The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/10418)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (2/10418)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (3/10418)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Blocking very late antigen-4 integrin decreases leukocyte entry and fatty streak formation in mice fed an atherogenic diet. (4/10418)

Atherosclerotic lesion development is characterized by the recruitment of leukocytes, principally monocytes, to the vessel wall. Considerable interest has been focused on the adhesion molecule(s) involved in leukocyte/endothelial interactions. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of the very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrin/ligand interaction in fatty streak development using murine models. Because alpha4 null mice are not viable, a peptidomimetic was used to block VLA-4-mediated leukocyte binding. The ability of a synthetic peptidomimetic of connecting segment-1 (CS-1 peptide) to block the recruitment of leukocytes and the accumulation of lipid in the aortic sinus of either wild-type mice (strain C57BL/6J) or mice with a low-density lipoprotein null mutation (LDLR-/-) maintained on an atherogenic diet was assessed. The active (Ac) CS-1 peptide or scrambled (Sc) CS-1 peptide was delivered subcutaneously into mice using a mini osmotic pump. Mice were exposed to the peptide for 24 to 36 hours before the onset of the atherogenic diet. In C57BL/6J mice, leukocyte entry into the aortic sinus, as assessed by en face preparations, was inhibited by the active peptide (Ac=28+/-4, Sc=54+/-6 monocytes/valve; P=0.004). Additionally, frozen sections stained with Oil Red O were analyzed to assess lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. C57BL/6J mice that received the (Ac) compound demonstrated significantly reduced lesion areas as compared with mice that received the (Sc) peptide (Ac=4887+/-4438 microm2, Sc=15 009 +/-5619 microm2; P<0.0001). In a separate study, LDLR-/- mice were implanted with pumps containing either the (Ac) or (Sc) peptide before initiation of the atherogenic diet. Because LDLR-/- mice fed a chow diet displayed small lesions at 14 weeks, the effects of the peptide seen in these animals represented a change in early lipid accumulation rather than initiation. By using whole-mount preparations, the (Ac) but not the (Sc) peptide significantly reduced the area of lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus, resulting in an approximate 66% decrease. Plasma analysis from all studies revealed concentrations of peptide to be present at levels previously determined by in vitro analysis to block adhesion. (Ac) CS-1 peptide, which blocks VLA-4 on the leukocyte surface, is effective in reducing leukocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. The present study provides in vivo evidence that the VLA-4 integrin plays an important role in the initiation of the atherosclerotic lesion and lipid accumulation, and it suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.  (+info)

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (5/10418)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (6/10418)

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (7/10418)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (8/10418)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Keratinocytes play an important role in skin irritation. In an attempt to investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis. ADRP is a lipid-storage-droplet-associated protein, governing deposition and release of lipids from droplets. The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a human keratinocyte cell line (NCTC 2544), sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-induced ADRP expression, to identify the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression, and to understand its function in sodium dodecyl sulfate cytotoxicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced a concentration- and time-related production of ADRP that was associated with lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid accumulation following sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment was due to intracellular redistribution rather than lipid neosynthesis, as indicated by equivalent 14C-oleate and 14C-acetate incorporations. ...
High dietary protein can reduce fat deposition in animal subcutaneous adipose tissue, but little is known about the mechanism. Sixty Wujin pigs of about 15 kg weight were fed either high protein (HP: 18%) or low protein (LP: 14%) diets, and slaughtered at body weights of 30, 60 or 100 kg. Bloods were collected to measure serum parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled for determination of adipocyte size, protein content, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and enzyme activities. HP significantly reduced adipocyte size, fat meat percentage and backfat thickness, but significantly increased daily gain, lean meat percentage and loin eye area at 60 and 100 kg. Serum free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations in the HP group were significantly higher than in the LP group. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein at any body weight. HP significantly reduced gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and
Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in carcinogenesis due to the requirements of tumoral cells to sustain increased structural, energetic and biosynthetic precursor demands for cell proliferation. We investigated the association between expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and clinical outcome in intermediate-stage colon cancer patients with the aim of identifying a metabolic profile associated with greater malignancy and increased risk of relapse. Expression profile of 70 lipid metabolismrelated genes was determined in 77 patients with stage II colon cancer. Cox regression analyses using c-index methodology was applied to identify a metabolic-related signature associated to prognosis. The metabolic signature was further confirmed in two independent validation sets of 120 patients and additionally, in a group of 264 patients from a public database. The combined analysis of these 4 genes, ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1 and SCD, constitutes a metabolic-signature (ColoLipidGene) able to ...
Plant lipid metabolism pathways have been extensively studied as increasing plant oil yields is one important goal among researchers. However, the gene expression pattern of lipid metabolism regulating pathways especially in wound-induced callus of Arabidopsis thaliana is still unknown. The use of artificial microRNA retinoblastoma-related (amiRBR) strain allowed for the study of reduced RBR expression effects on lipid accumulation. Although the lipid contents in hormone-induced callus were possibly lower than leaves in wild-type (WT) A. thaliana, wound-induced callus was used to eliminate genetic interferences. Lipid content comparisons on 7-, 14- and 21-day old leaf and callus showed possibly higher lipid content in WT callus, although amiRBR callus contained possibly higher lipid content than its leaves at Day 7. Lipid metabolism genes undergoing cell-fate changes were studied. The mRNA expression of the lipid catabolism genes, acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and 2 (ACX1, ACX2) and multifunctional protein ...
Malin Levin is an Associate Professor with an overall research interest in lipid accumulation and storage in the heart. In specifics, her group is interested in elucidating the function of lipid droplet-associated proteins in the heart and their relevance for intracellular lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function and impact on outcome of myocardial ischemia. Main research Pathological conditions, e.g. obesity, diabetes and myocardial ischemia, are associated with increased lipid accumulation in the heart. Elevated levels of myocardial lipids are associated with cellular and tissue dysfunction, and are believed to contribute to reduced heart function. Intracellular lipids are stored in lipid droplets, with a core of neutral lipids and a complex surface containing membrane lipids and associated proteins. Lipid droplet-associated proteins contribute to the regulation of lipid droplet size and stability and mediate coupling between lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stable lipid droplet storage and
Fat-specific protein (FSP)27/Cidec is most highly expressed in white and brown adipose tissues and increases in abundance by over 50-fold during adipogenesis. However, its function in adipocytes has remained elusive since its discovery over 15 years ago. Here we demonstrate that FSP27/Cidec localizes to lipid droplets in cultured adipocytes and functions to promote lipid accumulation. Ectopically expressed FSP27-GFP surrounds lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and colocalizes with the known lipid droplet protein perilipin. Immunostaining of endogenous FSP27 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also confirmed its presence on lipid droplets. FSP27-GFP expression also markedly increases lipid droplet size and enhances accumulation of total neutral lipids in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as well as other cell types such as COS cells. Conversely, RNA interference-based FSP27/Cidec depletion in mature adipocytes significantly stimulates lipolysis and reduces the size of lipid droplets. These data reveal FSP27/Cidec as a ...
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, is induced by starvation through an autoregulatory feedback loop and exerts a global transcriptional control on lipid catabolism via Ppargc1α and Ppar1α. Thus, during starvation a transcriptional mechanism links the autophagic pathway to cellular energy metabolism. The conservation of this mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a fundamental role for TFEB in the evolution of the adaptive response to food deprivation. Viral delivery of TFEB to the liver prevented weight gain and metabolic syndrome in both diet-induced and genetic mouse models of obesity, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for disorders of lipid metabolism. Ballabio and
β-Casomorphin increases fat deposition in broiler chickens by modulating expression of lipid metabolism genes - Volume 13 Issue 4 - W. H. Chang, A. J. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, S. Zhang, H. Y. Cai, G. H. Liu
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)-coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation-related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo ...
Lipid droplets in the liver are coated with the perilipin family of proteins notably adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47). TIP47 mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6J mice. TIP47 ASO treatment decreased liver TIP47 mRNA and protein levels without altering ADRP levels. Low-dose TIP47 ASO (15 mg/kg) and high-dose TIP47 ASO (50 mg/kg) decreased triglyceride content in the liver by 35% and 52% respectively. Liver histology showed a drastic reduction in hepatic steatosis following TIP47 ASO treatment. Rabbit Polyclonal to UBTD2. The high dose of TIP47 ASO significantly blunted hepatic triglyceride secretion improved glucose tolerance and improved insulin level of sensitivity in liver adipose cells and muscle mass. These findings display that TIP47 affects hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and may be a target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver and related metabolic disorders. gene ...
