Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.TriglyceridesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.DiglyceridesAcyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.EstersTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/10418)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (2/10418)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (3/10418)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Blocking very late antigen-4 integrin decreases leukocyte entry and fatty streak formation in mice fed an atherogenic diet. (4/10418)

Atherosclerotic lesion development is characterized by the recruitment of leukocytes, principally monocytes, to the vessel wall. Considerable interest has been focused on the adhesion molecule(s) involved in leukocyte/endothelial interactions. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of the very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrin/ligand interaction in fatty streak development using murine models. Because alpha4 null mice are not viable, a peptidomimetic was used to block VLA-4-mediated leukocyte binding. The ability of a synthetic peptidomimetic of connecting segment-1 (CS-1 peptide) to block the recruitment of leukocytes and the accumulation of lipid in the aortic sinus of either wild-type mice (strain C57BL/6J) or mice with a low-density lipoprotein null mutation (LDLR-/-) maintained on an atherogenic diet was assessed. The active (Ac) CS-1 peptide or scrambled (Sc) CS-1 peptide was delivered subcutaneously into mice using a mini osmotic pump. Mice were exposed to the peptide for 24 to 36 hours before the onset of the atherogenic diet. In C57BL/6J mice, leukocyte entry into the aortic sinus, as assessed by en face preparations, was inhibited by the active peptide (Ac=28+/-4, Sc=54+/-6 monocytes/valve; P=0.004). Additionally, frozen sections stained with Oil Red O were analyzed to assess lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. C57BL/6J mice that received the (Ac) compound demonstrated significantly reduced lesion areas as compared with mice that received the (Sc) peptide (Ac=4887+/-4438 microm2, Sc=15 009 +/-5619 microm2; P<0.0001). In a separate study, LDLR-/- mice were implanted with pumps containing either the (Ac) or (Sc) peptide before initiation of the atherogenic diet. Because LDLR-/- mice fed a chow diet displayed small lesions at 14 weeks, the effects of the peptide seen in these animals represented a change in early lipid accumulation rather than initiation. By using whole-mount preparations, the (Ac) but not the (Sc) peptide significantly reduced the area of lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus, resulting in an approximate 66% decrease. Plasma analysis from all studies revealed concentrations of peptide to be present at levels previously determined by in vitro analysis to block adhesion. (Ac) CS-1 peptide, which blocks VLA-4 on the leukocyte surface, is effective in reducing leukocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. The present study provides in vivo evidence that the VLA-4 integrin plays an important role in the initiation of the atherosclerotic lesion and lipid accumulation, and it suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.  (+info)

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (5/10418)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (6/10418)

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (7/10418)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (8/10418)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Keratinocytes play an important role in skin irritation. In an attempt to investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis. ADRP is a lipid-storage-droplet-associated protein, governing deposition and release of lipids from droplets. The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a human keratinocyte cell line (NCTC 2544), sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-induced ADRP expression, to identify the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression, and to understand its function in sodium dodecyl sulfate cytotoxicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced a concentration- and time-related production of ADRP that was associated with lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid accumulation following sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment was due to intracellular redistribution rather than lipid neosynthesis, as indicated by equivalent 14C-oleate and 14C-acetate incorporations. ...
High dietary protein can reduce fat deposition in animal subcutaneous adipose tissue, but little is known about the mechanism. Sixty Wujin pigs of about 15 kg weight were fed either high protein (HP: 18%) or low protein (LP: 14%) diets, and slaughtered at body weights of 30, 60 or 100 kg. Bloods were collected to measure serum parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled for determination of adipocyte size, protein content, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and enzyme activities. HP significantly reduced adipocyte size, fat meat percentage and backfat thickness, but significantly increased daily gain, lean meat percentage and loin eye area at 60 and 100 kg. Serum free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations in the HP group were significantly higher than in the LP group. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein at any body weight. HP significantly reduced gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
β-Casomorphin increases fat deposition in broiler chickens by modulating expression of lipid metabolism genes - Volume 13 Issue 4 - W. H. Chang, A. J. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, S. Zhang, H. Y. Cai, G. H. Liu
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)-coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation-related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo ...
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animals liver. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are Triglycerides. Since lipids are fats, lipid metabolism is often considered the digestion and absorption process of dietary fats. Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs when a chemical breaks down as a reaction to coming in contact with water. Lipid metabolism does exist in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. Digestion of fats begin in the mouth through chemical digestion by lingual lipase. Lipids then ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is amplified/ over-expressed in cancers of diverse cellular origins. Altered cellular metabolism (including lipogenesis) is a hallmark of cancer development, and protein-protein associations between TPD52 and known regulators of lipid storage, and differential TPD52 expression in obese versus non-obese adipose tissue, suggest that TPD52 may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We found increased lipid droplet numbers in stably TPD52-expressing BALB/c 3T3 cell lines, compared with control and TPD52L1-expressing cell lines. TPD52-expressing 3T3 cells showed increased fatty acid storage in triglyceride (from both de novo synthesis and uptake), and formed greater numbers of lipid droplets upon oleic acid supplementation than control cells. TPD52 co-localised with Golgi but not ER markers, and also showed partial co-localisation with Adrp-coated lipid droplets, with a proportion of TPD52 being detected in the lipid droplet fraction. Direct interactions between ADRP and TPD52, ...
Several nutrition and food ingredients are supposed to have beneficial effects, but precise cell biological mechanism has not been elucidated. Among food ingredients, polyphenols such as soy bean isoflavon genistein and wine resveratrol have been reported to have effects on lipid metabolism and cardiovacular diseases (1). In order to elucidate the effect of genistein on obesity, we cultured adipocyte and observed of genisten to lipid accumulation in cells. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed by genistein when it was added at the time of differentiation but not when added after differentiation. Genistein is considered to suppress lipid accumulation by suppressing the differtiation of adipocytes.
