A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Glucose in blood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Relating to the size of solids.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
Abstaining from all food.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/15793)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (2/15793)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (3/15793)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (4/15793)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (5/15793)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov. (6/15793)

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

Reclassification of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans as Methanofollis tationis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov. and description of a new strain of Methanofollis liminatans. (7/15793)

Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of Methanogenium tationis DSM 2702T (OCM 43T) (T = type strain) and Methanogenium liminatans GKZPZT (= DSM 4140T) as well as other members of the family Methanomicrobiaceae revealed that both species belong to a separate line of descent within this family. In addition, a new strain of Methanogenium liminatans, strain BM1 (= DSM 10196), was isolated from a butyrate-degrading, fluidized bed reactor and characterized. Cells of both species are mesophilic, highly irregular cocci that use H2/CO2 and formate for growth and methanogenesis. In addition, Methanogenium liminatans strains GKZPZT and BM1 used 2-propanol/CO2, 2-butanol/CO2 and cyclopentanol/CO2. Both species contained diether and tetraether lipids. The polar lipids comprised amino-phosphopentanetetrol derivatives, which appear to be characteristic lipids within the family Methanomicrobiaceae. The pattern of glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids and amino-phosphoglycolipids was consistent with the assignment of these two species to a taxon within the family Methanomicrobiaceae, but also permitted them to be distinguished from other higher taxa within this family. The G+C contents of the DNA of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans were 54 and 60 mol% (Tm and HPLC), respectively. On the basis of the data presented, the transfer of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans to the genus Methanofollis gen. nov. as Methanofollis tationis comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov., respectively, is proposed, with Methanofollis tationis as the type species.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (8/15793)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

The authors evaluated the contributions of nine genetic (G) variants (selected from 275 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes), five environmental (E) factors (selected from 10), and G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions in explaining population variance of blood lipid concentrations. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio were calculated in a population-based random sample of 1,543 men and women in Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35-74 years in 1999-2001. Explained variances (R2) for HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, were 34%, 33%, and 19%, decomposed into main effects of G (6%, 4%, and 5%) and E (25%, 28%, and 11%), with just 3%, 2%, and 3% due to G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions, respectively. Risk factor clustering was only moderate: 70% of study ...
Supplements of a highly purified lipase were given with fat test meals to human subjects and dogs in order to determine the effect on blood lipid levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested. The total esterified fatty acid and triglyceride determinations confirmed this measurement of the decrease acid and triglyceride determinations confirmed this measurement of the decrease in blood lipid levels. Human subjects with lowered fasting O.D. values and E.F.A. appeared to require more lipase to obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase for over a four week test period. In all human subjects, the serum lipase values were elevated when the blood lipid levels were lowered. The association of elevated blood lipase levels with decreased blood lipids suggest the possibility of a lipolytic action in the
Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is a convenient way to collect blood samples with several advantages over conventional blood collection methods. DBS has gained popularity in fields such as newborn screening, preclinical studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring [2, 4, 7, 8]. DBS coupled with LC-MS/MS system provides the capacity to analyze samples in a high throughput manner once coupled to robust analytical methods. Lipidomics analysis of whole blood, which is comprised of thousands of diverse lipid molecular species, is directly linked to an individuals physiological, nutritional and health status [14, 35]. In this study, we combined DBS collection with high-resolution MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics analysis to analyze the blood lipidome. We demonstrate in one DBS spot, several lipid classes and more than 1,200 lipid species were identified and quantified.. Direct infusion-based MS shotgun lipidomics provides comprehensive profiling and quantitation of lipid species from organic extracts of ...
Background: Previous data on the possible effects of age and gender on serum lipids profile of elderly people showed considerable debates. Aim: to eva..
Lipidomics is the comprehensive analysis of molecular lipid species, including their quantitation and metabolic pathways. The huge diversity of native lipids and their modifications make lipidomic analyses challenging. The method of choice for sensitive detection and quantitation of molecular lipid species is mass spectrometry, either by direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) or coupled with liquid chromatography. Although shotgun lipidomics allows for high-throughput analysis, low-abundant lipid species are not detected. Previous separation of lipid species by liquid chromatography increases ionization efficiency and is better suited for quantifying low abundant and isomeric lipid species. In this review, we will discuss the potential of lipidomics for cardiovascular research. To date, cardiovascular research predominantly focuses on the role of lipid classes rather than molecular entities. An in-depth knowledge about the molecular lipid species that contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular
Background Lipids have critical functions in cellular energy storage, structure and signaling. Many individual lipid molecules have been associated with the evolution of prostate cancer; however, none of them has been approved to be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study is to identify lipid molecules from hundreds plasma apparent lipid species as biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using lipidomics, lipid profiling of 390 individual apparent lipid species was performed on 141 plasma samples from 105 patients with prostate cancer and 36 male controls. High throughput data generated from lipidomics were analyzed using bioinformatic and statistical methods. From 390 apparent lipid species, 35 species were demonstrated to have potential in differentiation of prostate cancer. Within the 35 species, 12 were identified as individual plasma lipid biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer with a sensitivity above 80%, specificity above 50% and accuracy above 80%.
Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases. Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). The lipid profile typically includes: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Triglycerides Total cholesterol Using these values, a laboratory may also calculate: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio Serum triglycerides serum Phospholipids Electrophoretic fractionation to determination percentage of (a) ...
Background: Cross-sectional genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with blood lipids and related cardiovascular traits, but few genetic association studies have focused on long-term changes in blood lipids.. Methods: Participants from the GLACIER Study (N-max = 3492) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array, from which 29 387 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms;replication, fine-mapping regions and wildcard SNPs for lipid traits) were extracted for association tests with 10-year change in total cholesterol (Delta TC) and triglycerides (Delta TG). Four additional prospective cohort studies (MDC, PIVUS, ULSAM, MRC Ely; N-max = 8263 participants) were used for replication. We conducted an in silico look-up for association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) Consortium (N similar to 190 000) and functional annotation for the top ranking variants.. Results: In total, 956 ...
