Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesLiposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DiglyceridesSpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mice, Inbred C57BLLinoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.EstersLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/15793)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (2/15793)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (3/15793)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (4/15793)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (5/15793)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov. (6/15793)

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

Reclassification of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans as Methanofollis tationis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov. and description of a new strain of Methanofollis liminatans. (7/15793)

Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of Methanogenium tationis DSM 2702T (OCM 43T) (T = type strain) and Methanogenium liminatans GKZPZT (= DSM 4140T) as well as other members of the family Methanomicrobiaceae revealed that both species belong to a separate line of descent within this family. In addition, a new strain of Methanogenium liminatans, strain BM1 (= DSM 10196), was isolated from a butyrate-degrading, fluidized bed reactor and characterized. Cells of both species are mesophilic, highly irregular cocci that use H2/CO2 and formate for growth and methanogenesis. In addition, Methanogenium liminatans strains GKZPZT and BM1 used 2-propanol/CO2, 2-butanol/CO2 and cyclopentanol/CO2. Both species contained diether and tetraether lipids. The polar lipids comprised amino-phosphopentanetetrol derivatives, which appear to be characteristic lipids within the family Methanomicrobiaceae. The pattern of glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids and amino-phosphoglycolipids was consistent with the assignment of these two species to a taxon within the family Methanomicrobiaceae, but also permitted them to be distinguished from other higher taxa within this family. The G+C contents of the DNA of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans were 54 and 60 mol% (Tm and HPLC), respectively. On the basis of the data presented, the transfer of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans to the genus Methanofollis gen. nov. as Methanofollis tationis comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov., respectively, is proposed, with Methanofollis tationis as the type species.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (8/15793)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

The authors evaluated the contributions of nine genetic (G) variants (selected from 275 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes), five environmental (E) factors (selected from 10), and G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions in explaining population variance of blood lipid concentrations. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio were calculated in a population-based random sample of 1,543 men and women in Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35-74 years in 1999-2001. Explained variances (R2) for HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, were 34%, 33%, and 19%, decomposed into main effects of G (6%, 4%, and 5%) and E (25%, 28%, and 11%), with just 3%, 2%, and 3% due to G × G, E × E, and G × E interactions, respectively. Risk factor clustering was only moderate: 70% of study ...
Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is a convenient way to collect blood samples with several advantages over conventional blood collection methods. DBS has gained popularity in fields such as newborn screening, preclinical studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring [2, 4, 7, 8]. DBS coupled with LC-MS/MS system provides the capacity to analyze samples in a high throughput manner once coupled to robust analytical methods. Lipidomics analysis of whole blood, which is comprised of thousands of diverse lipid molecular species, is directly linked to an individuals physiological, nutritional and health status [14, 35]. In this study, we combined DBS collection with high-resolution MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics analysis to analyze the blood lipidome. We demonstrate in one DBS spot, several lipid classes and more than 1,200 lipid species were identified and quantified.. Direct infusion-based MS shotgun lipidomics provides comprehensive profiling and quantitation of lipid species from organic extracts of ...
Background: Previous data on the possible effects of age and gender on serum lipids profile of elderly people showed considerable debates. Aim: to eva..
Lipidomics is the comprehensive analysis of molecular lipid species, including their quantitation and metabolic pathways. The huge diversity of native lipids and their modifications make lipidomic analyses challenging. The method of choice for sensitive detection and quantitation of molecular lipid species is mass spectrometry, either by direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) or coupled with liquid chromatography. Although shotgun lipidomics allows for high-throughput analysis, low-abundant lipid species are not detected. Previous separation of lipid species by liquid chromatography increases ionization efficiency and is better suited for quantifying low abundant and isomeric lipid species. In this review, we will discuss the potential of lipidomics for cardiovascular research. To date, cardiovascular research predominantly focuses on the role of lipid classes rather than molecular entities. An in-depth knowledge about the molecular lipid species that contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular
Background Lipids have critical functions in cellular energy storage, structure and signaling. Many individual lipid molecules have been associated with the evolution of prostate cancer; however, none of them has been approved to be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study is to identify lipid molecules from hundreds plasma apparent lipid species as biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using lipidomics, lipid profiling of 390 individual apparent lipid species was performed on 141 plasma samples from 105 patients with prostate cancer and 36 male controls. High throughput data generated from lipidomics were analyzed using bioinformatic and statistical methods. From 390 apparent lipid species, 35 species were demonstrated to have potential in differentiation of prostate cancer. Within the 35 species, 12 were identified as individual plasma lipid biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer with a sensitivity above 80%, specificity above 50% and accuracy above 80%.
Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases. Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). The lipid profile typically includes: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Triglycerides Total cholesterol Using these values, a laboratory may also calculate: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio Serum triglycerides serum Phospholipids Electrophoretic fractionation to determination percentage of (a) ...
Background: Cross-sectional genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with blood lipids and related cardiovascular traits, but few genetic association studies have focused on long-term changes in blood lipids.. Methods: Participants from the GLACIER Study (N-max = 3492) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array, from which 29 387 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms;replication, fine-mapping regions and wildcard SNPs for lipid traits) were extracted for association tests with 10-year change in total cholesterol (Delta TC) and triglycerides (Delta TG). Four additional prospective cohort studies (MDC, PIVUS, ULSAM, MRC Ely; N-max = 8263 participants) were used for replication. We conducted an in silico look-up for association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) Consortium (N similar to 190 000) and functional annotation for the top ranking variants.. Results: In total, 956 ...
This report presents an analysis of data resulting from a lipidomics experiment. The experiment sought to determine the changes in the lipidome of big bluestem prairie grass when exposed to stressors. The two stressors were drought (versus a watered condition) and a rust infection (versus no infection), and were whole plot treatments arranged in a 2 by 2 factorial. A split plot treatment factor was the position on a sampled leaf (top half versus bottom half). In addition, samples were analyzed at different times, representing a blocking factor. A total of 110 samples were used and, for each sample, concentrations of 137 lipids were obtained. Many lipids were not detected for certain samples and, in some cases, a lipid was not detected in most samples. Thus, each lipid was analyzed separately using a modeling strategy that involved a combination of mixed effects linear models and a categorical analysis technique, with the latter used for certain lipids to determine if a pattern of observed zeros ...
Background: Inactivity is a leading contributor to chronic health problems. Physical activity (PA) is an important element in maintaining the health and functional ability in the population and has favorable effects on lipid profile in adults. Here, we examined the effects of pedometer-based PA (step/day ) in healthy middle age men. Methods: ...
Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.21, 0 mmol/l), whereas the whey protein had no effects on circulating TC (-0.11 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.05 mmol/l), LDL-C (-0.08 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.23, 0.07 mmol/l) and HDL-C (0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05 mmol/l). Subgroup analysis showed that significant TG reduction disappeared in participants with low body mass index, low supplemental whey dose or under exercise ...
Lipidomics is a lipid-targeted metabolomics approach aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in biological systems. Recently, lipid profiling, or so-called lipidomics research, has captured increased attention due to the well-recognized roles of lipids in numerous human diseases to which lipid-associated disorders contribute, such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Investigating lipid biochemistry using a lipidomics approach will not only provide insights into the specific roles of lipid molecular species in health and disease, but will also assist in identifying potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic approaches for human health. Recent technological advancements in mass spectrometry and rapid improvements in chromatographic techniques have led to the rapid expansion of the lipidomics research held. In this review, emphasis is given to the recent advances in lipidomics technologies and their applications in disease biomarker discovery. (C) ...
Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism for this risk remains unclear. Complicating this association, reducing serum homocysteine (Hcy) has not been shown to decrease cardiovascular disease events in randomized controlled trials. This study aims to examine the relationship between Hcy and several lipid measures.. Methods: Our analyses included a subset of 18,297 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids, who had an extended lipid panel by density gradient ultracentrifugation, which included direct measurement of triglycerides (TG), and the cholesterol concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: IDL-C + VLDL3-C). Additional measurements were levels of Hcy, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Subjects were categorized into Hcy quartiles. Linear ...
This is calculation with bound lipids. Acyl chains of two lipids were modelled. Calculated hydrocarbon boundary of the lipid bilayer corresponds to the carbonyl groups of the bound lipid. Depending on conformations of bound lipids, the protein can penetrate deeper by ~2 A. Results for the dimer without bound lipids are exactly the same as for lipid-free EEA1 monomer (1hyi). Transfer energy was calculated without contribution from the bound lipid ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of "energy-overload" metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who "bump" into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Effect of Ledebouriella seseloides Extracts on Lipid Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats - ALP;collagen;Ledebouriella seseloides;lipid parameters;ovariectomized rats;
Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid ...
article{bcb56acf-af8b-4795-9113-593c8f47c227, abstract = {Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P<5 x 10(-8)), with 59 showing genome-wide significant association with lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits in three non-European populations (East ...
The study of lipid transfer between lipid membranes is of great interest for the fundamental understanding of this complex and important process and, furthermore, for providing a new avenue for the in situ modification of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). SLBs are conveniently formed by vesicle spreading onto a solid support, but this method is limited to conditions (i.e., combination of vesicle lipid composition, surface chemical properties, and buffer) such that the vesicles break spontaneously upon adsorption to the surface. Many SLB compositions are not accessible by this approach. In the present study, we give an example of how lipid transfer can be made use of to form lipid layers with striking new features, notably with respect to stability. After lipid transfer between negatively charged POPS small unilamellar vesicles and a positively charged POEPC SLB on TiO2, an SLB is obtained, which, upon exposure to SDS, leaves behind a lipid monolayer. It is shown how this monolayer can be used for
The effects of elevated blood lipid concentrations on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are reviewed, with particular emphasis on how high fat diets and antihypertensive drugs can influence the...
Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. As a population ages, chronic conditions associated with aging such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders take increasing tolls in terms of morbidity and mortality. Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimers, cancer, and asthma. Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is ...
For the 6th Edition of this highly regarded textbook devoted to lipids, the title has been modified from Lipid Biochemistry to Lipids to acknowledge the coming together of biological and medical sciences, the increasingly blurred boundaries between them and the growing importance of lipids in diverse aspects of science and technology. The principal aims of this new edition - to inform students and researchers about lipids, to assist teachers and encourage further research - have not changed since previous editions.. Significant advances in lipid science have demanded yet another extensive rewriting for this edition, with the addition of two new authors, to cover new knowledge of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, the many lipids involved in cell signalling, the roles of lipids in health and disease and new developments in biotechnology in support of agriculture and industry.. An introductory chapter summarizes the types of lipids covered and their identification and provides ...
Aim: To investigate relationship between serum TSH and lipid parameters in subjects with different levels of TSH. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Biochemistry Department of Kasturba Medical College, Hospital Mangalore, between January 2014 to June 2014. Methodology: 348 subjects were screened of which 194 were selected. Lipid parameters, TSH, T3, T4 and glycemic status were determined. Association between TSH and serum lipids were studied by categorizing subjects into three groups based on their thyroid status. Group 1 [TSH= 0.27-2.5 mIU/L], Group 2 [TSH= 2.6-4.12 mIU/L] and Group 3 [TSH= 4.13-9.9mIU/L].Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukeys multiple comparison test. The relationships between TSH and different parameters were evaluated by Pearsons correlation analysis. Results: TSH showed a significant positive linear correlation with total cholesterol (r=0.288; P = 0.001), Triglycerides (r=0.129; P=0.016), LDL cholesterol ...
A lipid panel is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might feel faint or lightheaded from the test. A few kids and teens have a strong fear of needles. If your child is anxious, talk with the doctor before the test about ways to make the procedure easier.. A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care for your child if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer. If you have questions about the lipid panel, speak with your doctor or the health professional doing the blood draw.. Back To Top. ...
Awhile ago, TheFatNurse noticed something strange while reviewing some Lipid panels. Normally, when you receive a lab result, a reference range is given and any numbers above or below the reference range is flagged. What was strange about some of these lipid panels was the lack of flags for patient numbers that were clearly in…
Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S. Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
This image by first author Sarah Hancock shows an iris surrounded by the lipid she and colleagues in the Blanksby and Mitchell labs characterized by mass spectronomy.Journal of Lipid Research. But water alone isnt enough to keep the eye from drying out. A microscopically thin film of oils known as the lipid layer protects the tear film from evaporating. In the August issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, a group of Australian researchers reports the structure of a key long-chain lipid in this layer. Their finding may be used to improve treatments for dry eye.. Although the long-chain lipids in question make up just 5 percent of the tear-film lipid layer, they play an important role in vision. Without them, earlier studies showed, the lipid layer would resemble an oil slick atop a puddle.. "This clearly wouldnt be satisfactory for you to look through," said Stephen Blanksby, a professor at the Queensland University of Technology who led the research team in this study.. Blanksby saw the ...
The role of lipid biomarkers in assessing the risk of cancer has not been studied in detail. However, lipid metabolism has now been accepted as a major metabolic pathway involved in many aspects of cancer cell biology (9). In this context, the contribution of dietary factors, such as different types of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and added sugars may be of importance. Hence, it is likely that future therapeutic strategies for cancer will include dietary regimes. Blood lipids and lipoproteins may influence the risk of cancer through insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress (10 ...