Atherosclerosis is driven by lipid accumulation in the arterial wall that leads to narrowing the vessel lumen and increasing risk of thrombus formation. Deposition of lipids, mostly cholesteryl esters, in the arterial wall layer called intima, is one of the earliest manifestations of the disease. Intracellular accumulation of lipids takes place in so called foam cells that have their cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets that are visible microscopically. Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles serve as the primary source of lipids. Numerous attempts were made to establish a clear link between circulating LDL levels and atherosclerosis formation. In the experiments conducted on cultured cells, if was demonstrated that native LDL failed to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. At the same time, LDL chemically modified in vitro (acetylated, malondialdehyde-treated, oxidized with ions of transient metals, etc.) induced lipid deposition in cultured cells, i.e., was atherogenic. It was ...
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. In humans it is encoded by the ADFP gene. This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids within the lipid droplets. The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. The full length cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and sequence analysis results in a protein with 425 amino acids that is unique and similar sequences had not previously been reported. In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). The proposed models for adipose differentiation related protein (perilipin 2) is maintained by ...
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) has been implicated in the regulation of endo-/exocytic pathways, cholesterol transport, and the formation of multifactorial signaling complexes in many different cell types. More recently, AnxA6 has also been linked to triglyceride storage in adipocytes. Here we investigated the potential role of AnxA6 in fatty acid (FA) induced lipid droplet (LD) formation in hepatocytes. AnxA6 was associated with LD from rat liver and HuH7 hepatocytes. In oleic acid (OA) -loaded HuH7 cells, substantial amounts of AnxA6 bound to LD in a Ca2+-independent manner. Remarkably, stable or transient AnxA6 overexpression in HuH7 cells led to elevated LD numbers/size and neutral lipid staining under control conditions as well as after OA loading compared to controls. In contrast, overexpression of AnxAl, AnxA2 and AnxA8 did not impact on OA-induced lipid accumulation. On the other hand, incubation of AnxA6-depleted HuH7 cells or primary hepatocytes from AnxA6 KO-mice with OA led to reduced FA ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
For humans it is crucial to control lipid homeostasis to avoid development of metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia is a considerable risk factor for development of cardiovascular and liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Infection and inflammation induce the acute phase response (APR), leading to multiple alternations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, mediated by changed cytokine production, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Another cytokine IL-10 has anti-atheromatous and anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been postulated that IL-10 has gene therapeutic potential. However, the effect of IL-10 on liver and its metabolic functions are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-10 could modulate lipid homeostasis in TNF-a- and IL-6-stimulated hepatocytes. We demonstrated that IL-6 increased expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid (FA) synthesis [SREBP1a, FAS], FA oxidation [PPARa, CPT1a, CPT2], FA ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
Since July 2001, JLR has published special Thematic Review Series - a series of articles on a hot lipid-related topic appearing in consecutive issues. Thematic Reviews are among the most widely read of all JLR articles.. For each of these series, an Associate Editor (sometimes in conjunction with a member of the JLR Editorial Board) will invite experts in that field to contribute reviews on a specific topic or theme. Many topics have been explored in JLR Thematic Review Series; sterol/lipid metabolism and transport, systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, membranes and polar lipid dynamics, and sphingolipids are just a few examples.. Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research articles ...
Abnormal lipid metabolism associated with various renal diseases has been known for a long time. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the characteristic features of nephotic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia is often observed in chronic renal failure (CRF). The role of lipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of renal diseases has been variously discussed. However, direct evidence only recently became possible when more sophisticated analyses of renal histopathology as well as an application of molecular biology were introduced in the field of clinical nephrology. The recent identification of lipoprotein nephropathy (LPG), reported most often by Japanese authors since 1989, is particularly noteworthy. The detailed analysis of lipid profiles and renal histology has been instrumental in clarifying the relationship between lipids and the kidney not only in LPG but also in other disease entities such as familial-type dyslipidemias, CRF, focal glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Dyslipidemias ...
Lipid droplets are lipid stores inside cells that are surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer and are often found insidide adipocytes. Lipid droplets are able to store neutral lipids e.g. triaclycerides and cholesterol esters that are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lipids stored inside the droplets are neutral due to the fact they contain no hydrophilic head groups, instead all containing hydrophobic constituent molecules, that clump into droplets rather than bilayer (as would happen if they contained hydrophilic heads) [1]. ...
Effect of high vitamin A or tocopherol intake on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal absorption and secretion of lipids and bile acids in the chick.: The ef
Modulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism. Coats lipid storage droplets to protect them from breakdown by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Its absence may result in leanness (By similarity). Plays a role in unilocular lipid droplet formation by activating CIDEC. Their interaction promotes lipid droplet enlargement and directional net neutral lipid transfer. May modulate lipolysis and triglyceride levels.
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also controls cellular lipid metabolism but the underlining mechanism is poorly understood. We report here that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a novel effector of TNFα to facilitate its metabolic modulation in the skeletal muscle. Depletion of PIKE-A in C2C12 myotubes diminished the inhibitory activities of TNFα on mitochondrial respiration and lipid oxidation, whereas PIKE-A overexpression exacerbated these cellular responses. We also found that TNFα promoted the interaction between PIKE-A and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. As a result, animals with PIKE ablation in the skeletal muscle per se display an upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and a higher preference to utilize lipid as the energy production substrate under high-fat diet feeding, which mitigates the development of diet-induced ...
