and ... scientific developments and technical innovations in the nutritional lipids and oils space. ...
NMR characterisation of lipids Dr Bernd Diehl, Spectral Services, Germany. 16:05. Applications of FT-NIR in the edible oil ... Lipid Profiling Using Sub-2µm Particle CO2 Based Supercritical Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Mr Giorgis Isaac, Water ... Dr Julius Lewkowitsch award lecture: Three and Four mass spectrometers in parallel for lipid analysis - How many instruments ... Innovative chromatographic strategies for qualitative and quantitative lipid analysis Prof Frederic Lynen and Prof Pat Sandra, ...
  • This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human diseases with lipid over-accumulation such as those that comprise the metabolic syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5:15 394.2 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by SREBPs. (asbmb.org)
  • 10:15 Multifaceted Regulation of Hepatic G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 Expression and Relevance to Lipid Metabolism. (asbmb.org)
  • They are mostly transported in a protein capsule, and the density of the lipids and type of protein determines the fate of the particle and its influence on metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. Lipid metabolism in plants (K.M. Schmid, J.B. Ohlrogge). (elsevier.com)
  • 10. Adipose tissue and lipid metabolism (D.A. Bernlohr, A.E. Jenkins, A.A. Bennaars). (elsevier.com)
  • 2. Lipid metabolism in prokaryotes (C.O. Rock, S. Jackowski, J.E. Cronan, Jr.). 3. (elsevier.com)
  • 10. Adipose tissue and lipid metabolism (D.A. Bernlohr, M.A. Simpson). (elsevier.com)
  • Beta-blockers and lipid metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • Waal-Manning H J , Simpson F O . Beta-blockers and lipid metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • Delineating the role of alterations in lipid metabolism to the pathogenesis of inherited skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders: Thematic Review Series: Genetics of Human Lipid Diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Roy N. Alcalay, MD, MS, is a Stanley Fahn Junior Faculty Awardee at Columbia University Medical Center who received a Parkinson's Foundation grant to identify the parts of lipid metabolism that are most affected by Parkinson's and to find potential drug targets to correct them. (parkinson.org)
  • Dr. Alcalay's research will also analyze 600 people with Parkinson's and 400 without the disease, testing for genetic changes in 32 genes involved with lipid metabolism. (parkinson.org)
  • Although the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids are interrelated, these macronutrients differ in several important ways. (livestrong.com)
  • i.e., containing both a lipid-soluble and a water-soluble region) is basic to the role of lipids as building blocks of cellular membranes. (britannica.com)
  • Bergström, Samuelsson and others in 1964 added to the knowledge of role of lipids in the body by finding that essential fatty acid arachidonate was the biosynthetic precursor of the prostaglandins with their effects on inflammation and other diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • and the role of lipids in the regulation of membrane-dependent biological processes. (elsevier.com)
  • The Role of Lipids in Food Quality. (routledge.com)
  • Role of Lipids in Nutrition. (routledge.com)
  • The different kinds of cholesterol and other fats in your blood are together called lipids. (webmd.com)
  • The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • The LRL also provides reference measurement services to organizations and laboratories worldwide to improve the accuracy and reliability of cholesterol and other lipid measurements. (cdc.gov)
  • Nerves are protected by a sheath (myelin) that contains cholesterol, phospholipids, and other lipids.The animal organism carries a number of essential substances that catalyze chemical reactions in cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri- , di- , monoglycerides , and phospholipids ), as well as other sterol -containing metabolites such as cholesterol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol ). (britannica.com)
  • Sterol is another common alcoholic precursor to lipids, as it forms cholesterol. (reference.com)
  • Other classes of lipids include phospholipids (0.8%) which are mainly associated with the fat globule membrane, and cholesterol (0.3%) which is mostly located in the fat globule core. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Cholesterol maintains the fluidity of membranes by interacting with their complex lipid components, specifically the phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. (news-medical.net)
  • Cholesterol is one of several types of fats (lipids) that play an important role in your body. (johnmuirhealth.com)
  • Screen and treat men ≥35 years and women ≥45 years of age for lipid disorders by obtaining, at the minimum, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood lipids are mainly fatty acids [ citation needed ] and cholesterol [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • In lipid digestion , cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine , which are delivered to the Portal vein and Lymph . (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with cholesterol imbalance should be seen by lipid experts for proper assessment and treatment. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cholesterol is measured in lipid extracted via Folch extraction from tissue. (uc.edu)