Well I went and ordered up some blood work the other day and results began coming in today. While my past Lipid Panel was blogged right here, this is the new one. The past one shows a total serum cholesterol of almost the same (219), while I had an HDL of 106 and a calculated LDL of 104. You know what I think of calculated LDL. Well, this isnt a NMR LipoProfile or a VAP. Its the best I can get from Kaiser and it purports to be a direct measurement of LDL (though not a particle count). However, if accurate, I would expect my particle count to be 660-669 nmol/L, which would be considered optimal in terms of particle number (| 1000). Size is something we can only guess on, but my HDLs make it clear that Im pretty high in fat consumption and thats highly associated with mostly large fluffy LDL and little to no small dense LDL. Its interesting to note that if you look at Patriks NMR LipoProfile and assume my LDL Direct to be accurate (for now -- I am still going to do an NMR as well), then calculated
Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women.Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 ± 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at various loads, 3 sessions weekly, every session lasting 45 min, combined with restricted diet (about 1200 kcal daily) for 12 weeks. The following variables were recorded: body height and mass, BMI, relative body fat content (from 7 skinfolds), fat-free mass, triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL).Results: Significant increase in HDL and significant decreases in all other variables (except body height) were noted only in the experimental group.Conclusions: Indoor cycling associated with restricted diet is an excellent option in controlling obesity and serum lipids ...
Colleagues, We are delighted to launch the new LIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway, funded by the Wellcome Trust and jointly hosted by Cardiff University, Babraham Institute and University of California San Diego (UCSD). These are exciting times as we move forward with Phase II of this global project. Our new site provides easier access to the most utilized areas: Lipid Classification System; Structure Database; and Tools. Curation has restarted, with over 500+ new lipid molecules added in the last few months with many now featured in our structure drawing tools. Back in 2016, we asked you what you would like to see on LIPID MAPS, and in response we provide new features including raw MS data deposition in collaboration with Metabolomics Workbench (which already hosts over 500 lipidomics studies), and statistical analysis tools. We include a contact form for you to get in touch with us and provide feedback. We also have a registration facility, and will be using this as a mailing list in the coming ...
These experiments were designed to study the topography of lipid deposition in the stenotic aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats, and to correlate it with flow conditions and intimal stresses and strains studied in a scale biophysical model and in a computer model. A 69% +/- 5% stenosis was produced with a U-shaped metal clip. One month to 8 months later, the aorta was studied en face by light microscopy after fixation and lipid staining. The intima in the throat of the stenosis was almost completely free of lipid, whereas symmetric lipid deposits occurred as bands just above and especially just below the stenosis; elsewhere lipid deposits appeared to be random. The flow data obtained from the scale model showed that the intima in the throat of the stenosis was subjected to an increase of as much as 20 times in shear stress, whereas the lipid deposits just above and just below the stenosis were associated with asymmetric flow conditions: the proximal area corresponded to a region of rapidly increasing
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Use the Lipid Panel with Total Cholesterol:HDL Ration to monitor your cholesterol. With Request A Test, ordering your own lab testing couldnt be easier or more convenient. Order your lab tests, give your sample, get results. Call or go online to order today.
To identify genetic variants influencing plasma lipid concentrations, we first used genotype imputation and meta-analysis to combine three genome-wide scans totaling 8,816 individuals and comprising 6,068 individuals specific to our study (1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables) and 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, reported in a companion study in this issue. We subsequently examined promising signals in 11,569 additional individuals. Overall, we identify strongly associated variants in eleven loci previously implicated in lipid metabolism (ABCA1, the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 and APOE-APOC clusters, APOB, CETP, GCKR, LDLR, LPL, LIPC, LIPG and PCSK9) and also in several newly identified loci (near MVK-MMAB and GALNT2, with variants primarily associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; near SORT1, with variants primarily associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
This blood test checks the levels of cholesterol in your body. A lipid panel will show the levels of your total cholesterol, your LDL (
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of integral membrane proteins and a major class of drug targets. Membranes are known to have modulatory effects on GPCRs via specific lipid interactions. However, the mechanisms of such modulations in cell membranes and how they influence GPCR functions remain unclear. Here we report coarse-grained MD simulations on the Adenosine A2a receptor embedded in an in vivo mimetic membrane model comprised of 10 different lipid species. Three conformational states of the receptor, i.e. the inactive state, the active state, and the active state with a mini-GS protein bound were simulated to study the impact of protein-lipid interactions on the receptor activation. The simulations revealed three specific lipids (GM3, cholesterol and PIP2) that form stable and preferential interactions with the receptor, differentiating these from bulk lipids such as PS, PE and PC. In total, nine specific lipid-binding sites were revealed. The strength of lipid interaction
Buy, download and read Plasma Lipids and Their Role in Disease ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Philip Barter; Kerry-Anne Rye. ISBN: 9781482298253. Publisher: CRC Press. This volume gives up-to-date information on plasma lipid transport, the various categories of plasma lipid disorders and the relationship between plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerotic disea
WebMD explains the tests used to diagnose high cholesterol, including a total cholesterol test, lipoprotein analysis, lipid panel, and LDL test.
The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Volume 5 - Kathy Musa-Veloso, Lina Paulionis, Theresa Poon, Han Youl Lee
National levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in adults have fallen even more drastically since 2011 than what had been previously observed since the turn of the century, according cross-sectional survey data. Additionally, these trends were maintained regardless of the use of lipid-lowering medications.. Given that lipid levels are strong predictors of cardiovascular health, this information is "a good indicator that the US populations lipid profile is improving at a population level," study author Asher Rosinger, PhD, MPH (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD), told TCTMD. "If these predictors of cardiovascular events continue to move in this favorable direction, its likely that mortality trends will also continue in a favorable direction.". For the study, Rosinger and colleagues culled lipid data on almost 40,000 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999/2000 and 2013/2014. The results-published ...
Adequate energy storage is essential for sustaining healthy life. Lipid droplet (LD) is the subcellular organelle that stores energy in the form of neutral lipids and releases fatty acids under energy deficient conditions. Energy storage capacity of LDs is primarily dependent on the sizes of LDs. Enlargement and growth of LDs is controlled by two molecular pathways: neutral lipid synthesis and atypical LD fusion. Shrinkage of LDs is mediated by the degradation of neutral lipids under energy demanding conditions and is controlled by neutral cytosolic lipases and lysosomal acidic lipases. In this review, we summarize recent progress regarding the regulatory pathways and molecular mechanisms that control the sizes and the energy storage capacity of LDs.
Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence.Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence. ...
|p|Lipids in Health and Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lipids: their biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, role in health and disease, and the synthesis of new lipid compounds. In particular, the journal aims to bridge the gap between the bench and the clinic by publishing articles that are particularly relevant to human diseases and the role of lipids in the management of various diseases.|/p|
Back in May, 2006, I last had some blood work done, for an insurance exam, that included a lipid panel. I, of course, held onto those results, because I obsess over my risk factors for heart disease. Here they are, in their unimpressive glory. Total Cholesterol - - - 197 [|200] HDL-C - - -…
1) Lipid is a fatty substance found in the blood. Lipid metabolism is the conversion of the fat molecule from fat to energy (and other by-products). (2) lipid /lip·id/ (lip´id) any of a heterogeneous group of fats and fatlike substances, including fatty acids, neutral fats, waxes, and steroids, which are water-insoluble and soluble in nonpolar solvents. Lipids, which are easily stored in the body, serve as a source of fuel, are an important constituent of cell structure, and serve other biological functions. Compound lipids comprise the glycolipids, lipoproteins, and phospholipids. See also: Lipid ...
Got a lipid panel done the other day and it seems some of my numbers are off. Specifically My HDL or good cholesterol. I dont know a lot about this stuff since my results are always fine, but this is the first time i Have had one done on cycle. I am on test 500mg a week dbol 30mg ed Just stopped 4 days before the test adex .5 eod Here is my panel from the other day Cholesterol Total 139 HDL 25 LDL 104 Non HDL 114 Triglyceride 52 Chol risk ratio 5.6 Here is my panel from last year not juici...
Diagnosis. Patients with diabetes may have atypical presentations for CVD. Screening with electrocardiogram or cardiac stress tests may be appropriate in some patients. Hypertension. Blood pressure control is particularly important for individuals with diabetes. The goal blood pressure should be less than 130/80 mmHg, and further lowering may be beneficial (see Hypertension ).. Hyperlipidemia. The goals for blood lipid concentrations are also somewhat different for patients with diabetes. LDL should be less than 100 mg/dl, and in certain patients (especially those with known CVD), the goal may be less than 70 mg/dl. In known cases of CVD, triglycerides should be less than 150, and HDL greater than 40 mg/dl. HDL greater than 50 mg/dl may be an appropriate goal for women (see Hyperlipidemia ).. Treatment. Dietary and behavioral modifications, including smoking cessation, regular exercise, and loss of excess weight, are critical for the prevention and management of cardiac complications in diabetes ...
The Lipidizer™ Platform offers a complete lipid analysis solution that can differentiate and quantify over a thousand lipid molecular species across 13 lipid classes
Lipid A is a major constituent of the lipopolysaccharides (or endotoxins), which are complex amphiphilic macromolecules anchored in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The glycolipid lipid A is known to possess the minimal chemical structure for LPSs endotoxic activity, able to cause septic shock. Lipid A isolated from extremophiles is interesting, since very few cases of pathogenic bacteria have been found among these microorganisms. In some cases their lipid A has shown to have an antagonist activity, i.e., it is able to interact with the immune system of the host without triggering a proinflammatory response by blocking binding of substances that could elicit such a response. However, the relationship between the structure and the activity of these molecules is far from being completely clear. A deeper knowledge of the lipid A chemical structure can help the understanding of these mechanisms. In this manuscript, we present our work on the complete structural characterization of the lipid A
Lipids[edit]. Main article: Lipid. The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for ... Lipids in food include the oils of such grains as corn, soybean, from animal fats, and are parts of many foods such as milk, ... Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some ... Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely nonpolar. Generally, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar ...
... many lipid-binding proteins are cytosolic and localise to the membrane by binding only the headgroups of lipids. Perhaps the ... "Profiling membrane lipids in plant stress responses. Role of phospholipase D alpha in freezing-induced lipid changes in ... because DAG is the precursor for so many other lipids, it too is soon metabolised into other membrane lipids. This means that ... PA as a signalling lipid[edit]. As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant ...
... of total free lipids), and esters. Arabica beans have a higher content of lipids (13.5 to 17.4 g lipids/100 g dried green ... Lipids[edit]. The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid ... The total content of lipids in dried green coffee is between 11.7 and 14 g/100 g.[31] Lipids are present on the surface and in ... Such compounds form a wax-like cover on the surface of the coffee bean (200 to 300 mg lipids/100 g dried green coffee bean) ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ...
Lipid-lowering agents[edit]. *Simvastatin[note 72]. Dermatological medicines (topical)[edit]. Antifungal medicines[edit]. * ...
Lipid replacement therapy[edit]. Nicolson provided a sound scientific ground for and extended the medicinal values of lipid ... Nicolson, Garth L.; Ash, Michael E. (2014). "Lipid Replacement Therapy: A natural medicine approach to replacing damaged lipids ... Nicolson, GL (2005). "Lipid replacement/antioxidant therapy as an adjunct supplement to reduce the adverse effects of cancer ... The phospholids are not just stationary, but are able to move, and the proteins can move in the fluid lipid layer. These ...
Although lipid rescue mechanism of action is not completely understood, the added lipid in the blood stream may act as a sink, ... Home-made Lipid Rescue Kit *^ Harvey M, Cave G (February 2007). "Intralipid outperforms sodium bicarbonate in a rabbit model of ... Treatment of overdose: "Lipid rescue"[edit]. This method of toxicity treatment was invented by Dr. Guy Weinberg in 1998, and ... This theory is compatible with two studies on lipid rescue for clomipramine toxicity in rabbits[24][25] and with a clinical ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. Orexin-A (OXA) has been recently demonstrated to have a direct effect on an aspect of lipid metabolism ... OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids (triacylglycerol). OXA ... lipid accumulation and adiponectin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and isolated primary rat adipocytes". Diabetologia. 54 (7 ... The link between OXA and the lipid metabolism is new and currently under more research. ...
... which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various ... Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter, ... Lipids comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar ... Lipids are usually made from one molecule of glycerol combined with other molecules. In triglycerides, the main group of bulk ...
Lipid bilayer. Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. The yellow polar head groups ... Phospholipids forming lipid vesicles. Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22 ... Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... Lipid anchored proteins. Covalently bound to single or multiple lipid molecules; hydrophobically insert into the cell membrane ...
lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. ... lipid transporter activity. Cellular component. • high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density ... 2008). "Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 161 ... Kamboh MI, Aston CE, Hamman RF (2000). "DNA sequence variation in human apolipoprotein C4 gene and its effect on plasma lipid ...
