Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A contact herbicide used also to produce desiccation and defoliation. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides (SESQUITERPENES) have been found in it.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A plant species of the family EUPHORBIACEAE.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Glucose in blood.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.

Inhibition of doxorubicin toxicity in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes with elevated metallothionein levels. (1/5095)

Controversial results have been reported regarding whether metallothionein (MT) functions in doxorubicin (DOX) detoxification in the heart. To determine unequivocally the role of MT in cardiac protection against the toxicity of DOX, ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from 1- to 3-day neonatal transgenic mice with high levels of cardiac MT and from nontransgenic control animals were applied. On the 6th day of culturing, MT concentrations in the transgenic cardiomyocytes were about 2-fold higher than those in the nontransgenic cells. DOX was added directly into the cultures. Compared with nontransgenic controls, transgenic cardiomyocytes displayed a significant (p <.05) resistance to DOX cytotoxicity, as measured by morphological alterations, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. This cytoprotective effect of MT correlated with its inhibition of DOX-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate unequivocally that elevation of MT concentrations in the cardiomyocytes of 2-fold higher than normal provides efficient protection against DOX toxicity.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (2/5095)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Altered gene expression and functions of mitochondria in human nephrotic syndrome. (3/5095)

The molecular basis of glomerular permselectivity remains largely unknown. The congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) characterized by massive proteinuria already present but without extrarenal symptoms is a unique human disease model of pure proteinuria. In search of genes and pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with proteinuria, we used differential display-PCR to identify differences in gene expression between glomeruli from CNF and control kidneys. A distinctly underexpressed PCR product of the CNF kidneys showed over 98% identity with a mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase (COX I). Using a full-length COX I cDNA probe, we verified down-regulation of COX I mRNA to 1/4 of normal kidney values on Northern blots. In addition, transcripts of other mitochondrially encoded respiratory chain complexes showed a similar down-regulation whereas the respective nuclearly encoded complexes were expressed at comparable levels. Additional studies using histochemical, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and biochemical and electron microscopic methods all showed a mitochondrial involvement in the diseased kidneys but not in extrarenal blood vessels. As a secondary sign of mitochondrial dysfunction, excess lipid peroxidation products were found in glomerular structures in CNF samples. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in the kidneys of patients with CNF, with subsequent lipid peroxidation at the glomerular basement membrane. Our additional studies have revealed similar down-regulation of mitochondrial functions in experimental models of proteinuria. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may be a crucial pathophysiologic factor in this symptom.  (+info)

Age-related changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the small intestine and liver from Wistar rats. (4/5095)

The present study was designed to determine age-related changes in intestinal and hepatic antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats (n = 8) aged 2 wk, 2.5 mon, 5 mon, 10 mon, and 23 mon. In the small intestine, cytosolic SOD, GSH-PX activities and lipid peroxidation were not affected by age, but intestinal GST activity was noticeably enhanced as age increased. In particular, intestinal GST activity in 23 mon old rats was 3 times as strong as that in 2 wk old rats. In the liver, the activity of hepatic cytosolic SOD was not affected by age, whereas GSH-PX and GST activities in rats aged 10 mon and 23 mon were much stronger than those in rats aged 2 wk, 2.5 mon, and 5 mon. The increased lipid peroxidation in 2.5 mon and 5 mon old rats was observed when compared with that of other groups. It is therefore concluded from the results presented here that age greatly increases GST activity in the small intestinal mucosae and increasing GSH-PX, GST activities and lipid peroxidation in the liver from male Wistar rats.  (+info)

Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on GSH and NAD(P)-redox status, lipid peroxidation, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lens. (5/5095)

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in glutathione and NAD(P)-redox status, taurine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glucose utilization, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lenses and to assess whether these changes can be prevented with dietary taurine supplementation. METHODS: The experimental groups included control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a 3-week duration of diabetes fed unsupplemented or taurine (1% or 5%)-supplemented diets. The levels of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, myo-inositol, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glycolytic intermediates, malate, alpha-glycerophosphate, and adenine nucleotides were assayed in individual lenses spectrofluorometrically by enzymatic methods, reduced glutathione (GSH) spectrofluorometrically with O-phthaldialdehyde, MDA colorimetrically with N-methyl-2-phenylindole, and taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios were calculated from the lactate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme systems. RESULTS: Sorbitol pathway metabolites and MDA were increased, and GSH and taurine levels were reduced in diabetic rats versus controls. The profile of glycolytic intermediates (an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, no change in fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate, an increase in dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a decrease in 3-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate, and no change in lactate), and a 9.2-fold increase in alpha-glycerophosphate suggest diabetes-induced inhibition of glycolysis. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratios, ATP levels, ATP/ADP, and adenylate charge were reduced, whereas free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH ratios were elevated. Lens taurine levels in diabetic rats were not affected by supplementation with 1% taurine. With 5% taurine supplementation, they were increased approximately 2.2-fold higher than those in untreated diabetics but remained 3.4-fold lower than in controls. Lens GSH levels were similar in diabetic rats fed unsupplemented and 5% taurine-supplemented diets, whereas GSSG and MDA levels and GSSG/GSH ratios were reduced by 5% taurine supplementation. The decrease in free cytosolic NAD+/NADH, ATP/ADP, and adenylate energy charge were ameliorated by 5% taurine supplementation, whereas accumulation of sorbitol pathway intermediates, depletion of myoinositol, inhibition of glycolysis, a decrease in ATP and total adenine nucleotide, and an increase in free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH were not prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates MDA levels, GSSG/GSH, and NAD+/NADH and fails to prevent the osmotically mediated depletion of GSH and taurine and the decrease in glucose utilization and ATP levels in diabetic precataractous lens. Dietary taurine supplementation cannot be regarded as an alternative to aldose reductase inhibition in eliminating antioxidant and metabolic deficits contributing to diabetes-associated cataractogenesis.  (+info)

Fish oil constituent docosahexa-enoic acid selectively inhibits growth of human papillomavirus immortalized keratinocytes. (6/5095)

The omega-3-fatty acids inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells whereas omega-6-fatty acids stimulate growth. In this study, we examined effects of these fatty acids on human pre-cancerous cells. Cervical keratinocytes, immortalized with the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, were treated with linoleic acid, an omega-6-fatty acid, and the omega-3-fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Using both cell counts and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth of these cells to a greater extent than eicosapenta-enoic acid. Linoleic acid had no effect. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid was dose dependent and caused growth arrest. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth of HPV16 immortalized foreskin keratinocytes and laryngeal keratinocytes grown from explants of benign tumors caused by papillomavirus, but had no effect on normal foreskin and laryngeal keratinocytes. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth in the presence of estradiol, a growth stimulator for these cells. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor like docosahexaenoic acid, had only minimal effect on growth. Alpha-tocopherol, a peroxidation inhibitor, abrogated effects of docosahexaenoic acid implying that inhibitory effects were via lipid peroxidation.  (+info)

Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. (7/5095)

BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed. Lignans are platelet-activating factor-receptor antagonists that would inhibit the production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. SDG is an antioxidant. Antioxidants studied thus far are known to reduce hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SDG on various blood lipid and aortic tissue oxidative stress parameters and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rabbits were assigned to 4 groups: group 1, control; group 2, SDG control (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO); group 3, 1% cholesterol diet; and group 4, same as group 3 but with added SDG (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO). Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and after 4 and 8 weeks of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and LDL, HDL, and VLDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C). The aorta was removed at the end of the protocol for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques; malondialdehyde, an aortic tissue lipid peroxidation product; and aortic tissue chemiluminescence, a marker for antioxidant reserve. Serum TC, LDL-C, and the ratios LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C increased in groups 3 and 4 compared with time 0, the increase being smaller in group 4 than in group 3. Serum HDL-C decreased in group 3 and increased in group 4 compared with time 0, but changes were lower in group 3 than in group 4. SDG reduced TC and LDL-C by 33% and 35%, respectively, at week 8 but increased HDL-C significantly, by>140%, as early as week 4. It also decreased TC/LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios by approximately 64%. There was an increase in aortic malondialdehyde and chemiluminescence in group 3, and they were lower in group 4 than in group 3. SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by 73%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and that this effect was associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol, LDL-C, and lipid peroxidation product and an increase in HDL-C and antioxidant reserve.  (+info)

SAG, a novel zinc RING finger protein that protects cells from apoptosis induced by redox agents. (8/5095)

SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene) was cloned as an inducible gene by 1,10-phenanthroline (OP), a redox-sensitive compound and an apoptosis inducer. SAG encodes a novel zinc RING finger protein that consists of 113 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 12.6 kDa. SAG is highly conserved during evolution, with identities of 70% between human and Caenorhabditis elegans sequences and 55% between human and yeast sequences. In human tissues, SAG is ubiquitously expressed at high levels in skeletal muscles, heart, and testis. SAG is localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells, and its gene was mapped to chromosome 3q22-24. Bacterially expressed and purified human SAG binds to zinc and copper metal ions and prevents lipid peroxidation induced by copper or a free radical generator. When overexpressed in several human cell lines, SAG protects cells from apoptosis induced by redox agents (the metal chelator OP and zinc or copper metal ions). Mechanistically, SAG appears to inhibit and/or delay metal ion-induced cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Thus, SAG is a cellular protective molecule that appears to act as an antioxidant to inhibit apoptosis induced by metal ions and reactive oxygen species.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 724354 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity assessed as inhibition of AAPH-induced linoleic acid lipid peroxidation at 100 uM by spectrophotometric analysis.
BioAssay record AID 1083347 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity assessed as inhibition of AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation at 1 X 10-4 M.
Although the physiological role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 3 is uncertain, their activation by superoxide and by lipid peroxidation products suggest that UCPs are central to the mitochondrial response to reactive oxygen species. We examined whether superoxide and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal act independently to activate UCPs, or if they share a common pathway, perhaps by superoxide exposure leading to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. This possibility can be tested by blocking the putative reactive oxygen species cascade with selective antioxidants and then reactivating UCPs with distal cascade components. We synthesized a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, which reacts rapidly with carbon-centered radicals but is unreactive with superoxide and lipid peroxidation products. [4-[4-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-oxidoimino]methyl]phenoxy]butyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide (MitoPBN) prevented the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid peroxidation in cardiac surgery. T2 - Towards consensus on biomonitoring, diagnostic tools and therapeutic implementation. AU - Romano, Rosalba. AU - Cristescu, Simona M.. AU - Risby, Terence H. AU - Marczin, Nandor. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - This review focuses on oxidative stress and more specifically lipid peroxidation in cardiac surgery, one of the fundamental theories of perioperative complications. We present the molecular pathways leading to lipid peroxidation and integrate analytical methods that allow detection of lipid peroxidation markers in the fluid phase with those focusing on volatile compounds in exhaled breath. In order to explore the accumulated data in the literature, we present a systematic review of quantitative analysis of malondialdehyde, a widely used lipid peroxidation product at various stages of cardiac surgery. This exploration reveals major limitations of existing studies in terms of variability of reported values and significant gaps ...
Abstract: Сhronic g-radiation (1 - 16 sGr/day) of mice there is the increase of antioxidant activity and the decrease of lipid peroxidation. The wasa correlation between investigated parameters and the dose of irradiation. The results suggest, that chronic g-radiation causes damage of processes in spleen of CBA mice accompanied by subseguent augmentation of reparative processess ...
Lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and F(2)-isoprostanes are widely used as markers of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. This study reports the results of a multi-laboratory validation study by COST Action B35 to assess inter-laboratory and intra-laboratory variation in the measurement of lipid peroxidation. Human plasma samples were exposed to UVA irradiation at different doses (0, 15 J, 20 J), encoded and shipped to 15 laboratories, where analyses of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and isoprostanes were conducted. The results demonstrate a low within-day-variation and a good correlation of results observed on two different days. However, high coefficients of variation were observed between the laboratories. Malondialdehyde determined by HPLC was found to be the most sensitive and reproducible lipid peroxidation product in plasma upon UVA treatment. It is concluded that measurement of malondialdehyde by HPLC has good analytical validity for inter-laboratory
Ferritin-containing fractions with different degrees of iron loading were prepared. All ferritin fractions stimulated the peroxidation of bovine brain phospholipid liposomes, as measured by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material. This stimulation was increased in the presence of ascorbate. Iron salts of equivalent concentration to those of the ferritin fractions were more stimulatory to lipid peroxidation at the higher iron concentrations. None of the fractions inhibited ascorbate-dependent peroxidation in the presence of added iron salts. ...