  • Cholesterol is a type of lipid that does not provide calories and is not a necessary component of your diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Although both high plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether such lipid derangements are also associated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. (go.jp)
  • Lipid panels are best avoided for three months following acute myocardial infarction, although cholesterol can be measured in the first 24 hours. (labcorp.com)
  • Those whose fasting serum is lipemic should have a lipid panel, but the serum of a subject with high cholesterol (but normal triglyceride) is not milky in appearance. (labcorp.com)
  • Patients with cholesterol levels between 200−240 mg/dL plus two other coronary heart disease risk factors should also have a lipid panel. (labcorp.com)
  • Phytosterols are plant lipids that have a structure very similar to cholesterol. (gurze.com)
  • It was shown that SH is associated with elevated lipids levels, particularly LDL-cholesterol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The drug also significantly reduced most lipid and lipoprotein parameters, including triglycerides, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very LDL-C, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, apolipoprotein B, and total cholesterol, Brinton reported at the annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Co-directors of the Northwell Health Lipid Center, Dr. Benjamin Hirsh, left, and Dr. Guy Mintz discuss cholesterol issues with a patient. (newsday.com)
  • Lipids are used to create the structural membranes that all life forms are made out of. (ehow.com)
  • The functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling , and acting as structural components of cell membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles , multilamellar/ unilamellar liposomes , or membranes in an aqueous environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movement of molecules across lipid membranes: A molecular theory. (springer.com)
  • Flippases have important roles in maintaining the asymmetry of cellular membranes, i.e. in the different lipid composition of the outer and inner sides. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lipids are molecular building blocks that form the most fundamental structures in biology, including the serum lipoproteins, the membranes of cells and cellular organelles and the membranes of enveloped viruses. (els.net)
  • Many lipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers, the fundamental architectural feature of all biological membranes. (els.net)
  • A nearly uncountable catalogue of lipid molecules is found in nature, their individual structures imparting a wide variety of properties essential to the structures and functions of biological membranes and lipoproteins in all life forms. (els.net)
  • Lipids regulate, often in specific ways, the functionality of biological membranes, through the properties of the lipid bilayer and by binding to membrane proteins. (els.net)
  • Lipid bilayers provide the fundamental architecture upon which all biological membranes are built. (els.net)
  • Lipid bilayers in biological membranes are in the liquid crystal state, permitting lateral diffusion of components including proteins and lipids, and internal flexibility essential to membrane enzyme function. (els.net)
  • Lipid bilayers determine many of the properties of biological membranes including their limited permeability. (els.net)
  • Thousands of different lipid species are found in biological membranes, but they can be organised into a few major lipid classes. (els.net)
  • Vance DE and Vance J (2008) Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes, 5th edn. (els.net)
  • The human body uses lipids for a variety of applications, including as a fuel source, to construct membranes and to protect and insulate the body. (reference.com)
  • It was previously known that lipids played the role of storage of energy or forming cell membranes alone. (news-medical.net)
  • The signalling lipids, in their esterified form can infiltrate membranes and are transported to carry signals to other cells. (news-medical.net)
  • This study is the first evidence that changes in the transbilayer lipid composition induced by P4-ATPases can deform biological membranes," she says. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1. Functional roles of lipids in membranes (W. Dowhan, M. Bogdanov). (elsevier.com)
  • 17. Lipid assembly into cell membranes (D.R. Voelker). (elsevier.com)
  • It is intended as an advanced and up-to-date textbook for teachers and students who are familiar with the basic concepts of lipid biochemistry and will also serve as a general reference book for scientists studying lipids, lipoproteins and membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Physical properties and functional roles of lipids in membranes (P.R. Cullis, D.B. Fenske, M.J. Hope). (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, they used the all-atom CHARRM36 lipid force field to predict how lipids self-assemble into a bilayer membrane, using seven or eight of the main phospholipid types and two primary sterols found in soybean seedling membranes. (eurekalert.org)