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animals liver. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are Triglycerides. Since lipids are fats, lipid metabolism is often considered the digestion and absorption process of dietary fats. Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs when a chemical breaks down as a reaction to coming in contact with water. Lipid metabolism does exist in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. Digestion of fats begin in the mouth through chemical digestion by lingual lipase. Lipids then ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
TY - JOUR. T1 - PPAR gamma 2 prevents lipotoxicity by controlling adipose tissue expandability and peripheral lipid metabolism. AU - Medina-Gomez, G.. AU - Gray, S.L.. AU - Yetukuri, Laxman. AU - Shimomura, K.. AU - Campbell, M.. AU - Curtis, K.. AU - Virtue, S.. AU - Jimenez-Linan, M.. AU - Blount, M.. AU - Yeo, G.S.H.. AU - Lopez, M.. AU - Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki. AU - Ashcroft, F.M.. AU - Oresic, Matej. AU - Vidal-Puig, A.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARg2) is the nutritionally regulated isoform of PPARg. Ablation of PPARg2 in the ob/ob background, PPARg2−/− Lepob/Lepob (POKO mouse), resulted in decreased fat mass, severe insulin resistance, β-cell failure, and dyslipidaemia. Our results indicate that the PPARg2 isoform plays an important role, mediating adipose tissue expansion in response to positive energy balance. Lipidomic analyses suggest that PPARg2 plays an important antilipotoxic role when induced ectopically in liver and ...
Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is amplified/ over-expressed in cancers of diverse cellular origins. Altered cellular metabolism (including lipogenesis) is a hallmark of cancer development, and protein-protein associations between TPD52 and known regulators of lipid storage, and differential TPD52 expression in obese versus non-obese adipose tissue, suggest that TPD52 may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We found increased lipid droplet numbers in stably TPD52-expressing BALB/c 3T3 cell lines, compared with control and TPD52L1-expressing cell lines. TPD52-expressing 3T3 cells showed increased fatty acid storage in triglyceride (from both de novo synthesis and uptake), and formed greater numbers of lipid droplets upon oleic acid supplementation than control cells. TPD52 co-localised with Golgi but not ER markers, and also showed partial co-localisation with Adrp-coated lipid droplets, with a proportion of TPD52 being detected in the lipid droplet fraction. Direct interactions between ADRP and TPD52, ...
Physiological processes are differentially regulated between men and women. Sex and gut microbiota have each been demonstrated to regulate host metabolism, but it is unclear whether both factors are interdependent. Here, we determined to what extent sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism are m …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of low-stearate palm oil and high-stearate lard high-fat diets on rat liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Several nutrition and food ingredients are supposed to have beneficial effects, but precise cell biological mechanism has not been elucidated. Among food ingredients, polyphenols such as soy bean isoflavon genistein and wine resveratrol have been reported to have effects on lipid metabolism and cardiovacular diseases (1). In order to elucidate the effect of genistein on obesity, we cultured adipocyte and observed of genisten to lipid accumulation in cells. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed by genistein when it was added at the time of differentiation but not when added after differentiation. Genistein is considered to suppress lipid accumulation by suppressing the differtiation of adipocytes.
Atherosclerosis is driven by lipid accumulation in the arterial wall that leads to narrowing the vessel lumen and increasing risk of thrombus formation. Deposition of lipids, mostly cholesteryl esters, in the arterial wall layer called intima, is one of the earliest manifestations of the disease. Intracellular accumulation of lipids takes place in so called foam cells that have their cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets that are visible microscopically. Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles serve as the primary source of lipids. Numerous attempts were made to establish a clear link between circulating LDL levels and atherosclerosis formation. In the experiments conducted on cultured cells, if was demonstrated that native LDL failed to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. At the same time, LDL chemically modified in vitro (acetylated, malondialdehyde-treated, oxidized with ions of transient metals, etc.) induced lipid deposition in cultured cells, i.e., was atherogenic. It was ...
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. In humans it is encoded by the ADFP gene. This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids within the lipid droplets. The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. The full length cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and sequence analysis results in a protein with 425 amino acids that is unique and similar sequences had not previously been reported. In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). The proposed models for adipose differentiation related protein (perilipin 2) is maintained by ...
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) has been implicated in the regulation of endo-/exocytic pathways, cholesterol transport, and the formation of multifactorial signaling complexes in many different cell types. More recently, AnxA6 has also been linked to triglyceride storage in adipocytes. Here we investigated the potential role of AnxA6 in fatty acid (FA) induced lipid droplet (LD) formation in hepatocytes. AnxA6 was associated with LD from rat liver and HuH7 hepatocytes. In oleic acid (OA) -loaded HuH7 cells, substantial amounts of AnxA6 bound to LD in a Ca2+-independent manner. Remarkably, stable or transient AnxA6 overexpression in HuH7 cells led to elevated LD numbers/size and neutral lipid staining under control conditions as well as after OA loading compared to controls. In contrast, overexpression of AnxAl, AnxA2 and AnxA8 did not impact on OA-induced lipid accumulation. On the other hand, incubation of AnxA6-depleted HuH7 cells or primary hepatocytes from AnxA6 KO-mice with OA led to reduced FA ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
For humans it is crucial to control lipid homeostasis to avoid development of metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia is a considerable risk factor for development of cardiovascular and liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Infection and inflammation induce the acute phase response (APR), leading to multiple alternations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, mediated by changed cytokine production, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Another cytokine IL-10 has anti-atheromatous and anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been postulated that IL-10 has gene therapeutic potential. However, the effect of IL-10 on liver and its metabolic functions are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-10 could modulate lipid homeostasis in TNF-a- and IL-6-stimulated hepatocytes. We demonstrated that IL-6 increased expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid (FA) synthesis [SREBP1a, FAS], FA oxidation [PPARa, CPT1a, CPT2], FA ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
Since July 2001, JLR has published special Thematic Review Series - a series of articles on a hot lipid-related topic appearing in consecutive issues. Thematic Reviews are among the most widely read of all JLR articles.. For each of these series, an Associate Editor (sometimes in conjunction with a member of the JLR Editorial Board) will invite experts in that field to contribute reviews on a specific topic or theme. Many topics have been explored in JLR Thematic Review Series; sterol/lipid metabolism and transport, systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, membranes and polar lipid dynamics, and sphingolipids are just a few examples.. Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research articles ...
Abnormal lipid metabolism associated with various renal diseases has been known for a long time. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the characteristic features of nephotic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia is often observed in chronic renal failure (CRF). The role of lipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of renal diseases has been variously discussed. However, direct evidence only recently became possible when more sophisticated analyses of renal histopathology as well as an application of molecular biology were introduced in the field of clinical nephrology. The recent identification of lipoprotein nephropathy (LPG), reported most often by Japanese authors since 1989, is particularly noteworthy. The detailed analysis of lipid profiles and renal histology has been instrumental in clarifying the relationship between lipids and the kidney not only in LPG but also in other disease entities such as familial-type dyslipidemias, CRF, focal glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Dyslipidemias ...
Lipid droplets are lipid stores inside cells that are surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer and are often found insidide adipocytes. Lipid droplets are able to store neutral lipids e.g. triaclycerides and cholesterol esters that are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lipids stored inside the droplets are neutral due to the fact they contain no hydrophilic head groups, instead all containing hydrophobic constituent molecules, that clump into droplets rather than bilayer (as would happen if they contained hydrophilic heads) [1]. ...
Effect of high vitamin A or tocopherol intake on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal absorption and secretion of lipids and bile acids in the chick.: The ef
Modulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism. Coats lipid storage droplets to protect them from breakdown by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Its absence may result in leanness (By similarity). Plays a role in unilocular lipid droplet formation by activating CIDEC. Their interaction promotes lipid droplet enlargement and directional net neutral lipid transfer. May modulate lipolysis and triglyceride levels.
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also controls cellular lipid metabolism but the underlining mechanism is poorly understood. We report here that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a novel effector of TNFα to facilitate its metabolic modulation in the skeletal muscle. Depletion of PIKE-A in C2C12 myotubes diminished the inhibitory activities of TNFα on mitochondrial respiration and lipid oxidation, whereas PIKE-A overexpression exacerbated these cellular responses. We also found that TNFα promoted the interaction between PIKE-A and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. As a result, animals with PIKE ablation in the skeletal muscle per se display an upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and a higher preference to utilize lipid as the energy production substrate under high-fat diet feeding, which mitigates the development of diet-induced ...
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It is well known that metabolic responses to diet and drugs are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Still, a large part of differences in responses between individuals remains unexplained. To increase our understanding of individual differences, more and more attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota. Not only energy and glucose may be related to the microbiota, but also lipid metabolism. This is not surprising as lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and obesity are closely linked.. There is substantial evidence from in particular animal studies that the gut microbiota is related to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, there is less evidence to what extent modulation of the gut microbiota changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. ...
Increasing evidence suggests that the various components of açaí contribute to cardioprotection via mechanisms that affect cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathway proteins, and the modulation of gene expression [37],. [38], [39], [40] and [41]. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids regulate the activity of the Alisertib nuclear receptor regulators of cellular lipid metabolism [42] and [43]. The present study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí pulp using a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. A 2% açaí pulp dose was chosen because of its relevance to human nutrition. This dosage mimics the addition of a portion of this fruit in food [44] and selleck compound has demonstrated effects in previous studies [10], [15] and [16]. Corroborating our previous results [15], açaí supplementation improved the lipid profile in the rat. Thus, we focused on characterizing the effects that açaí pulp supplementation in the diet would ...