This report presents an analysis of data resulting from a lipidomics experiment. The experiment sought to determine the changes in the lipidome of big bluestem prairie grass when exposed to stressors. The two stressors were drought (versus a watered condition) and a rust infection (versus no infection), and were whole plot treatments arranged in a 2 by 2 factorial. A split plot treatment factor was the position on a sampled leaf (top half versus bottom half). In addition, samples were analyzed at different times, representing a blocking factor. A total of 110 samples were used and, for each sample, concentrations of 137 lipids were obtained. Many lipids were not detected for certain samples and, in some cases, a lipid was not detected in most samples. Thus, each lipid was analyzed separately using a modeling strategy that involved a combination of mixed effects linear models and a categorical analysis technique, with the latter used for certain lipids to determine if a pattern of observed zeros ...
Background: Inactivity is a leading contributor to chronic health problems. Physical activity (PA) is an important element in maintaining the health and functional ability in the population and has favorable effects on lipid profile in adults. Here, we examined the effects of pedometer-based PA (step/day ) in healthy middle age men. Methods: ...
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.21, 0 mmol/l), whereas the whey protein had no effects on circulating TC (-0.11 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.05 mmol/l), LDL-C (-0.08 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.23, 0.07 mmol/l) and HDL-C (0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05 mmol/l). Subgroup analysis showed that significant TG reduction disappeared in participants with low body mass index, low supplemental whey dose or under exercise ...
Background and Aim: Hyperlipidemia, particularly hypercholesterolemia, is one of the major risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. Egg yolk is one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol in human nutrition. Because egg yolk has relative high cholesterol, we wish to investigate the effect of consuming regular eggs on serum lipid ...
Advances in single cell genomics and transcriptomics have shown that at tissue level there is complex cellular heterogeneity. To understand the effect of this inter-cell heterogeneity on metabolism, it is essential to develop a single cell lipid profiling approach that allows the measurement of lipids in large numbers of single cells from a population. This will provide a functional readout of cell activity and membrane structure. Using liquid extraction surface analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry we have developed a high-throughput method for untargeted single cell lipid profiling. This technological advance highlighted the importance of cellular heterogeneity in the functional metabolism of individual human dopamine neurons, suggesting that A53T alpha-synuclein (SNCA) mutant neurons have impaired membrane function. These results demonstrate that this single cell lipid profiling platform can provide robust data that will expand the frontiers in biomedical research.. ...
The health condition of the man largely depends on excessive energy intake from fat provided by the consumption of meat. Investigation is done of the impact of the consumption of meat on lipid status in humans. Examine covers a group of 236 respondents of which 108 were men and 128 were women and divided into 4 groups according to gender and age. Since blood parameters analysis are examined the lipid status, total cholesterol (HOL), high density lipid (HDL), low density lipid (LDL), and triacilgliceridi (TG). Concentrations of HOL levels in male who consume a small amount of meat (once a week for 200 grams), irrespective of age and sex on average is 5.406 mmol / l, and also the same conditions females were 5.405 mmol / l. Males HDL = 1,26 mmol / l, while in women, HDL = 1,52 mmol / l in men LDL = 3 36 mmol / l, and in women LDL = 3 36 mmol / l. HOL concentration in subjects who regularly consume adequate meals containing meat (about 200grams per day) regardless of age and sex on average for men ...
Lipidomics is a lipid-targeted metabolomics approach aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in biological systems. Recently, lipid profiling, or so-called lipidomics research, has captured increased attention due to the well-recognized roles of lipids in numerous human diseases to which lipid-associated disorders contribute, such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Investigating lipid biochemistry using a lipidomics approach will not only provide insights into the specific roles of lipid molecular species in health and disease, but will also assist in identifying potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic approaches for human health. Recent technological advancements in mass spectrometry and rapid improvements in chromatographic techniques have led to the rapid expansion of the lipidomics research held. In this review, emphasis is given to the recent advances in lipidomics technologies and their applications in disease biomarker discovery. (C) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin-induced de novo lipid synthesis occurs mainly via mTOR-dependent regulation of proteostasis of SREBP-1c. AU - Dong, Qingming. AU - Majumdar, Gipsy. AU - OMeally, Robert N.. AU - Cole, Robert N.. AU - Elam, Marshall B.. AU - Raghow, Rajendra. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Insulin stimulates de novo lipid synthesis in the liver and in cultured hepatocytes via its ability to activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Although PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-p70S6K-signaling kinases are known to drive feed-forward expression of SREBP-1c, the identity of the phosphorylated amino acid residue(s) putatively involved in insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis remains elusive. We obtained in silico and mass spectrometry evidence, that was combined with siRNA strategies, to discover that insulin-induced phosphorylation of serine 418, serine 419, and serine 422 in rat SREBP-1c was most likely mediated by p70S6 kinase. Here, for the first time, we show that ...
Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism for this risk remains unclear. Complicating this association, reducing serum homocysteine (Hcy) has not been shown to decrease cardiovascular disease events in randomized controlled trials. This study aims to examine the relationship between Hcy and several lipid measures.. Methods: Our analyses included a subset of 18,297 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids, who had an extended lipid panel by density gradient ultracentrifugation, which included direct measurement of triglycerides (TG), and the cholesterol concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: IDL-C + VLDL3-C). Additional measurements were levels of Hcy, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Subjects were categorized into Hcy quartiles. Linear ...
This is calculation with bound lipids. Acyl chains of two lipids were modelled. Calculated hydrocarbon boundary of the lipid bilayer corresponds to the carbonyl groups of the bound lipid. Depending on conformations of bound lipids, the protein can penetrate deeper by ~2 A. Results for the dimer without bound lipids are exactly the same as for lipid-free EEA1 monomer (1hyi). Transfer energy was calculated without contribution from the bound lipid ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of energy-overload metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who bump into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Effect of Ledebouriella seseloides Extracts on Lipid Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats - ALP;collagen;Ledebouriella seseloides;lipid parameters;ovariectomized rats;
Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid ...
article{bcb56acf-af8b-4795-9113-593c8f47c227, abstract = {Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P<5 x 10(-8)), with 59 showing genome-wide significant association with lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits in three non-European populations (East ...