  • While these simulations represent the state-of-the-art in computational modeling of complex lipid membranes, Klauda acknowledges that he would have liked to include a greater diversity of lipid types in the simulation, as plant membranes can be composed of hundreds of different lipids, but the model could only accommodate the 10 most dominant ones. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are several ways in which these low-abundance inositol lipids (less than 1 % of membrane phospholipids) could provide a signaling link or fulfill other roles in different cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • In 1947, T. P. Hilditch divided lipids into "simple lipids", with greases and waxes (true waxes, sterols, alcohols), and "complex lipids", with phospholipids and glycolipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a water medium, the phospholipids of the two sheets align so that their water-repellent, lipid-soluble tails are turned and loosely bonded to the tails of the molecules on the other sheet. (britannica.com)
  • The transport of phospholipids and lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO) is particularly difficult to achieve due to the bipolar nature of the lipid bilayer - hydrophobic interior, hydrophilic surface. (eurekalert.org)
  • Phospholipids, as well as many other lipids, spontaneously form bilayer structures in water, as governed by the hydrophobic effect. (els.net)
  • However, it has become clear that in plants, just as in mammalian and yeast cells, some minor phospholipids, e.g. phosphoinositides, are important regulators of cellular function, providing docking sites for target proteins via lipid-binding domains, and/or modulating their enzymatic activity. (uva.nl)
  • The major lipids of the body are triglycerides, which comprise a molecule of glycerol to which three fatty acids are bonded. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the term "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats , fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides . (wikipedia.org)
  • During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for energy. (nature.com)
  • Triglycerides are one of the most common types of lipid. (reference.com)
  • The main milk lipids are a class called triglycerides which are comprised of a glycerol backbone binding up to three different fatty acids. (uoguelph.ca)
  • This conference will cover the developments in the analysis and characterisation of the major components of lipids, oils and fats, such as fatty acids and triglycerides, and minor components such as sterols, and the advances in the tools used to generate and interpret whole lipid profiles e.g. lipidomics. (soci.org)
  • Triglycerides influence a critical early step in secretion of ApoB-containing lipoproteins, namely the cotranslational binding of lipids to ApoB in the ER mediated by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). (jci.org)
  • Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. (nih.gov)
  • Individual membrane lipids play specific biological roles in membrane biology by modulating membrane enzyme activity through binding to membrane proteins. (els.net)
  • These for membrane lipids. (news-medical.net)
  • Membrane lipids are made of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • Rather, they indicate that the decrease in polyunsaturated membrane lipids may initially have relatively limited effects in disrupting cellular function. (pnas.org)
  • Lipoproteins are complex aggregates of lipids and proteins that make travel of lipids in a watery or aqueous solution possible and enable their transport throughout the body. (news-medical.net)
  • Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood , and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • I would recommend this book both for students who have already taken an introductory course in biochemistry and for scientists researching lipids, lipoproteins and biomembranes. (elsevier.com)
  • To overcome the problem of insolubility, lipids are coated with water-soluble proteins to form microscopic complexes called lipoproteins. (livestrong.com)
  • Lipoproteins transport lipids via the bloodstream throughout your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Fatty acids are lipids that are comprised of long chains of methyls, according to Stars and Seas. (ehow.com)
  • For a century, chemists regarded "fats" as only simple lipids made of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides), but new forms were described later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids , or fatty acid residues when they are part of a lipid, are a diverse group of molecules synthesized by chain-elongation of an acetyl-CoA primer with malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA groups in a process called fatty acid synthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fatty acid structure is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids, and is commonly used as a building-block of more structurally complex lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these polyunsaturated fatty acids are also very sensitive to lipid oxidation, generating unpleasant off-flavours and reducing the nutritional value of these compounds. (wur.nl)
  • Lipids are polymers because they are formed by condensation reactions from fatty acid monomers and alcohols. (reference.com)
  • These are called condensation reactions because they release water, and, in the case of lipids, the water is released when the fatty acid's carboxyl group (-COOH) and the alcohol's hydroxyl group (-OH) react. (reference.com)
  • The fatty acid pattern is important when determining the physical properties of the lipids. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Longer chain fatty acids are esterified first to triacylglycerols or structural lipids. (news-medical.net)
  • Most lipids are made up of glycerol and one, two or three fatty acids. (alison.com)