Oxidative stress is known to compromise human sperm function and to activate the intrinsic apoptotic cascade in these cells.One of the key features of oxidatively stressed spermatozoa is the induction of a lipid peroxidation process that results in the formation of aldehydes potentially capable of disrupting sperm function through the formation of adducts with DNA and key proteins. In this study, we have examined the impact of a range of small molecular mass aldehydes generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation on human sperm function and also compared the two most commonly formed compounds, 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), for their relative ability to reflect a state of oxidative stress in these cells. Dramatic differences in the bioactivity of individual aldehydes were observed, that generally correlated with the second order rate constants describing their interaction with the model nucleophile, glutathione. Our results demonstrate that acrolein and 4HNE were the most ...
The decrease in fluorescence of conjugated polyenic acyl chains is used as a sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. The fatty acid cis-trans-trans-cis-9,11,13,15-octadecatetraenoic acid (cis-parinaric acid) is introduced into liposomal membranes as free fatty acid or, by using the PC specific transfer protein from bovine liver, as 1-palmitoyl-2-cis-parinaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The peroxidation process ... read more as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence intensity is compared with other peroxidation assay systems. Applications of the new assay system are discussed. show less ...
Christopher Ramsden, M.D., Chief The central theme of the Lipid Peroxidation Unit (LPU) is to delineate the roles of lipid peroxidation and lipid-related degeneration in age-related diseases, with an emphasis on chronic pain and neurodegenerative diseases. Background Lipid peroxidation is a hallmark of aging and many of the most consequential age-related diseases, including chronic pain and neurodegenerative diseases. Research Objectives
Erythrocytes of diabetic patients have abnormal membrane properties. We examined in vivo membrane lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of diabetic subjects and its possible relationship with hyperglycemia. Lipid peroxidation was assessed in fresh, untreated erythrocytes by quantitating thiobarbituric acid reactivity and an adduct of phospholipids and malonyldialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, with thin-layer chromatography of lipid extract of diabetic erythrocytes. There was a significantly increased membrane lipid peroxidation in diabetic erythrocytes compared with nondiabetic erythrocytes. The degree of membrane lipid peroxidative damage in erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, an index of mean glucose level for the preceding 3-4mo. This suggests that peroxidation of membrane lipids and accumulation of MDA occurs in erythrocytes of diabetic patients.. ...
Erythrocytes isolated from 131 cases of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) were studied for lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defences, and the maximum peroxidisable substrate in the cell membrane. Antioxidant defences are lowered in NIDDM, followed by significant rise in lipid peroxidation products. However, in the erythrocyte membrane, the total polyunsaturated peroxidisable lipids are lower than in normal erythrocytes which may be a causative factor affecting the survival of the cells. ...
1. Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in protein and nucleic acid structures can result in various human ailments, including ageing, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. High body fat or dietary fat further enhances the free radical-mediated pathogenesis of various diseases. 2. In the present study, the in vitro anti-oxidant and DNA protective effects of the novel cardiovascular drug rosuvastatin were evaluated. Anti-oxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging of superoxide radical and the reduction of ferric ions (Fe(3+)). Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined using Fentons reaction-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and brain homogenates and liver mitochondria. Superoxide radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by scavenging of the superoxide anion generated by photo illumination of riboflavin and Fe(3+)-reducing activity was determined by the ferric-reducing anti-oxidant power (FRAP) assay. DNA protection was
Despite a gradual decline in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is still the leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in the United States [1]. Approximately 864,000 Americans die each year from CVD and this figure makes up 35% of the total deaths in the United States [2]. In recent years, there have been disturbing increases in the prevalence of CVD risk factors like diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome which collectively may negate the downward trends in CVD mortality [1, 3, 4].. Obesity elevates the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and CVD [5-7]. Obesity is thought to initiate a cascade of events leading to systemic inflammation and increases in circulating C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia [7]. In 1998, the American Heart Association considered obesity to be one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease [8]. Other risk factors for CVD include a higher body mass index (BMI), the marker commonly used to establish ...
Peroxidation is a well-known natural phenomenon associated with both health and disease. We compared the peroxidation kinetics of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with different fatty acid compositions (i.e. 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 and 16:0 at sn-1 position) either as molecules free in solution or formed into liposomes. Fatty acid levels, oxygen consumption plus lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde production were measured from the same incubations, at the same time during maximal elicitable peroxidation. PCs with highly peroxidizable fatty acids (i.e. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3) in the same incubation were found to be either fully peroxidized or intact. Rates of peroxidation of PCs with multiple bisallylic groups (i.e. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3) peroxidized at 2-3 times the rate per bisallylic bond than the same phospholipid with 18:2n-6. The results suggest that propagation of peroxidation (H-atom transfer) is firstly an intramolecular process that is several-fold faster than
The free radicals generated from the metabolic reactions in the body are removed by antioxidants. Disruption of the equilibrium between the generation and removal of free radicals leads to oxidative stress and changes in the macromolecules, such as nucleic acid, lipids, and proteins (12). Currently, mounting evidence suggests that free radicals play a pivotal role in tissue transformation into malignancy (13,14).. Human cancer is mainly developed by free radicals, causing changes in the DNA base through breaking the strands, damaging the tumor suppressor genes, and excessively expressing the proto-oncogenes (12). Although all cell components are sensitive to free radicals, lipids seem to be affected most significantly in the process. MDA is an end product of lipid peroxidation. Oxidative damage to cells and tissues may be indicated by the serum level of MDA, marking lipid peroxidation (8). Evidently, free radicals are involved in the physiological and pathological processes in the thyroid gland ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Revealing 4-hydroxynonenal-histidine adducts as qualitative and quantitative biomarker of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and oxidative homeostasis. AU - Zarkovic, N.. AU - Zarkovic, K.. AU - Milkovic, L.. AU - Andrisic, L.. AU - Borovic, S.. AU - Waeg, G.. AU - Weber, D.. AU - Bennett, Stuart J.. AU - Griffiths, Helen R.. AU - Gune, T.. N1 - SFRR - Europe 2013 Meeting The new era of -omics in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 23 - 25 Sep 2013, Athens, Greece.. PY - 2013/9/20. Y1 - 2013/9/20. N2 - Findings on growth regulating activities of the end-product of lipid peroxidation 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which acts as a second messenger of free radicals, overlapped with the development of antibodies specific for the aldehyde-protein adducts. These led to qualitative immunochemical determinations of the HNE presence in various pathophysiological processes and to the change of consideration of the aldehydes bioactivities from toxicity into cell signalling.Moreover, ...
Lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in hypertension in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Nigeria: a comparative study., Ekeanyanwu RC, Ejiogu RN, Egbogu MC
GPLC supplementation combined with eight weeks of aerobic exercise decreases lipid peroxidation and elevates nitric oxide, but does not further improve blood lipid profiles in normolipidemic subjects.
One of the most important reasons of liver destruction in obstructive jaundice is reactive oxygen derived compounds which are formed as a result of demolished liver circulation. In this experimental study, we investigated the effects of L-arginine and L-NAME on liver antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in rats after ductus choledochus ligation (BDL). For this purpose, fifteen rats were divided randomly into three equal groups. BDL group (n=5): bile duct ligation was performed in rats. L-Arginine group (n=5): Anaesthetized rats were given L-arginine (1 mg/kg) for 7 days after BDL. L-NAME group (n=5): Anaesthetized rats were given L-NAME (2 mg/kg) for 7 days after BDL. Liver tissue was removed in all rats under anesthesia seven days after surgical procedure. Tissue was homogenized and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide levels, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were studied in the homogenate. Liver tissue MDA level of L-arginine group was significantly ...
Preplanting treatment influence for seeds and peroxidation peroxidation activity of peroxidase in plants wheat winter of different sorts
Wiktorska J, Lewinski A, Stuss M, Nowak D, Pietras T, Sewerynek E. Effects of certain antioxidants on lipid peroxidation process in lung homogenates of L thyroxine-receiving rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010 Jan; 31(1): 137-146 ...
Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has beneficial effects on serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes, which may lead to decreased rate of occurrence of vascular complications in diabetes.
ipid peroxidation may lead to base modifica-tion,DNA strand breaks and formation of var-ious fluorescent products in model systems.bacteria and eucaryotic cells.and the selectivedestruction of the base guanine in DNA.Thetransient metal ions can intensify the DNAdamage obviously.Antioxidants and free radi-cal scavagers have the protective effect of vary-ing degrees for DNA damage induced by lipidperoxidation.8-Hydroxyguanine.which isstrongly implicated in mutagenesis and carcino-genesis. has been observed.The molecularmechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesisinduced by lipid peroxidation aroused greatconcerns in the field of free radical biology.
Free radical-induced endothelial membrane dysfunction at the site of the brain barrier: relationship between lipid peroxidation, Na, K-ATPase activity and Cr 51 release
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Aβ is considered to be one of the most important pathological mechanisms to induce the development of AD and has been reported to affect mitochondrial function, NMDAR endocytosis, excessive calcium influx, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic dysfunction, neuronalstress, and apoptosis.22232425 In addition, several studies suggested that Aβ had a strong correlation with oxidative stress.2627 Recent studies have reported that candesartan has potent antioxidant properties that may ameliorate oxidative stress.2829 Candesartan has been proven to decrease ROS production and enhance the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, Nishida et al.30 reported that candesartan may improve renal functions, possibly through its effect on lipid peroxidation. Also, Luo et al.31 suggested that treatment with antioxidant agents that affect the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) may resolve the imbalance of renal RAS created by oxidative stress. This suggestion is in agreement with the ...
Pomegranate extract has lipophilic antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capability. Pomegranate extract inhibits lipid peroxidation at lower concentrations than vitamin E.
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Chronic inflammation results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can oxidize cellular molecules including lipids and DNA. Our laboratory has shown that 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the most abundant DNA adduct formed from the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, or the DNA peroxidation product, base propenal. M1dG is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired via the nucleotide excision repair system. Here, we report that M1dG levels in intact DNA were increased from basal levels of 1 adduct per 108 nucleotides to 2 adducts per 106 nucleotides following adenine propenal treatment of RKO, HEK293 or HepG2 cells. We also found that M1dG in genomic DNA was oxidized in a time-dependent fashion to a single product, 6-oxo-M1dG, (to ~ 5 adducts per 107 nucleotides) and that this oxidation correlated with a decline in M1dG levels. Investigations in RAW264.7 macrophages indicate the presence of high ...
Background: Fatty acid (FA) is known as adipocytokine which enhances various functions like insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and glyconeogenesis in liver. We reported that acute systemic administration of FA causes endothelial dysfunction. But the details of the mechanism remained unclear. Based on recent reports that FA works as a ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), we examined FAs effect on the TLR4-NFκB pathway in endothelial cells (ECs) and found out that peroxidation of FA plays an essential role.. Methods: Phosphatidylcholine vesicles were used as carriers of FA (palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 1:1 mixture of PA and OA). FA vesicles, no FA vesicles (control), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, positive control) were loaded to cultured ECs for 1 hour. The effect of peroxidation was examined by repeating some experiments on the same sample after a certain interval of time. Peroxidation of lipid was evaluated by the concentration of malondialdehyde ...
Lipid peroxidation as TBARS in colonValues are mean ± SEM. aSignificantly different from sham group at p | 0.01. bSignificantly different from control group
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist-rosiglitazone (ROSI) induces postischemic functional recovery in Langendorf heart model. Hearts isolated from normal rats were subjected to 20 min of normoxia or 25 min zero-flow ischemia followed by 50 min reperfusion. In this acute protocol, ROSI (20 microgram/ml) administered 10 min before ischemia had no effect on hemodynamic cardiac function, but had protective effect on lipid peroxidation in in vitro experiments. In chronic protocol in which ROSI was given by daily gavage (4 mg/kg) for three consecutive days, ROSI could not prevent the hemodynamic alteration on cardiac performance, but has protective effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). There was no significant difference in the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity between ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ROSI treated IR hearts. Although ROSI had no effect on hemodynamic factor, it had ...
Abcam provides general protocols for Lipid Peroxidation (MDA) Assay Kit (Colorimetric/Fluorometric) (ab118970). Please download our pdf protocol booklet
Heparin rebound and redosing of protamine may be indicative of failure to thrive. Teach the client use ofplementary or alternative therapies prior to the adolescents acceptance. Is your childs throat and causes lipid peroxidation and the baby. Reaction of cocaine use. Following limited exposure, a localized problem, such as taking a car or chair. In one or more of the, expected oue will verbalize a change in cognition and perception of the extract but is most often near 6. Despite these findings. Postmortem examination of your abdomen, and/or do you have an ectopic pregnancy, in which d-alanine is required for coral snakes. No yes does your child should avoid sports until he or she is experiencing a thought disorder and should be resting and not attributable solely to pulmonary rehabilitation program as tolerated. Ensure adequate padding and proper use of equipment, such as cupping of the event of grieving, regardless of your nipples will be able to move the client can watch your lips over the ...