The study of lipid transfer between lipid membranes is of great interest for the fundamental understanding of this complex and important process and, furthermore, for providing a new avenue for the in situ modification of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). SLBs are conveniently formed by vesicle spreading onto a solid support, but this method is limited to conditions (i.e., combination of vesicle lipid composition, surface chemical properties, and buffer) such that the vesicles break spontaneously upon adsorption to the surface. Many SLB compositions are not accessible by this approach. In the present study, we give an example of how lipid transfer can be made use of to form lipid layers with striking new features, notably with respect to stability. After lipid transfer between negatively charged POPS small unilamellar vesicles and a positively charged POEPC SLB on TiO2, an SLB is obtained, which, upon exposure to SDS, leaves behind a lipid monolayer. It is shown how this monolayer can be used for
We found that in youth with type 1 diabetes and relatively short disease duration (mean 4.2 years) mean lipid levels and prevalence of lipid abnormalities are substantially influenced by glycemic control. Youth with type 1 diabetes and optimal A1C levels have lipid profiles that are similar (total and LDL cholesterol) or even less atherogenic (HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and triglyceride-to-HDL ratio) than those observed in nondiabetic youth. In contrast, youth with type 1 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control have higher standard lipid levels and prevalence of lipid abnormalities (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol) than nondiabetic youth. Moreover, youth with type 1 diabetes have significantly elevated apoB levels and more small, dense LDL particles than nondiabetic youth, regardless of glycemic control. We also found that the most frequent lipid abnormalities in youth with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic control subjects are elevated apoB levels and an ...
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating level …
The effects of elevated blood lipid concentrations on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are reviewed, with particular emphasis on how high fat diets and antihypertensive drugs can influence the...
Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. As a population ages, chronic conditions associated with aging such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders take increasing tolls in terms of morbidity and mortality. Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimers, cancer, and asthma. Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is ...
For the 6th Edition of this highly regarded textbook devoted to lipids, the title has been modified from Lipid Biochemistry to Lipids to acknowledge the coming together of biological and medical sciences, the increasingly blurred boundaries between them and the growing importance of lipids in diverse aspects of science and technology. The principal aims of this new edition - to inform students and researchers about lipids, to assist teachers and encourage further research - have not changed since previous editions.. Significant advances in lipid science have demanded yet another extensive rewriting for this edition, with the addition of two new authors, to cover new knowledge of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, the many lipids involved in cell signalling, the roles of lipids in health and disease and new developments in biotechnology in support of agriculture and industry.. An introductory chapter summarizes the types of lipids covered and their identification and provides ...
Aim: To investigate relationship between serum TSH and lipid parameters in subjects with different levels of TSH. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Biochemistry Department of Kasturba Medical College, Hospital Mangalore, between January 2014 to June 2014. Methodology: 348 subjects were screened of which 194 were selected. Lipid parameters, TSH, T3, T4 and glycemic status were determined. Association between TSH and serum lipids were studied by categorizing subjects into three groups based on their thyroid status. Group 1 [TSH= 0.27-2.5 mIU/L], Group 2 [TSH= 2.6-4.12 mIU/L] and Group 3 [TSH= 4.13-9.9mIU/L].Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukeys multiple comparison test. The relationships between TSH and different parameters were evaluated by Pearsons correlation analysis. Results: TSH showed a significant positive linear correlation with total cholesterol (r=0.288; P = 0.001), Triglycerides (r=0.129; P=0.016), LDL cholesterol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. AU - Boonyasopun, Umaporn. AU - Aree, Patcharaporn. AU - Avant, Kay C.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. Fifty-six experimental subjects received the program; 48 control subjects maintained their habitual lifestyle. The statistical methods used were the t-test, Z-test, and χ2/Fishers exact test. After the program, the consumption of high saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugar diets was significantly lower for the experimental group than for the control group. The percentage change of the serum total cholesterol of the experimental subjects was significantly higher than that of the control subjects. The number of experimental subjects that changed from ...
They include low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglycerides. 22-8). Dietary lipids and metabolic syndrome MS, also known as syndrome X, or the insulin resistance syndrome, is a combination of medical disorders comprising an array of metabolic risk factors including central obesity, Plasma lipids are usually measured after a 12-hour fast due to postprandial fluctuations of triglycerides. Exclusion of secondary causes of lipid disorders (see earlier discussion) is important. Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes.In animals, these fats are obtained from food or are synthesized by the liver. 2 Lipid digestion Micelle structure. Xanthelasmas are often treated with topical trichloroacetic acid, electrodesiccation, laser therapy, and excision, but recurrences may occur. ...
A lipid panel is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might feel faint or lightheaded from the test. A few kids and teens have a strong fear of needles. If your child is anxious, talk with the doctor before the test about ways to make the procedure easier.. A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care for your child if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer. If you have questions about the lipid panel, speak with your doctor or the health professional doing the blood draw.. Back To Top. ...