  • Conversely, PERPP is suppressed by antioxidants and by saturated fatty acids, which are not susceptible to lipid peroxidation. (jci.org)
  • The lipid vitamin D is produced by sunlight and is also found in fatty fish like salmon, while the lipid-containing vitamin E is present in nuts and seeds. (reference.com)
  • Bio-surfactant containing 4-O- -D-mannopyranosylmeso-erythritol as the hydrophilic group and a fatty acid and/or an acetyl group as the hydrophobic moiety are known as mannosylerythritol lipids. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Diabetics with mixed dyslipidemia who were on statins and treated with the novel omega-3 fatty acid drug that is 96% pure eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improved their lipid profiles, without worsening glycemic control. (medpagetoday.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA -- Diabetics with mixed dyslipidemia who were on statins improved their lipid profiles, without worsening glycemic control, with a novel omega-3 fatty acid drug, according to researchers here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Lipids are fatty substances in the blood that can lead to blockages in heart arteries. (newsday.com)
  • A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. (nih.gov)
  • But when they are changed into lipids, they become carbon-based molecules. (ehow.com)
  • This type of lipid bilayer, formed by the self-assembly of lipid molecules, is the basic structure of the cell membrane . (britannica.com)
  • Phospholipid molecules, like molecules of many lipids, are composed of a hydrophilic "head" and one or more hydrophobic "tails. (britannica.com)
  • In a water medium, the molecules form a lipid bilayer, or two-layered sheet, in which the heads are turned toward the watery medium and the tails are sheltered inside, away from the water. (britannica.com)
  • Although the lipid molecules are confined to the bilayer, they are free to exhibit a variety of motional modes such as vibration, rotation, and translation. (springer.com)
  • Lipid molecules of this composition spontaneously form aggregate structures such as micelles and lipid bilayers, with their hydrophilic ends oriented toward the watery medium and their hydrophobic ends shielded from the water. (britannica.com)
  • Lipid oxidation in food is a complex process, that could lead to the formation of hundreds of different molecules. (wur.nl)
  • Lipids are the metabolic precursors of some hormones and signalling molecules in cells. (els.net)
  • Since lipids are small molecules insoluble in water, they are excellent candidates for signalling. (news-medical.net)
  • The structures responsible for presenting lipid antigens--the CD1 molecules--have been studied for some time, yet the intracellular requirements for this mode of antigen presentation have not been defined. (sciencemag.org)
  • Blood lipids (or blood fats ) are lipids in the blood , either free or bound to other molecules . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a pressing need to better understand the complex lipid bilayer that makes up this membrane, which limits the molecules that can leave or enter the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers used molecular dynamics computer simulations to simulate the structure and dynamics of the complex lipid membrane, which used Newton's equations of motion to understand how molecules move in response to forces generated by atomic interactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The application of fluorescent proteins fused to lipid-binding domains to create the so-called, lipid biosensors, sheds new light on lipid molecules in living plant cells. (uva.nl)
  • Most patients will require additional blood tests drawn prior to the visit to better define the lipid or lipoprotein disorder. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They consist of a double layer ("bilayer") of lipids that contain a hydrophilic head group and generally two long, hydrophobic tails. (eurekalert.org)
  • The 15th International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Okazaki, Japan, in May 12th to 17th, 2002, at the Okazaki Conference Center. (springer.com)
  • We acknowledge a large number of participants from Asian countries, in particular, from China, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and the Philippines, presumably because this was the fIrst time that the International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Asia. (springer.com)
  • The Symposium provided an opportunity for presentation and discussion of 68 lectures and 93 posters in 11 scientific sessions, which together covered all aspects of plant lipid researches, such as the structure, analysis, biosynthesis, regulation, physiological function, environmental aspects, and the biotechnology of plant lipids. (springer.com)
  • in contrast, it provides a wealth of new information on plant lipids on a high scientific standard. (springer.com)
  • It will greatly stimulate future research on plant lipids and metabolic pathways in plants. (springer.com)
  • The soybean model also showed that lipids with similar amounts of unsaturation tended to cluster together, behavior scientists had not previously observed for these plant lipids. (eurekalert.org)
  • 4:10 Functional Lipidomics: From Lipid Timelines to Regulation of Metabolic Networks. (asbmb.org)
  • Hold the antioxidants and improve plasma lipids? (jci.org)
  • Thus, plasma lipids might be related to bone mass and bone fragility, and might be the common factor underlying both osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. (go.jp)