See also: Lipid hypothesis. The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in ... Abnormal blood lipid levels, that is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density ... Labarthe, Darwin (2011). "Chapter 11 Adverse Blood Lipid Profile". Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a ... Labarthe, Darwin (2011). "Chapter 11 Adverse Blood Lipid Profile". Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a ...
Zdzislaw Z. E. Sikorski; Anna Kolakowska (30 July 2002). Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Lipids. CRC Press. pp. 218 ... Flickinger, Brent D.; Matsuo, Noboru (February 2003). "Nutritional characteristics of DAG oil". Lipids. 38 (2): 129-132. doi: ...
In biochemical signaling, diacylglycerol functions as a second messenger signaling lipid, and is a product of the hydrolysis of ... Flickinger, Brent D.; Matsuo, Noboru (February 2003). "Nutritional characteristics of DAG oil". Lipids. 38 (2): 129-132. doi: ... "Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
A starving dolphin will have a robust melon even if the rest of its body is emaciated.[1] The lipids in the melon tend to be of ... The lipids in the melon cannot be digested by the animal as they are metabolically toxic. ... "Heterogeneity of lipid composition within the cephalic melon tissue of the pilot whale (Globicephala melaena)". Biochimica et ... "Comparative lipid patterns in acoustical and nonacoustical fatty tissues of dolphins, porpoises and toothed whales". ...
Frankel, E.N (1984). "Chemistry of free radical and singlet oxidation of lipids". Progress in Lipid Research. 23 (4): 197-221. ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1166 (2-3): 258-63. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(93)90106-J. PMID 8443245.. ... "Journal of Lipid Research. 40 (4): 699-707. PMID 10191294.. *^ Bull, A. W; Earles, S. M; Bronstein, J. C (1991). "Metabolism of ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1392 (1): 23-40. doi:10.1016/S0005-2760(97)00209-9. PMID 9593808.. ...
Mellors, A.; Tappel, A. (Jul 1966). "Quinones and Quinols as Inhibitors of Lipid Peroxidation". Lipids. 1 (4): 282-284. doi: ... Absorption follows the same process as that of lipids; the uptake mechanism appears to be similar to that of vitamin E, another ... Emulsions of soybean oil (lipid microspheres) could be stabilised very effectively by lecithin and were used in the preparation ... Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration Group. 90 (1): 24-34. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.08.021. PMID 25440725.. ...
Glatz JF, Börchers T, Spener F, van der Vusse GJ (1995). "Fatty acids in cell signalling: modulation by lipid binding proteins ... A study in Chinese young adults indicates a strong relationship between serum FABP1 levels and lipid profile, body measurements ... Lipids. 51 (6): 655-76. doi:10.1007/s11745-016-4155-8. PMID 27117865. Huang H, McIntosh AL, Martin GG, Landrock D, Chung S, ... Lipids. 45 (2): 97-110. doi:10.1007/s11745-009-3379-2. PMC 2831749 . PMID 20035485. Newberry EP, Xie Y, Kennedy S, Han X, ...
Δ6-desaturase does appear to be the rate-limiting step; 20:4 ω-3 does not significantly accumulate in bodily lipids. DGLA ... Karlstad MD, DeMichele SJ, Leathem WD, Peterson MB (November 1993). "Effect of intravenous lipid emulsions enriched with gamma- ... Lipid Res. 46 (6): 1093-6. doi:10.1194/jlr.C500003-JLR200. PMID 15805551. KP Su; SY Huang; CC Chiu; WW Shen (2003). "Omega-3 ... Lipids in Health and Disease. 13: 137. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-137. ISSN 1476-511X. PMC 4161905 . PMID 25156381. Ulven, Stine ...
Mellors, A.; Tappel, A. L. (1966). "Quinones and quinols as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation". Lipids. 1 (4): 282-4. doi: ...
When a decolorizer such as alcohol or acetone is added, it interacts with the lipids of the cell membrane.[13] A gram-negative ...
Bioactive Lipids, Nutrition and Health. 93 (1): 7-12. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2010.05.005. PMID 20478353.. ... Lipids. 36 (9): 945-59. doi:10.1007/s11745-001-0805-6. PMID 11724467.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ...
Sudan staining is the use of Sudan dyes to stain sudanophilic substances, usually lipids. Sudan III, Sudan IV, Oil Red O, ... Nile red is a lipophilic stain; it will accumulate in lipid globules inside cells, staining them red. Nile red can be used with ... In biochemistry it involves adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or ... Osmium tetraoxide is used in optical microscopy to stain lipids. It dissolves in fats, and is reduced by organic materials to ...
Content of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Minerals of Digitaria exilis compared to other cereals (% dry weight) ...
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute ... If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. Or the enzymes may not work properly ...
Euro Fed Lipid is a federation of 13 scientific associations concerned with Lipids, Fats and Oils. The federation represents ... Euro Fed Lipid e.V.. European Federation for the Science and Technology of Lipids. ... It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress (20-23 October 2019) that will take place in one of ... There are two different ways to become a member of Euro Fed Lipid, either: 1. via membership in one of the associations listed ...
The different kinds of cholesterol and other fats in your blood are together called lipids. Doctors measure and diagnose lipid ... Cholesterol Testing and the Lipid Panel. In this Article. In this Article In this Article * Cholesterol Tests: The Good, the ... If your lipid results arent what you and your doctor had hoped for, or if you have other reasons to be concerned about heart ... Some lipid panels can give even more detailed information, like the presence and sizes of various fat particles in your blood. ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=lipids&oldid=50792264" ...
Lipids in Plants. Lipids are used to create the structural membranes that all life forms are made out of. Lipids are commonly ... Plants contain lipids that are needed by animals. (Image: Dougal Waters/Digital Vision/Getty Images). The word "lipid" ... The solid form of the lipid is the fat, while the liquid form of a lipid is the oil. Most people do not think of plants as ... Lipids found in plants play an important part in market values. Vegetable oil, olive oil, canola oil and avocado oil are all ...
Lipids (fats and oils) have borne the brunt of the blame for the degenerative diseases (heart disease [1] and cancer) that are ... The negative view of lipids has obscured their essentiality for human health. ... Lipids Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Lipids. Lipids are a group of compounds that are rich in carbon- ... Lipids Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Lipids. Lipids are a class of biomolecules ...
Katan M. (2015) Inositol Lipids. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ... PTEN Gene Pleckstrin Homology Domain Messenger Molecule Polar Headgroup Inositol Lipid These keywords were added by machine and ... Among different inositol lipids, the importance in transmembrane signaling and regulation of cell functions are best documented ... There are several ways in which these low-abundance inositol lipids (less than 1 % of membrane phospholipids) could provide a ...