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It is well known that metabolic responses to diet and drugs are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Still, a large part of differences in responses between individuals remains unexplained. To increase our understanding of individual differences, more and more attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota. Not only energy and glucose may be related to the microbiota, but also lipid metabolism. This is not surprising as lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and obesity are closely linked.. There is substantial evidence from in particular animal studies that the gut microbiota is related to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, there is less evidence to what extent modulation of the gut microbiota changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. ...
Increasing evidence suggests that the various components of açaí contribute to cardioprotection via mechanisms that affect cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathway proteins, and the modulation of gene expression [37],. [38], [39], [40] and [41]. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids regulate the activity of the Alisertib nuclear receptor regulators of cellular lipid metabolism [42] and [43]. The present study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí pulp using a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. A 2% açaí pulp dose was chosen because of its relevance to human nutrition. This dosage mimics the addition of a portion of this fruit in food [44] and selleck compound has demonstrated effects in previous studies [10], [15] and [16]. Corroborating our previous results [15], açaí supplementation improved the lipid profile in the rat. Thus, we focused on characterizing the effects that açaí pulp supplementation in the diet would ...
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is central to human health. Disruption of lipid metabolic pathways can lead to a variety of diseases including diabetes an...
Introduction. Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the ...
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... Aging skin is increasingly susceptible to lipid depletion; the loss of natural compounds in skin s surface,
Dr. Chung is focusing on the biology of fat storage organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Many cancer cells are characterized by an increased number of LDs, and this accumulation has been proposed to be pathogenic. Key questions of LD biology remain unanswered, limiting the potential for therapeutic intervention. She will combine various imaging technologies and biochemical approaches to elucidate the molecular architecture of initial LD formation and its regulation.. ...
Lipids refer to organic biochemicals such as fats, oils, sterols, phospholipids, lipoproteins and waxy elements. Lipids store energy, are structural components of cell membranes and also help in the ...
Abstract:. Monolayer-integrated proteins (MIPs) could exist in any membrane of the cell, but available bioinformatics tools only identify transmembrane protein domains. To better understand the types of proteins that embed into a single leaflet of biological membranes we identified the lipid droplet (LD) monolayer-integrated proteome (MIP-ome). LDs are cytoplasmic organelles that have a reservoir of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane. Any protein embedded into the surface of the LD would be a MIP. Here we describe an approach that combines cutting edge proteomics with statistical modeling to identify a comprehensive set of LD-associated MIPs.. Suggested readings:. Kory, N., Farese, R.V., Walther, T.C. Targeting Fat: Mechanisms of Protein Localization to Lipid Droplets. Trends in Cell Biology, Vol. 26, Issue 7, p535-546, July 2016.. ...
br/,,big,,font color=#407F7F size=5,Welcome to the COVID-19 Pathway Collection,/font,,/big,,br/,,br/, ,p,This special subset of disease pathways is being highlighted during the current COVID-19 crisis. This content is released under a CC0 waiver to be freely used, reused and distributed. Let us know if you add a new pathway or want to recommend one for this collection.,/p, {{#section:Help:Authors,covid-help}} ,} {, style=margin: 10px; background-color:#AFDCDE ,width=100px; cell padding=50px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4846,250px,,SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Pathway}} Collaborative project for curation biological processes involved in the COVID-19 disease after SARS-Cov-2 infection. ,width=100px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4853,250px,,Coronavirus lipid metabolism}} Lipid metabolism alternations that are related to infection by the corona virus. ,width=100px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4860,250px,,Hijack of Ubiquitination by SARS-CoV-2}} SARS-CoV-2 includes a novel Orf10 that interacts with muliple members of the ...
Clicking on a MS/MS value (nominal mass of precursor ion) displays the fragmentation spectrum, including structures of principal product ions ...
Clicking on a MS/MS value (nominal mass of precursor ion) displays the fragmentation spectrum, including structures of principal product ions ...
Leitung. Dr. Cristina Cadenas Garcia / Dr. Rosemarie Marchan. The CellTox group was established in January 2013 under the supervision of Cristina Cadenas and Rosemarie Marchan with the goal to better understand how cells respond to different types of stress. Both scientists are especially interested in cellular metabolism, with particular focus on lipid and choline metabolic pathways. A major goal of their work is therefore to elucidate how metabolism is altered in in response to cellular stressors as well as in disease.. Lipids are important membrane constituents, energy sources, and signalling molecules - all of which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and are thus relevant in the context of cellular damage. Initially, the CellTox group studied lipid metabolism in connection with cancer and cellular senescence, with the goal to better characterise genes regulating phospholipid and choline metabolic pathways. This led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized enzyme ...
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Transport of fatty acids within the cytosol of adipocytes and their subsequent assimilation into lipid droplets has been thoroughly investigated; however, the mechanism by which fatty acids are transported across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment remains unclear. Since triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins represent an abundant source of fatty acids for adipocyte utilization, we have investigated the expression levels of cell surface lipoprotein receptors and their functional contributions toward intracellular lipid accumulation; these include very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). We found that expression of these three lipoprotein receptors increased 5-fold, 2-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively, during adipocyte differentiation. The major proteoglycans expressed by mature adipocytes are of high molecular weight (|500 kD) and contain both heparan and chondroitin sulfate moieties.
Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India) @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline [email protected]/tonne (60%) and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds ...
Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is a convenient way to collect blood samples with several advantages over conventional blood collection methods. DBS has gained popularity in fields such as newborn screening, preclinical studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring [2, 4, 7, 8]. DBS coupled with LC-MS/MS system provides the capacity to analyze samples in a high throughput manner once coupled to robust analytical methods. Lipidomics analysis of whole blood, which is comprised of thousands of diverse lipid molecular species, is directly linked to an individuals physiological, nutritional and health status [14, 35]. In this study, we combined DBS collection with high-resolution MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics analysis to analyze the blood lipidome. We demonstrate in one DBS spot, several lipid classes and more than 1,200 lipid species were identified and quantified.. Direct infusion-based MS shotgun lipidomics provides comprehensive profiling and quantitation of lipid species from organic extracts of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. To mechanistically understand this relationship, we utilize the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly).. Recent studies revealed a connection between the fruit fly gene snazurus (SNZ) and fly lifespan (Suh, PLOS One, 2008). Snazurus, the fly homolog of yeast protein Mdm1, is highly expressed in the fly fat body, the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue.. We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension.. ...
Title: Epicardial and Intramyocardial Adipose Tissue: The Enemy within. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):A. R. Baker, S. J. Creely, P. G. McTernan and S. Kumar. Affiliation:Warwick Medical School,Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.. Keywords:Adipobiology, ectopic fat, fatty heart, adipocytes, PPAR-γ, therapeutics. Abstract: Both obesity and lipodystrophy are associated with an accumulation of lipid in tissues other than the classical adipose tissue depots. The consequences of this ectopic fat are not limited to the now well established insulin resistance but also a range of other organ specific sequelae. We discuss, with specific reference to the heart, the potential role of ectopic adipocyte proliferation as well as intracellular lipid accumulation. This is a relatively recently described phenomenon, but has attracted the attention of scientists because of the association with visceral obesity. A range of therapeutic agents have been shown to be effective in targeting ectopic fat with much evidence supporting ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of "energy-overload" metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who "bump" into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Regulation Of Lipid Utilisation In Skeletal Muscle During Exercise In Humans bog: Titel: Regulation Of Lipid Utilisation In Skeletal Muscle During Exerc...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CGI-58 facilitates the mobilization of cytoplasmic triglyceride for lipoprotein secretion in hepatoma cells. AU - Brown, J. Mark. AU - Chung, Soonkyu. AU - Das, Akash. AU - Shelness, Gregory S.. AU - Rudel, Lawrence L.. AU - Yu, Liqing. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family of proteins. Mutations in the human CGI-58 gene are associated with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in which excessive triglyceride (TG) accumulation occurs in multiple tissues. In this study, we investigated the role of CGI-58 in cellular lipid metabolism in several cell models and discovered a role for CGI-58 in promoting the packaging of cytoplasmic TG into secreted lipoprotein particles in hepatoma cells. Using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CGI-58 facilitates the depletion of cellular TG stores without altering cellular cholesterol or ...
Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. As a population ages, chronic conditions associated with aging such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders take increasing tolls in terms of morbidity and mortality. Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimers, cancer, and asthma. Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is ...
All-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) is a promising agent in the prevention/treatment of breast-cancer. There is growing evidence that reprogramming of cellular lipid metabolism contributes to malignant transformation and progression. Lipid metabolism is implicated in cell differentiation and metastatic colonization and it is involved in the mechanisms of sensitivity/resistance to different anti-tumor agents. The role played by lipids in the anti-tumor activity of ATRA has never been studied. We used 16 breast cancer cell-lines whose degree of sensitivity to the anti-proliferative action of ATRA is known. We implemented a non-oriented mass-spectrometry based approach to define the lipidomic profiles of each cell-line grown under basal conditions and following treatment with ATRA. To complement the lipidomic data, untreated and retinoid treated cell-lines were also subjected to RNA-sequencing to define the perturbations afforded by ATRA on the whole-genome gene-expression profiles. The number and functional
Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Amino acid metabolism[edit]. *PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, ... Glucose metabolism[edit]. PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. Orexin-A (OXA) has been recently demonstrated to have a direct effect on an aspect of lipid metabolism ... The link between OXA and the lipid metabolism is new and currently under more research. ... OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids (triacylglycerol). OXA ... Cell Metabolism. 14 (4): 478-90. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.08.010. PMID 21982708. Lay summary - ScienceDaily.. ...
Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. Green nodes: lipid metabolism. ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... metabolism yield carbon skeletons that can be used for other metabolic reactions like the production of amino acids and lipids. ... Dodd AN, Borland AM, Haslam RP, Griffiths H, Maxwell K (Apr 2002). "Crassulacean acid metabolism: plastic, fantastic". Journal ...
Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. Green nodes: lipid metabolism. ... "Cell Metabolism. 9 (4): 311-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.02.002. PMC 3640280. PMID 19356713.. ... "Molecular Metabolism. 5 (7): 538-51. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2016.04.006. PMC 4921791. PMID 27408778.. ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ...
"Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism". Nature. 458 (7242): 1131-5. doi:10.1038/nature07976. PMID 19339967.. ... "Regulation of lipid stores and metabolism by lipophagy". Cell Death and Differentiation. 20 (1): 3-11. doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.63 ... In lipophagy the target are lipid structures called lipid droplets (LDs), spheric "organelles" with a core of mainly ... Lipophagy is the degradation of lipids by autophagy,[31] a function which has been shown to exist in both animal and fungal ...
Lipids: lipoprotein particle metabolism. Lipoprotein particle classes and subclasses. *delivery of TGs: Chylomicron ... lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. ... lipid transporter activity. Cellular component. • high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density ... 2008). "Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 161 ...
lipid transport. • positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process. • chylomicron remnant clearance. • Lipid metabolism. ... lipid binding. Cellular component. • chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high-density lipoprotein ... negative regulation of lipid metabolic process. • reverse cholesterol transport. • negative regulation of catalytic activity. • ... lipid catabolic process. • positive regulation of phospholipase activity. • positive regulation of phospholipid catabolic ...