Awhile ago, TheFatNurse noticed something strange while reviewing some Lipid panels. Normally, when you receive a lab result, a reference range is given and any numbers above or below the reference range is flagged. What was strange about some of these lipid panels was the lack of flags for patient numbers that were clearly in…
Lipids constitute a significant group of biological metabolites and the building blocks of all cell membranes. The abundance and stoichiometries of different lipid species are known to vary across the lifespan and metabolic state, yet the functional effects of these changes have been challenging to understand. Here we review the potentially powerful intersection of lipid metabolism, which determines membrane composition, and aging. We first introduce several key lipid classes that are associated with aging and aging-related disease, where they are found in organisms, and how they act on membrane structure and function. Instead of neutral lipids, which have primary roles in energy storage and homeostasis, we review known functions for polar lipids that control the physicochemical properties of cell membranes. We then focus on aging processes in the central nervous system (CNS), which is enriched in lipids and is highly dependent on membrane structure for function. Recent studies show how lipids act not
Lipids and Lipid-like Molecules are a superclass of organic compounds, including fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds
Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S. Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Triple Lipid Restore 2:4:2 is an anti-aging cream that contains the optimal and patented lipid ratio of 2% pure ceramides 1 and 3, 4% natural cholesterol, and 2% fatty acids, which is proven to nourish skin and correct signs of aging. This unique lipid correction cream contains the first 2:4:2 cholesterol-dominant ratio to help restore skins external barrier and support natural self-repair, while potently nourishing aging skin for improvement in the visible appearance of skin smoothness, laxity, pores, and overall radiance. -Restores essential skin lipids: ceramides, natural cholesterol, and fatty acids -Improves the look of skin fullness, texture, and pore appearance -Improves the appearance of skin evenness and overall radiance -Unique lipid stabilization system in a lightweight and fast-absorbing texture -Shortens the adjustment period to retinoids up to 1 week while reducing dryness (see Science & Proof below) -Paraben-, and dye-free -Ideal for aging, normal, and dry skin types
Shotgun lipidomics enables the detection of lipids from theoretically all kinds of substrate, provided that extraction and processing procedures are adapted, to ensure good coverage and reproducible quantification of the lipidome. The quantification of lipids from Adipose tissue (AT) is particularly challenging due to the predominance of triacylglycerides, which elicit high ion suppression of the remaining lipid classes. We generated this data by applying a new and validated method for shotgun lipidomics of AT, which tailors the lipid extraction procedure to the target specimen. In particular, we analysed three AT types (brown - BAT; gonadal - GAT; inguinal subcutaneous - SAT) from 10 lean (chow diet - CD) and 10 obese (high fat diet - HFD) mice. We observed tissue-specific and diet-related differences, with Brown AT exhibiting a distinct lipidomic profile with the greatest lipid class diversity and responding to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition, so that it becomes more similar to
This image by first author Sarah Hancock shows an iris surrounded by the lipid she and colleagues in the Blanksby and Mitchell labs characterized by mass spectronomy.Journal of Lipid Research. But water alone isnt enough to keep the eye from drying out. A microscopically thin film of oils known as the lipid layer protects the tear film from evaporating. In the August issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, a group of Australian researchers reports the structure of a key long-chain lipid in this layer. Their finding may be used to improve treatments for dry eye.. Although the long-chain lipids in question make up just 5 percent of the tear-film lipid layer, they play an important role in vision. Without them, earlier studies showed, the lipid layer would resemble an oil slick atop a puddle.. This clearly wouldnt be satisfactory for you to look through, said Stephen Blanksby, a professor at the Queensland University of Technology who led the research team in this study.. Blanksby saw the ...
The role of lipid biomarkers in assessing the risk of cancer has not been studied in detail. However, lipid metabolism has now been accepted as a major metabolic pathway involved in many aspects of cancer cell biology (9). In this context, the contribution of dietary factors, such as different types of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and added sugars may be of importance. Hence, it is likely that future therapeutic strategies for cancer will include dietary regimes. Blood lipids and lipoproteins may influence the risk of cancer through insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress (10 ...
Well I went and ordered up some blood work the other day and results began coming in today. While my past Lipid Panel was blogged right here, this is the new one. The past one shows a total serum cholesterol of almost the same (219), while I had an HDL of 106 and a calculated LDL of 104. You know what I think of calculated LDL. Well, this isnt a NMR LipoProfile or a VAP. Its the best I can get from Kaiser and it purports to be a direct measurement of LDL (though not a particle count). However, if accurate, I would expect my particle count to be 660-669 nmol/L, which would be considered optimal in terms of particle number (| 1000). Size is something we can only guess on, but my HDLs make it clear that Im pretty high in fat consumption and thats highly associated with mostly large fluffy LDL and little to no small dense LDL. Its interesting to note that if you look at Patriks NMR LipoProfile and assume my LDL Direct to be accurate (for now -- I am still going to do an NMR as well), then calculated
Description: Lipid profile as such sounds so simple but the simple measurement of lipid profile in subjects gives massive information about the progression of diseases and still many things about lipids yet to be unveiled. Daily new concepts are coined based on the ongoing researches. This book encompasses the diagnostic and prognostic importance of lipid profile assay. Here the author establishes the importance of lipid assay and it covers some of the research based on lipids in Normolipidemic AMI patients, AIDS patients and also multicenter studies. It was once believed that if one is Normolipidemic than the risk of AMI is lowered but the trends of Hyperlipidemia always associated with AMI have changed. In this book the author shares his experience working with Normolipidemic AMI patients. The research is based on stratification of risk factors in these patients, where the author approaches to elucidate the various risk factors associated with Normolipidemic AMI patients. This book would ...
Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women.Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 ± 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at various loads, 3 sessions weekly, every session lasting 45 min, combined with restricted diet (about 1200 kcal daily) for 12 weeks. The following variables were recorded: body height and mass, BMI, relative body fat content (from 7 skinfolds), fat-free mass, triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL).Results: Significant increase in HDL and significant decreases in all other variables (except body height) were noted only in the experimental group.Conclusions: Indoor cycling associated with restricted diet is an excellent option in controlling obesity and serum lipids ...
Colleagues, We are delighted to launch the new LIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway, funded by the Wellcome Trust and jointly hosted by Cardiff University, Babraham Institute and University of California San Diego (UCSD). These are exciting times as we move forward with Phase II of this global project. Our new site provides easier access to the most utilized areas: Lipid Classification System; Structure Database; and Tools. Curation has restarted, with over 500+ new lipid molecules added in the last few months with many now featured in our structure drawing tools. Back in 2016, we asked you what you would like to see on LIPID MAPS, and in response we provide new features including raw MS data deposition in collaboration with Metabolomics Workbench (which already hosts over 500 lipidomics studies), and statistical analysis tools. We include a contact form for you to get in touch with us and provide feedback. We also have a registration facility, and will be using this as a mailing list in the coming ...
These experiments were designed to study the topography of lipid deposition in the stenotic aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats, and to correlate it with flow conditions and intimal stresses and strains studied in a scale biophysical model and in a computer model. A 69% +/- 5% stenosis was produced with a U-shaped metal clip. One month to 8 months later, the aorta was studied en face by light microscopy after fixation and lipid staining. The intima in the throat of the stenosis was almost completely free of lipid, whereas symmetric lipid deposits occurred as bands just above and especially just below the stenosis; elsewhere lipid deposits appeared to be random. The flow data obtained from the scale model showed that the intima in the throat of the stenosis was subjected to an increase of as much as 20 times in shear stress, whereas the lipid deposits just above and just below the stenosis were associated with asymmetric flow conditions: the proximal area corresponded to a region of rapidly increasing
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Use the Lipid Panel with Total Cholesterol:HDL Ration to monitor your cholesterol. With Request A Test, ordering your own lab testing couldnt be easier or more convenient. Order your lab tests, give your sample, get results. Call or go online to order today.