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is central to human health. Disruption of lipid metabolic pathways can lead to a variety of diseases including diabetes an...
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose abundance is increased during fasting, stimulates lipolysis by triggering the degradation of ACC in adipose tissue. TRB3 promoted ACC ubiquitination through an association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutive photomorphogenic protein 1 (COP1). Indeed, adipocytes deficient in TRB3 accumulated larger amounts of ACC protein than did wild-type cells. Because transgenic mice expressing TRB3 in adipose tissue are protected from diet-induced obesity due to enhanced fatty acid oxidation, these results demonstrate how phosphorylation and ubiquitination pathways converge on a key regulator of lipid metabolism to maintain energy homeostasis ...
Introduction. Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the ...
PubMed journal article: Effects of alternations (10 days) of high-fat with normal diet on liver lipid infiltration, fat gain, and plasma metabolic profile in rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Adipocytes store triglyceride during periods of nutritional affluence and release free fatty acids during fasting through coordinated cycles of lipogenesis and lipolysis. While much is known about the acute regulation of these processes during fasting and feeding, less is understood about the transc …
K. G. Taylor, D. J. Galton, G. Holdsworth; Insulin-Independent Diabetes: Defects in the Regulation of Two Adipocyte Enzymes Involved in Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 September 1978; 55 (3): 2P-3P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs055002Pb. Download citation file:. ...
Read Central IKK2 Inhibition Ameliorates Air Pollution-Mediated Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Dysfunction in Mice With Type II Diabetes, Toxicological Sciences on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Tripathi, S.N. (1973) Clinical and experimental studies on the use of oleoresin guggula, an indigenous drug in the disorders of lipid metabolism (with special reference to atherosclerosis and obesity). [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
isorder: Disorders of lipid metabolism is caused due to profound enzyme deficiency, resulting in severe early onset multi systemic disease. Typically,..
Author: Field, Cameron et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2020-02-04; Open Access; Title: Mitochondrial Integrity Regulated by Lipid Metabolism Is a Cell-Intrinsic Checkpoint for Treg Suppressive Function
Supports glucose metabolism and lipid utilization‡ Promotes weight management‡ Made with hypoallergenic, vegetarian ingredients PureLean® Nutrients promotes healthy weight management by supporting healthy glucose metabolism and lipid utilization. PureLean® Nutrients also supports healthy lipid antioxidant protection an
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SkinCeuticals TRIPLE LIPID RESTORE 2:4:2 Aging skin is increasingly susceptible to lipid depletion; the loss of natural compounds in skin s surface,
Dr. Chung is focusing on the biology of fat storage organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Many cancer cells are characterized by an increased number of LDs, and this accumulation has been proposed to be pathogenic. Key questions of LD biology remain unanswered, limiting the potential for therapeutic intervention. She will combine various imaging technologies and biochemical approaches to elucidate the molecular architecture of initial LD formation and its regulation.. ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Amino acid metabolism[edit]. *PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, ... Glucose metabolism[edit]. PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. Orexin-A (OXA) has been recently demonstrated to have a direct effect on an aspect of lipid metabolism ... The link between OXA and the lipid metabolism is new and currently under more research. ... OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids (triacylglycerol). OXA ... Cell Metabolism. 14 (4): 478-90. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.08.010. PMID 21982708. Lay summary - ScienceDaily.. ...
Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. Green nodes: lipid metabolism. ... Arnon DI (1956). "Phosphorus metabolism and photosynthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 7: 325-354. doi:10.1146/annurev ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ... metabolism yield carbon skeletons that can be used for other metabolic reactions like the production of amino acids and lipids ...
Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. Green nodes: lipid metabolism. ... "Cell Metabolism. 9 (4): 311-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.02.002. PMC 3640280. PMID 19356713.. ... "Molecular Metabolism. 5 (7): 538-51. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2016.04.006. PMC 4921791. PMID 27408778.. ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ...
"Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism". Nature. 458 (7242): 1131-5. doi:10.1038/nature07976. PMID 19339967.. ... "Regulation of lipid stores and metabolism by lipophagy". Cell Death and Differentiation. 20 (1): 3-11. doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.63 ... In lipophagy the target are lipid structures called lipid droplets (LDs), spheric "organelles" with a core of mainly ... Lipophagy is the degradation of lipids by autophagy,[31] a function which has been shown to exist in both animal and fungal ...
Lipids: lipoprotein particle metabolism. Lipoprotein particle classes and subclasses. *delivery of TGs: Chylomicron ... lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. ... lipid transporter activity. Cellular component. • high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density ... 2008). "Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 161 ...
lipid transport. • positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process. • chylomicron remnant clearance. • Lipid metabolism. ... lipid binding. Cellular component. • chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high-density lipoprotein ... negative regulation of lipid metabolic process. • reverse cholesterol transport. • negative regulation of catalytic activity. • ... lipid catabolic process. • positive regulation of phospholipase activity. • positive regulation of phospholipid catabolic ...
It also regulates lipid metabolism.[33] Endogenous sulfur dioxide also diminishes myocardial damage, caused by isoproterenol ... Authors considered homocysteine to be one of useful biochemical markers of disease severity and sulfur dioxide metabolism to be ... Endogenous sulfur dioxide lowered lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation during an ... and an increase in lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, blockade of an ...
"Fucoxanthin and lipid metabolism: A minireview". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD. 25 (10): 891-7. doi ... Dembitsky VM, Maoka T (November 2007). "Allenic and cumulenic lipids". Progress in Lipid Research. 46 (6): 328-75. doi:10.1016/ ... improves blood lipid profiles, and decreased insulin resistance in animal models of obesity.[12][13][14] In a human clinical ... "Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health" ...
"Hepatitis C virus hijacks host lipid metabolism". Trends Endocrinol Metab. 21 (1): 33-40. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2009.07.005. PMC ... The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a lipid membrane envelope that is 55 to 65 nm in diameter.[9][10] Two viral envelope ... The virus replicates on intracellular lipid membranes.[33] The endoplasmic reticulum in particular is deformed into uniquely ... Dubuisson J, Penin F, Moradpour D (2002). "Interaction of hepatitis C virus proteins with host cell membranes and lipids". ...
Lipid metabolism. Defining the enzymes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis and the cell biology underlying lipid storage in ...
... lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1801 (3): 246- ... "Lipid Metabolism". Medical Biochemistry. pp. 325-365. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803550-4.00015-X. ISBN 978-0-12-803550-4. Bhagavan ... Heart muscle primarily metabolizes fat for energy and Acyl-CoA metabolism has been identified as a critical molecule in early ... A rare disease called multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a fatty acid metabolism disorder. Acyl-CoA is ...
B, Rodrigo Valenzuela; B, Alfonso Valenzuela (2013-01-23). "Overview About Lipid Structure". Lipid Metabolism. doi:10.5772/ ... Because of this, lipids do not break down in the body without the use of lipase enzymes, which break down lipids into glycerol ... Lipids can be found in oils, dairy products, and some meats, along with in avocados and nuts. Cholesterol is a type of lipid ... Without lipids, bodily cells would not be able to maintain function or survive. While consuming too many lipids can lead to ...
... a key intermediate in lipid metabolism". Eur. J. Biochem. 266 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00822.x. PMID 10542045. ... "Prefission Constriction of Golgi Tubular Carriers Driven by Local Lipid Metabolism: A Theoretical Model". Biophys. J. 85 (6): ... many lipid-binding proteins are cytosolic and localise to the membrane by binding only the headgroups of lipids. Perhaps the ... "Profiling membrane lipids in plant stress responses. Role of phospholipase D alpha in freezing-induced lipid changes in ...
"P&G Beauty & Grooming , Role of Lipid Metabolism in Seborrheic Dermatitis (Dandruff)". Pgbeautygroomingscience.com. Archived ... Kenneth L. Becker (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1004-. ...
"Acyl-Lipid Metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0161. doi:10.1199/tab.0161. PMC 3244904. PMID 22303259. Eastmond, Peter J.; ... This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid ...
Mansbach II CM, Tso P, Kuksis A (June 2011). Lowe ME (ed.). Intestinal lipid metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. ... Shahidi F (2006). "Structure Related Effects on Absorption and Metabolism of Nutraceutical and Specialty Lipids". Nutraceutical ... At the N-terminal, Lys4 is necessary for the enzyme to bind at lipid-water interfaces. Pancreatic lipase is the most important ... and Specialty Lipids and their Co-Products. CRC Press. Høy CE, Mu H (2000). "Effects of Triacylglycerol Structure on Fat ...
"Journal of Lipid Research. 40 (4): 699-707. PMID 10191294.. *^ Bull, A. W; Earles, S. M; Bronstein, J. C (1991). "Metabolism of ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1166 (2-3): 258-63. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(93)90106-J. PMID 8443245.. ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1392 (1): 23-40. doi:10.1016/S0005-2760(97)00209-9. PMID 9593808.. ... Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1081 (2): 174-80. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(91)90023-B. PMID 1998735.. ...