It also regulates lipid metabolism.[33] Endogenous sulfur dioxide also diminishes myocardial damage, caused by isoproterenol ... Authors considered homocysteine to be one of useful biochemical markers of disease severity and sulfur dioxide metabolism to be ... Endogenous sulfur dioxide lowered lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation during an ... and an increase in lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, blockade of an ...
"Fucoxanthin and lipid metabolism: A minireview". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD. 25 (10): 891-7. doi ... Dembitsky VM, Maoka T (November 2007). "Allenic and cumulenic lipids". Progress in Lipid Research. 46 (6): 328-75. doi:10.1016/ ... improves blood lipid profiles, and decreased insulin resistance in animal models of obesity.[12][13][14] In a human clinical ... "Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health" ...
... a key intermediate in lipid metabolism". Eur. J. Biochem. 266 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00822.x. PMID 10542045. ... "Prefission Constriction of Golgi Tubular Carriers Driven by Local Lipid Metabolism: A Theoretical Model". Biophys. J. 85 (6): ... many lipid-binding proteins are cytosolic and localise to the membrane by binding only the headgroups of lipids. Perhaps the ... "Profiling membrane lipids in plant stress responses. Role of phospholipase D alpha in freezing-induced lipid changes in ...
"P&G Beauty & Grooming , Role of Lipid Metabolism in Seborrheic Dermatitis (Dandruff)". Pgbeautygroomingscience.com. Archived ... Kenneth L. Becker (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1004-. ...
"Journal of Lipid Research. 40 (4): 699-707. PMID 10191294.. *^ Bull, A. W; Earles, S. M; Bronstein, J. C (1991). "Metabolism of ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1166 (2-3): 258-63. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(93)90106-J. PMID 8443245.. ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1392 (1): 23-40. doi:10.1016/S0005-2760(97)00209-9. PMID 9593808.. ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1081 (2): 174-80. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(91)90023-B. PMID 1998735.. ...
... their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. Lipid. Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID ...
"Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... Plastoglubuli contain both structural proteins and enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism. They contain many types ... Lipid Biosynthesis. The Plant Cell 7, 957-970. *^ Steer, Brian E.S. Gunning, Martin W. (1996). Plant cell biology : structure ... This section needs expansion with: needs more about lipids, also paramylon. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013) ...
Nur77 is suggested to inhibit LXR and downstream SREBP-1c expression modulating hepatic lipid metabolism.[14] ... Animal cells maintain proper levels of intracellular lipids (fats and oils) under widely varying circumstances (lipid ... "Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... SREBP-2 regulates the genes of cholesterol metabolism.. Function[edit]. SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol ...
"TFEB controls cellular lipid metabolism through a starvation-induced autoregulatory loop". Nature Cell Biology. 15 (6): 647-58 ... "Transcriptional control of autophagy-lysosome function drives pancreatic cancer metabolism". Nature. 524 (7565): 361-5. ...
"Role of ABCG1 and other ABCG family members in lipid metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 42 (10): 1513-20. PMID 11590207.. ... lipid transport. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • detection of hormone stimulus. • response to high density ... response to lipid. • intracellular cholesterol transport. • low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. • positive regulation ... negative regulation of lipid storage. • cholesterol homeostasis. • regulation of cholesterol esterification. • negative ...
S. Diano, T. L. Horvath: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in glucose and lipid metabolism. In: Trends in molecular ... M. Nabben, J. Hoeks: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 and its role in cardiac- and skeletal muscle metabolism. In: Physiology ...
Cayen, M. N. (1971). "Effect of dietary tomatine on cholesterol metabolism in the rat". Journal of Lipid Research. 12 (4): 482- ... Cayen, M.N.; Effect of dietary tomatine on cholesterol metabolism in the rat; Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 12, 1971. ... Later the glycoalkaloid metabolism genes were discovered. These genes produce the glycoalkaloid metabolism enzymes (GAME), ... The amount of tomatine absorbed by the human body as well as the possible metabolism is unknown. There is no evidence that ...
They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role ... Scorletti E, Byrne CD (2013). "Omega-3 fatty acids, hepatic lipid metabolism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease". Annual ... "Lipids in Health and Disease. 10 (104): 104. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-104. PMC 3131239. PMID 21696609.. ... "Essential Fatty Acids-Metabolism and Bioavailability". Micronutrient Information Center, Oregon State University. May 2014.. ...
Lipid metabolism. Defining the enzymes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis and the cell biology underlying lipid storage in ...
... has wide-ranging effects, including alterations of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism; catabolic effects on ... "Effects of omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in men". The American ... Metabolism[edit]. Glucose[edit]. Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis[14] ... Metabolism[edit]. Cortisol is metabolized by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system (11-beta HSD), which consists of ...
Δ6-desaturase does appear to be the rate-limiting step; 20:4 ω-3 does not significantly accumulate in bodily lipids. DGLA ... Stone KJ, Willis AL, Hart WM, Kirtland SJ, Kernoff PB, McNicol GP (February 1979). "The metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic ... Karlstad MD, DeMichele SJ, Leathem WD, Peterson MB (November 1993). "Effect of intravenous lipid emulsions enriched with gamma- ... Lipid Res. 46 (6): 1093-6. doi:10.1194/jlr.C500003-JLR200. PMID 15805551. KP Su; SY Huang; CC Chiu; WW Shen (2003). "Omega-3 ...