  • Plants contain lipids that are needed by animals. (ehow.com)
  • What kinds of foods contain lipids? (reference.com)
  • All types of dietary fats contain lipids. (reference.com)
  • Fat-soluble vitamins that are present in foods also contain lipids. (reference.com)
  • The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. (nih.gov)
  • To our great honor and pleasure, the session of Lipid Biosynthesis was chaired by Dr. (springer.com)
  • The origin of the Bacteria and Archaea is explained by divergence of first a population of proto-bacteria and later a population of proto-archaea from the evolving pre-cells, each by the emergence of an enantio-selective lipid biosynthesis within the corresponding pre-cell subtype. (nih.gov)
  • Gaw and Shepherd have chosen topics on lipids and atherosclerosis, which are of current interest for researchers and clinicians alike. (worldcat.org)
  • 22. Lipids and atherosclerosis (I. Tabas). (elsevier.com)
  • A lipid panel can show a person's risk for developing heart disease or atherosclerosis (a hardening, narrowing, or blockage of the arteries). (kidshealth.org)
  • Fixing the lipid levels early on may lower the risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Investigation of serum lipids is indicated in those with coronary and other arterial disease, especially when it is premature, and in those with family history of atherosclerosis or of hyperlipidemia. (labcorp.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease formerly considered lipid storage disease, actually involves an ongoing inflammatory response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • See 'Society guideline links: Lipid disorders and atherosclerosis in children' and 'Society guideline links: Obesity in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • Liquichek Lipids Control is a human serum based product that provides the laboratory with two distinct analyte levels for lipids analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Euro Fed Lipid is a federation of 13 scientific associations concerned with Lipids, Fats and Oils. (eurofedlipid.org)
  • The word "lipid" encompasses both fats and oils. (ehow.com)
  • Lipids (fats and oils) have borne the brunt of the blame for the degenerative diseases ( heart disease and cancer) that are the major causes of death in the developed world. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1815, Henry Braconnot classified lipids ( graisses ) in two categories, suifs (solid greases or tallow) and huiles (fluid oils). (wikipedia.org)
  • As consumer demand for functional foods and supplements containing healthy lipids and oils continues to soar, global demand for fish oils and omega oils (omega-3, omega-6, omega-7, & omega-9) will continue to climb. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In this NutraIngredients and FoodNavigator online event, we bring you the latest consumer and market insights, scientific developments and technical innovations in the nutritional lipids and oils space. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Internationally recognised experts will present information on the techniques used to analyse components that are of interest to the lipids, oils & fats industry, food manufacturers & producers and researchers in this field. (soci.org)
  • This event is aimed at anyone working with oils, fats and lipids including processors, manufacturers, food companies and researchers and will be of particular interest to those involved in the analysis of lipids for QC, regulatory, research and investigative / consultancy purposes. (soci.org)
  • Lipids (fats and oils) often have a direct effect on human health. (massgeneral.org)
  • 37 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 36 , wherein the vegetable-base raw materials are selected from the group consisting of vegetable oils, hydrated vegetable oils, vegetable waxes and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 38 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of mango seed oil, meadowfoam seed oil, macadamia nut oil, shea butter, jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 39 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the hydrogenated vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of hydrogenated cottonseed oil, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated coco-glycerides, hydrogenated jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 41 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the content of vegetable oils is in a range of between 1 and 65% by weight with respect to the total weight of the preparation. (google.ca)
  • 44 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the content of vegetable oils is in a range of between 5 and 45% by weight with respect to the total weight of the preparation. (google.ca)
  • ATP10A flips the lipid phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner layer of the cell membrane, causing a small change in its curvature. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, there is some energy left over that is stored initially as carbohydrates, according to Cyber Lipid. (ehow.com)
  • Like lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids are linked together through condensation reactions and broken apart through hydrolysis (water-absorbing) reactions, making them polymers as well. (reference.com)
  • Like carbohydrates, lipids are energy-rich. (alison.com)
  • Macronutrients are substances your body needs in large amounts, including carbohydrates, lipids and protein. (livestrong.com)