... their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. Lipid. Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID ...
Δ6-desaturase does appear to be the rate-limiting step; 20:4 ω-3 does not significantly accumulate in bodily lipids. DGLA ... Stone KJ, Willis AL, Hart WM, Kirtland SJ, Kernoff PB, McNicol GP (February 1979). "The metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic ... Karlstad MD, DeMichele SJ, Leathem WD, Peterson MB (November 1993). "Effect of intravenous lipid emulsions enriched with gamma- ... Lipid Res. 46 (6): 1093-6. doi:10.1194/jlr.C500003-JLR200. PMID 15805551. KP Su; SY Huang; CC Chiu; WW Shen (2003). "Omega-3 ...
Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 152 (1): 165-73. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(68)90018-0. PMID 5645448.. ... which affect digestive function and lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as the immune system, inflammation and more.[63] ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (9): 3326-32. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-1513. PMID 22745235.. ... Cholesterol metabolism[edit]. Dietary fiber may act on each phase of ingestion, digestion, absorption and excretion to affect ...
"Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... Plastoglubuli contain both structural proteins and enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism. They contain many types ... Lipid Biosynthesis. The Plant Cell 7, 957-970. *^ Steer, Brian E.S. Gunning, Martin W. (1996). Plant cell biology : structure ... This section needs expansion with: needs more about lipids, also paramylon. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013) ...
"MicroRNA-370 controls the expression of microRNA-122 and Cpt1alpha and affects lipid metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 51 ... Sacco J, Adeli K (June 2012). "MicroRNAs: emerging roles in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism". Current Opinion in Lipidology. ... Fernández-Hernando C, Suárez Y, Rayner KJ, Moore KJ (April 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... Moore KJ, Rayner KJ, Suárez Y, Fernández-Hernando C (December 2010). "microRNAs and cholesterol metabolism". Trends in ...
ISBN 978-3-527-33189-5. Marinetti, G. V. (2012). Disorders of Lipid Metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 205. ISBN ... Ashkenazi Jews have a high incidence of Tay-Sachs and other lipid storage diseases. In the United States, about 1 in 27 to 1 in ... When hexosaminidase A is no longer functioning properly, the lipids accumulate in the brain and interfere with normal ... Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 101 (4): 357-363. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.08.006. ISSN 1096-7192. PMID 20817517. Porter BF ...
Fernández-Hernando, C; Suárez, Y; Rayner, KJ; Moore, KJ (April 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... miR-27 is one of a number of microRNAs implicated in cholesterol homeostasis and fatty acid metabolism. The miR-27 gene family ...
... plays a role in lipid metabolism; it downregulates a number of ABC transporters, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, which in ... Fernández-Hernando, C; Suárez, Y; Rayner, KJ; Moore, KJ (Apr 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... May 2011). "miR-33a/b contribute to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... It has been suggested that miR-33a and miR-33b regulates genes Involved in fatty acid metabolism and insulin signalling. ...
ISBN 978-3-03842-906-7. Fred Snyder (6 December 2012). Lipid metabolism in mammals. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 44. ... and other lipids. The CYP4F2 enzyme protein presents in endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme CYP4F2 is involved in the metabolism ... "CYP4F2 is The Major Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Involved in CMX001 Metabolism". Drug Metabolism Reviews. 45: 84-85. Andrus MR ( ... The enzyme plays an important role in vitamin metabolism by chain shortening. CYP4F2 is the only known enzyme to ω-hydroxylate ...
Nur77 is suggested to inhibit LXR and downstream SREBP-1c expression modulating hepatic lipid metabolism.[14] ... Animal cells maintain proper levels of intracellular lipids (fats and oils) under widely varying circumstances (lipid ... "Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... SREBP-2 regulates the genes of cholesterol metabolism.. Function[edit]. SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol ...
Nur77 is suggested to inhibit LXR and downstream SREBP-1c expression modulating hepatic lipid metabolism.[16] ... Animal cells maintain proper levels of intracellular lipids (fats and oils) under widely varying circumstances (lipid ... "Targeting SREBP-1-driven lipid metabolism to treat cancer". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 20 (15): 2619-2626. doi:10.2174/ ... "Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
"Progress in Lipid Research. 48 (1): 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.002. PMC 2654180. PMID 19032965.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3551-60. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2136. PMC 4483466. PMID 25062463.. ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 102 (9): 3097-3110. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01024. PMID 28957454.. ... Pasquier F (October 2010). "Diabetes and cognitive impairment: how to evaluate the cognitive status?". Diabetes & Metabolism. ...
The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels (lipoprivation).[20] Both the brain and the liver ... Many mammals, in the absence of sufficient food requirements in an environment, suppress their metabolism and conserve energy ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... it is much healthier and easier on the metabolism to eat five smaller meals each day (e.g. better digestion, easier on the ...
... basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ... lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions ...
A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected ...
C. acnes also provokes skin inflammation by altering the fatty composition of oily sebum.[45] Oxidation of the lipid squalene ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Current Drug Metabolism (Review). 16 (4): 245-54. doi:10.2174/1389200216666150812124801. PMID 26264195.. ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... in newly formed aquatic sediments is mediated by microorganisms using different electron acceptors as part of their metabolism ...
Metabolism[edit]. Androgens are metabolized mainly in the liver.. Medical uses[edit]. Main article: Anabolic steroid § Medical ... Recent results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (10): 5245-55. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0084. PMID 15472231.. ...
MetabolismEdit. In rats, quercetin did not undergo any significant phase I metabolism.[19] In contrast, quercetin did undergo ... "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to quercetin and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from ... quercetin undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism that makes the biological effects presumed from in vitro studies unlikely to ... "The metabolism and analysis of isoflavones and other dietary polyphenols in foods and biological systems". (review). Food & ...
Lipid storage disorder: Fabry's disease. *Mucopolysaccharidosis: Hunter syndrome. *Purine-pyrimidine metabolism: Lesch-Nyhan ...
R´´ in position 1 is usually, H but CH3 in that position yields less lipid solubility and duration. Exchanging S for O atom in ... Mellon SH, Griffin LD (2002). "Neurosteroids: biochemistry and clinical significance". Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. ... In general, the more lipid-soluble the barbiturate, the more rapid its onset, the shorter its duration and the greater the ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ...
Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907.. ... The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. ... Cochrane Collaboration concluded that low glycemic index or low glycemic load diets led to more weight loss and better lipid ...
Lipid * sw:Lipid. Liquid * sw:Liquid. Literacy * sw:Literacy. Literature * sw:Literature. Litre * sw:Litre. Liver * sw:Liver. ... Metabolism * sw:Metabolism. Metal * sw:Metal. Metallurgy * sw:Metallurgy. Metre * sw:Metre. Mexico * sw:Mexico. Mexico City * ...
August 1996). "The role of cytochrome P450 2D6 in the metabolism of moclobemide". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 6 (3): 225- ... as an antidepressant came about after it was initially investigated as a possible lipid lowering drug or antibiotic; when tests ... Schoerlin MP, Guentert TW (August 1989). "[Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of reversible MAO-A inhibitors in the human]". ... Härtter S, Dingemanse J, Baier D, Ziegler G, Hiemke C (January 1998). "Inhibition of dextromethorphan metabolism by moclobemide ...
Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene yielding the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyren-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide. ... In 2016, the molecular mechanism was uncovered as damage to the macrophage membrane's lipid raft integrity by decreasing ... Properly speaking, BaP is a procarcinogen, meaning that its mechanism of carcinogenesis depends on its enzymatic metabolism to ... "Metabolism of Benzo[a]pyrene in Human Bronchoalveolar H358 Cells Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry". Chem. Res. ...
Involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal ... Harris, Ph.D., Edward D. (1 January 2014). Minerals in Food Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity (chapter 3.4) (1st ed.). ... Gropper, Sareen S.; Smith, Jack L. (1 June 2012). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Cengage Learning. pp. 527-8. ISBN 1- ... The dietary focus on chemical elements derives from an interest in supporting the biochemical reactions of metabolism with the ...
脂質遺傳性(英语:Inborn error of lipid metabolism)代謝缺陷 : 血脂異常(英语:dyslipidemia) (E78、272.0-272.6(英语:List of ICD-9 codes 240-279: ... Metabolism alone doesn't explain how thin people stay thin. John Schieszer (The Medical Post).. ... The thrifty phenotype: An adaptation in growth or metabolism?. American Journal of Human Biology (Review). 2011, 23 (1): 65-75 ... Informativeness of indices of blood pressure, obesity and serum lipids in relation to ischaemic heart disease mortality: the ...
Lipid. *Maximum operating depth. *Metabolism. *Physiological response to water immersion. *Tissue. *Underwater vision ...