"Acyl-Lipid Metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0161. doi:10.1199/tab.0161. Eastmond, Peter J.; van Dijken, Anja J. H.; ... This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid ...
... an inborn error of lipid metabolism due to DGAT1 mutations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (9): 1268-73. doi:10.1038/ ... "Journal of Lipid Research. 58 (6): 1230-1237. doi:10.1194/jlr.P075119. PMC 5454518. PMID 28373485.. ...
"Progress in Lipid Research. 48 (1): 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.002. PMC 2654180. PMID 19032965.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3551-60. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2136. PMC 4483466. PMID 25062463.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 102 (9): 3097-3110. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01024. PMID 28957454.. ... Pasquier F (October 2010). "Diabetes and cognitive impairment: how to evaluate the cognitive status?". Diabetes & Metabolism. ...
L-Carnitine intake prevents irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder.. [Tao Wu, Anqi Guo, Qingyu Shu, ... However, whether l-carnitine may affect irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder is still largely ... Therefore, our results suggest that the time-delayed pattern of eating can induce adiposity and lipid metabolic disorders, ... analysis indicated that l-carnitine counteracted the negative alterations of lipid metabolic gene expression (fatty acid ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute ... Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ...
Argininosuccinate synthetase regulates hepatic AMPK linking protein catabolism and ureagenesis to hepatic lipid metabolism ... Eukaryotic lipid metabolic pathway is essential for functional chloroplasts and CO2 and light responses in Arabidopsis guard ... Lipidomics reveals diurnal lipid oscillations in human skeletal muscle persisting in cellular myotubes cultured in vitro Ursula ... Gsα deficiency in adipose tissue improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without an effect on body weight Yong-Qi ...
Lipid biology biophysics gene expression metabolism nutrition obesity pathology protein proteins synthesis ... The Influence of the Intestinal Unstirred Water Layers on the Understanding of the Mechanisms of Lipid Absorption ... sorbs lipids. The second was to stimulate the interest of younger individuals whom we wished to recruit into what we believed ... on the subject of the intestinal processing of lipids. When these meetings were first started in 1990, the original organizers ...
Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism.. Singh R1, Kaushik S, Wang Y, Xiang Y, Novak I, Komatsu M, Tanaka K, Cuervo AM, Czaja MJ. ... This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human ... During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for ... Here we show a previously unknown function for autophagy in regulating intracellular lipid stores (macrolipophagy). Lipid ...
Beta-blockers and lipid metabolism.. Br Med J 1977; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6088.705 (Published 10 September 1977) ...
Lipid Metabolism. Expand All. C1051-Intestinal lipid absorption in the conscious mouse - lymph fistula Expand. This procedure ... C1104-Lipid Extraction via Folch* Expand. Lipids will be extracted from tissues using the Folch extraction method. ... By infusing the lipid test meal intraduadenally at a constant rate, the lymphatic lipid output usually reaches a steady rate by ... Thus, lymphatic lipid output during the 5th or 6th hour represents the amount of lipid transported by the small intestine under ...
... of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. We ... Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism.. Ye X1, Li M1, Hou T1, Gao T1, Zhu WG1, Yang Y1. ... SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. SIRT6 binds with HIF-1α and inhibits ... genome stability and metabolism. Evidence accumulated over the past two decades has indicated that sirtuins not only serve as ...
... Youngah Jo,1 Hiroaki Okazaki,2 Young-Ah Moon,3 and TongJin Zhao4 ...
... neutral lipids such as sterols and triacylglycerols). The structural diversity of lipids... ... Plant ER membranes are the major site of biosynthesis of several lipid families (phospholipids, sphingolipids, ... Fouillen L., Maneta-Peyret L., Moreau P. (2018) ER Membrane Lipid Composition and Metabolism: Lipidomic Analysis. In: Hawes C ... used for lipid analysis will also be discussed in relation to the studies to be carried out on lipid metabolism and function. ...
Several players in host lipid metabolism have been implicated in T. cruzi-host interactions in recent research, including ... Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Host Lipid Metabolism. Qianqian Miao1,2 and Momar Ndao1,2 ... in order to further understand the roles of host lipid metabolism in T. cruzi infection. This review sheds light on the ... All of these factors are required to maintain host lipid homeostasis and are intricately connected via several metabolic ...
Molecular regulation of lipid metabolism. Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids influences several processes in the body ... Our work is aimed at trying to further understand the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism in liver and other tissues, ... PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Besides mediating the genomic effects of dietary fatty acids ... Current studies are directed towards further characterizing the role of HILPDA in lipid metabolism. In particular, we are ...
Session: Biology of Neutral Lipid Metabolism and Trafficking. • The Ins and Outs of Fat Metabolism: New Insights from Yeast, ... "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme focuses on new progress regarding how the metabolism, trafficking, organization and ... "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme will cover phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, phospholipases D and neutral lipids. The ... Lipid and Membrane Metabolism. Session: Current Topics in Phosphoinositide Biology and Signaling. • Ptdlns-4-kinase Regulation ...
Adipocyte and lipid metabolism in cancer drug resistance. Yihai Cao Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, ... Cancer lipid metabolism confers antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cell Metab. 2018;28(1):104-117.e5.. View this article via: ... CAAs and lipid metabolism in antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cancer drugs targeting tumor blood vessels are frequently used for ... ColoLipidGene: signature of lipid metabolism-related genes to predict prognosis in stage-II colon cancer patients. Oncotarget. ...