  • Carbohydrates and lipids, or fats, serve as the primary fuels and energy storage chemicals of your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Many foods contain both carbohydrates and lipids. (livestrong.com)
  • Lipids provide more than twice the number of calories of carbohydrates, yielding 9 calories of energy per gram. (livestrong.com)
  • The digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and lipids occur via different mechanisms. (livestrong.com)
  • However, an increase in muscle insulin resistance, caused by obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome, will result in an excess accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unsaturation in the hydrocarbon chains of lipid bilayers supports the liquid crystal state of bilayers in biology, essential to the proper functioning of membrane enzymes. (els.net)
  • Diagram showing the stalk structure, which is thought to form the intermediate in a fusion event between two lipid bilayers. (els.net)
  • Lipid bilayers are some of the most fascinating self-assembled structure in living nature. (scirp.org)
  • I. McCabe and M. Forstner, "Polymer Supported Lipid Bilayers," Open Journal of Biophysics , Vol. 3 No. 1A, 2013, pp. 59-69. (scirp.org)
  • A. van Oudenaarden and S. G. Boxer, "Brownian Ratchets: Molecular Separations in Lipid Bilayers Supported on Patterned Arrays," Science, Vol. 285, No. 5430, 1999, pp. 1046-1048. (scirp.org)
  • The lipid bilayer structure. (els.net)
  • Effects of starvation, HFD feeding and a hepatocyte-specific blockage of autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. (nature.com)
  • A new study has shown that this stimulation is promoted by pro-oxidant conditions that result in increased hepatic lipid hydroperoxide content. (jci.org)
  • A few species of plants, such as desert shrubs, use liquid wax as fats, according to Cyber Lipid. (ehow.com)
  • The new Lipidyzer™ Platform enables you to rapidly and accurately differentiate and quantitate over a thousand lipid species, and translates your data into knowledge with ease and efficiency. (news-medical.net)
  • 9. Ether-linked lipids and their bioactive species (F. Snyder, Ten-ching Lee, R.L. Wykle). (elsevier.com)
  • Polyprenyl-phosphates were identified in the lipid extracts of all three species. (wur.nl)
  • In contrast, sterols have a complex hydrocarbon ring structure as the lipid-soluble region and a hydroxyl grouping as the water-soluble region. (britannica.com)
  • Saturated, trans and unsaturated fats are all types of lipids, but unsaturated fats are healthier choices. (livestrong.com)
  • The book is not a collection of exhaustive reviews, but a current and readable summary of diverse aspects of lipids. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemistry and Physics of Lipids publishes research papers and review articles on chemical and physical aspects of lipids with primary emphasis on the relationship of these properties to biological functions and to biomedical applications . (elsevier.com)
  • Originally titled Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Lipids , this edition adds Biological to the title to reflect a far greater emphasis on the biological aspects of lipids. (routledge.com)
  • In biology and biochemistry , a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Laboratory for Lipid Medicine & Technology is dedicated to generating knowledge on the roles of lipids in human biology and their impact on human health, as well as developing novel medicine and technologies. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology (LLMT), under the direction of Jing X. Kang, MD, PhD, studies lipid biology and nutrition and develops technologies and products for the prevention and treatment of fat-related diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1861 (2016)9. (wur.nl)
  • The phospholipid bilayer is composed of many different lipids. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By measuring the radioactive isotope carbon-14, scientists at Karolinska Institutet have revealed an association between lipid cell dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes and blood lipid disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Aegerion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., an emerging biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel therapeutics to treat severe lipid disorders, announced its financial results and business highlights for the third quarter ended September 30, 2010. (news-medical.net)
  • Refugees should be screened for cardiovascular and lipid disorders in accordance with the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines ( Table 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines for routine medical screening for lipid disorders, hypertension, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. (cdc.gov)
  • Our lipid clinic is dedicated to caring for individuals with complex and difficult to treat lipid disorders to prevent the occurrence of heart disease, stroke, vascular disease, or non-cardiovascular disorders such as pancreatitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This lipid could serve as a way to diagnose people who are at risk of developing neurological disorders after a blast, the scientists say. (slashdot.org)
  • 2007) Structures and physiological roles of 13 integral lipids of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase. (els.net)
  • Lipids have several roles in the body, these include acting as chemical messengers, storage and provision of energy and so forth. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it has now become clear that there is a intimate two-way interplay between the lipid and the protein components in determining membrane structure, organization and dynamics, and that lipids play many active roles in biological function. (rsc.org)