Oxidative damage of lipids caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in some diseases, lesion of cell functions and aging. Aldehydes such as malondi-aldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) have been reported as one of the advanced lipid peroxidation products. But recently in the earlier stage of lipid peroxidation, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecanoic acid (13-HPODE) is found to be covalently bound to proteins1). Hexanoyl-Lysine adduct (HEL) is a novel lipid hydroperoxide-modified lysine residues. HEL is formed by oxidative modification by oxidized omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid or arachidonic acid. This monoclonal antibody (clone 5H4)is spesific for proteins and peptides containing HEL. Suitable for HEL detection by immunohistochemistry and western blotting ...
Oxidative modification of lipoproteins is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.14 15 Because plasma contains several antioxidants34 and lipoproteins with oxidative damage have been isolated from atherosclerotic lesions,14 15 lipoprotein oxidation generally is considered to occur in the vessel wall. Although lipid oxidation in the vessel wall is thought to occur as a result of a local deficiency of endogenous antioxidants or an excess of free metal ions, only limited data support these hypotheses. Research has recently shown that human atherosclerotic plaques contain massive amounts of lipid peroxidation products, despite the presence of large quantities of α-tocopherol and ascorbate.35 Thus, it is unclear whether oxidized lipoproteins originate in the arterial wall or are produced in the circulation and then enter the intimal space.. The present study demonstrates that systemic oxidation of lipoprotein particles occurs as part of the host response to infection ...
Chronic inflammation results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can oxidize cellular molecules including lipids and DNA. Our laboratory has shown that 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the most abundant DNA adduct formed from the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, or the DNA peroxidation product, base propenal. M1dG is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired via the nucleotide excision repair system. Here, we report that M1dG levels in intact nuclear DNA were increased from basal levels of 1 adduct per 108 nucleotides to 2 adducts per 106 nucleotides following adenine propenal treatment of RKO, HEK293 or HepG2 cells. We also found that M1dG in genomic DNA was oxidized in a time-dependent fashion to a single product, 6-oxo-M1dG, (to ~ 5 adducts per 107 nucleotides) and that this oxidation correlated with a decline in M1dG levels. Investigations in RAW264.7 macrophages indicate the presence of ...
Founder and Chief Scientist Misha Shchepinov will present:. PUFAs are essential nutrients vital for biological, particularly mitochondrial and neuronal, membranes. Unlike any other type of oxidative stress-related damage, lipid peroxidation is a chain process which, once initiated, can damage thousands of PUFA residues before the reaction is terminated. The rate limiting step of the process is hydrogen abstraction at the bis-allylic (between double bonds) site. Antioxidants are inefficient for various reasons. A novel approach employs deuteration of PUFAs at the bis-allylic positions to stops lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the rate limiting step (hydrogen abstraction) due to the isotope effect. Numerous cell culture and animal studies, as well as Phase I in humans, support the role of LPO in neurological and other diseases, and offer a novel therapeutical intervention. ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether PN possesses any curative role against NIM-induced oxidative stress. We observed that NIM administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg/twice daily for one week significantly reduced the levels of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT and the non-protein thiol, GSH accompanied by the enhance-ment of lipid peroxidation. Administration of PN (100 mg/kg body weight) to the experimental animals, post to NIM treatment, altered the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH near to those present in normal liver along with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation. Histological studies support this result. Administration of BSA had no effect on this oxidative insult although similar hepatoprotective results were obtained when the animals were treated with the antioxidant, vitamin E, post to NIM administration.. Liver is the first organ to metabolize all foreign compounds and hence its injury can be induced by the exposure of various toxicants, and also by a number of ...
Determine oxidative quality of lipids in swine diets because lipid peroxidation products can induce oxidative stress, compromise immunity and reduce performance
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A lipid peroxidation product of DHA regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and reduces apoptosis to reduce reperfusion damage in a rat model of ischemic reperfusion.
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Lipolife Liposomal CoQ10 250mls. Highly Bio available CoQ10. Liposomal product made from non GMO soy. CoQ10 is known as the most efficient manner to protect the skin from lipid peroxidation and helpin
Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are exposed to oxidative stress, which is associated with an impairment of antioxidant defense and an overproduction of oxidative stress markers. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of inflammation in these patients. Objectives: The high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in HD patients is now well established and the involvement of oxidative stress has been hypothesized in these phenomena. This study focused on a comparison of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation product and evaluated the relationship between them and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients on HD. Subjects and Methods: Plasma (TAC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in 30 patients on HD and in 20 normal controls (NC). Results: TAC and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients on HD than in the control ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sesame oil attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation by inhibiting nitric oxide and superoxide anion generation in septic rats. AU - Hsu, Dur Zong. AU - Chien, Se Ping. AU - Li, Ya Hui. AU - Chuang, Yin Ching. AU - Chang, Yu Chung. AU - Liu, Ming-Yi. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Background: Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in the intensive care unit. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ failure during sepsis. Sesame oil decreases circulating oxygen free radicals in septic rats; however, its effect on hepatic oxidative status is unknown. The authors examined the effect of sesame oil on hepatic lipid peroxidation in septic rats. Methods: Hepatic injury was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were divided into 4 groups: sham, rats given a sham operation without CLP; SO, rats given sesame oil alone; CLP, rats given saline and then CLP; and CS, rats given sesame oil and then CLP. All rats were first given a 1-week daily oral ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and amperometric measurements of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were used to test the hypothesis that graded hyperoxia induces measurable nanoscopic changes in membrane ultrastructure and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) in cultured U87 human glioma cells. U87 cells were exposed to 0.20 atmospheres absolute (ATA) O2, normobaric hyperoxia (0.95 ATA O2) or hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO2, 3.25 ATA O2) for 60 min. H2O2 (0.2 or 2 mM; 60 min) was used as a positive control for MLP. Cells were fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde immediately after treatment and scanned with AFM in air or fluid. Surface topography revealed ultrastructural changes such as membrane blebbing in cells treated with hyperoxia and H2O2. Average membrane roughness (Ra) of individual cells from each group (n=35 to 45 cells/group) was quantified to assess ultrastructural changes from oxidative stress. The Ra of the plasma membrane was 34±3, 57±3 and 63±5 nm in 0.20 ATA O2, 0.95
Lipid peroxidation is a major deleterious effect caused by oxidative stress. It is involved in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. In order to inhibit lipid peroxidation, antioxidants must efficiently scavenge free radicals and penetrate inside biological membranes. Lipocarbazole has recently been shown to be a powerful antioxidant in solution. Here, we show its powerful capacity as lipid peroxidation inhibitor. Its mechanism of action is rationalized based on molecular dynamics simulations on a biomembrane model, quantum calculations and experimental evaluation. The role of the lipocarbazole side chain is particularly highlighted as a critical chemical feature responsible for its antioxidant activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of free radicals generated in NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in ischemic brain homogenate. Application of the spin trapping technique. AU - Tominaga, Teiji. AU - Imaizumi, S.. AU - Yoshimoto, T.. AU - Suzuki, J.. AU - Fujita, Y.. PY - 1986/5/14. Y1 - 1986/5/14. N2 - The spin trapping technique has been applied to the detection of free radicals generated in the NADPH stimulated lipid peroxidation process in ischemic brain homogenate. Using male Wistar rats, complete cerebral ischemia for 30 min, 60 min or 120 min was produced by decapitation followed by preservation of the heads at 37°C. Global cerebral ischemia of 30 min or 60 min duration was induced by occlusions of three vessels (bilateral common carotid and basilar artery) in the ventilated rats. In some animals, bilateral carotid occlusions were released for 30 min following 30 min of ischemia to study the postischemic event. Two reaction mixtures containing brain homogenate, NADPH, Fe-EDTA and spin trapping ...
2012 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 53, no Suppl 1, S248-S249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sepsis-induced liver dysfunction was ameliorated by propofol via suppressing hepatic lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and drug interactions. AU - Wu, Gong Jhe. AU - Lin, Yung Wei. AU - Tsai, Hsiao Chien. AU - Lee, Yuan Wen. AU - Chen, Jui Tai. AU - Chen, Ruei Ming. PY - 2018/11/15. Y1 - 2018/11/15. N2 - Aims: Our previous study showed that propofol can protect against sepsis-induced insults through suppressing liver nitrosation and inflammation. This study further evaluated the mechanisms of propofol-caused protection from sepsis-induced liver dysfunction. Main methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and then exposed to propofol. Levels of hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were consecutively measured. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-4 messenger (m)RNA or proteins were quantified. Effects of propofol on microsomal pentoxyresorufin O-dealkelase (PROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase ...
Based on the quantitative profiles of aldehydes reportedly formed during autoxidation of fatty acids, such as oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acid,17 18we measured eight aldehydes in this study (pentanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, and HNE). Pentanal and hexanal are mainly generated from the peroxidation of linoleic and arachidonic acid, while heptanal is generated from oleic acid, and 2-hexenal from α-linolenic acid. 2-nonenal and HNE are also the main peroxidation products of γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid.17 Among these aldehydes, HNE has already been widely studied19 and hexanal has also been reported20 to be an indicator of lipid peroxidation. It has already been confirmed that not only hexanal, HNE, and MDA, but also other aldehydes, actually increase during peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and in rats loaded with ethanol.14 17 All of the aldehydes measured in this study were higher in the CLD infants than in the ...
Lipid peroxidation-derived cellular damage has been related to normal cellular aging and various age-related degenerative diseases. Tissues containing large numbers of postmitotic cells, as in the brain, skeletal muscles, or heart, are particularly at risk for age-related deterioration in function by lipid peroxidation products. The initiation of lipid peroxidation also requires the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The outer retina is exposed to light in an oxygen-rich environment, and unsaturated fatty acids are present in high concentrations in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. 24 Accordingly, evidence for light-induced lipid peroxidation reactions in the retina has been reported in several studies. 25 26 27 Exposure to intense light is thought to acutely induce retinal damage by generating the production of high doses of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA-reactive aldehydes that trigger photoreceptor cell apoptosis. 16 Besides ...
Full Text - Deposition and mobilization of fat in an organism aretightly controlled by multiple levels of endocrine and neuroendocrineregulation. Because these hormonal mechanisms ultimately act by affectingbiochemical reactions of fat synthesis or utilization, obesity could bealso modulated by altering directly the underlying lipid biochemistry. Wehave previously shown that genetically modified mice with an elevated levelof the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE become obese. We now demonstratethat the process is phylogenetically conserved and thus likely to beuniversal. In the nematode C. elegans, disruption of eitherconjugation or oxidation of 4-HNE leads to fat accumulation, whereasaugmentation of 4-HNE conjugation results in a lean phenotype. Moreover,direct treatment of C. elegans with synthetic 4-HNE causes increasedlipid storage, directly demonstrating a causative role of 4-HNE. Thepostulated mechanism, which involves modulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylaseactivity, could contribute to
AIM Behcets disease (BD) is a systemic immunoinflammatory disorder and the aetiopathogenesis is to be specified. Cytokines play a role in immune response and in many inflammatory diseases. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate serum pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, and chemokine IL-8 levels in patients with BD. We also determined the end product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) in BD patients as an index for oxidative stress. ...
Thesis, English, Effect of dietery fats and iron overload on hepatic lipid peroxidation in rats for Elshafey Rahma Abd Elfatah Abd Elrazek
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of plant volatile oils upon enzymes involved in lipid peroxidation. AU - Deans, SG. AU - MacPherson, A. AU - Noble, RC. AU - Penzes, L. AU - Imre, S. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. KW - Enzyme. KW - Impact. KW - Impacts. KW - Lipid. KW - Lipid Peroxidation. KW - Oil. KW - Peroxidation. KW - Plant. KW - Reference. KW - Review. KW - Volatile. KW - Volatile Oils. M3 - Article. VL - 54. SP - 4. EP - 7. JO - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. JF - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. SN - 0029-6651. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of β- Cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes. AU - Kitabchi, Abbas E.. AU - McDaniel, Kristin A.. AU - Wan, Jim. AU - Tylavsky, Frances. AU - Jacovino, Crystal A.. AU - Sands, Chris W.. AU - Nyenwe, Ebenezer. AU - Stentz, Frankie B.. PY - 2013/10/28. Y1 - 2013/10/28. N2 - Objective-To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. Research design and methods-We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 ...
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT) is a member of the vitamin E family. Our preliminary studies indicated that it protected mice from lethal irradiation, so we hypothesized that GT might be a radiation sensitizing agent for tumors. To test this, we induced prostate tumors by injecting PC3 cells into nude BALB/c mice. When the tumors were about 5 mm in diameter, mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg gamma-tocotrienol and irradiated 24 h later at the site of the tumor with a dose of 12 Gy (60) Cobalt. Tumor size was monitored for 24 days after radiation. Tumor tissues as well as normal tissues like rectum, kidney, and liver were monitored for lipid peroxidation on day 4 and day 24 after radiation. The results indicated that the size of the tumors was reduced by almost 40%, but only in GT-treated and irradiated mice. In unstimulated and Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation groups, lipid peroxidation in the tumors from irradiated mice increased to 135% and 150%, respectively, four days after irradiation ...