LIPID MAPS - Comprehensive lipid and lipid-associated gene/protein databases.. *LipidBank - Japanese database of lipids and ... Sterol lipids[edit]. Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,[43] ... Although the term "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids ... The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids ...
Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol). Both types share the defining ... characteristic of lipids-they dissolve readily in organic solvents-but in addition they both have a region that is attracted to ... This type of lipid bilayer, formed by the self-assembly of lipid molecules, is the basic structure of the cell membrane. It is ... Membrane lipids. Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol). Both types ...
Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4):590-614. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Sep 2. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these ... Lipids of mitochondria.. Horvath SE1, Daum G.. Author information. 1. Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology ... Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4):590-614. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Sep 2. ...
WRIGHT, D. Hydrogenation of Lipids by Rumen Protozoa. Nature 184, 875-876 (1959) doi:10.1038/184875a0 ...
... gb-gplus-shareBiochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings. ... Lipids_Proceedin.html?id=eLcQAQAAMAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 ReviewsWrite reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Biochemical_Problems_of_Lipids_Proceedin.html?id=eLcQAQAAMAAJ ...
Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings. Volume 1 of Biochimica et biophysica acta library. ... Interscience, 1960 - Lipids. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Biochemical_Problems_of_Lipids_Proceedin.html?id= ... Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings, Volume 7, Part 1962. Snippet view - 1963. ... Biochemical Problems of Lipids; Proceedings, Volume 2, Part 4. Snippet view - 1956. ...
Model of interaction of polar lipids, cholesterol and proteins in biological membranes. Lipids 9: 645-650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... 13C NMR studies of lipid interactions in single-and multicomponent lipid vesicles. Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 355: 1367- ... Some recent studies of lipids, lipid cholesterol and membrane systems. In: Biological Membranes. D. Chapman and D. F. H. ... Asymmetrical lipid bilayer structure for biological membranes. Nature (New Biol.) 236: 11-12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Fats, or lipids, are the third main class of the macronutrients needed in human nutrition. The lipids are found primarily in ...
Eukaryotic lipid metabolic pathway is essential for functional chloroplasts and CO2 and light responses in Arabidopsis guard ... Lipidomics reveals diurnal lipid oscillations in human skeletal muscle persisting in cellular myotubes cultured in vitro Ursula ... Argininosuccinate synthetase regulates hepatic AMPK linking protein catabolism and ureagenesis to hepatic lipid metabolism ... Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins control vacuole trafficking and developmental programs through the regulation of lipid ...
In a water medium, the phospholipids of the two sheets align so that their water-repellent, lipid-soluble tails are turned and… ... Membrane lipids: …each forming half of a bilayered wall. A bilayer is composed of two sheets of phospholipid molecules with all ... Other articles where Lipid bilayer is discussed: cell: ... In lipid: Lipids in biological membranes. …a continuous ... lipid bilayer; cell membranePhospholipid molecules, like molecules of many lipids, are composed of a hydrophilic "head" and one ...
In a recent Reflections article in The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas talk about 46 years of friendship and science together.
Lipid oxidation is an important challenge for the food industry as it reduces nutritional value and generates off-flavour. ... Better understanding the mechanisms behind lipid oxidation will help developing innovative ways to prevent it. ... Lipids refers to a wide class of molecules, the main ones being fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, ... Food lipids. The term Lipids refers to a wide class of molecules, the main ones being fatty acids, glycerolipids, ...
Lipids Control is a human serum based product that provides the laboratory with two distinct analyte levels for lipids analysis ... Liquichek Lipids Control. Features. *Liquid, human serum based *3 year shelf life at -10 to -20C *14 day open-vial stability at ... Liquichek Lipids Control is a human serum based product that provides the laboratory with two distinct analyte levels for ... lipids analysis. It now contains C-Reactive Protein in levels optimized for high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) assays ...
... are molecular building blocks that form the most fundamental structures in biology, including the serum lipoproteins, ... Thousands of different lipid species are found in biological membranes, but they can be organised into a few major lipid ... Lipids regulate, often in specific ways, the functionality of biological membranes, through the properties of the lipid bilayer ... Cell Structure , Cell Membranes , Lipids and Membrane Structure , Lipids: Structure, Function, Metabolism ...
... original lipid results remained nearly identical to those that adjusted for the average effect of lipid medication. ... Optimism is linked with healthier behaviors, and lipid profiles are driven, in part, by health behaviors. This study examines ... More research is needed to better understand the complex ways in which optimism and lipids may be connected. This research, ... The researchers posited that higher levels of optimism would be associated with healthier lipid profiles. ...
in serum lipids, independent of weight, are associated with changes in. symptoms during long-term clozapine treatment. J ... other types of lipid might have a positive effect. The class="Z3988". title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt% ... 1) Lipids have a direct effect on symptoms. independent of clozapine.. 2) The partitioning of clozapine into the LDL and VLDL ... suggests that other lipids (but not all) might have a positive effect,. at least in the presence of an clozapine. The ...
The 15th International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Okazaki, Japan, in May 12th to 17th, 2002, at the Okazaki ... Symposium was organized by the Japanese Organizing Committee with the cooperation of the Japanese Association of Plant Lipid ... Advanced Research on Plant Lipids. Editors: Murata, N., Yamada, M., Nishida, I., Okuyama, H., Sekiya, J., Hajime, W. (Eds.) ... Modulation of Lipid Body Size and Protein Profiles in the Oleaginous Fungus by Changing Nitrogen Concentration in Culture ...
Lipids are polymers because they are formed by condensation reactions from fatty acid monomers and alcohols. While they do not ... What Does the Body Use Lipids For?. A: The human body uses lipids for a variety of applications, including as a fuel source, to ... Lipids are polymers because they are formed by condensation reactions from fatty acid monomers and alcohols. While they do not ... These are called condensation reactions because they release water, and, in the case of lipids, the water is released when the ...