Tags: Cell, DNA, Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Lipids, Lipodystrophy, Metabolic Disorders, Metabolism, Mutation, Nuclear Envelope ... Up until now, scientists assumed that only the ER and the outer nuclear envelope were involved in the cells lipid metabolism ... They discovered that the inner envelope plays a role in the metabolism of lipids, even storing such substances in the cell ... Both researchers agree that the main question still to be answered is the exact cellular function of lipid metabolism in the ...
Taskinens research group have focused on the pathophysiology of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the liver... ... Purpose and aim of our studies Abnormal concentrations of lipids can result from changes in the production, conversion, or ...
Intracellular pH regulates metabolism by poorly understood mechanisms, but biosensors are likely to be important in this ... They found that the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid appeared to act as a cytosolic biosensor via the pH-dependent binding of ... Phosphatidic acid is a pH biosensor that links membrane biogenesis to metabolism. Science 329, 1085-1088 (2010). [Abstract] [ ... took a systems biology approach in yeast to identify in excess of 200 genes that regulate phospholipid metabolism. ...
The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is known to lead to a large number of oxygenated compounds, some of which can bind ... The metabolism of [2-acetyl-(14)C]oseltamivir (GS4104, Ro 64-0796), the prodrug of the novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitor ... This study aims to define the metabolism of caffeine, which takes place in the liver in a group of healthy Nigerian children. ... 1. The metabolism and excretion of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was investigated in mouse, rabbit ...
Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. ... Recent studies reveal that p53 has significant roles in cellular metabolism. One example of this is an antioxidant function ... To test if docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil supplementation rectifies red cell membrane lipid anomaly in pregnant women ... It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the ...
Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Carlos Castaño, Susana Kalko, Anna Novials, ... Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Carlos Castaño, Susana Kalko, Anna Novials, ... Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... These results support a role for exosomal miRNAs in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice and may help us ...
Lipid Metabolism & Aging. Lipid Metabolism and Aging We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism ... the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue. ... Larva are nearly transparent, and store their lipids in the fat body - a tissue that forms a natural monolayer of cells (see ... We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension. ...
... insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-and then on implementing these cells into research programs for the study of lipid ... and lipid dysregulation How iCell Hepatocytes can overcome the limitations of existing cell models for more relevant hepatic ... Home Webinars On Demand Webinars Modeling Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Using Human iPSC-derived Hepatocytes ... Modeling Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Using Human iPSC-derived Hepatocytes. January 25, 2017. 0 ...
Researchers have discovered that fat tissue releases a lipid-filled particle that has a role in immune function and metabolism ... Lipid-filled particle plays role in immune function and metabolism. *Download PDF Copy ... Researchers have discovered that fat tissue releases a lipid-filled particle that has a role in immune function and metabolism ... Our next step is to investigate whether these lipid particles appear in humans and, if so, whether they contribute to lipids we ...
This review summarizes the relationship between lipid metabolism and key stages in the production of infectious HCV. ... The liver is highly metabolically active and one of its key functions is to control the balance of lipid throughout the body. A ... number of pathologies have been linked to the impact of HCV infection on liver metabolism. However, there is also growing ... Role of Lipids on Entry and Exit of Bluetongue Virus, a Complex Non-Enveloped Virus ...
... but also lipid metabolism. This is not surprising as lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and obesity are closely linked. ... Lipid metabolism [ Time Frame: Measure change between day 1 and day 8 (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) ]. *Glucose metabolism ... Lipid Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Amoxicillin. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. ... However, there is less evidence to what extent modulation of the gut microbiota changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in ...
  • The intracellular storage and utilization of lipids are critical to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphoinositides are essential signaling lipids that modulate a diverse set of cellular processes. (asbmb.org)
  • Both researchers agree that the main question still to be answered is the exact cellular function of lipid metabolism in the cell nucleus of healthy humans and those suffering from diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • More recent research has shown that abnormally elevated serum glucose and a consequent increase in cellular glucose content may lead to dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism in podocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this proposal is the acquisition of the appropriate molecular and cellular tools that will enable to address the issues of the increased lipid deposition in the tissues of farmed fish and the apparent dietary requirement of many of the farmed fish species for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (europa.eu)
  • The importance of phospholipases in cellular signaling, lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses and pathological disorders related to these processes has stimulated demand for fluorescence-based enzyme activity monitoring methods. (thermofisher.com)
  • The review highlights recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adipocyte metabolism, with a particular focus on lipolysis regulation and the involvement of microribonucleic acids (miRNAs). (portlandpress.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor implicated in the control of cellular lipid utilization. (jci.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that PPARalpha is activated as a component of the cellular lipid homeostatic response, the expression of PPARalpha target genes was characterized in response to a perturbation in cellular lipid oxidative flux caused by pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid import. (jci.org)
  • Pumphrey, Robert], and National Institutes of Health (U.S.). [Daniel Steinberg and Donald Fredrickson, of the lab of Cellular Physiology and Metabolism, National Heart Institute, and Gordon Tomkins, National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases]. (nih.gov)
  • Pumphrey, Robert], and National Institutes of Health (U.S.). [Donald S. Fredrickson, Senior Investigator, Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Metabolism, National Heart Institute]. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on this research theme within the Division of Human Nutrition have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of lipid metabolism in liver via regulation of numerous genes. (wur.nl)
  • took a systems biology approach in yeast to identify in excess of 200 genes that regulate phospholipid metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • SREBPs travel into cell nuclei and turn on genes involved in lipid production, usually in response to specific signals. (phys.org)
  • This allows SREBP1a to turn on genes involved in lipid synthesis. (phys.org)