  • This Faraday Discussion considered recent developments in the study of biomembrane structure, ordering and dynamics, with particular emphasis on the roles of lipids in these phenomena. (rsc.org)
  • Hydrocarbons and lipids comprise extremely diverse organic compounds that play fundamental roles in biosphere and geosphere. (springer.com)
  • Your body uses lipids, or fats, for insulation, to cushion organs and as a source of stored energy. (livestrong.com)
  • The role of GBA in cells is to break down complex lipids in the cell's "recycling bin," the lysosome. (parkinson.org)
  • If a problem exists, it is one of quantity, in general, and specific lipids in particular. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These enzymes flip specific lipids between the inner and outer layers of the membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is why flippases are required to transport lipids from one side of the membrane to the other, essentially flipping their orientation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among different inositol lipids, the importance in transmembrane signaling and regulation of cell functions are best documented for PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. (springer.com)
  • Balla T (2013) Phosphoinositides: tiny lipids with giant impact on cell regulation. (springer.com)
  • Researchers have found that lipids have a much more diverse and widespread biological role in the body in terms of intracellular signalling or local hormonal regulation etc. (news-medical.net)
  • 4:35 394.3 Dynamic Regulation of the Signaling Lipid Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate. (asbmb.org)
  • 5:40 394.1 Regulation of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase in Lipid Synthesis. (asbmb.org)
  • Aqueous systems of sphingomyelin-sulfatide and lecithin-sulfatide were compared with aqueous systems of the individual lipids. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aim of this theme is to (i) set up analytical tools for characterization and quantification of lipid oxidation products (radicals, hydroperoxides, oxylipins, volatiles), (ii) monitor lipid oxidation in various types of food or food ingredients during storage and processing, (iii) understand the interaction with other food components, such as metals, proteins, and antioxidants, (iv) develop innovative and consumer-friendly methods to control lipid oxidation in food. (wur.nl)
  • Here we show a previously unknown function for autophagy in regulating intracellular lipid stores (macrolipophagy). (nature.com)
  • Flippases are also essential for transporting lipid-linked oligosaccharides ("LLOs"), which are transferred onto acceptor proteins during N-linked protein glycosylation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dowhan W and Bogdanov M (2012) Lipid‐assisted membrane protein folding and topogenesis. (els.net)
  • NK-T cells are a small and unusual class of T cells that recognize lipid, rather than protein-derived antigen. (sciencemag.org)
  • report that as for protein antigen, intracellular processing may be an obligate part of presentation of lipids to T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The VP40 protein, encoded by one of Ebola's seven genes, has a region that is crucial for binding to the human lipid, phosphatidylserine. (newswise.com)
  • VP40 forms the virus's matrix layer, a layer of protein beneath the lipid envelope. (newswise.com)
  • Stahelin found that a part of the VP40 protein, which is made inside the host cell during infection, is important for binding to one human lipid in particular, known as phosphatidylserine or simply "PS. (newswise.com)
  • It used to be thought that the lipid component played a mainly passive role, simply acting as a self-assembled bilayer matrix within which the active protein components functioned. (rsc.org)
  • M. B. Forstner, C. K. Yee, A. N. Parikh and J. T. Groves, "Lipid Lateral Mobility and Membrane Phase Structure Modulation by Protein Binding," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 128, No. 47, 2006, pp. 15221-15227. (scirp.org)
  • Lipid-Protein and Lipid-Saccharide Interaction. (routledge.com)
  • It is known that when one type of BAR-domain, called N-BAR, is recruited to the cell membrane, it penetrates the cell's lipid bilayer, inducing the formation of a small inward curvature. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lipids act as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and therefore assist with the digestion, absorption and transport of the fat-soluble vitamins. (sun.ac.za)
  • This procedure enables the study of the intestinal digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of dietary lipid in the conscious mouse. (uc.edu)
  • Thus one can obtain a considerable amount of information regarding the digestion, uptake and mucosal esterification and the lymphatic transport of lipids. (uc.edu)
  • The Symposium was organized by the Japanese Organizing Committee with the cooperation of the Japanese Association of Plant Lipid Researchers. (springer.com)
  • Avanti's clients include Pharmaceutical Industries, Nutraceutical Industries and Lipid Researchers. (terrapinn.com)