  • Bergström, Samuelsson and others in 1964 added to the knowledge of role of lipids in the body by finding that essential fatty acid arachidonate was the biosynthetic precursor of the prostaglandins with their effects on inflammation and other diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • and the role of lipids in the regulation of membrane-dependent biological processes. (elsevier.com)
  • There are several ways in which these low-abundance inositol lipids (less than 1 % of membrane phospholipids) could provide a signaling link or fulfill other roles in different cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • In 1947, T. P. Hilditch divided lipids into "simple lipids", with greases and waxes (true waxes, sterols, alcohols), and "complex lipids", with phospholipids and glycolipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipids, as well as many other lipids, spontaneously form bilayer structures in water, as governed by the hydrophobic effect. (els.net)
  • However, it has become clear that in plants, just as in mammalian and yeast cells, some minor phospholipids, e.g. phosphoinositides, are important regulators of cellular function, providing docking sites for target proteins via lipid-binding domains, and/or modulating their enzymatic activity. (uva.nl)
  • Phospholipids are hydrolyzable lipids, that contain a phosphorus atom. (khanacademy.org)
  • Bio-surfactant containing 4-O- -D-mannopyranosylmeso-erythritol as the hydrophilic group and a fatty acid and/or an acetyl group as the hydrophobic moiety are known as mannosylerythritol lipids. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Crystal structures establish C1P binding via a surface-localized, phosphate head-group recognition center connected to an interior hydrophobic pocket that adaptively ensheaths lipid chains via a cleft-like gating mechanism. (mskcc.org)
  • Lipids are mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms , and this hydrophobic ("water fearing") nature of lipids is driven by the bonds between these many carbons and hydrogens. (visionlearning.com)
  • The 15th International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Okazaki, Japan, in May 12th to 17th, 2002, at the Okazaki Conference Center. (springer.com)
  • We acknowledge a large number of participants from Asian countries, in particular, from China, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and the Philippines, presumably because this was the fIrst time that the International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held in Asia. (springer.com)
  • The Symposium provided an opportunity for presentation and discussion of 68 lectures and 93 posters in 11 scientific sessions, which together covered all aspects of plant lipid researches, such as the structure, analysis, biosynthesis, regulation, physiological function, environmental aspects, and the biotechnology of plant lipids. (springer.com)
  • in contrast, it provides a wealth of new information on plant lipids on a high scientific standard. (springer.com)
  • It will greatly stimulate future research on plant lipids and metabolic pathways in plants. (springer.com)
  • The soybean model also showed that lipids with similar amounts of unsaturation tended to cluster together, behavior scientists had not previously observed for these plant lipids. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plant Lipids (P) Ltd is an Indian exporter of spice oils and oleoresins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology developed was not then mature, and it took several years of additional research and development by Plant Lipids to make the technology viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, Plant Lipids is one of the producers of spice extracts, essential oils and natural food colours in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant Lipids has 16 processing plants across 3 Indian states and in Sri Lanka. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (open-access) article, and a later column in the same journal, refer to the finding that higher blood lipid levels seem to correspond to greater clinical response to the medication. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) established recommendations for targeted screening of youths aged ≥2 years for abnormal blood lipid levels ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1815, Henry Braconnot classified lipids ( graisses ) in two categories, suifs (solid greases or tallow) and huiles (fluid oils). (wikipedia.org)
  • As consumer demand for functional foods and supplements containing healthy lipids and oils continues to soar, global demand for fish oils and omega oils (omega-3, omega-6, omega-7, & omega-9) will continue to climb. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In this NutraIngredients and FoodNavigator online event, we bring you the latest consumer and market insights, scientific developments and technical innovations in the nutritional lipids and oils space. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Internationally recognised experts will present information on the techniques used to analyse components that are of interest to the lipids, oils & fats industry, food manufacturers & producers and researchers in this field. (soci.org)
  • This event is aimed at anyone working with oils, fats and lipids including processors, manufacturers, food companies and researchers and will be of particular interest to those involved in the analysis of lipids for QC, regulatory, research and investigative / consultancy purposes. (soci.org)
  • 37 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 36 , wherein the vegetable-base raw materials are selected from the group consisting of vegetable oils, hydrated vegetable oils, vegetable waxes and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 38 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of mango seed oil, meadowfoam seed oil, macadamia nut oil, shea butter, jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 39 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the hydrogenated vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of hydrogenated cottonseed oil, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated coco-glycerides, hydrogenated jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 41 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the content of vegetable oils is in a range of between 1 and 65% by weight with respect to the total weight of the preparation. (google.ca)
  • 44 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the content of vegetable oils is in a range of between 5 and 45% by weight with respect to the total weight of the preparation. (google.ca)
  • A few species of plants, such as desert shrubs, use liquid wax as fats, according to Cyber Lipid. (ehow.com)
  • The new Lipidyzer™ Platform enables you to rapidly and accurately differentiate and quantitate over a thousand lipid species, and translates your data into knowledge with ease and efficiency. (news-medical.net)
  • 9. Ether-linked lipids and their bioactive species (F. Snyder, Ten-ching Lee, R.L. Wykle). (elsevier.com)
  • Polyprenyl-phosphates were identified in the lipid extracts of all three species. (wur.nl)
  • SQDG, an anionic lipid was found to be the species of the membrane that increased the MgdA activity 7-fold whereas two other lipids (PG and PE) had only minor effects on MgdA. (diva-portal.org)
  • These tails are repelled by water and dissolve readily in organic solvents, giving the molecule its lipid character. (britannica.com)
  • This process involved the removal of a terminal sugar group by the enzyme α-galactosidase, thus permitting the association of the modified lipid with the presenting molecule CD1d. (sciencemag.org)
  • The acid capacity of the mixed lipids increased, a result of the formation of an ionic bond between the sulfate of one molecule and the positive nitrogen of the other, making the phosphate available for direct titration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids across the membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast, sterols have a complex hydrocarbon ring structure as the lipid-soluble region and a hydroxyl grouping as the water-soluble region. (britannica.com)
  • Unsaturation in the hydrocarbon chains of lipid bilayers supports the liquid crystal state of bilayers in biology, essential to the proper functioning of membrane enzymes. (els.net)
  • Saturated, trans and unsaturated fats are all types of lipids, but unsaturated fats are healthier choices. (livestrong.com)
  • A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. (nih.gov)
  • This Persistence Market Research (PMR) report examines the mannosylerythritol Lipids market for the forecast period 2016 - 2022. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The subsequent sections analyse the Mannosylerythritol Lipids market on the basis of technology, source of recovery, capacity, and region, and presents a forecast for the period 2016-2022. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1861 (2016)9. (wur.nl)
  • Your body uses lipids, or fats, for insulation, to cushion organs and as a source of stored energy. (livestrong.com)
  • Among different inositol lipids, the importance in transmembrane signaling and regulation of cell functions are best documented for PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. (springer.com)
  • Katan M. (2015) Inositol Lipids. (springer.com)