To identify genetic variants influencing plasma lipid concentrations, we first used genotype imputation and meta-analysis to combine three genome-wide scans totaling 8,816 individuals and comprising 6,068 individuals specific to our study (1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables) and 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, reported in a companion study in this issue. We subsequently examined promising signals in 11,569 additional individuals. Overall, we identify strongly associated variants in eleven loci previously implicated in lipid metabolism (ABCA1, the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 and APOE-APOC clusters, APOB, CETP, GCKR, LDLR, LPL, LIPC, LIPG and PCSK9) and also in several newly identified loci (near MVK-MMAB and GALNT2, with variants primarily associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; near SORT1, with variants primarily associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid profiles are associated with lesion formation over 24 months in interferon-β treated patients following the first demyelinating event. AU - Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca. AU - Zivadinov, Robert. AU - Horakova, Dana. AU - Havrdova, Eva. AU - Qu, Jun. AU - Shyh, Grace. AU - Lakota, Elizabeth. AU - OConnor, Kerri. AU - Badgett, Darlene. AU - Tamaño-Blanco, Miriam. AU - Tyblova, Michaela. AU - Hussein, Sara. AU - Bergsland, Niels. AU - Willis, Laura. AU - Krasensky, Jan. AU - Vaneckova, Manuela. AU - Seidl, Zdenek. AU - Ramanathan, Murali. PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the associations of serum lipid profile with disease progression in high-risk clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) after the first demyelinating event. Methods: High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were obtained in pretreatment serum from 135 high risk patients with CIS (≥2 brain MRI lesions and ≥2 ...
... (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules. They are mostly transported in a ... Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein ... In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and ... Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood, and is a major risk ...
Guo ZK (2007). "Intramyocellular lipid kinetics and insulin resistance". Lipids Health Dis. 6: 18. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-18. ... Intramyocellular lipids (or IMCL) are fats stored in droplets in muscle cells. They provide an important energy source for ... Intramyocellular lipid content in human skeletal muscle v t e (Skeletal muscle, Tissues (biology), All stub articles, Anatomy ... "Intramyocellular lipid content is increased after exercise in nonexercising human skeletal muscle". Journal of Applied ...
... are lipid molecules in which some of the fatty acids contain deuterium instead of hydrogen. They can be used ... The deuterium-reinforced lipids resists the non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) through isotope effect - a non-antioxidant ... The concept of using reinforced lipids to inhibit lipid peroxidation has been tested in numerous cell and animal models, ... Correspondingly, use of reinforced lipids that stop the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation has preventive and therapeutic ...
Solid lipid nanoparticle - Novel drug delivery system Simple lipid Emulsion test Lipid microdomain Membrane lipid - Lipid ... Introductory List of lipid-related web sites Nature Lipidomics Gateway - Round-up and summaries of recent lipid research Lipid ... The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids ... "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids also encompass ...
... lipid bilayer). The three major classes of membrane lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Lipids are ... Historically lipids were thought to merely serve a structural role. Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as ... The bilayer formed by membrane lipids serves as a containment unit of a living cell. Membrane lipids also form a matrix in ... Non-bilayer forming lipid like monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) predominates the bulk lipids in thylakoid membranes, which ...
... , broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein ... because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis). One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be ... This signaling lipid has great affinity for the GRP55 receptor and the PPAR alpha receptor. It has been identified as an anti- ... One saturated lipid from this class, often called an endocannabinoid, but with no relevant affinity for the CB1 and CB 2 ...
Avanti Lipids One of the largest commercial suppliers of lipids. Technical information on lipid properties and handling and ... Among the most common model systems are: Black lipid membranes (BLM) Supported lipid bilayers (SLB) Tethered Bilayer Lipid ... which randomize lipid distribution across lipid bilayers (as in apoptotic cells). In any case, once lipid asymmetry is ... The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are ...
In lipid polymorphism, if the packing ratio[clarification needed] of lipids is greater or less than one, lipid membranes can ... Amphiphile Critical micelle concentration Lipid Lipid bilayer phase behavior Lyotropic liquid crystal Membrane lipids Negative ... and hexagonal aqueous-lipid structures, in aqueous dispersions of membrane lipids. As water-soluble negative stain is excluded ... the hydrophilic headgroup portions of the lipid aggregates stain dark and clearly mark the outlines of the lipid aggregates ( ...
The lipid hypothesis (also known as the cholesterol hypothesis) is a medical theory postulating a link between blood ... These led to the acceptance of the lipid hypothesis as orthodoxy by much of the medical community. By the end of the 1980s, ... de Langen showed that the traditional Javanese diet, poor in cholesterol and other lipids, was associated with a low level of ... A summary from 1976 described it as: "measures used to lower the plasma lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia will lead to ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lipid rafts. Database of proteins involved in lipid rafts "Lipid Rafts, Signalling and ... Lipid rafts have been suggested to play a bipartite role in this process. Certain aspects of lipid rafts inhibit EGF receptor ... Finally, while lipid rafts are believed to be connected in some way to proteins, Edidin argues that proteins attract the lipids ... Third, the time scale of lipid raft existence is unknown. If lipid rafts exist, they may only occur on a time scale that is ...
1] - Lipid microdomain formation. [2] - Lipid microdomain clustering. [3] - Lipid microdomain signaling. SCIMP protein (Commons ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lipids. Biochemistry Essential fatty acid Lipid raft PIP2 domain Lipid signaling ... Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. These ... The question of whether such lipid microdomains observed in model lipid systems also exist in biomembranes had motivated ...
This lipid carbon enters the deep ocean as carbon dioxide produced by respiration of lipid reserves and as organic matter from ... Lipid accumulation and metabolism Lipids are stored by all copepodite and adult Calanus spp. in an oil sac, which can account ... The lipid pump sequesters carbon from the ocean's surface to deeper waters via lipids associated with overwintering vertically ... This process creates what is known as a "lipid shunt" in the biological pump, as the carbon sequestration of the lipid pump is ...