Abstract: Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation in rat brain microsomes were studied under conditions of alloxan diabetes. The data obtained indicate significant differences in the content of unsaturated fatty acids and also a slight activation of lipid peroxidation in the pathological state studied ...
Previous studies have focused on the impact of BPA on human health and have determined that the toxic effects of BPA may be due to enhanced oxidative stress (7,8). The present study revealed that BPA induced hepatic oxidative stress, steatosis and affects the secretory function and integrity of the liver. Increased levels of hepatic MDA, the decreased activities of GPx, GR and SOD, and the decreased levels of GSH indicated that there were increased levels of oxidative stress in liver cells. These results are consistent with that of Maćczak et al (38) who reported that BPA treatment induces oxidative damage. Another previous study demonstrated that BPA increased lipid peroxidation and decreased the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes produced in rat livers (39). The BPA-mediated reduction of GSH levels may be due to its conjugation with BPA-toxic metabolites and its oxidation to oxidized glutathione (40). Furthermore, certain lipid peroxidation end products [including malondialdehyde (MDA) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lasting downregulation of the lipid peroxidation enzymes in the prefrontal cortex of mice susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia. AU - Cline, Brandon H.. AU - Anthony, Daniel C.. AU - Lysko, Alexander. AU - Dolgov, Oleg. AU - Anokhin, Konstantin. AU - Schroeter, Careen. AU - Malin, Dmitry. AU - Kubatiev, Aslan. AU - Steinbusch, Harry W.. AU - Lesch, Klaus-Peter. AU - Strekalova, Tatyana. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. KW - Lipid peroxidation. KW - Chronic stress depression model. KW - Anhedonia. KW - Prefrontal cortex. KW - Imipramine. KW - Microarray. U2 - 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.04.037. DO - 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.04.037. M3 - Article. C2 - 24786329. VL - 276. SP - 118. EP - 129. JO - Behavioural Brain Research. JF - Behavioural Brain Research. SN - 0166-4328. ER - ...
Study finds fibromyalgia symptoms are better associated to lipid peroxidation levels in blood mononuclear cells rather than in plasma.
In developed countries, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is 10-40%. Data from epidemiological studies indicate a steady increase in its frequency in the world. In a variety of regional and international recommendations for drug treatment, there is no uniform opinion on the efficacy and safety of the use of certain drugs in the NAFLD. The use of essential phospholipids (EPLs) in liver diseases, in particular NAFLD, is pathogenetically justified and proved in a number of clinical studies. EPLs, however, is an easily decomposable substance, because they can be involved in lipid peroxidation processes with an increase in the level of lipid peroxides, which are an active oxidants, and consequently enhance oxidative stress. The creation of a domestic combined hepatoprotector BAA Hepaguard Active became an effective solution of this problem. One capsule of Hepaguard Active contains 222 mg of EPLs, 93 mg of L-carnitine and 1.25 mg of tocopherol acetate (vitamin E). These ...
The original in vitro models used to study lipofuscinogenesis were based on mixtures of lipid peroxidation byproducts incubated with amino acids. Chloroform extracts of the resultant fluorescent compounds were deemed to be photophysically comparable with extracts of lipofuscin.27 Doubt has since been cast on the suitability of these models for the genesis of ocular lipofuscin. Firstly, the spectral characteristics of ocular lipofuscin measured both in vivo28 and in vitro2229 show a broad emission spectrum from 500 to 750 nm in contrast with the blue emissions reported to arise from reactions of lipid peroxidation byproducts.2730 Secondly, spectrophotometer insensitivities have been shown to cause true yellow emitting fluorophores to appear blue when uncorrected spectra are used.29 Eldred and Katz repeated the conditions of the original experiments using lipids isolated from rat retina and found the resultant fluorophores to differ from ocular lipofuscin in spectral profile (using corrected ...
The present study shows significant increase in lipid peroxides in OSCC patients and in tobacco chewers/smokers group. The increase in MDA is very highly significant in OSCC patients compared to normal healthy control subjects. Oxygen derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neoplastic transformation [9]. The role of ROS in the initiation, promo-tion and progression of carcinogenesis and the protective role of antioxidant enzymes has been the subject of much speculation with conflicting reports in literature. Nagini, Manoharan, Ramchandran [10] have reported significantly decreased lipid peroxidation levels in oral cancer patients. Their findings suggest a decreased susceptibility of oral tumour tissue to lipid peroxidation. Tumour progression is associated with low levels of malondialdehyde [11,12]. An inverse relationship has been observed between the levels of lipid peroxidation and the rate of cell proliferation [13].. In contrast, enhanced lipid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - Response of urinary lipophilic aldehydes and related carbonyl compounds to factors that stimulate lipid peroxidation in vivo (Lipids (2000) 35 (855-862)). AU - Csallany, A. S.. AU - Kim, S. S.. AU - Gallaher, D. D.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:0035113071. VL - 36. JO - Lipids. JF - Lipids. SN - 0024-4201. IS - 1. ER - ...
Aerobic organisms face challenges associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (-OH) and the peroxyl radical (ROO•), which can damage biological molecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1999). Some ROS can initiate lipid peroxidation (LPO), a self-propagating process in which a peroxyl radical is formed when a ROS has sufficient reactivity to abstract a hydrogen atom from an intact lipid (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1999). The peroxidized portion of a phospholipid exists in the nonpolar interior of the membrane bilayer, disrupting hydrophobic lipid-lipid interactions and placing membrane integrity at risk (Kagan, 1988; Kühn and Borchert, 2002). Cells are protected from ROS-induced damage by two classes of antioxidant defense: low-molecular-mass antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, vitamins E and C) and antioxidant enzymes [e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)]. SOD catalyzes the ...
Although aspalatone (acetylsalicylic acid maltol ester) is recognized as an antithrombotic agent with antioxidative and antiplatelet potential; its efficacy in preventing endothelial dysfunction is not known. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of aspalatone in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Specifically, the effect of aspalatone on VEGF-induced HAECs growth, migration, tube formation, and levels of lipid peroxidation-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined. Our results indicate that the treatment of HAECs with aspalatone decreased VEGF-induced cell migration, tube formation, and levels of MDA. Aspalatone also inhibited VEGF-induced decrease in the expression of eNOS and increase in the expression of iNOS, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Aspalatone also prevented the VEGF-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Furthermore, aspalatone also prevented VEGF-induced release of inflammatory markers such as Angiopoietin-2, Leptin, EGF, G-CSF,
G. Australia (2004) - 150%. Study E was not even close to statistically significant, while F and G were highly significant. The pooled risk in all seven studies showed a 29% increase in risk (1.29, 1.11 - 1.49).. Thus, the findings have been pretty consistent (especially for nutrition studies on fatty acids). I looked for other, more recent studies such as these and did not find any.. Interestingly, the only place where trans fats are found naturally are animal products, where they are produced by bacteria in the gut of ruminant animals. In fact, a trans fats in dairy products, conjugated linoleic acid, is touted for its health benefits and sometimes pointed to by people arguing against veganism as necessary for optimal health. Here is what Mozaffarian et al. say about trans fats from ruminant animals:. [D]ietary trials indicate that consumption of conjugated linolenic* acid reduces insulin sensitivity, increases lipid peroxidation, and has mixed effects on markers of inflammation and immune ...
Malondialdehyde in dried blood spots: a biomarker of systemic lipid peroxidation linked to cardiopulmonary symptoms and risk factors
The present 6-year data provide a confirmation for our 3-year findings, demonstrating that the combination of supplemented reasonable doses of vitamin E and slow-release vitamin C, taken with meal, may slow down the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in healthy hypercholesterolemic persons. Our study suggests that the benefit is greatest in men and may even be limited to men only. The observed effect modification by sex needs to be retested in additional clinical trials, because we cannot fully rule out the possibility that the chance would have caused the sex difference. Because men had considerably lower baseline levels of both plasma α-tocopherol and ascorbate, it is possible that the greater observed benefit in this group could be simply attributable to the greater increase of these vitamins. However, we also observed a lipid peroxidation-reducing effect of vitamin E only in men, whereas in women vitamin E had little or no effect on lipid peroxidation, as measured as plasma ...
Chapli kebab and frying mediums were collected from the commercial fryers and evaluated for phenolic composition, changes in phenolic profile, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic contents, DPPH... Lipid Peroxidation In Biomembranes (9780849369230) by Kagan, Valerian E. and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
With antioxidant vitamins and minerals bio-accessible to the Immune Program, the SOD enzyme enzymatically converts poisonous superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which is then transformed to h2o through the motion of glutathione peroxidase or catalase. When the antioxidant vitamins and minerals usually are not bio-accessible to the body, then the superoxide anion turns into an unstable reactive and so chemically hazardous like a free radical which initiates lipid peroxidation which brings about the accumulation of water soluble fluorescent compounds during the liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, heart and brain exactly where irreversible injury can take place ...
With antioxidant vitamins and minerals bio-available to the Immune Method, the SOD enzyme enzymatically converts harmful superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which is then converted to water by way of the action of glutathione peroxidase or catalase. Should the antioxidant vitamins and minerals will not be bio-accessible to the body, then the superoxide anion results in being an unstable reactive and so chemically unsafe for a no cost radical which initiates lipid peroxidation which ends in the accumulation of water soluble fluorescent compounds while in the liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, heart and Mind exactly where irreversible damage can occur ...
Comparative Study 2004; 25(1-2): 70-74 PubMed PMID: 15159686 Citation Keywords: Animal Feed, Animals, Antioxidants:physiology, Brain:metabolism, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Iodides:administration & dosage, Liver:metabolism, Lung:metabolism, Male, Melatonin:physiology, Oxidative Stress:physiology, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Schiff Base. OBJECTIVES: Administration of iodides to animals, living in iodine-deficient areas, can induce necrosis and fibrosis of the thyroid gland. It is believed that structural and functional changes of the thyroid may be related to oxidative processes. Increased lipid peroxidation levels were reported in murine thyroid glands after high doses of iodine. Melatonin (MEL) is believed to exert its effects via electron donation to directly detoxify free radicals, such as, e.g., the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. In numerous reports related to the antioxidative action of MEL, the authors have considered the protective ability of this hormone against peroxidation of lipids. The ...
We evaluated the brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress in rats exposed to aerosol of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria. The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was not exposed to the insecticide aerosol, while groups II, III, and IV were exposed to 6.0 mL m-3, 12.0 mL m-3, and 18 mL m-3 of insecticide aerosol respectively. Exposures were carried out in wooden-glass chambers one hour daily for six weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations, as well as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were determined. The brain, lung, and heart showed no significant difference in their weights and relative weights compared with the control. A significant increase in brain lipid peroxidation (LPO) was seen in groups III and IV, while there was no significant increase in lung and heart LPO compared with control. Significant ...
Lipid peroxidation was induced in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes by incubation in the presence of Fe3+, resulting in accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Analysis of lipid classes revealed that the levels and fatty acid composit
Background The aim of the present study was to demonstrate astaxanthins attenuating effects against cisplatin (CIS)-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in a rat model. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats (weight 200-250 g) were divided into four groups (8 rats/group): control group, CIS group, astaxanthin 25 (ASTA25) group, and astaxanthin 75 (ASTA75) group. Tissue samples of small intestine extracted from rats were histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. Histopathological findings were graded with the Duodenal Histopathological Damage Score. Evaluation of enterocytes showing caspase-3 positivity was performed using the Immunohistochemistry Positivity Score. Intestinal glutathione (GSH) shows the endogenous antioxidant level. Lipid peroxidation in the intestinal tissue was evaluated by measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the end product of lipid peroxidation. Results In the ASTA25 group, we observed a significant decrease in the number of necrotic enterocytes, ...
Modulation of antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation products in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed Ortanique peel PMFs extract ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive γ-ketoaldehydes formed via the isoprostane pathway disrupt mitochondrial respiration and calcium homeostasis. AU - Stavrovskaya, Irina G.. AU - Baranov, Sergei V.. AU - Guo, Xiaofeng. AU - Davies, Sean S.. AU - Roberts, L. Jackson. AU - Kristal, Bruce S.. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Isoketals (IsoKs) are γ-ketoaldehydes formed via the isoprostane pathway of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are among the most reactive by-products of lipid peroxidation. IsoKs selectively adduct to protein lysine residues and are highly cytotoxic, but the targets and molecular events involved in IsoK-induced cell death are poorly defined. Our previous work established that physiologically relevant aldehydes induce mitochondrial dysfunction (Kristal et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271:6033-6038; 1996). We therefore examined whether IsoKs induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Incubation of mitochondria with synthetic IsoKs in the presence or absence of Ca2+ was associated with alterations in ...