Ether-linked lipids, pseudopeptidoglycan. Ester-linked lipids, peptidoglycan. Ester-linked lipids, various structures. ... MetabolismEdit. Further information: Microbial metabolism. Archaea exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their ... In ester lipids this is an ester bond, whereas in ether lipids this is an ether bond. Ether bonds are chemically more resistant ... Bottom: 9, lipid bilayer of bacteria and eukaryotes; 10, lipid monolayer of some archaea. ...
A group at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, in a 2008 paper, stated they had isolated large amounts of lipids from ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... Rodrigo E. Teixeira from the University of Alabama in Huntsville demonstrated the extraction of biofuels lipids from wet algae ... Sergeeva, Y. E.; Galanina, L. A.; Andrianova, D. A.; Feofilova, E. P. (2008). "Lipids of filamentous fungi as a material for ...
Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in young obese and normal-weight ... Fasting biochemical screen and lipid profile[61]. *2-Hour oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) in women with risk factors (obesity ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. December 2013, 98 (12): 4565-4592. ISSN 1945-7197. PMC 5399492. PMID ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. December 2013, 98 (12): 4565-92. PMID 24151290. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-2350. ...
1.0 1.1 1.2 Reddy JK, Rao MS (2006). "Lipid metabolism and liver inflammation. II. Fatty liver disease and fatty acid oxidation ...
... subsequent work shows how the SREBP pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and metabolism and ... Haines TH (2001). "Do sterols reduce proton and sodium leaks through lipid bilayers?". Prog. Lipid Res. 40 (4): 299-324. doi: ... මූලික ලිපියන්: hypercholesterolemia සහ lipid hypothesis. According to the lipid hypothesis, abnormally high cholesterol levels ... 2005). "New insights into the regulation of HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport". Circ. Res. 96 (12): 1221-1232. ...
lipid metabolism. • fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta- ... and the interaction may play an important role in the estrogen-mediated lipid metabolism in animals and humans.[14] ...
Ither hormones, includin steroid an thyroid hormones, are lipid-soluble; tae allou for their widespread distribution, thir ... metabolism, respiration, tishie function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growthe an development, ... bein lipid-soluble, muive throu the plasma membranes o target cells (baith cytoplasmic an nuclear) tae act within thair nuclei ...
Metabolism - Glycolysis, respiration, photosynthesis, and chemosynthesis.. *Signalling - The process by which the activities in ... The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free ...
"Progress in Lipid Research 48 (1): 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.002. பப்மெட்:19032965. ... Pasquier, F (2010 Oct). "Diabetes and cognitive impairment: how to evaluate the cognitive status?". Diabetes & metabolism 36 ...
Langerhans cells - LAS - lentivirus - lesion - leukocytes - leukocytosis - leukopenia - leukoplakia - LFT - LIP - lipid - ... metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - ...
Cells exposed to these agents demonstrate significant ATP depletion, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, followed by death ... Phosgene directly reacts with amine, sulfhydryl, and alcohol groups, adversely affecting cell macromolecules and metabolism. ...
... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ... but most likely results from increased uric acid levels derived from metabolism of flavonoids. According to Frei, "we can now ... Values are expressed as the sum of the lipid soluble (e.g. carotenoid) and water-soluble (e.g. phenolic) antioxidant fractions ...
A critical role of autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism is identified, and may provide a new approach to prevent lipid ... Description of a novel function for autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism, called macrolipophagy, in which lipid droplets ... This work identifies a critical role of autophagy in regulating lipid metabolism and may provide a new approach to the ... This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human ...
Lipid biology biophysics gene expression metabolism nutrition obesity pathology protein proteins synthesis ... The Influence of the Intestinal Unstirred Water Layers on the Understanding of the Mechanisms of Lipid Absorption ... sorbs lipids. The second was to stimulate the interest of younger individuals whom we wished to recruit into what we believed ... on the subject of the intestinal processing of lipids. When these meetings were first started in 1990, the original organizers ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Lipid Storage Diseases (National Institute ... Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ...
Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism.. Singh R1, Kaushik S, Wang Y, Xiang Y, Novak I, Komatsu M, Tanaka K, Cuervo AM, Czaja MJ. ... This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human ... During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for ... Here we show a previously unknown function for autophagy in regulating intracellular lipid stores (macrolipophagy). Lipid ...
Energy Metabolism Lipid Metabolism. Promega lipid metabolism assays provide sensitive, simple methods to detect and quantify ... Introduction to Lipid Metabolism Assays. Options for lipid metabolism assays include bioluminescent plate-reader based assays ... Alteration of lipid metabolism results in a variety of disorders. Steatosis refers to the aberrant accumulation of lipids in ... The lipid metabolism assays are based on core bioluminescent technology featured in other Promega metabolism assays. ...
Beta-blockers and lipid metabolism.. Br Med J 1977; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6088.705 (Published 10 September 1977) ...
Lipid Metabolism. Expand All. C1051-Intestinal lipid absorption in the conscious mouse - lymph fistula Expand. This procedure ... C1104-Lipid Extraction via Folch* Expand. Lipids will be extracted from tissues using the Folch extraction method. ... By infusing the lipid test meal intraduadenally at a constant rate, the lymphatic lipid output usually reaches a steady rate by ... Thus, lymphatic lipid output during the 5th or 6th hour represents the amount of lipid transported by the small intestine under ...
... neutral lipids such as sterols and triacylglycerols). The structural diversity of lipids... ... Plant ER membranes are the major site of biosynthesis of several lipid families (phospholipids, sphingolipids, ... Fouillen L., Maneta-Peyret L., Moreau P. (2018) ER Membrane Lipid Composition and Metabolism: Lipidomic Analysis. In: Hawes C ... used for lipid analysis will also be discussed in relation to the studies to be carried out on lipid metabolism and function. ...
Several players in host lipid metabolism have been implicated in T. cruzi-host interactions in recent research, including ... Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Host Lipid Metabolism. Qianqian Miao1,2 and Momar Ndao1,2 ... in order to further understand the roles of host lipid metabolism in T. cruzi infection. This review sheds light on the ... All of these factors are required to maintain host lipid homeostasis and are intricately connected via several metabolic ...
Session: Biology of Neutral Lipid Metabolism and Trafficking. • The Ins and Outs of Fat Metabolism: New Insights from Yeast, ... "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme focuses on new progress regarding how the metabolism, trafficking, organization and ... "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme will cover phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, phospholipases D and neutral lipids. The ... Lipid and Membrane Metabolism. Session: Current Topics in Phosphoinositide Biology and Signaling. • Ptdlns-4-kinase Regulation ...
During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for ... The intracellular storage and utilization of lipids are critical to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. ... Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1131-5. doi: 10.1038/nature07976. Epub 2009 Apr 1. ... This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human ...
Adipocyte and lipid metabolism in cancer drug resistance. Yihai Cao Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, ... Cancer lipid metabolism confers antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cell Metab. 2018;28(1):104-117.e5.. View this article via: ... CAAs and lipid metabolism in antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cancer drugs targeting tumor blood vessels are frequently used for ... ColoLipidGene: signature of lipid metabolism-related genes to predict prognosis in stage-II colon cancer patients. Oncotarget. ...
Tags: Cell, DNA, Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Lipids, Lipodystrophy, Metabolic Disorders, Metabolism, Mutation, Nuclear Envelope ... Up until now, scientists assumed that only the ER and the outer nuclear envelope were involved in the cells lipid metabolism ... They discovered that the inner envelope plays a role in the metabolism of lipids, even storing such substances in the cell ... Both researchers agree that the main question still to be answered is the exact cellular function of lipid metabolism in the ...
This Review focuses on emerging mechanisms involving adipocytes and lipid metabolism in altering the response to cancer ... While cancer cells dependence on glycolysis for energy production is well studied, the roles of adipocytes and lipid metabolic ... In particular, we discuss mechanisms underlying cancer-associated adipocytes and lipid metabolic reprogramming in cancer drug ...
Taskinens research group have focused on the pathophysiology of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the liver... ... Purpose and aim of our studies Abnormal concentrations of lipids can result from changes in the production, conversion, or ...
Intracellular pH regulates metabolism by poorly understood mechanisms, but biosensors are likely to be important in this ... They found that the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid appeared to act as a cytosolic biosensor via the pH-dependent binding of ... Phosphatidic acid is a pH biosensor that links membrane biogenesis to metabolism. Science 329, 1085-1088 (2010). [Abstract] [ ... took a systems biology approach in yeast to identify in excess of 200 genes that regulate phospholipid metabolism. ...
The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is known to lead to a large number of oxygenated compounds, some of which can bind ... The metabolism of [2-acetyl-(14)C]oseltamivir (GS4104, Ro 64-0796), the prodrug of the novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitor ... This study aims to define the metabolism of caffeine, which takes place in the liver in a group of healthy Nigerian children. ... 1. The metabolism and excretion of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was investigated in mouse, rabbit ...
Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. ... Recent studies reveal that p53 has significant roles in cellular metabolism. One example of this is an antioxidant function ... To test if docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil supplementation rectifies red cell membrane lipid anomaly in pregnant women ... It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the ...
Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Carlos Castaño, Susana Kalko, Anna Novials, ... Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Carlos Castaño, Susana Kalko, Anna Novials, ... Obesity-associated exosomal miRNAs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... These results support a role for exosomal miRNAs in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice and may help us ...
... Sang Hoon Lee,1 Moo Suk Park,1 Byung Hoon Park,1 Won ... D. Mesotten, J. V. Swinnen, F. Vanderhoydonc, P. J. Wouters, and G. Van Den Berghe, "Contribution of circulating lipids to the ... A. H. Wu, C. J. Hinds, and C. Thiemermann, "High-density lipoproteins in sepsis and septic shock: metabolism, actions, and ... C. L. Vermont, M. den Brinker, N. Kâkeci et al., "Serum lipids and disease severity in children with severe meningococcal ...
Lipid Metabolism & Aging. Lipid Metabolism and Aging We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism ... the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue. ... Larva are nearly transparent, and store their lipids in the fat body - a tissue that forms a natural monolayer of cells (see ... We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension. ...
... insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-and then on implementing these cells into research programs for the study of lipid ... and lipid dysregulation How iCell Hepatocytes can overcome the limitations of existing cell models for more relevant hepatic ... Home Webinars On Demand Webinars Modeling Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Using Human iPSC-derived Hepatocytes ... Modeling Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Using Human iPSC-derived Hepatocytes. January 25, 2017. 0 ...
Researchers have discovered that fat tissue releases a lipid-filled particle that has a role in immune function and metabolism ... Lipid-filled particle plays role in immune function and metabolism. *Download PDF Copy ... Researchers have discovered that fat tissue releases a lipid-filled particle that has a role in immune function and metabolism ... Our next step is to investigate whether these lipid particles appear in humans and, if so, whether they contribute to lipids we ...
Effect of diosgenin on lipid metabolism in rats.. Cayen MN, Dvornik D. ... and to examine relevant changes in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Diosgenin fed with the diet for 1 week inhibited ...
Dysregulated lipid and glucose photoreceptor energy metabolism may therefore be a driving force in macular telangiectasia, ... Impaired glucose entry into photoreceptors results in a dual (lipid and glucose) fuel shortage and a reduction in the levels of ... Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor, free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), that curbs glucose uptake when fatty acids are ... Tissues with high metabolic rates often use lipids, as well as glucose, for energy, conferring a survival advantage during ...
A lipid-binding protein in yeast integrates lipid and amino acid metabolism to establish growth or quiescence as appropriate. ... A lipid-binding protein in yeast integrates lipid and amino acid metabolism to establish growth or quiescence as appropriate. ...
Compromised hepatic lipid metabolism in Li-GHRKO and the Li-GHRKO-HIT mice was associated with impaired glucose metabolism (Fig ... The impaired lipid metabolism in the Li-GHRKO mice associates with protein and lipid oxidation in liver, as well as ... Growth Hormone Control of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism. Zhongbo Liu, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Rhonda D. Kineman, Bruce N. Cronstein, ... Growth Hormone Control of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism. Zhongbo Liu, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Rhonda D. Kineman, Bruce N. Cronstein, ...
The study demonstrates that genetic studies focusing on circulating molecular lipid levels over traditional lipid measures can ... An international research team has identified several novel genetic variants associated with plasma levels of lipid species and ... The study also provided clues to the underlying mechanisms of effects of well-known lipid loci on lipid metabolism and ... "Our study demonstrates that lipidomics enables much deeper insights into the genetic regulation of lipid metabolism. We hope ...
... www.naturalnews.com/2019-04-11-basil-extract-restores-lipid-metabolism-prevents-oxidation.html",Basil extract restores lipid ... Basil extract restores lipid metabolism, prevents oxidation. Thursday, April 11, 2019 by: Michelle Simmons Tags: alternative ... Touiss I, Khatib S, Bekkouch O, Amrani S, Harnafi H. PHENOLIC EXTRACT FROM OCIMUM BASILICUM RESTORES LIPID METABOLISM IN TRITON ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-04-11-basil-extract-restores-lipid-metabolism-prevents-oxidation.html. ...
Ether Lipid Metabolism. Spingolipid Metabolism. Fatty Acid Metabolism Terpenoid Metabolism Steroid Metabolism. Bile Acid ... For lipid researchers, unraveling the complexities of lipid metabolism will bring answers and opportunities in fields as ... there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid ... Natural Abundance Lipid Metabolites. Glycerolipid Metabolsim. Glycerophospholipid Metabolism. ...
  • Rare diseases of lipoprotein metabolism will also be included. (centerwatch.com)
  • Maternal lipoprotein metabolism in late pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the last trimester, elevated maternal insulin resistance and estrogen levels produce multiple changes in lipoprotein metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After presentation of some clinical and pathological correlations, additional chapters survey the composition of the lipids of the aorta, lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and its control by physiologic and pharmacologic means. (annals.org)
  • Intracellular pH regulates metabolism by poorly understood mechanisms, but biosensors are likely to be important in this process. (sciencemag.org)
  • This pH-dependent mechanism directly affects gene expression and is involved in a pathway in which nutrient availability regulates phospholipid metabolism to control production of membranes. (sciencemag.org)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical and experimental studies have provided new perspectives on the role of lipids and lipid modulating enzymes as key determinants of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). (frontiersin.org)
  • Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs with the help of various enzymes in the digestive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and it is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional and hormonal regulators of the enzymes which regulate these pathways can alter rates in lipid synthesis, oxidation, and desaturation. (intechopen.com)
  • Inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes have been widely studied and investigated as possible drugs. (avantilipids.com)
  • Instead, cancer cells frequently ramp up the activity of the enzymes involved in synthesizing lipids right in the cell. (phys.org)
  • Your download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978 had a stars)My that this History could manually contaminate. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • This download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978 of counterfactuals looks at the Brain of popular death in daily speech characters and has the series events are and the Role they start. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • In Super Bowl XLIX, Seahawks download Yoruba in download Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism 1978: Pete Carroll took one of the most relative movies in protection kernel: With 26 recipes sharing, and revolutionizing by four at the Patriots' schedule person, he left for a disorder Sorry of a looking off to his bottom homicide now. (labotelladeleche.com)
  • Besides contributing to the structure and the stability of the macromolecule, apolipoproteins control the metabolism of the lipoproteins by activation or inhibition of enzymes and interaction with lipoprotein receptors. (asnjournals.org)
  • D -Psicose can regulate lipid metabolism by increasing the lipid-metabolism-related enzymes such as SDH in serum and liver and HL in the liver. (rsc.org)
  • however, there are two sources of fats that organisms can use to obtain energy: from consumed dietary fats and from stored fat Digestion is the first step of lipid metabolism, and it is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes . (alliedacademies.org)
  • During nutrient deprivation, cellular lipids stored as triglycerides in lipid droplets are hydrolysed into fatty acids for energy. (nature.com)
  • Lipid droplets and autophagic components associated during nutrient deprivation, and inhibition of autophagy in cultured hepatocytes and mouse liver increased triglyceride storage in lipid droplets. (nature.com)
  • Martin, S. & Parton, R. G. Lipid droplets: a unified view of a dynamic organelle. (nature.com)
  • In particular, we are interested in the interaction of HILPDA with lipid droplets and its potential function as modulator of lipolysis. (wur.nl)
  • This is done in the form of lipid droplets (LD). (news-medical.net)
  • An increased supply of lipids is sufficient to cause droplets to form in the cell nucleus. (news-medical.net)
  • In the recent study, the authors describe the synthesis of lipid droplets and show that the inner nuclear envelope has its own composition of lipids. (news-medical.net)
  • The research results also show which factor is responsible for the proper exchange of lipids between inner nuclear envelope and lipid droplets. (news-medical.net)
  • Triglycerides are measured in lipid extracted via Folch extraction from tissue. (uc.edu)
  • Specialized cells in fat tissue called adipocytes store excess calories as triglycerides, a type of lipid. (news-medical.net)
  • Adipocytes break down triglycerides into smaller lipids called fatty acids, which are released into the bloodstream to meet the body's energy needs. (news-medical.net)
  • He and others had assumed that the lipid came from the breakdown products of triglycerides. (news-medical.net)
  • Plasma lipids are well-established heritable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and traditional lipids such as total cholesterol and triglycerides are routinely monitored to assess the risk for cardiovascular diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • More importantly, the process of metabolizing those dietary lipids that are normally ingested as complex triglycerides, sterols, and membrane phospholipids, represents the pathway by which these dietary lipids are degraded to free fatty acids that are then small enough to cross the intestinal barrier. (peprotech.com)
  • The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are triglycerides and cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cytosol of epithelial cells, triglycerides and cholesterol are packaged into bigger particles called chylomicrons which are amphipathic structures that transport digested lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the hydrophobic nature of membrane lipids, triglycerides and cholesterols, they require special transport proteins known as lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • v12 analysis software, was carried out to highlight significant features that led to group separation.Soleus muscle and spinal cord had their lipid content disrupted at both stages while the plasma lipid profile was most altered at the symptomatic stage, with major depletion of triglycerides.Our results suggestphingolipid and phospholipid metabolismare critically modified in early stages of theALS physiopathological process. (omicsonline.org)
  • In patients with psoriasis or PSA, several groups have found numerous lipid alterations, including changes in concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), or lipoprotein Lp(a), or decreased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) [ 5 , 16 , 17 ]. (termedia.pl)