In archaea, ether lipids are the major polar lipids in the cell envelope and their abundance is one of the major ... Ether lipids can also act directly in cell signaling, as the platelet-activating factor is an ether lipid signaling molecule ... In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an ... Paltauf F (December 1994). "Ether lipids in biomembranes". Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 74 (2): 101-39. doi:10.1016/0009- ...
Other types of lipids found in the body are fatty acids and membrane lipids. Lipid metabolism is often considered as the ... The types of lipids involved in lipid metabolism include: Membrane lipids: Phospholipids: Phospholipids are a major component ... Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and ... Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs with the help of various enzymes in the digestive system. Lipid ...
... is the chain of reactions of oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the process in which free radicals " ... The chemical products of this oxidation are known as lipid peroxides or lipid oxidation products (LOPs). Initiation is the step ... The toxicity of lipid hydroperoxides to animals is best illustrated by the lethal phenotype of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) ... Lipid+peroxidation at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with dead external ...
Wakelam's obituary describes LIPID MAPS as unifying the field of lipidomics. LIPID MAPS is sponsored by Avanti Polar lipids and ... LIPID MAPS provides standardised methodologies for mass spectrometry analysis of lipids, e.g. LIPID MAPS has been cited as ... "Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl (S1): S9-14. doi: ... a database of computationally predicted lipids generated by expansion of headgroups for commonly occurring lipid classes LIPID ...
... or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use, especially catering critically-ill ... The possibility of lipid emulsions as an alternative drug delivery medium is under works. Intravenous lipid emulsions have been ... Lipid rescue (intralipid as antidote) (Lipids, Intravenous fluids). ... Lipid emulsions are effective in treating experimental models of severe cardiotoxicity from intravenous overdose of local ...
... s, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate ... In non-adipocytes, lipid storage, lipid droplet synthesis and lipid droplet growth can be induced by various stimuli including ... but since the discovery in the 1990s of proteins in the lipid droplet coat that regulate lipid droplet dynamics and lipid ... Lipid droplets vary greatly in size, ranging from 20 to 40 nm to 100 um. In adipocytes, lipid bodies tend to be larger and they ...
Phenolic lipids are a class of natural products composed of long aliphatic chains and phenolic rings. Phenolic lipids occur in ... The phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential for cyst formation in Azotobacter vinelandii. Lipid ... Funa, N.; Ozawa, H.; Hirata, A.; Horinouchi, S. (2006). "Phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential ... Stasiuk, M.; Kozubek, A. (2009). "Biological activity of phenolic lipids". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 67 (6): 841- ...
... lipid-laden macrophages and giant cells fill the lumen of the disconnected airspace. The gross appearance of a lipid pneumonia ... Laughlen first described lipid pneumonia in 1925 with infants that inhaled oil droplets. It is a condition that has been seen ... Sources of such lipids could be either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous: from outside the body. For example, inhaled nose ... Lipid pneumonia has been known to occur in underwater divers after breathing poorly filtered air supplied by a surface ...
Lipid+A at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) The Lipid Library - Summary of Lipid A and ... Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria. It is the innermost ... Monophosphorylated lipid A (MPL) is an FDA approved adjuvant that consists of a heterogeneous mixture of lipid A from ... the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl (Suppl): S103-S108. doi:10.1194/jlr.R800060-JLR200. PMC 2674688. PMID ...
A simple lipid is a fatty acid ester of different alcohols and carries no other substance. These lipids belong to a ... Lipid v t e (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Lipids, All stub articles, Biochemistry ... Simple lipids: esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. a. Fats: esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the ...
... was estimated to exist at a concentration of less than 2000 molecules per bacterial cell. Lipid II biosynthesis is ... A method for artificial production of lipid II has been described. For synthesis of lipid II from UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide and ... Penicillin-binding protein 4 exchanges d-amino acids into Lipid II (and Lipid I), acting as a transpeptidase in vitro. "MetaCyc ... Lantibiotics recognize lipid-II by its pyrophosphate. Lipid II interacts with human alpha defensins, a class of antimicrobial ...
A lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests used to find abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and ... A lipid profile may also be ordered at regular intervals to evaluate the success of lipid-lowering drugs such as statins.[ ... HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/ ... Lipid panels are usually ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and ...
These lipids are known as complex lipids. Lipids Simple lipid Boudreaux, Kevin A. "Chapter 8: Lipids" (PDF). www.angelo.edu.{{ ... A saponifiable lipid is part of the ester functional group. They are made up of long chain carboxylic (of fatty) acids ... The primary saponifiable lipids are triacylglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and the sphingolipids. contain esters, which can ... 697 v t e (CS1 maint: url-status, Lipids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
Diet restrictions do not help prevent the buildup of lipids in the tissues. Xanthomatosis Niemann-Pick disease "Lipid Storage ... A lipid storage disorder (or lipidosis) is any one of a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which harmful amounts of fats ... Lipid storage diseases can be inherited two ways: Autosomal recessive inheritance occurs when both parents carry and pass on a ... Many lipid storage disorders can be classified into the subgroup of sphingolipidoses, as they relate to sphingolipid metabolism ...
In hemifusion, the lipid constituents of the outer leaflet of the two bilayers can mix, but the inner leaflets remain distinct ... Further evidence cited in favor of this theory is the fact that certain lipid mixtures have been shown to only support fusion ... Fusion is also an important mechanism for transport of lipids from their site of synthesis to the membrane where they are ... In the fusion process, the lipid head group is not only involved in charge density, but can affect dehydration and defect ...
Lipid Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID 15748653. Srivastava PK, Sharma VK, Kalonia DS, Grant DF (2004 ... The enzyme lipid-phosphate phosphatase (EC catalyzes the reaction (9S,10S)-10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecanoate ... Tran KL, Aronov PA, Tanaka H, Newman JW, Hammock BD, Morisseau C (2005). "Lipid sulfates and sulfonates are allosteric ... Other names in common use include hydroxy fatty acid phosphatase, dihydroxy fatty acid phosphatase, hydroxy lipid phosphatase, ...
The bacterial outer membrane enzyme PagP transfers a palmitate chain from a phospholipid to lipid A. In a number of pathogenic ... Antimicrobial peptide resistance and lipid A acylation protein PagP is a family of several bacterial antimicrobial peptide ... resistance and lipid A acylation (PagP) proteins. ...