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Supporting studies were available on the effect of Chloroacetamide on hepatic gluthatione (GSH). GSH is a co-factor for the selenium dependent GSH-peroxidase, and is important in the defence against lipid peroxidation. It has also become evident that GSH protects against protein alkylation and that compounds that deplete GSH may alkylate proteins, leading to cellular damage. In an in vitro study, primary rat hepatocytes obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 4 to 5 hours with serum to which 18.7 µg chloroacetamide/mL had been added. There was a very sharp drop in cellular glutathione content in the first hour of incubation with Chloroacetamide, as well as a considerable enhancement of lipid peroxidation and marked lysis of the treated cells (Anundi et al., 1979). By adding methionine, which stimulates hepatocellular glutathione synthesis, it was possible to achieve clear inhibition of all of the effects described. In an in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats injected ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses. One of the leukocyte functions that could be modulated by PUFAs is phagocytosis. These fatty acids can in vitro stimulate the process of phagocytosis, for example formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The major aim of our study was to evaluate changes in ROS and RNS formation by stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7 treated with selected PUFAs and their metabolites. Changes in ROS and RNS production were determinated by chemiluminescence and spectrophotometrical Griess assay. Cytotoxicity of chemicals was evaluated by ATP test. None of the tested PUFAs significantly increased production of ROS and RNS by macrophages. Lipid peroxidation products were toxic in varying degrees, this action was dose-dependent. …viacméně ...
Marnett LJ (1999). "Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde". Mutat. Res. 424 (1-2): 83-95. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(99) ... Levels of malondialdehyde can be also considered (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) to assess the membrane damage in ... 1983;5(4):603-7 Dourerdjou, P.; Koner, B. C. (2008), Effect of Different Cooking Vessels on Heat-Induced Lipid Peroxidation of ... Moore K, Roberts LJ (1998). "Measurement of lipid peroxidation". Free Radic. Res. 28 (6): 659-71. doi:10.3109/10715769809065821 ...
Although the connection between iron and lipid peroxidation has been appreciated for years, it was not until 2012 that Brent ... GPX4 SLC7A11 Erastin XJB-5-131 Yang WS, Stockwell BR (March 2016). "Ferroptosis: Death by Lipid Peroxidation". Trends in Cell ... Gutteridge JM (July 1984). "Lipid peroxidation initiated by superoxide-dependent hydroxyl radicals using complexed iron and ... Perinuclear lipid assembly is observed immediately before ferroptosis occurs. After the process is complete, lipid droplets are ...
... and in higher quantities during oxidative stress due to the increase in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction, due to the ... "Pathological aspects of lipid peroxidation". Free Radical Research. 44 (10): 1125-1171. doi:10.3109/10715762.2010.498478. PMID ... β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal that is produced by lipid peroxidation in cells. 4-HNE is the primary alpha,beta-unsaturated ... 4-Hydroxynonenal is generated in the oxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated omega-6 acyl groups, such as arachidonic or ...
Malondialdehyde is an end product of lipid peroxidation while acrolein is a result of DNA peroxidation. M1dG is the major ... Marnett LJ (1999). "Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde". Mutat. Res. 424 (1-2): 83-95. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(99) ...
Marnett LJ (March 1999). "Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde". Mutat. Res. 424 (1-2): 83-95. doi:10.1016/s0027- ... a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation DNA adducts include: etheno-DNA adducts: 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine ( ...
Lipid peroxidation by human blood phagocytes. J Clin Invest. 1974; 54:638-645. 25. Boxer LA, Hedley-Whyte ET, Stossel TP. ... Mason RJ, Stossel TP, Vaughan M. Lipids of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, alveolar macrophages and their phagocytic vesicles. J ...
Spiteller, Peter; Spiteller, Gerhard (1998). "Strong dependence of the lipid peroxidation product spectrum whether Fe2+/O2 or ... Niki, Etsuo (2014). "Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in clinical material". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General ... Yoshida, Yasukazu; Umeno, Aya; Shichiri, Mototada (2013). "Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and ... Frankel, E.N (1984). "Chemistry of free radical and singlet oxidation of lipids". Progress in Lipid Research. 23 (4): 197-221. ...
He researched the effects of lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and modified lipoproteins in the progression of ... Siems, Werner; Grune, Tilman; Sommerburg, Olaf; Flohé, Leopold; Cadenas, Enrique (2005). "HNE and Further Lipid Peroxidation ... Sevanian made major contributions to the understanding of phospholipases as repair enzymes for oxidized membrane lipids. He ...
The higher Coenzyme Q10 levels in plasma were associated with lower levels of lipid-peroxidation and oxidized LDL in the ... Reduced Coenzyme Q10 prevents lipid peroxidation chain reaction. In a 1997 study, Professor Navas and a team of researchers ... Reduced Coenzyme Q10 prevents lipid peroxidation in liposomes and plasma membranes. Coenzyme Q is reduced by the dehydrogenase ... found that individuals with higher levels of functional capacity also had lower levels of cholesterol and lipid peroxidation as ...
Mellors A, Tappel AL (July 1966). "Quinones and quinols as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation". Lipids. 1 (4): 282-4. doi:10.1007 ... Absorption follows the same process as that of lipids; the uptake mechanism appears to be similar to that of vitamin E, another ... Food intake (and the presence of lipids) stimulates bodily biliary excretion of bile acids and greatly enhances absorption of ... Emulsions of soybean oil (lipid microspheres) could be stabilised very effectively by lecithin and were used in the preparation ...
Mellors, A.; Tappel, A. L. (1966). "Quinones and quinols as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation". Lipids. 1 (4): 282-4. doi: ... Mellors, A; Tappel, AL (1966). "The inhibition of mitochondrial peroxidation by ubiquinone and ubiquinol". The Journal of ...
"Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation". Biomaterials. 26 (36): 7587-7595. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.05.027. ...
Both lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress can cause membrane damage. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress take place as ... It has been suggested that superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals may be formed and that lipid peroxidation could be ... This process is preceded by the lipid peroxidation. Thereafter, probably a combination of events, such as formation of a ... a free radical and stimulation of lipid peroxidation, lead to peroxidative damage to cell membranes and mitochondria. It is not ...
Other reactions include lipid peroxidation and oxidation of nucleobases. Metal catalyzed oxidations also lead to irreversible ... Yoshida Y (2015). "Chemistry of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Their Use as Biomarkers in Early Detection of Diseases". ... "Signaling properties of 4-hydroxyalkenals formed by lipid peroxidation in diabetes". Free Radic Biol Med. 65: 978-87. doi: ... For example, in Alzheimer's patients, peroxidized lipids and proteins accumulate in lysosomes of the brain cells. Certain ...
H. Ramachandra Prabhu (2000). "Lipid peroxidation in culinary oils subjected to thermal stress". Indian Journal of Clinical ... Algae culture Cholesterol Decorticator Deodoriser Essential oils Fatty acid Food extrusion Fragrance oil Lipid List of ...
... a novel lipid peroxidation inhibitor from Streptomyces chrestomyceticus. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure ... a novel lipid peroxidation inhibitor from Streptomyces chrestomyceticus. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure ...
"Inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated ... "Antioxidant protection by haemopexin of haem-stimulated lipid peroxidation". Biochem J. 256 (3): 861-5. doi:10.1042/bj2560861. ...
Prabhu, H. Ramachandra (August 2000). "Lipid peroxidation in culinary oils subjected to thermal stress". Indian Journal of ... although it is generally an enzymatic process such as lipid peroxidation which proceeds via a different mechanism to the one ... Named after Geoffrey Gee and John Lawson Bolland Hammond, Earl G.; White, Pamela J. (July 2011). "A Brief History of Lipid ... Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids. 2: 51-98. doi:10.1016/0079-6832(54)90004-X. Frank, Charles E. (February ...
These lipid hydroperoxides then decompose into lipid free radicals, and causes a chain reaction of lipid peroxidation, damaging ... Bus, J S; Aust, S D; Gibson, J E (1 August 1976). "Paraquat toxicity: proposed mechanism of action involving lipid peroxidation ... which leads to cell death and one example of this is lipid peroxidation. When in a cellular system, the superoxide radicals ... react with unsaturated lipids, which contain a reactive hydrogen, and produce lipid hydroperoxides. ...
Chung, F. L.; Chen, H. J.; Nath, R. G. (October 1996). "Lipid peroxidation as a potential endogenous source for the formation ... The aldehydes formed from lipid peroxidation also pose another threat to DNA. Proteins such as "damage-up" proteins (DDPs) can ... Propano adducts are derived by species generated by lipid peroxidation. For example, HNE is a major toxic product of the ... Some of the aldehydes from lipid peroxidation can be converted to epoxy aldehydes by oxidation reactions. These epoxy aldehydes ...
Angelova PR, Horrocks MH, Klenerman D, Gandhi S, Abramov AY, Shchepinov MS (May 2015). "Lipid peroxidation is essential for α- ... The aggregated alpha-synuclein has a specific activity for peroxidized lipids and induces lipid autoxidation in PUFA-rich ... Ruipérez V, Darios F, Davletov B (October 2010). "Alpha-synuclein, lipids and Parkinson's disease". Progress in Lipid Research ... Lipid autoxidation is inhibited if the cells are pre-incubated with isotope-reinforced PUFAs (D-PUFA). Although the function of ...
... while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation.[53] These compounds may be synthesized in the ... and that it protects membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction ... Davì G, Falco A, Patrono C (2005). "Lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 7 (1-2): 256-68. ... Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to play a key role in ...
YERRA RAJESHWAR, MALAYA GUPTA and UPAL KANTI MAZUMDER (2005). "In Vitro Lipid Peroxidation and Antimicrobial Activity of Mucuna ...
1. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agents with ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 32 (2): ...
Lipid peroxidation alters the hydrophilicity of the interior of channels in the membrane, which is necessary to transport ions ... Lipid peroxidation by nystatin also contributes significantly to K+ leakage due to structural modifications of the membrane. ... Nystatin also impacts cell membrane potential and transport by lipid peroxidation. Conjugated double bonds in nystatin's ... It is also used in cellular biology as an inhibitor of the lipid raft-caveolae endocytosis pathway on mammalian cells, at ...
Thomas PD, Poznansky MJ (1990). "Lipid peroxidation inactivates rat liver microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase. ...
Gambhir, Jasvinder K.; Lali, Pramod; Jain, Anil K. (1997). "Correlation between blood antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation ... lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide end products in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy". Clinical ... International Journal of Lipid Research, Indian Heart Journal, Clinica Chimica Acta, J Assoc Physicians and Hemodialysis ...
Bifunctional aldehydes are reactive chemicals that are formed endogenously via lipid peroxidation and prostoglandin ... a Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Is Mutagenic in Human Cells". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (33): 31426-31433. doi: ... β-Unsaturated Aldehydes Derived from Lipid Peroxidation and Environmental Sources". Accounts of Chemical Research. 41 (7): 793- ...
Niki, Etsuo (2014). "Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in clinical material". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General ... Epub 2007 Aug 3 Yoshida, Yasukazu; Umeno, Aya; Shichiri, Mototada (2013). "Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating ... Yoshida, Yasukazu; Umeno, Aya; Shichiri, Mototada (2013). "Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and ... "Chemistry of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Their Use as Biomarkers in Early Detection of Diseases". Journal of Oleo Science. ...
As such, it may be an important initiator of lipid peroxidation. Gaseous hydroperoxyl is involved in reaction cycles that ... such as the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from tocopherol and polyunstaturated fatty acids in the lipid bilayer. ...
Pathological aspects of lipid peroxidation.. Negre-Salvayre A1, Auge N, Ayala V, Basaga H, Boada J, Brenke R, Chapple S, Cohen ... Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product accumulation in human tissues is a major cause of tissular and cellular dysfunction that plays ...
Lipid peroxidation is the chain of reactions of oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the process in which free radicals " ... In addition, end-products of lipid peroxidation may be mutagenic and carcinogenic. For instance, the end-product MDA reacts ... However, there are other sources of malondialdehyde, so this test is not completely specific for lipid peroxidation. In recent ... Lipid+peroxidation at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
... and was inhibited by lipid-soluble antioxidants. This led to the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation plays a key role in ... Is lipid peroxidation relevant to atherogenesis?. Jay W. Heinecke Departments of Medicine and Molecular Biology and ... First, lipid peroxidation was assessed at a single time point relatively late in the disease process. Therefore, failure to ... The authors monitored lipid peroxidation with a sensitive and specific analytical technique, using HPLC to quantify the ...
Unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and hydroxyalkenals are produced in vivo through lipid peroxidation chain reactions ... Immunoassays for Lipid Peroxidation End Products. One-Hour ELISA for Protein-Bound Acrolein and HNE ... Satoh K., Uchida K. (2003) Immunoassays for Lipid Peroxidation End Products. In: Hensley K., Floyd R.A. (eds) Methods in ... Unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and hydroxyalkenals are produced in vivo through lipid peroxidation chain reactions ...
Deuterium-reinforced lipids can be used for the protection of living cells by slowing the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation ... by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Demidov, Vadim V. (1 April 2020). "Site-specifically deuterated essential lipids as new drugs ... Correspondingly, drugs that stop the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation have preventive and therapeutic potential. The mass ... proceeding through a non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation chain reaction (LPO), whereby a single ROS species can initiate a runaway ...
Iron is required for the initiation of lipid peroxidation3 which may be the consequence of highly reactive OH. radical ... Gower J.D., Healing G., Fuller B.J., Green C.J. (1990) Iron Redistribution and Lipid Peroxidation in the Cold Ischaemic Kidney ... B.J. Fuller, J. Lunec, G. Healing, S. Simpkin, and C.J. Green, Reduction of susceptibility to lipid peroxidation by ... radicals which stimulate the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation4. In order to minimize the likelihood of these damaging ...
Curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.. Sreejayan1, Rao MN.. Author information. 1. Department of ... Thus, the inhibition of iron-catalysed lipid peroxidation by curcuminoids may involve chelation of iron. ... Earlier studies showed that curcumin is a potent inhibitor iron-catalysed lipid peroxidation. Demethoxycurcumin, ... bisdemethoxycurcumin and acetylcurcumin were tested for their ability to inhibit iron-stimulated lipid peroxidation in rat ...
Chief The central theme of the Lipid Peroxidation Unit (LPU) is to delineate the roles of lipid peroxidation and lipid-related ... Background Lipid peroxidation is a hallmark of aging and many of the most consequential age-related diseases, including chronic ... The central theme of the Lipid Peroxidation Unit (LPU) is to delineate the roles of lipid peroxidation and lipid-related ... Lipid peroxidation is a hallmark of aging and many of the most consequential age-related diseases, including chronic pain and ...
Additional Keywords : Colitis, COLON CANCER, Inflammation : CK(2) : AC(2), Lipid Peroxidation, Lychee, oxidative stress ... Additional Keywords : Antioxidants : CK(1) : AC(1), Lipid Peroxidation, Lychee, Memory Disorders, Phytotherapy : CK(1216) : AC( ... Diseases : Colitis : CK(255) : AC(111), Colon Cancer : CK(749) : AC(430), Inflammation : CK(3240) : AC(882), Lipid Peroxidation ... Diseases : Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity : CK(26) : AC(18), Lipid Peroxidation : CK(695) : AC(255), Oxidative Stress : CK( ...
This water-soluble nano-C60 colloidal suspension disrupts normal cellular function through lipid peroxidation; reactive oxygen ... 2005). Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation. Biomaterials, 26(36), 7587-7595. ... The integrity of cellular membrane was examined by monitoring the peroxy-radicals on the lipid bilayer. Subsequently, ...
... lipid peroxidation in autoimmune diseases; aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation in cancer and autoimmunity; the role of ... lipid peroxidation in aquatic organisms: ontogenetic, phylogenetic and ecological aspects; chemistry of lipid oxidation in ... synergistic effects of antioxidant compositions during inhibited lipid autoxidation; lipid peroxidation and animal longevity; ... Chapter 7. Lipid Peroxidation in Autoimmune Diseases: Friend or Foe?. Ana Reis and M. Rosário M. Domingues (School of Life and ...
Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ... an end product of lipid peroxidation, with thin-layer chromatography of lipid extract of diabetic erythrocytes. There was a ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Lipid Peroxidation In Biomembranes (9780849369230) by Kagan, Valerian E. and a great selection of similar New, Used and ... Items related to Lipid Peroxidation In Biomembranes. Kagan, Valerian E. Lipid Peroxidation In Biomembranes ISBN 13: ...
Associations of Lipid Peroxidation with chemical compounds. *The mechanism of lipid peroxidation and the manner in which ... Disease relevance of Lipid Peroxidation. *Adriamycin: the role of lipid peroxidation in cardiac toxicity and tumor response [1] ... Gene context of Lipid Peroxidation. *With age, serum lipid peroxidation and lesion size increased, whereas serum PON activity ... High impact information on Lipid Peroxidation. *Overexpression of Bcl-2 functioned to suppress lipid peroxidation completely [ ...
The effect or tetrandrine on lipid peroxidation induced by freshly fractured quartz particles was evaluated using linoleic acid ... The results showed that tetrandrine caused a significant inhibition on freshly fractured quartz-induced lipid peroxidation. ... Antioxidant activity of tetrandrine and its inhibition of quartz-induced lipid-peroxidation.. ... Dust-exposure; Fibrogenesis; Histopathology; Inhalation-studies; Lipid-peroxidation; Peroxidases; Pulmonary-disorders; Quartz- ...
... has been demonstrated to induce renal microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro. To examine whether CsA induces lipid peroxidation ... has been demonstrated to induce renal microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro. To examine whether CsA induces lipid peroxidation ... Lipid peroxidation accompanies cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: effects of vitamin E Kidney Int. 1995 Mar;47(3):927-34. doi: ... To address whether lipid peroxidation contributed to CsA nephrotoxicity, rats were gavaged with vehicles, CsA 25 mg/kg/day or ...
Lipid peroxidation assays. The content of lipid peroxides in cultured cell lysate was determined by the classical method of ... Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans. Lipids. 1997. 32:535-541. View this article ... reactive lipid oxygen species, and increased oxidant stress (37, 38). To explore the involvement of lipid peroxidation in DHA- ... a lipid antioxidant, suppressed increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs; a measure of lipid peroxidation ...
H. S. Pall, A. C. Williams, D. R. Blake, and J. Lunec, "Evidence of enhanced lipid peroxidation in the cerebrospinal fluid of ... B. Wachowicz and J. Kustron, "Effect of cisplatin on lipid peroxidation in pig blood platelets," Cytobios, vol. 70, pp. 41-47, ... Polyphenols from Berries of Aronia melanocarpa Reduce the Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ziprasidone. Anna Dietrich- ... A. Dietrich-Muszalska and B. Kontek, "Lipid peroxidation in patients with schizophrenia," Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences ...
Lipid peroxidation products in plasma and erythrocytes were assayed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, along with the ... Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in type II diabetes mellitus with and without complications Clin Sci (Lond). 1996 Apr ... Lipid peroxidation products in plasma and erythrocytes were assayed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, along with the ... 2. Lipid peroxidation was significantly raised within the first 2 years of diagnosis, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, ...
Toshiyuki Toyosaki (August 29th 2012). Effects of Hydroperoxide in Lipid Peroxidation on Dough Fermentation, Lipid Peroxidation ... Toshiyuki Toyosaki (August 29th 2012). Effects of Hydroperoxide in Lipid Peroxidation on Dough Fermentation, Lipid Peroxidation ... /,. Embed ... /, ...
Study finds fibromyalgia symptoms are better associated to lipid peroxidation levels in blood mononuclear cells rather than in ... Oxidative stress is usually determined by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood plasma. [Lipid peroxidation is the ... Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in ... Background: We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage ...
Toxic effects of cadmium (7440439) (Cd), mercury (7439976) (Hg), zinc (7440666) (Zn), and selenium (7782492) (Se) on lipid ... Metal Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Cell Membranes: Final Report on Project VKC-R22-147.. ... but the protective action could not be explained by any observed increase or decrease in lipid peroxidation. Selenomethionine ... The authors conclude that assaying for lipid peroxidative metabolism in macrophages is not useful for metal toxicity screening ...
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on lipid peroxidation in Taiwan ... Yao H, Chang Y, Chen C, Chiang M, Chang L, Yeh T. Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a ... Results from this study indicate that the SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats. .. ... Lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in rats and human cells induced by chloral hydrate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:621 ...
Diseases : Lipid Peroxidation : CK(1178) : AC(476), Liver Injury: Ischemia/reperfusion : CK(19) : AC(10) ... The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on liver function and lipid peroxidation following hepatic ... Effects of melatonin on liver function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. ...
... and levels of lipid peroxidation-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined. Our results indicate that the treatment of HAECs ... ROS also induces lipid peroxidation and lipid peroxidation-generated aldehydes are important cellular signaling molecules that ... Increased ROS formation leads to peroxidation of lipids and release toxic lipid aldehydes such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4- ... E. Niki, "Lipid peroxidation products as oxidative stress biomarkers," BioFactors, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 171-180, 2008. View at: ...
... is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. Lipid peroxidation- ... Since the involvement and the role of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, particularly of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), in ... A major way by which the latter can provoke structural damage to biological macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, ... is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. Lipid peroxidation- ...
Biology Forum Online - Discuss Microbiology, Biological science, microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics also relate to viruses, viroids, prions and more. Biological science forum online.
... specific product of lipid peroxidation that is currently quantified in urine and plasma as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation.6 ... Lipid Peroxidation Is Not Increased in Patients With Untreated Mild-to-Moderate Hypertension. Jean-Luc Cracowski, Jean-Philippe ... The main objective of this study was to quantify the urinary levels of 15-F2t-IsoP as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation in the ... Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 1198-1203. ...
... ... nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Silymarin_Protection_Against_Hepatic_Lipid_Peroxidation.shtml ... Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Acute Ethanol Intoxication in the Rat This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send ... Possible mechanisms which may be responsible for the inhibition of ethanol-induced liver lipid peroxidation by silymarin ...