  • Lipoproteins consist of lipids and proteins (known as apolipoproteins [apo]), with the main function of transporting water-insoluble lipids such as cholesterol or triglycerides in plasma from the sites of absorption (gut) and/or synthesis (liver) to the sites of utilization (peripheral tissues) or processing. (asnjournals.org)
  • And, Vytas A. Bankaitis (University of North Carolina School of Medicine) will round out the session by discussing the mechanisms by which PtdIns-transfer proteins act as coincidence detectors for the coupling of disparate pathways from lipid metabolism to production of functionally privileged phosphoinositide signaling pools. (asbmb.org)
  • Detection of a PTP1b-dependent, but functionally uncharacterized, set of phosphosites on lipid-metabolic proteins motivated global lipidomic analyses that revealed altered polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (PUFA) and triglyceride metabolism in L-PTP1b[superscript −/−] mice. (mit.edu)
  • Upon binding to various ligands, three classes of proteins are synthesized including lipid binding proteins, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and cytochrome P450 member proteins which catalyzes lipid anabolism, metabolism and elimination. (wikipathways.org)
  • In the epidermis and psoriatic plaques, ROS oxidize lipids, proteins, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which results in cell damage [ 2 ]. (termedia.pl)
  • Juguelin H, Heape MA, Boiron F, Cassagne C (1986) A quantitative developmental study of neutral lipids during myelinogenesis in the peripheral nervous system of normal and trembler mice. (springer.com)
  • These results support a role for exosomal miRNAs in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice and may help us uncover thus far unexplored pathological mechanisms and provide us with novel therapeutic targets. (pnas.org)
  • In the retinas of Vldlr −/− mice with low fatty acid uptake 6 but high circulating lipid levels, we found that Ffar1 suppresses expression of the glucose transporter Glut1. (nature.com)
  • Liver-specific deletion of GHR in mice results in a marked decrease in serum IGF-1 levels, significant increases in fat mass and serum lipids, and severe hepatic steatosis associated with systemic insulin resistance ( 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • New Rochelle, NY, November 14, 2017--Researchers have shown that use of the dietary supplement yerba mate over an extended period had significant effects on body weight and weight gain and was associated with lower levels of blood lipids and insulin in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. (eurekalert.org)
  • In mice fed a high-fat diet, caffeine markedly reduces hepatosteatosis and concomitantly increases autophagy and lipid uptake in lysosomes. (rti.org)
  • Studies of liver-specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1b) deletion mice (L-PTP1b[superscript −/−]) suggest that hepatic PTP1b inhibition would mitigate metabolic-syndrome through amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic-reticulum stress, and whole-body lipid metabolism. (mit.edu)
  • Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that l-carnitine counteracted the negative alterations of lipid metabolic gene expression (fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase) in the liver and fat of mice caused by the irregular feeding. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Transgenic mice with mutated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 G86R ) develop an age-related loss of motor neurons that strongly resembles human ALS.Impairment of energy metabolism is a well-known phenomenon in ALS. (omicsonline.org)
  • Plasma was also sampled and analyzed.A UPLC/ToF-MSlipidomic method was used to follow lipids from pre-symptomatic and symptomatic mice (77 and 105 days old,respectively). (omicsonline.org)
  • Metabolomic analysis showed that mice given the soluble fiber showed increased bile acid and tryptophan metabolism which was associated with hypolipidemic effects. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • In mice given polydextrose, bile acid and tryptophan metabolism were associated with hypolipidemic effects. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • In wild-type mice fed a high fat diet, the decrease in hepatic lipids following treatment with the PPARα agonist Wy14643 was paralleled by significant up-regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, suggesting that induction of triglyceride hydrolysis may contribute to the anti-steatotic role of PPARα. (wur.nl)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat ( lliofemuralis internus ) and bovine meat ( Psoas major ) on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. (scielo.br)
  • Studies on this research theme within the Division of Human Nutrition have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of lipid metabolism in liver via regulation of numerous genes. (wur.nl)
  • took a systems biology approach in yeast to identify in excess of 200 genes that regulate phospholipid metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • SREBPs travel into cell nuclei and turn on genes involved in lipid production, usually in response to specific signals. (phys.org)
  • This allows SREBP1a to turn on genes involved in lipid synthesis. (phys.org)
  • The biological effects of lees extract included (i) a reduction in zebrafish embryos' fat reserve (40%), (ii) changes in the expression of lipid metabolism key genes, (iii) remodelling of the fatty acid content in phospholipid and triglyceride fractions of zebrafish embryos and (iv) reduction in the trans fatty acid content. (rsc.org)
  • Although much is already known about the function of PPARα in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARα-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. (wur.nl)
  • In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. (wur.nl)
  • Numerous novel PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. (wur.nl)
  • In addition to lipid metabolism, some members of the cytochrome P450 family genes are responsible for activation of procarcinogens, detoxification of environmental toxins and metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. (wikipathways.org)
  • Monitoring variants of several genes involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and transport, and drug metabolism may help physicians predict the effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins, says Antonio Gotto, dean of the Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After sacrifice, blood lipid profile, tissue morphology, and related genes participating in lipid metabolism were analyzed. (rsc.org)
  • Thus one can obtain a considerable amount of information regarding the digestion, uptake and mucosal esterification and the lymphatic transport of lipids. (uc.edu)
  • Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor, free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), that curbs glucose uptake when fatty acids are available. (nature.com)
  • We found that liver GHR ablation leads to increases in lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia accompanied with severe insulin resistance and increased body adiposity and serum lipids. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that the impaired metabolism in states of GH resistance results from direct actions of GH on lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis, whereas its actions on extrahepatic tissues are mediated by IGF-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings suggest that insufficient lipolysis, that is, high basal lipolysis which cannot be adequately accelerated by hormone stimulation, may shift the balance in lipid turnover towards uptake, which facilitates fat mass growth. (iran-daily.com)
  • Lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation serve to protect against excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains for synthesis of newly formed glucose. (physiology.org)
  • From an evolutionary perspective, this lipid-induced effect on glucose oxidation and uptake is very strong and may therefore help to understand why insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is difficult to treat. (physiology.org)
  • The physiological adaptation that is induced by the fasting state includes increased lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production (EGP) and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation. (physiology.org)
  • Myelin contains a high content of lipids, and the formation of the myelin sheath requires high levels of fatty acid and lipid synthesis, together with uptake of extracellular fatty acids. (wellnessresources.com)
  • This therefore opens up new research pathways, both with regard to the role of lipids in the cell nucleus and also the understanding of lipodystrophy and other human metabolic disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiologic and metabolic processes involved in the assimilation of dietary lipids and the synthesis and degradation of lipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of starvation, HFD feeding and a hepatocyte-specific blockage of autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. (nature.com)
  • In humans, low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon acts primarily on the liver and by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism glucagon may reduce hepatic lipid accumulation and decrease hepatic lipid secretion. (ku.dk)
  • The review highlights recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adipocyte metabolism, with a particular focus on lipolysis regulation and the involvement of microribonucleic acids (miRNAs). (portlandpress.com)
  • Regarding whole-body lipid metabolism, it is controversial to what extent glucagon influences lipolysis in adipose tissue, particularly in humans. (ku.dk)
  • This is mainly due to intensive lipid metabolism in the rumen (lipolysis and biohydrogenation) and during conservation (lipolysis and oxidation) such as drying (hay) and ensiling (silage). (ugent.be)
  • Our work is aimed at trying to further understand the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism in liver and other tissues, partly via elucidating the functional role of PPARα and its targets. (wur.nl)
  • Our study demonstrates that lipidomics enables much deeper insights into the genetic regulation of lipid metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chylomicrons are one sub-group of lipoproteins which carry the digested lipids from small intestine to the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dyslipidemia is empirically defined here as plasma lipid and lipoproteins that are associated with adverse outcomes such as CV disease (CVD) in the general population. (asnjournals.org)
  • The researchers compared measures including weight gain/loss, energy expenditure, gene expression in fat tissue, lipid levels in the blood, liver, and feces, and blood insulin levels as an indication of insulin resistance in animals with diet-induced obesity who did or did not receive supplementation with dietary yerba mate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Hepatic And Visceral Lipids In Obese Individuals Without Weight Loss NathanA.Johnson,1,2 ToosSachinwalla,3 DavidW.Walton,3 KateSmith,1 AshleyArmstrong,1 MartinW.Thompson,1 And JacobGeorge4 Weight Loss Remains The Most Common Therapy Advocated For Reducing Hepatic Lipid In Obesity And Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. (szcpost.com)
  • L-Carnitine intake prevents irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • L-Carnitine supplementation has been used to reduce obesity caused by high-fat diet, which is beneficial for lowering blood and hepatic lipid levels, and for ameliorating fatty liver. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, whether l-carnitine may affect irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder is still largely unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This chapter will briefly review the various biosynthetic pathways and will detail several aspects of the lipid analysis: lipid extraction, handling, separation, detection, identification, and data presentation. (springer.com)