... is the study of the physical material properties of lipid bilayers, classifying bilayer behavior with ... Only certain classes of lipids can form bilayers. Two factors primarily govern whether a lipid will form a bilayer or not: ... If a particular lipid has too large a deviation from zero intrinsic curvature it will not form a bilayer. Edge energy is the ... Based on this calculation, the estimate of Ka for a lipid bilayer should be 80-200 mN/m (note: N/m is equivalent to J/m2). It ...
The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, ... services to organizations and laboratories worldwide to improve the accuracy and reliability of cholesterol and other lipid ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Lipids Perspective. ... Lipid Management: The Ins and Outs of Inclisiran Christopher V. DeSimone, MD, PhD, and Stephen L. Kopecky, MD, discuss lipid ... Top Cardiology Trials of 2022 Trials on heart failure, hypertension and lipid-lowering drugs, and the evolution of antithrombin ...
Here the authors design a DNA nanostructure that catalyzes the transport of lipids between bilayers at a rate three orders of ... Through a combination of microscopic simulations and fluorescence microscopy we find the lipid transport rate catalyzed by the ... The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating ... DNA nanostructure exceeds 107 molecules per second, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of lipid transport ...
Community Forum LIPID MAPS® Highlights Lipid Matters (blog) Lipid of the Month Lipid Trends LipidWeb Podcasts Tutorials ... 2003-2023 LIPID MAPS® Terms of Use How to Cite How to Link Browsers Supported Manage Cookies ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. Or the enzymes may not work properly ... They cause a harmful amount of lipids to build up in your body. Over time, that can damage your cells and tissues, especially ...
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Selected haematological and lipid profiles of Libyan children up to two years of age in Benghazi  ... Serum lipid profiles with and without CAD: Jordan Hyperlipidaemia and Related Targets Study [‎JoHARTS-1]‎  ... Effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose level, lipid profile, HbA1c and uric acid among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan  ... Lipid profiles in the Isfahan population: an Isfahan cardiovascular disease risk factor survey, 1994  ...
... through investigation of its large lipid droplet (LD). The adipocyte LD is a unique organelle specialized in storing energy in ... Adipocyte hypertrophy is a condition associated with larger than normal lipid droplets (LDs), the adipocyte organelles that ... SPHERES project is to investigate the hypothesis that disturbances in the interaction between LD proteins and LD lipid ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Lipids News. ... USPSTF Declines to Recommend Lipid Tests for All Kids The US Preventive Services Task Force is calling for more research on ... screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents before it recommends universal testing. Medscape Medical News, ...
Lipid modifying agents may represent a potential therapeutic option for peripheral neuropathy. Post hoc analyses indicate that ... lipid-lowering therapies may halt the progression of ne … ... Lipids and peripheral neuropathy Curr Opin Lipidol. 2021 Aug 1; ... Lipid modifying agents may represent a potential therapeutic option for peripheral neuropathy. Post hoc analyses indicate that ... This review summarizes the current evidence base on the role of hyperlipidaemia and lipid lowering therapy on the development ...
Lipids definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now! ... Words nearby lipids. lipemia, Li Peng, Lipetsk, lip gloss, lipid, lipids, Lipitor, Lipizzaner, lip-lock, Lipmann, lip ... Lipids do not dissolve in water. In animals, including humans, lipids store energy and form parts of cell structures, such as ... lipids. in a sentence. *. During the plentiful dry season, women consumed more calories and more energy-rich lipids. ...
... ... Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 15 (‎1)‎, 157-166, 2009 https://apps.who.int/iris/ ...
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Lipid-Lowering Agents. Class Summary. Agents in this class reduce serum bilirubin levels. They have been used for their effects ...
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are essential for several biological functions, ranging from energy ... Other lipids (lipoproteins and polyketides). Storage lipids. Fatty acids. Fatty acids are comprised of a polar head (a carboxyl ... Structural lipids. Complex cell membrane lipids. Cellular membranes control the transport of materials, including signaling ... This was realized by The LIPID MAPS consortium, which comprises eight primary lipid categories, within which are several ...
The conference centers around an aspect of lipid metabolism and maintains an informal atmosphere, encourages free and open ... Participants are investigators in the field of lipids and lipoproteins from the around the world. Interested scientists are ...
Berberine and probiotics supplementation decreases post-meal lipid spike in Type II diabetes patients - 12-week RCT 31-Jan-2022 ... A Korean RCT showed that the intake of the probiotic lactobacillus plantarum Q180 (LPQ180) is able to regulate post-meal lipid ... The supplementation of both berberine and probiotics has been shown to reduce post-meal lipid spike in Type II diabetes ... Probiotics intake boosts post-meal lipid metabolism - Korean RCT 27-Feb-2020. By Tingmin Koe ...
Purchase Brain Lipids in Synaptic Function and Neurological Disease - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001110, ... This group is internationally recognized for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions pertaining to virus fusion, ... This group is internationally recognized for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions pertaining to virus fusion, ... Interactions between membrane lipids and cytoplasmic domains *6.4. Interactions between membrane lipids and transmembrane ...
This volume contains the completed section of the Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with data pertaining to Lipids ... This volume contains the completed section of the Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with data pertaining to Lipids ...
Drs Pam Taub and Steve Nissen discuss the current state of lipid management and what is on the horizon, thanks to the impact of ... Whats New on the Lipid Management Landscape? The Experts Compare Notes. Pam R. Taub, MD, FACC, FASPC; Steven E. Nissen, MD, ... Not only do the lipid-rich plaques regress, but there is a change in this fibrous cap, which at least some people have linked ... Taub: Steve, youve really had a front-row seat to the evolution of lipid-lowering medications. Youve been in charge of such ...
Fats are lipids, but not all lipids are fats. A better definition or a better association for lipids would be a class of ... Instructor] What we are going to do in this video is talk a little bit about lipids. Now, a lot of times, lipids are strongly ... But as I also mentioned, all lipids are not fats. Here are more examples of lipids, and Im not gonna go into detail into their ... Just going back to fats, lets actually take a look at what some of these lipid molecules look like. So this right over here is ...
EAS Advanced Course, Rare Lipid Disorders in Turkey. Nadir Lipid Bozuklukları -Türkiye. ... MD, Associate Professor of Cardiology at MSKU Hospital, Lipid Working Group of TSC, EAPC Young Turkish Ambassador ...