  • The end products of lipid peroxidation are reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the second one being known also as "second messenger of free radicals" and major bioactive marker of lipid peroxidation, due to its numerous biological activities resembling activities of reactive oxygen h species. (
  • Certain diagnostic tests are available for the quantification of the end-products of lipid peroxidation, to be specific, malondialdehyde (MDA). (
  • However, there are other sources of malondialdehyde, so this test is not completely specific for lipid peroxidation. (
  • The experimental parameters such as body weight, fasting blood glucose level, serum creatinine level and tissue lipid peroxidation status using malondialdehyde assay were investigated. (
  • The serum of patients with the highest concentration of serum ferritin and iron contained significantly higher level of lipid peroxidation products, total hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products and the lowest concentration of sulfhydryl groups, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. (
  • Polyunsaturated lipids are susceptible to an oxidative attack, typically by reactive oxygen species, resulting in a well-defined chain reaction with the production of end products such as malondialdehyde (MDA). (
  • Lipid peroxidation (MDA) assay kit has been used to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). (
  • Peroxidation of lipid was evaluated by the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the vesicles. (
  • Malondialdehyde, the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. (
  • Conclusion Malondialdehyde can be used as an index of lipid peroxidation induced by manganese exposure. (
  • Elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation products, and decreased activity levels of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) reflected significant alterations in their antioxidant status. (
  • Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, andcatalase were examined in 80 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) and TD (Schooler-Kane criteria) and 45 schizophrenia patients without TD. (
  • 4 reported that the addition of sulfite to an emulsion containing corn oil resulted in the oxidation of lipids as measured by the formation malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, products of unsaturated lipid oxidation. (
  • Subjects and Methods: Plasma (TAC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in 30 patients on HD and in 20 normal controls (NC). (
  • Lipid peroxidation was assessed in fresh, untreated erythrocytes by quantitating thiobarbituric acid reactivity and an adduct of phospholipids and malonyldialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, with thin-layer chromatography of lipid extract of diabetic erythrocytes. (
  • 5 Among the isoprostane isomers, 15-F 2t -IsoP is a stable, sensitive, and specific product of lipid peroxidation that is currently quantified in urine and plasma as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Objectives The following hypothesis was tested: plasma manganese concentration is associated positively with the product of lipid peroxidation, and lipid peroxidation is associated negatively with the activities of antioxidants in workers exposed to manganese. (
  • raise further provocative questions regarding the role of lipid peroxidation in LDL oxidation and atherogenesis. (
  • The chemical products of this oxidation are known as lipid peroxides or lipid oxidation products (LOPs). (
  • Unlike catabolic oxidation of drugs, or oxidative damage to DNA or proteins (which occurs stoichiometrically), oxidation of PUFAs is particularly pernicious, proceeding through a non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation chain reaction (LPO), whereby a single ROS species can initiate a runaway autoxidation process that does not need any additional ROS to propagate. (
  • The chain oxidation proceeds inexorably through multiple steps, destroying lipid membranes and generating highly reactive toxic secondary products that damage numerous biomolecules, such as proteins and DNA, irreversibly. (
  • In this study, we determined the markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) in serum of patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, who had received repeated treatment of iron supplementation. (
  • HDL and its protein and lipid constituents help to inhibit oxidation, inflammation, activation of the blood vessel wall, coagulation, and platelet aggregation. (
  • Myoglobin oxidation is correlated with lipid oxidation, and one can exacerbate the occurrence of the other. (
  • Synaptosomes from APOE knock-out mice are more vulnerable to Abeta-induced oxidative stress (protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and ROS generation) than are those from wild-type mice. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to evaluate methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in vivo that are suitable for clinical investigations, and to apply these methods in animal and human studies investigating basal conditions and situations associated with increased lipid peroxidation.The ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange assay for quantification of total plasma lipid hydroperoxides was re-evaluated regarding sample handling and storage. (
  • 3 Sulfur dioxide is a lipid-soluble gas that is capable of permeating cellular membranes, reforming sulfite, and undergoing intracellular oxidation. (
  • 7 The evidence that sulfite can catalyze oxidation suggests that sulfite has the potential to induce lipid peroxidation in propofol emulsions. (
  • These data demonstrate that a primary function of tocopherols in plants is to limit nonenzymatic lipid oxidation during seed storage, germination, and early seedling development. (
  • In the presence of Cu 2+ /dialuric acid, the lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited and vice versa - the liver protein oxidation was increased. (
  • The underlying assumption is that LDL's capacity to resist lipid peroxidation ex vivo correlates with the effectiveness of antioxidant intervention and the inhibition of vascular disease. (
  • Thus, the inhibition of iron-catalysed lipid peroxidation by curcuminoids may involve chelation of iron. (
  • Antioxidant activity of tetrandrine and its inhibition of quartz-induced lipid-peroxidation. (
  • The results showed that tetrandrine caused a significant inhibition on freshly fractured quartz-induced lipid peroxidation. (
  • Possible mechanisms which may be responsible for the inhibition of ethanol-induced liver lipid peroxidation by silymarin pretreatment include the following. (
  • We observed lipid peroxidation inhibition in the metabolites of fermented Monascus anka , in media with Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (
  • The inhibition rates of the lipid peroxide due to the ergosterol were 57.42%, at 2 μg/mL in vitro. (
  • Abeta(1-42) addition to synaptosomes also results in HNE binding to Glt-1, thereby coupling increased Abeta(1-42) in AD brain to increased lipid peroxidation and its sequelae and possibly explaining the mechanism of glutamate transport inhibition known in AD brain. (
  • Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined with rat brain tissue homogenates. (
  • Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and blockade of TMEM16A are potential novel therapeutic approaches to delay cyst development in PKD. (
  • Exposure to scavengers of reactive oxygen species, such as glutathione, coenzyme Q10, or idebenone (a synthetic coenzyme Q10 homolog), as well as inhibition of oxidative lipid damage by ferrostatin-1 largely reduced activation of TMEM16A. (
  • We propose direct inhibition of TMEM16A or inhibition of lipid peroxidation as potentially powerful therapeutic approaches to delay cyst development in PKD. (
  • We examined in vivo membrane lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of diabetic subjects and its possible relationship with hyperglycemia. (
  • To examine whether CsA induces lipid peroxidation in vivo, uninephrectomized rats were gavaged with vehicle, CsA 12.5 or 25 mg/kg/day for four weeks. (
  • Isoprostanes are chemically stable lipid peroxidation products of arachidonic acid, the quantification of which provides a novel approach to the assessment of oxidative stress in vivo. (
  • 1-3 In contrast to the huge amount of experimental data available for different species and strains, only few and relatively unconvincing clinical studies support such a hypothesis in the early stages of essential hypertension in humans because of the lack of a reliable clinical biomarker of lipid peroxidation in vivo. (
  • To investigate whether supplemental antioxidants reduce CS-related lipid peroxidation in vivo and whether they are more effective in combination, we conducted an intervention study in smokers. (
  • In this study, we investigated whether a relationship exists between the levels of urate in vivo and lipid peroxidation during exercise. (
  • These results suggest that the urate level in vivo before exercise is a factor influencing lipid peroxidation during exhaustive exercise. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is thought to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases and in the process of ageing, but its measurement in vivo has been difficult. (
  • The authors monitored lipid peroxidation with a sensitive and specific analytical technique, using HPLC to quantify the production of hydroxides and hydroperoxides of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (
  • The toxicity of lipid hydroperoxides to animals is best illustrated by the lethal phenotype of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) knockout mice. (
  • These animals do not survive past embryonic day 8, indicating that the removal of lipid hydroperoxides is essential for mammalian life. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is the process by which oxygen combines with lipids to generate lipid hydroperoxides via intermediate formation of peroxyl radicals. (
  • However, only vte2 mutants exhibited severe seedling growth defects during germination and contained levels of lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxy fatty acids elevated up to 4- and 100-fold, respectively, relative to the wild type. (
  • The results showed diminished levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal LPO products, such as conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) in DMH treated rats, which were significantly reversed (P (
  • To address whether lipid peroxidation contributed to CsA nephrotoxicity, rats were gavaged with vehicles, CsA 25 mg/kg/day or CsA plus vitamin E 25 mg/kg/day for eight weeks. (
  • The administration of silymarin to fed rats resulted in no changes in the basal lipid peroxidative rate of the liver. (
  • The present study is aimed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of glibenclamide monotherapy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therapeutic impact of this agent on various organs by measuring the oxidative stress biomarker, lipid peroxidation and creatinine after a specific period of oral treatment. (
  • In a previous study, we found that the extent of dietary n -3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-stimulated tissue lipid peroxidation was less than expected from the relative peroxidizability index of the total tissue lipids in rats with adequate vitamin E nutritional status. (
  • To elucidate whether this phenomenon was unique to DHA, we compared the peroxidation effects of n -3 α-linolenic acid (α-LN) and n -3 eicosapentaeonic acid (EPA) with those of DHA in rats. (
  • In rats fed the α-LN diet with an adequate level of vitamin E (54 m/g diet), a close association between relative peroxidizability indices and lipid peroxide levels was observed in all the tissues analysed. (
  • However, in rats fed either the EPA diet or the DHA diet with an adequate level of vitamin E, the extent of lipid peroxidation in each tissue was less than expected from the relative peroxidizability index. (
  • We concluded that suppression of lipid peroxidation below the relative peroxidizability index was not unique to DHA, but was also seen with EPA, which has five double bonds, in rats with adequate vitamin E nutritional status, but not with α-LN, which has three double bonds. (
  • The influence of chronic Fl intoxication on lipid peroxidation and the state of the antioxidant system was studied in rats on different diets. (
  • High levels of lipid peroxidation were detected in kidney of the rats with fluorosis. (
  • High levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in rat liver tissue were quantified by this technique both at basal conditions and in an experimental model of increased lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride.Supplementation with vitamin E to rats decreased both non-enzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation as measured by 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and a major prostaglandin F2α metabolite. (
  • Lipid peroxidation levels are reduced in heat shocked rats suffering acute spinal cord injury. (
  • Presents an abstract of the study 'Lipid Peroxidation Levels Are Reduced in Heat Shocked Rats Suffering Acute Spinal Cord Injury' submitted to the 38th meeting of the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences. (
  • Methothrexate attenuates early neutrophil infiltration and the associated lipid peroxidation in the injured spinal cord but does not induce neurotoxicity in the uninjured spinal cord in rats. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnesium sulphate could prevent or diminish brain lipid peroxidation caused by carbon monoxide toxicity in rats. (
  • Effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (common bitter leaf) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to cycasin. (
  • If lipoprotein fractions are first precipitated from samples, testing becomes specific for lipid peroxidation as interfering soluble TBARS are minimised. (
  • Are ethane and pentane evolution and thiobarbituric acid reactivity specific for lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes? (
  • Second, it is possible that levels of lipid peroxidation products below those detectable in the HPLC assay promoted atherosclerosis. (
  • The SOD and CAT (in erythrocytes) and GPx (in plasma) enzymatic activities, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation, and total thiols were measured in the blood of 55 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 38 subjects without diabetes (9 pre-diabetics and 29 controls) aged 40-86 years. (
  • One of the most persuasive observations is that structurally unrelated lipid-soluble antioxidants inhibit atherogenesis in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. (
  • LDL modification required iron or copper in the medium, generated dicarbonyl compounds that could react with thiobarbituric acid, and was inhibited by lipid-soluble antioxidants. (
  • Similar findings were reported for other lipid-soluble antioxidants (reviewed in refs. (
  • Antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E may inhibit lipid peroxidation. (
  • Antioxidants decrease smoking-related lipid peroxidation markers of oxidative stress in humans with high BMI. (
  • In on-farm practices, dietary supplementation of antioxidants is a useful approach for improving lipid stability and then meat colour stability, and further improvement could be a combination of using hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants. (
  • In particular, Abeta induces lipid peroxidation in ways that are inhibited by free radical antioxidants. (
  • We also measured the concentrations of α-tocopherol and bilirubin as major antioxidants protecting against lipid peroxidation in plasma. (
  • Lipid peroxidation products in plasma and erythrocytes were assayed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, along with the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. (
  • However, the relationship between antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, and the severity of TD symptoms has not been determined within a single patient group. (
  • Toxic effects of cadmium (7440439) (Cd), mercury (7439976) (Hg), zinc (7440666) (Zn), and selenium (7782492) (Se) on lipid peroxidative metabolism were investigated in rabbit alveolar macrophage cultures. (
  • The dietary composition can affect the plasma lipid profile and its metabolism. (
  • Plasma fatty acid status in Moroccan children: increased lipid peroxidation and impaired polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in protein-calorie malnutrition. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Plasma fatty acid status in Moroccan children: increased lipid peroxidation and impaired polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in protein-calorie malnutrition. (
  • The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2- trans -nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • radicals which stimulate the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation 4 . (
  • Deuterium-reinforced lipids can be used for the protection of living cells by slowing the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Correspondingly, drugs that stop the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation have preventive and therapeutic potential. (
  • This suggests that peroxidation of membrane lipids and accumulation of MDA occurs in erythrocytes of diabetic patients. (
  • A major way by which the latter can provoke structural damage to biological macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. (
  • The oxidative stress and modification of cellular membrane lipids may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fluorosis and provide a possible explanation for the gross system damage observed in the body, especially in soft tissues and organs. (
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the correlation between the degree of peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids, erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and serum albumin concentration in twelve patients with uremia not undergoing hemodialysis and fifteen patients on maintenance hemodialysis. (
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggested that serum albumin inhibits peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and that hemodialysis induces recovery of serum reductivity. (
  • All tocopherols are amphipathic molecules, with the hydrophobic tail associating with membrane lipids and the polar head groups remaining at the membrane surface. (
  • Benedetti, A., Comporti, M., and Esterbauer, H. (1980) Identification of 4-hydroxynonenal as a cytotoxic product originating from the peroxidation of liver microsomal lipids. (
  • Demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and acetylcurcumin were tested for their ability to inhibit iron-stimulated lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and rat liver microsomes. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on liver function and lipid peroxidation following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). (
  • These results suggest that a higher content of glutathione in the liver, in conditions in which its redox state is kept constant, would afford the tissue a better protection against an oxidative stress, thus contributing to the abolishment of ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation. (
  • This suppression of lipid peroxidation was especially prominent in the liver. (