  • If a problem exists, it is one of quantity, in general, and specific lipids in particular. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These enzymes flip specific lipids between the inner and outer layers of the membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • The aim of this theme is to (i) set up analytical tools for characterization and quantification of lipid oxidation products (radicals, hydroperoxides, oxylipins, volatiles), (ii) monitor lipid oxidation in various types of food or food ingredients during storage and processing, (iii) understand the interaction with other food components, such as metals, proteins, and antioxidants, (iv) develop innovative and consumer-friendly methods to control lipid oxidation in food. (wur.nl)
  • Diagram showing the stalk structure, which is thought to form the intermediate in a fusion event between two lipid bilayers. (els.net)
  • Lipid bilayers are some of the most fascinating self-assembled structure in living nature. (scirp.org)
  • I. McCabe and M. Forstner, "Polymer Supported Lipid Bilayers," Open Journal of Biophysics , Vol. 3 No. 1A, 2013, pp. 59-69. (scirp.org)
  • A. van Oudenaarden and S. G. Boxer, "Brownian Ratchets: Molecular Separations in Lipid Bilayers Supported on Patterned Arrays," Science, Vol. 285, No. 5430, 1999, pp. 1046-1048. (scirp.org)
  • Rather, they indicate that the decrease in polyunsaturated membrane lipids may initially have relatively limited effects in disrupting cellular function. (pnas.org)
  • The intracellular storage and utilization of lipids are critical to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • This review deals with the enigma of organizational and functional heterogeneity of lipid rafts and discusses the dynamic coalescence of heterogeneous rafts during signaling that can explain the specificity of raft-regulated cellular signaling events. (nih.gov)
  • AstraZeneca today announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Omthera Pharmaceuticals, a specialty pharmaceutical company based in Princeton, New Jersey, focused on the development and commercialization of new therapies for abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, referred to as dyslipidemia. (news-medical.net)
  • Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood , and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • CVD risk factors, including abnormal lipid levels and elevated body mass index (BMI), often emerge during childhood and adolescence ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To provide prevalence data on abnormal lipid levels among youths, eligibility for lipid screening based on BMI, and eligibility for therapeutic lifestyle counseling among overweight youths, CDC analyzed results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1999--2006. (cdc.gov)
  • 14.2% of normal weight youths, 22.3% of overweight and 42.9% of obese had at least one abnormal lipid level. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the high prevalence of abnormal lipid levels among youths who are overweight and obese in this study, clinicians should be aware of lipid screening guidelines, especially recommendations for screening youths who are overweight or obese. (cdc.gov)
  • Significant differences in the prevalence of abnormal lipids as a function of demographic factors and overweight or obesity status were assessed using chi-square tests. (cdc.gov)
  • The fatty acid structure is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids, and is commonly used as a building-block of more structurally complex lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are polymers because they are formed by condensation reactions from fatty acid monomers and alcohols. (reference.com)
  • Diabetics with mixed dyslipidemia who were on statins and treated with the novel omega-3 fatty acid drug that is 96% pure eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improved their lipid profiles, without worsening glycemic control. (medpagetoday.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA -- Diabetics with mixed dyslipidemia who were on statins improved their lipid profiles, without worsening glycemic control, with a novel omega-3 fatty acid drug, according to researchers here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This procedure enables the study of the intestinal digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of dietary lipid in the conscious mouse. (uc.edu)
  • Our team is currently leading or collaborating on several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the clinical efficacy and biochemical effects of targeted manipulation of dietary fatty acids, which are precursors to bioactive lipid mediators including oxylipins and endocannabinoids. (nih.gov)
  • Our team is testing the effects of dietary manipulation, inflammatory stimuli, newly discovered lipid mediators, and novel drug candidates using rodent models at NIA, and in collaboration with NCCIH, NHLBI, and the Mishra Lab at N.C. State. (nih.gov)
  • Our team applies immunohistochemistry and related techniques to characterize lipid-related derangements in human and animal tissues, and to investigate the effects of lipid mediators and their dietary precursors on neuro-histological endpoints. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers posited that higher levels of optimism would be associated with healthier lipid profiles. (rwjf.org)
  • The Symposium was organized by the Japanese Organizing Committee with the cooperation of the Japanese Association of Plant Lipid Researchers. (springer.com)
  • Avanti's clients include Pharmaceutical Industries, Nutraceutical Industries and Lipid Researchers. (terrapinn.com)
  • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor blocker tocilizumab (Actemra) experienced the expected increases in lipids, but also had favorable alterations in certain types of lipid particles and other biomarkers that have been linked with vascular disease, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By measuring the radioactive isotope carbon-14, scientists at Karolinska Institutet have revealed an association between lipid cell dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes and blood lipid disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Aegerion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., an emerging biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel therapeutics to treat severe lipid disorders, announced its financial results and business highlights for the third quarter ended September 30, 2010. (news-medical.net)
  • Our lipid clinic is dedicated to caring for individuals with complex and difficult to treat lipid disorders to prevent the occurrence of heart disease, stroke, vascular disease, or non-cardiovascular disorders such as pancreatitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This lipid could serve as a way to diagnose people who are at risk of developing neurological disorders after a blast, the scientists say. (slashdot.org)
  • A new study has shown that this stimulation is promoted by pro-oxidant conditions that result in increased hepatic lipid hydroperoxide content. (jci.org)
  • For the primary analyses, we used multiple regression to examine the association between serum lipid concentrations and PANSS scores, after controlling for weight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The analyses showed that the change in serum lipid concentration predicted change in symptoms over that of change in weight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Serum lipid factors have not been demonstrated to have a strong influence on recurrent stenosis following coronary angioplasty, the pathogenesis of which is presently not well understood. (labcorp.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D supplementation to apparently healthy subjects with insufficient serum 25(OH)D levels does not improve insulin sensitivity or secretion or serum lipid profile. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemistry and Physics of Lipids publishes research papers and review articles on chemical and physical aspects of lipids with primary emphasis on the relationship of these properties to biological functions and to biomedical applications . (elsevier.com)
  • In order to prevent the generation of off-flavours and the loss of nutritional value of food due to lipid oxidation, it is important to better characterize these mechanisms. (wur.nl)
  • Two key words characterize the uniqueness of skin lipids: complexity and perversity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Efforts are underway to further characterize the biological actions of these novel lipids, and to identify their receptors and signaling pathways responsible for their activities. (nih.gov)
  • Lipids found in plants play an important part in market values. (ehow.com)
  • Vegetable oil, olive oil, canola oil and avocado oil are all acquired from plants that contain these lipids. (ehow.com)
  • In addition, special lectures were given by two outstanding scientists from animal lipid fields, Professor James Ntambi from University of Wisconsin, USA, and Dr. Masahiro Nishijima from the National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Japan. (springer.com)
  • Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids can't be made this way and must be obtained from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are synthesized in the body using complex biosynthetic pathways. (news-medical.net)
  • Our Unit is testing the effects of oxidized lipids and lipid-related signaling pathways on neuronal and glial cell viability and activities using differentiated human neural stem cells derived from circulating progenitor cells (provided in collaboration with NINDS). (nih.gov)