... - Aug 05, 2013 - PTS Diagnostics ... CardioChek® Plus reflectance lipid and electrochemical glucose analyzer has Wi-Fi capabilities and can transmit results to ... The company offers a variety of single and combination tests for lipids (cholesterols), glucose, and ketones as well as the ... Recognizing this linkage, the CardioChek Plus provides rapid on-site glucose plus lipid panel screening to help identify at- ...
2. Membrane Lipids and Membrane Proteins[edit , edit source]. -Membrane Lipids: Three common membrane lipids: Phospholipids: ... Lipid Vesicles[edit , edit source]. Lipid vesicles (or liposomes) are small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed bubbles of liquid ... The lipid bilayer is favored by phospholipids and glycolipids because the fatty acid tails on the lipids are too bulky to be ... Lipid bilayers display elastic properties due to their fluid structures. The fluidity of the lipid bilayer is described by the ...
... these are all lipids. This module explores the world of lipids, a class of compounds produced by both plants and animals. It ... with a look at the chemical reaction that produces soap and then examines the chemical composition of a wide variety of lipid ... Lipid compounds. As a group, lipids are a diverse collection of naturally-occurring organic compounds with important roles to ... Other lipids. Several other sorts of compounds are grouped in with the lipid family because they are insoluble in water. ...
The SCI Lipids Group has a multidisciplinary approach to all facets of lipid science and technology and focuses on the ... Young Lipid Scientist Award. This award is to recognise excellence and emerging talent in research related to lipids, in any ... The SCI Lipids Group has a multidisciplinary approach to all facets of lipid science and technology. The Group focuses on the ... Nominations for the Lipids Group International Lecture can be made by any SCI Member or Committee officer. The recipient is ...
All of David Ickes premium content, as well as a wide range of films and series are now available on Ickonic - subscribe today to receive full access. Join Here ...
... regulated acyl-CoA thioesterases involved in lipid metabolism. ... is a key nuclear receptor in the control of lipid metabolism. ... Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) regulated acyl-CoA thioesterases involved in lipid ... acyl-CoA thioesterase in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. In searching for other previously uncharacterized PPARalpha target genes ... suggests a link between cholesterol and lipid metabolism mediated via the PPARalpha. ...
... s, Lipid Emulsions, Intravenous, fat emulsion, intravenous, fat emulsions intravenous, intravenous ... Emulsions, Intravenous Fat, Emulsions, Intravenous Lipid, Fat Emulsions, Intravenous, Intravenous Fat Emulsions, ...
  • RNA, lipids, and proteins. (who.int)
  • The lower layer is the organic solvent phase that contains lipids, denatured proteins, and other cellular components. (cdc.gov)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c. (who.int)
  • A total of 758 Anniston residents had multiple measurements of blood pressure, provided information on demographic factors, medications, smoking, and exercise and provided blood samples for determination of PCBs and total serum lipids. (cdc.gov)
  • Hypertension also increased with body mass index (BMI), but was not related to total serum lipids levels, gender, smoking or exercise. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. (cdc.gov)
  • Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • FADS1 gene polymorphism(s) and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in adolescents. (cdc.gov)
  • For this cross-sectional study, data were analyzed from randomly selected adults (n=774) who completed the Anniston Community Health Survey and underwent measurements of height, weight, fasting glucose, lipid and PCB levels and verification of medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals at risk of CVD may demonstrate raised blood pressure, glucose, and lipids as well as overweight and obesity. (who.int)
  • For each survey year from 2005-2006 to 2015-2016, the percentage of both men and women with high cholesterol taking lipid-lowering medications was higher among those aged ≥60 years than those in younger age groups. (cdc.gov)
  • In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and Lymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • The LRL also provides reference measurement services to organizations and laboratories worldwide to improve the accuracy and reliability of cholesterol and other lipid measurements. (cdc.gov)
  • Lipids/Cholesterol */ @137 PSA 1. (cdc.gov)
  • For more on lipid management with statins, read here . (medscape.com)
  • Top Cardiology Trials of 2022 Trials on heart failure, hypertension and lipid-lowering drugs, and the evolution of antithrombin and antiplatelet therapy are discussed in part 2 of cardiologists Bob Harrington and Mike Gibson's annual review. (medscape.com)
  • Tay-Sachs and other lipid storage diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on a positive response to the question "Are you currently taking lipid-lowering medication? (cdc.gov)
  • They are mostly transported in a protein capsule, and the density of the lipids and type of protein determines the fate of the particle and its influence on metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Trends in apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein for adults 60 years and older by use of lipid-lowering medications: United States, 2005-2006 to 2013-2014 [Research Letter]. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study investigated the patterns and determinants of lipid disorders among a group of 250 type 2 adult diabetic patients and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in Sudan. (who.int)
  • Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and excretion from the intestine, and uptake and secretion from cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychotropic drugs interaction with the lipid nanoparticle of COVID-19 mRNA therapeutics. (who.int)
  • Lung injury (LDH) and inflammation (neutrophil influx) were increased with ITI MMA-SS treatment compared to saline control and GMA-MS. RAW264.7 cells treated with MMA-SS caused increases in ROS, lipid aldehyde (4-hydroxynonenal) production, and COX-2 protein/gene expression. (cdc.gov)
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)
  • The latest entry in the race for a predictive test for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 10-lipid panel. (medscape.com)
  • Lipid Management: The Ins and Outs of Inclisiran Christopher V. DeSimone, MD, PhD, and Stephen L. Kopecky, MD, discuss lipid management and the use of inclisiran, an siRNA drug that inhibits the RNA from making PCSK9. (medscape.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Do You Know Current Guidelines for Lipid Management? (medscape.com)
  • Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alterations in these lipids give us an early indication of the temporal course of the changes in preclinical disease before the symptoms manifest," Dr. Mapstone, who is associate professor of neurology at the University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • 1 Since the early 1900s, sodium nitrite has been used to inhibit growth of disease-causing microorganisms, give taste and colour to meat and inhibit lipid oxidation that leads to rancidity. (who.int)
  • They cause a harmful amount of lipids to build up in your body. (medlineplus.gov)