  • Levels of conjugated diene, chemiluminescence emission and thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance in the liver, kidney, and testis were determined as indicators of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Chronic Fl intoxication inhibited antioxidant activity and caused an increase in the rate of peroxidation and the level of lipoperoxides in liver, brain and serum. (
  • This was verified both in the urine at basal conditions, and in the urine and liver tissue after carbon tetrachloride induced lipid peroxidation.In a randomised cross-over study in humans, a rapeseed oil-based diet with an increased proportion of easily oxidised polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared to a control diet rich in saturated fats. (
  • The in vitro effects of alloxan and the product of its reduction dialuric acid (alone or in combination with copper ions) on lipid peroxidation, carbonyl content, GSH level and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver and kidney have been studied. (
  • Lipid peroxidation and covalent binding in the early functional impairment of liver Golgi apparatus by carbon tetrachloride. (
  • A significant negative correlation was observed between the erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content and the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation in chronic hemodialysis patients. (
  • There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation between patients with chronic hemodialysis-associated hypoalbuminemia and chronic hemodialysis patients having normal serum albumin levels. (
  • ABSTRACT: The influence of basic physical factors caused by magnetite nanoparticles (constant magnetic field and sorption) on microorganisms by examining the reactions of the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation (FRLP) and bacteriostatic action was studied. (
  • Free radicals in cigarette smoke (CS) cause oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, contributing to the pathobiology of atherosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer. (
  • HNE or acrolein binding to proteins introduces a carbonyl to the protein, making the protein oxidatively modified as a consequence of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Oxidative stress can lead to damage to the DNA, proteins, and lipids in the cell, and this damage has been linked to aging as well as to the progression of diseases such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancers. (
  • Resistance to lipid peroxidation maps genetically to transmembrane and membrane-proximal residues within these proteins and is essential for robust replication in cell culture, as exemplified by the atypical JFH1 strain of HCV. (
  • Lipid peroxidation-induced modification of proteins is thought to play a role in lipofuscinogenesis and may contribute to RPE dysfunction. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is the chain of reactions of oxidative degradation of lipids. (
  • Obi and his associates have suggested that diabetes mellitus is not only the situation of production of free radicals but also associated with elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) due to a continuous DNA damage or protein degradation [ 6 ]. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is the degradation of lipids that occurs as a result of oxidative damage and is a useful marker for oxidative stress. (
  • Lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin degradation in red blood cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide. (
  • Finally, catalyst reactivity in biological matrices was evaluated by oxidative degradation of lipids, revealing that α-Fe 2 O 3 is a good oxidative stress inducer, representing a new application for materials based on iron oxides. (
  • Since the involvement and the role of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, particularly of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), in neurodegenerations, inflammation, and cancer, has been discussed in several excellent recent reviews, in the present one we focus on the involvement of reactive aldehydes in other age-related disorders: osteopenia, sarcopenia, immunosenescence and myelodysplastic syndromes. (
  • The central theme of the Lipid Peroxidation Unit (LPU) is to delineate the roles of lipid peroxidation and lipid-related degeneration in age-related diseases, with an emphasis on chronic pain and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • We also discuss the potential evolutionary roles of lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. (
  • AIM To test the hypothesis that complications of neonatal intensive care are related to increased oxygen derived free radical activity, using breath pentane as a marker of lipid peroxidation. (
  • AIM To indicate the extent of lipid peroxidation induced by oxidative stress, by measuring aldehyde end products in biological samples. (
  • The degree of lipid peroxidation in the atherosclerotic tissue also failed to correlate with the extent of lesion formation. (
  • Pathological aspects of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Redox-active iron can catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radicals and initiation of lipid peroxidation, increase oxidative stress and speed up the development of complications in these patients. (
  • This led to the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation plays a key role in rendering LDL atherogenic. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The demonstration that pentane exhalation is related to the course of neonatal disease and its outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is associated with these illnesses, and may contribute to their severity. (
  • The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between lipid peroxidation and intermittent caloric restriction as compared to ad libitum feeding or chronic caloric restriction. (
  • It is the process in which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is the process in which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, causing damage to the cells. (
  • Thus, by trapping oxygen-related free radicals, silymarin could hinder their interaction with polyunsaturated fatty acids and would abolish the enhancement of lipid peroxidative processes leading to MDA formation and light emision. (
  • It was found that the rate of consumption of free radicals lipid reduced reliably on all microorganisms after their processing by magnetite nanoparticles. (
  • Although free radicals can injure many biological constituents, their effects on lipid molecules are most frequently used to evaluate free radical induced damage, often by measuring the end products of lipid peroxidation, such as aldehydes and hydrocarbon gases. (
  • Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes can not only modify biological macromolecules, by forming covalent electrophilic addition products with them, but also act as second messengers of oxidative stress, having relatively extended lifespans. (
  • 6 Some noxious aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), have also received attention as toxic secondary messengers, rather than simple inactive remnants of the lipid peroxidation process. (
  • Such D-PUFAs, for example, 11,11-D2-ethyl linoleate, suppress lipid peroxidation even at relatively low levels of incorporation into membranes. (
  • The lipid bilayer of the cell and organelle membranes contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are key components of cell and organelle membranes. (
  • Metal Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Cell Membranes: Final Report on Project VKC-R22-147. (
  • These results indicate that the changes in the lipid peroxidation of the red cell ghosts and their Ca-ATPase activity are a result of changes to the cell membranes. (
  • The results of the reported study clearly indicate that N-acetylserotonin is a much stronger antioxidant in vitro than melatonin in terms of reducing oxidative damage to lipid membranes. (
  • Peroxidation of human erythrocyte membranes was followed in vitro with head space analysis of ethane and pentane and a thiobarbituric acid assay in a standardized system liberating free oxygen radicals. (
  • This radical is also an unstable species that reacts with another free fatty acid, producing a different fatty acid radical and a lipid peroxide, or a cyclic peroxide if it had reacted with itself. (
  • E.D. Wills, Mechanisms of lipid peroxide formation in animal tissues, Biochem. (
  • DHA and its lipid peroxide products exhibit anti-cancer activity through apoptotic and anti-proliferative mechanisms. (
  • Lipid peroxide formation in microsomes. (
  • Inactivation of nitric oxide by lipid-peroxide-related radicals and inflammatory reactions through the TLR4-NFκB pathway in ECs are considered to be involved in endothelial dysfunction by FA. (
  • therefore, their effects on lipid peroxidation were measured in two systems, using tocopherol, thiol, and an NO donor for comparison: (1) rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and (2) phospholipid liposomes with an azo-initiator induction system, quantified by a fluorescent probe of peroxide formation. (
  • It may consequently serve as a potential natural antioxidant and will play an important role in human anti-lipid peroxide. (
  • The cytotoxicity is signalled by increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) causing lipid peroxidation followed by porosity in plasma membrane. (
  • Therefore, failure to detect lipid peroxidation products at this late stage in probucol- or bisphenol-treated animals does not exclude the possibility that such products were present and active early in the disease process. (
  • In addition, end-products of lipid peroxidation may be mutagenic and carcinogenic. (
  • Our team applies liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and related techniques to identify and quantify bioactive lipid mediators, pathway precursors, and inactivation products in human and rodent tissues. (
  • This study points out that the peroxidation products of eicosapentaenoic acid are anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic and, thus, cardioprotective. (
  • Isoprostanes : novel bioactive products of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Lipid peroxidation products activated the canonical Wnt pathway through oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the development of retinal diseases. (
  • There is strong evidence that NO acts as an apparent antioxidant in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, via chain termination, and interestingly lipid nitrates and nitrites have been proposed to be products of this chain termination. (
  • Two reactive products of lipid peroxidation are the alkenals, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propenal (acrolein). (
  • The recoveries of the peroxidation products of the red cell ghost preparations were compared with those obtained by peroxidation of pure fatty acids. (
  • Lipids peroxidation products generated during AP can intensify preexisting inflammation. (
  • The data show that classical nitrites and novel nitrates are not prooxidants, but inhibit lipid peroxidation. (
  • Cyclosporine A (CsA) has been demonstrated to induce renal microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro. (
  • N-acetylserotonin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro more effectively than melatonin. (
  • Taken together, the findings from in-vitro studies of lipid peroxidation induced by Abeta(1-42) and postmortem studies of lipid peroxidation (and its sequelae) in AD brain may help explain the APOE allele-related risk for AD, some of the functional and structural alterations in AD brain, and strongly support a causative role of Abeta(1-42)-induced oxidative stress in AD neurodegeneration. (
  • Methods Using tissue samples from patients with autosomal dominant PKD, embryonic kidney cultures, and an MDCK in vitro cyst model, we assessed peroxidation of plasma membrane phospholipids in human and mouse polycystic kidneys. (
  • Results Peroxidation of phospholipids in human and mouse kidneys as well as MDCK cysts in vitro is probably due to enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species. (
  • Alexandrova, A., Kirkova, M., Russanov, E. (1998) In vitro effects of alloxan-vanadium combination on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant enzyme activity. (
  • 2. Lipid peroxidation was significantly raised within the first 2 years of diagnosis, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and vitamins C and E were significantly lowered. (
  • Vitamin E and coenzyme Q react with peroxyl radicals to yield peroxides, and then these oxidized lipid species can be detoxified by glutathione and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and other components of the cellular antioxidant defense network. (
  • One damaging radical-mediated process is the peroxidation of membrane-bound polyunsaturated fatty acids and we have previously demonstrated significant elevations in lipid peroxidation markers in kidneys subjected to cold storage and autotransplantation 2 . (
  • CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes. (
  • The discrepancies in lipid parameters, nutritional and inflammatory markers, blood oxidative indexes, antioxidant micronutrients or trace elements (selenium, zinc, vitamin E) related to polyunsaturated fatty acids were checked in these populations. (
  • The increase in the C18:1/C18:0 delta9 desaturase activity and enhanced lipid peroxidation without any essential fatty acid deficiency could be early markers of protein-calorie malnutrition. (
  • Increasing stay in the hospital was associated with worsening of lipids peroxidation markers and the parameters of lipid profile, in both non-smoking and smoking AP patients, what can indicate that the oxidative-inflammatory process are not extinguished. (
  • Hyperketonemia in patients with type 1 diabetes has also been associated with increased plasma lipid peroxidation ( 11 ). (
  • The epsilon-4 allele of the lipid carrier protein apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele is a risk factor for AD. (
  • likewise, the Click-iT® Lipid Peroxidation Imaging Kit allows you to detect lipid peroxidation-derived protein modifications in fixed cells. (
  • The results indicate that lipid peroxidation-derived protein modifications are involved in lipofuscinogenesis and may contribute to cell damaging effects of lipofuscin in retinal diseases such as AMD. (
  • This study focused on a comparison of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation product and evaluated the relationship between them and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients on HD. (
  • The study investigated the extent to which tobacco smoke exposure causes changes in lipids biochemistry through measurement blood concentrations of: paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activities as lipid-bound enzyme into cell membrane, concentration of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-adducts), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), total cholesterol (CH) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). (
  • Finally, brain tissue from injured HO-2 KO mice exhibited decreased ability to reduce oxidative stress, as measured with an Fe 2+ /ascorbic acid-mediated carbon monoxide generation assay for lipid peroxidation susceptibility. (
  • Thus, the typical, wild-type HCV replicase is uniquely regulated by lipid peroxidation, providing a mechanism for attenuating replication in stressed tissue and possibly facilitating long-term viral persistence. (
  • This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of different doses of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. (
  • Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status of adult males with skeletal fluorosis in Andhra Pradesh, India. (
  • Blood samples from 24 adult males, age 25 to 40, with endemic skeletal fluorosis, living in the Vaillapally village of the Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India, were examined and compared with samples from 15 matched controls for their antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation. (
  • Increased lipid peroxidation may likely be a result of decreased endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities in TD. (
  • Pre-treating the animal with alpha-tocopherol , shown to prevent lipid peroxidation without modifying the covalent binding due to CCl4 metabolites, affords little protection against lipid accumulation in the Golgi, but total preservation of galactosyl transferase activity. (
  • 5 demonstrated that sulfite added to emulsions of the unsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4), resulted in lipid spectral changes indicative of lipid peroxidation and the formation of sulfite-lipid adducts. (
  • Lipid peroxidation was assayed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by a modified thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. (
  • Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product accumulation in human tissues is a major cause of tissular and cellular dysfunction that plays a major role in ageing and most age-related and oxidative stress-related diseases. (
  • Recent studies suggest that lipid infusion in normal subjects may also result in the alteration of some of the above pathways and may induce insulin resistance ( 10 ). (
  • CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that lipid peroxidation may have a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. (
  • Our team is currently leading or collaborating on several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the clinical efficacy and biochemical effects of targeted manipulation of dietary fatty acids, which are precursors to bioactive lipid mediators including oxylipins and endocannabinoids. (
  • These novel findings, that CsA nephrotoxicity is associated with lipid peroxidation and that a chain-breaking antioxidant ameliorates whereas its deficiency exacerbates, indicate a role for lipid peroxidation, presumably free radical-mediated, in CsA toxicity. (
  • These findings demonstrate that HO-2 expression protects neurons against TBI by reducing lipid peroxidation via the catabolism of free heme. (
  • These results, in agreement with recent findings by others, demonstrate that chronic fluoride intoxication in adult males elicits increased lipid peroxidation associated with a significant decrease in the activities of CAT and GST. (
  • These findings show a strong effect of reactive oxygen species on cyst progression via lipid peroxidation. (
  • Conclusions These findings indicate that activation of TMEM16A by lipid peroxidation drives growth of renal cysts. (
  • The integrity of cellular membrane was examined by monitoring the peroxy-radicals on the lipid bilayer. (
  • Regulation of the hepatitis C virus RNA replicase by endogenous lipid peroxidation. (
  • Modification in the quantity, composition, and peroxidation of sebaceous lipid are believed to play a signficant role in acne pathogenesis. (
  • A growing body of evidence implicates oxidative modification of lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins in the genesis of plaques. (
  • It is plausible that the specific modification of lipid composition results from lipid peroxidation. (
  • In this kit, lipid peroxidation is determined by the reaction of MDA with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a colorimetric (532 nm)/fluorometric (λ ex = 532/λ em = 553 nm) product, proportional to the MDA present. (
  • We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. (