  • The biological effects of lees extract included (i) a reduction in zebrafish embryos' fat reserve (40%), (ii) changes in the expression of lipid metabolism key genes, (iii) remodelling of the fatty acid content in phospholipid and triglyceride fractions of zebrafish embryos and (iv) reduction in the trans fatty acid content. (rsc.org)
  • In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. (wur.nl)
  • Numerous novel PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. (wur.nl)
  • In addition to lipid metabolism, some members of the cytochrome P450 family genes are responsible for activation of procarcinogens, detoxification of environmental toxins and metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. (wikipathways.org)
  • Monitoring variants of several genes involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and transport, and drug metabolism may help physicians predict the effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins, says Antonio Gotto, dean of the Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. (nih.gov)
  • A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, cancer cells frequently ramp up the activity of the enzymes involved in synthesizing lipids right in the cell. (phys.org)
  • Your download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978 had a stars)My that this History could manually contaminate. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • This download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978 of counterfactuals looks at the Brain of popular death in daily speech characters and has the series events are and the Role they start. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • In Super Bowl XLIX, Seahawks download Yoruba in download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978: Pete Carroll took one of the most relative movies in protection kernel: With 26 recipes sharing, and revolutionizing by four at the Patriots' schedule person, he left for a disorder Sorry of a looking off to his bottom homicide now. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • Those questions only receive partial response in the present review because studies of the systemic effects of prebiotics are still in their infancy, and require fundamental research devoted to elucidating the biochemical and physiological events that allow prebiotics to exert systemic effects on lipid metabolism. (lww.com)
  • Recent studies also illustrate that modifying dietary essential amino acid (EAA) composition has profound effects on lipid metabolism and energy balance ( 7 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings suggest that insufficient lipolysis, that is, high basal lipolysis which cannot be adequately accelerated by hormone stimulation, may shift the balance in lipid turnover towards uptake, which facilitates fat mass growth. (iran-daily.com)
  • Cholesterol is measured in lipid extracted via Folch extraction from tissue. (uc.edu)
  • Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that l-carnitine counteracted the negative alterations of lipid metabolic gene expression (fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase) in the liver and fat of mice caused by the irregular feeding. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overall, CoQ10 supplementation for 12 weeks among subjects with PCOS had beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, serum total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Non hormonal steroids are cholesterol and their derivatives like ergosterol and cholic acid all of which serve as lipid components of eukaryotic membranes. (whatislife.com)
  • Many different classes of lipids also are known to serve as metabolic precursors to various second messengers or as signaling molecules in their own right. (asbmb.org)
  • Julie D. Saba (Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute) will discuss her recent work on the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase in DNA repair as an example of the underinvestigated problem of lipid signaling in the nucleus. (asbmb.org)
  • They found that the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid appeared to act as a cytosolic biosensor via the pH-dependent binding of protein effectors to phosphatidic acid. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipid signaling in yeast is regulated by intracellular pH. (sciencemag.org)
  • Join us for this GEN webinar, where we will focus first on developing assays with human iPSC-derived hepatocytes to interrogate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-and then on implementing these cells into research programs for the study of lipid dysregulation and metabolic disease state and progression. (genengnews.com)
  • Today, lipid research addresses all aspects of cell biology including cell structure, energy storage and generation, and cell signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, the potential for GLP-1R signaling to promote lipid metabolism has direct translational importance in that therapies already exist that could capitalize on this mechanism. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conversely, in animal models, increased glucagon receptor signaling has been linked to improved lipid metabolism. (ku.dk)
  • Most lipids, however, have metabolic functions contributing to membrane structures and signaling. (whatislife.com)
  • In this study, researchers from Morocco examined the effect of basil extract on high lipid levels and oxidative stress in an animal model. (naturalnews.com)
  • The macrophages rapidly break down the triglyceride in the AdExos and release it as fatty acids, which Ferrante hypothesizes can then be taken up by adipocytes in a lipid cycle that resupplies fat cells with fresh lipid. (news-medical.net)
  • Since lipids (fats) are hydrophobic, hydrolysis in lipid metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm which ends up creating glycerol and fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discrepancies in lipid parameters, nutritional and inflammatory markers, blood oxidative indexes, antioxidant micronutrients or trace elements (selenium, zinc, vitamin E) related to polyunsaturated fatty acids were checked in these populations. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This book was stimulated by the enthusiasm shown by attendees at the meetings in Saxon River, VT, sponsored by the Federation ofAmerican Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), on the subject of the intestinal processing of lipids. (springer.com)
  • The 2011 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology annual meeting "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme focuses on new progress regarding how the metabolism, trafficking, organization and biological functions of major lipid classes are coordinated. (asbmb.org)
  • The synergies between classical lipid research, systems biology, and the advancement of lipid detection technologies have led to a revolution in lipid biology and the emergence of lipidomics as a branch of metabolomics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is a propitious time for a collection of review articles that summarize recent advances in our understanding of podocyte function and dysfunction, relating to energetics, metabolism, and lipid biology, and that build upon these new insight to suggest novel therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fajun Yang, an associate professor of developmental and molecular biology at Albert Einstein, studies exactly how cancer cells supply themselves with lipids. (phys.org)
  • Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. (nih.gov)
  • Prostaglandins (C02064) and Leukotrienes are the two major groups of this class of lipids. (whatislife.com)
  • Here we show a previously unknown function for autophagy in regulating intracellular lipid stores (macrolipophagy). (nih.gov)
  • Heape AM, Juguelin H, Boiron F, Cassagne C (1985) Improved one dimensional thin layer chromatographic technique for polar lipids. (springer.com)
  • iii) direct binding of quinones to nucleophilic sites in polar lipids also could lead to protection. (ugent.be)