  • Other expert opinions and researchers argue the exact opposite: that accumulation of intramyocellular lipids would, in fact, be the cause of the insulin resistance that leads to type II diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor blocker tocilizumab (Actemra) experienced the expected increases in lipids, but also had favorable alterations in certain types of lipid particles and other biomarkers that have been linked with vascular disease, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Alternatively, other biological variables that are often associated with weight gain, such as serum lipids, may assist in explaining this observation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in serum lipids is associated with improvement in schizophrenia symptoms during steady state treatment with clozapine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • For the primary analyses, we used multiple regression to examine the association between serum lipid concentrations and PANSS scores, after controlling for weight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The analyses showed that the change in serum lipid concentration predicted change in symptoms over that of change in weight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Elevation of serum lipids is associated with an improvement in schizophrenia symptoms in subjects treated with clozapine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Although the mechanism is unclear, serum lipids may play a role in influencing clozapine's therapeutic activity. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 1 Although blood pressure and nonfasting serum lipid testing can be performed at the new-arrival medical screening examination, other screening tests recommended by the USPSTF may not be conducted at this visit but should be done in a reasonable time frame after arrival. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum lipid factors have not been demonstrated to have a strong influence on recurrent stenosis following coronary angioplasty, the pathogenesis of which is presently not well understood. (labcorp.com)
  • Lipids are greasy, water-insoluble organic compounds that are primary building blocks of animal cells. (reference.com)
  • These tails are repelled by water and dissolve readily in organic solvents, giving the molecule its lipid character. (britannica.com)
  • This process involved the removal of a terminal sugar group by the enzyme α-galactosidase, thus permitting the association of the modified lipid with the presenting molecule CD1d. (sciencemag.org)
  • The acid capacity of the mixed lipids increased, a result of the formation of an ionic bond between the sulfate of one molecule and the positive nitrogen of the other, making the phosphate available for direct titration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipid droplets and autophagic components associated during nutrient deprivation, and inhibition of autophagy in cultured hepatocytes and mouse liver increased triglyceride storage in lipid droplets. (nature.com)
  • Martin, S. & Parton, R. G. Lipid droplets: a unified view of a dynamic organelle. (nature.com)
  • Bile breaks down large lipid globules into microscopic droplets, which are subsequently digested by enzymes from your pancreas. (livestrong.com)
  • Intramyocellular lipids are fats stored in droplets in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are a group of substances of diverse structures that share the common trait of being soluble in solvents such as ether or benzene. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Structures of some common lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids in Food Structures. (routledge.com)
  • The (open-access) article, and a later column in the same journal, refer to the finding that higher blood lipid levels seem to correspond to greater clinical response to the medication. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Based on years of academic and industrial research by an international panel of experts, Chemical, Biological, and Functional Properties of Food Lipids, Second Edition provides a concise, yet well-documented presentation of the current state of knowledge on lipids. (routledge.com)
  • Chemical, Biological, and Functional Properties of Food Lipids, Second Edition is an ideal reference for both professional and aspiring food scientists in both industry and academia. (routledge.com)
  • Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. (nih.gov)
  • 2005) Structural basis for lipid‐mediated interactions between mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier monomers. (els.net)
  • Side-effects are infrequent and usually mild, but widespread use of lipid-modifying medication demands caution because of the possibility of muscle or liver dysfunction or drug interactions. (nih.gov)
  • This Persistence Market Research (PMR) report examines the mannosylerythritol Lipids market for the forecast period 2016 - 2022. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In addition, special lectures were given by two outstanding scientists from animal lipid fields, Professor James Ntambi from University of Wisconsin, USA, and Dr. Masahiro Nishijima from the National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Japan. (springer.com)
  • We saw this for antihypertensives and aspirin, and for the lipid-lowering drugs for coronary heart disease events. (medscape.com)
  • 1 In addition to application in screening programs for evaluation of risk factors for coronary arterial disease, lipid profiling may lead to detection of some cases of hypothyroidism. (labcorp.com)
  • Multiple regression analysis was performed between BMD at each skeletal site versus each lipid level adjusted for age, years after menopause, body mass index (BMI), and %fat. (go.jp)