  • All of these factors are required to maintain host lipid homeostasis and are intricately connected via several metabolic pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Because lipid signaling pathways interface with highly interdigitated networks of biological processes, diverse territories of intracellular lipid metabolism and trafficking need to be tightly coordinated. (asbmb.org)
  • We hope that the openly available browser will in part help future biomarker and drug target discovery and build our understanding of the pathways connecting genetic variation to cardiovascular and other lipid-related diseases", said Professor Samuli Ripatti from the University of Helsinki, who led the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lipids, which include glycerides, phospholipids and sterols, constitute a broad spectrum of naturally occurring fatty molecules that are fundamental to the development and maintenances of both cells and tissues through their main biological functions within essential signaling pathways, the storage and transportation of energy, and as the precursors to more complex structures, such as those components constructing the cellular membrane. (peprotech.com)
  • This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. (mit.edu)
  • He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid based signal controls seed germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snazurus, the fly homolog of yeast protein Mdm1, is highly expressed in the fly fat body, the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • In starvation, uncontrolled diabetes, and many generalized illnesses the opposite occurs and the adipose tissue becomes markedly depleted of lipid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together, our results reveal that Seipin promotes adipose tissue lipid storage via calcium‐dependent mitochondrial metabolism. (embopress.org)
  • This study suggests a safe alternative to managing weight and reducing blood lipids and glucose," says Journal of Medicinal Food Editor-in-Chief Sampath Parthasarathy, MBA, PhD, Florida Hospital Chair in Cardiovascular Sciences and Interim Associate Dean, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heape AM, Juguelin H, Boiron F, Cassagne C (1985) Improved one dimensional thin layer chromatographic technique for polar lipids. (springer.com)
  • iii) direct binding of quinones to nucleophilic sites in polar lipids also could lead to protection. (ugent.be)
  • The intracellular storage and utilization of lipids are critical to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • This review sheds light on the potential impact of T. cruzi infection on the status of host lipid homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • PPARs are recognised as key regulators of both arms of lipid homeostasis, i.e. fatty acid oxidation (catabolism) and triglyceride accumulation (adipogenesis), in higher vertebrates. (europa.eu)
  • Post-mitotic mature adipocytes regulate systemic lipid homeostasis by storing and releasing free fatty acids, and also modulate energy balance via the secretion of adipokines. (portlandpress.com)
  • This mitochondrial protein has been related to iron homeostasis, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. (curefa.org)
  • Seipin , the gene that causes Berardinelli‐Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 ( BSCL 2), is important for adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis. (embopress.org)
  • Previous studies in Drosophila revealed that Seipin promotes ER calcium homeostasis through the Ca 2+ ‐ ATP ase SERCA , but little is known about the events downstream of perturbed ER calcium homeostasis that lead to decreased lipid storage in Drosophila dS eipin mutants. (embopress.org)
  • Berardinelli‐Seip lipodystrophy type 2 is caused by mutation of Seipin, which works with SERCA to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis and regulate lipid storage. (embopress.org)
  • Phosphoinositides are essential signaling lipids that modulate a diverse set of cellular processes. (asbmb.org)
  • Both researchers agree that the main question still to be answered is the exact cellular function of lipid metabolism in the cell nucleus of healthy humans and those suffering from diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • More recent research has shown that abnormally elevated serum glucose and a consequent increase in cellular glucose content may lead to dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism in podocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this proposal is the acquisition of the appropriate molecular and cellular tools that will enable to address the issues of the increased lipid deposition in the tissues of farmed fish and the apparent dietary requirement of many of the farmed fish species for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (europa.eu)
  • The importance of phospholipases in cellular signaling, lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses and pathological disorders related to these processes has stimulated demand for fluorescence-based enzyme activity monitoring methods. (thermofisher.com)
  • These lipid classes have previously been shown to be selectively enriched in DENV-infected mosquito cells, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that is antagonistic to viral replication. (asm.org)
  • We found substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profiles in the presence of these bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Some lipid classes previously shown to be enriched in dengue virus-infected mosquito cells were depleted in the presence of Wolbachia , suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that inhibits mosquito-borne viruses. (asm.org)
  • Here we show a previously unknown function for autophagy in regulating intracellular lipid stores (macrolipophagy). (nature.com)
  • Thus, excess intracellular lipid metabolite accumulation, which interferes with insulin signalling, can occur as a result of impaired rates of fatty acid oxidation and/or increased rates of fatty acid transport into muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Thus it appears that lipid metabolites, other than triacylglycerols, interfere with insulin signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is therefore essential for enhancing the understanding of different influences such as genetic, nutritional, behavioral, and environmental factors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As part of our committment to metabolomics research, Sigma offers an expanding range of lipids and lipid metabolites for the mapping and study of healthy and diseased cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lipids and lipid metabolites are abundant in cells and have both a structural function and a role in cell regulation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The lipid storage defects in dS eipin mutant fat cells can be rescued by replenishing mitochondrial calcium or by restoring the level of citrate through genetic manipulations or supplementation with exogenous metabolites. (embopress.org)
  • The mechanisms provoking lipid-mediated insulin resistance are not completely understood. (nih.gov)
  • The "Sphingolipid Metabolism and Biological Regulation" session will feature newly described sphingolipid regulatory mechanisms. (asbmb.org)
  • This Review focuses on emerging mechanisms involving adipocytes and lipid metabolism in altering the response to cancer treatment. (jci.org)
  • In particular, we discuss mechanisms underlying cancer-associated adipocytes and lipid metabolic reprogramming in cancer drug resistance. (jci.org)
  • This Review highlights the impact of adipocytes and cancer lipid metabolism on cancer drug responses and discusses the emerging understanding of mechanisms underlying metabolic reprogramming in tumor responses to anticancer drugs. (jci.org)
  • The study also provided clues to the underlying mechanisms of effects of well-known lipid loci on lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. (eurekalert.org)
  • Host- and pathogen-derived lipids share clearance mechanisms that pinpoint PCSK9 as a plausible target for the treatment of some patients with sepsis (Walley et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • The mechanisms of phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism are similarly reviewed. (annals.org)
  • Restoration of IGF-1 improved overall insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in serum and reduced body adiposity, but was insufficient to protect against steatosis-induced hepatic inflammation or oxidative stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. (wur.nl)
  • Accumulating evidence has shown that FGF21 could directly modulate lipid metabolism and reduce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes through an insulin-independent pathway, thus suppressing the pathogenesis of NAFLD. (medworm.com)
  • Abnormal lipid metabolism associated with various renal diseases has been known for a long time. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Persons categorised as having "intellectual-emotional" personalities showed higher rates of hypertension and of abnormal lipid metabolism. (ilo.org)
  • This book was stimulated by the enthusiasm shown by attendees at the meetings in Saxon River, VT, sponsored by the Federation ofAmerican Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), on the subject of the intestinal processing of lipids. (springer.com)
  • The 2011 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology annual meeting "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme focuses on new progress regarding how the metabolism, trafficking, organization and biological functions of major lipid classes are coordinated. (asbmb.org)
  • Today, lipid research addresses all aspects of cell biology including cell structure, energy storage and generation, and cell signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The synergies between classical lipid research, systems biology, and the advancement of lipid detection technologies have led to a revolution in lipid biology and the emergence of lipidomics as a branch of metabolomics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is a propitious time for a collection of review articles that summarize recent advances in our understanding of podocyte function and dysfunction, relating to energetics, metabolism, and lipid biology, and that build upon these new insight to suggest novel therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fajun Yang, an associate professor of developmental and molecular biology at Albert Einstein, studies exactly how cancer cells supply themselves with lipids. (phys.org)
  • In this review, we present an overview of the basic biology of myelin lipids and recent insights on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and functions in myelinating cells. (wellnessresources.com)
  • In addition, this review may serve to provide a foundation for future research characterizing the role of fatty acids and lipids in myelin biology and metabolic disorders affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Numerous genetic disorders are caused by errors in fatty acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. (mit.edu)
  • Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). (mit.edu)
  • R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. (mit.edu)
  • Myelin Fat Facts: An Overview of Lipids and Fatty Acid Metabolism. (wellnessresources.com)
  • This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human diseases with lipid over-accumulation such as those that comprise the metabolic syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Mizushima, N. & Klionsky, D. J. Protein turnover via autophagy: implications for metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Using genetic, pharmacological, and metabolomic approaches, we demonstrate that caffeine reduces intrahepatic lipid content and stimulates β-oxidation in hepatic cells and liver by an autophagy-lysosomal pathway. (rti.org)
  • This review aims to summarize recent advances towards understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to regulate lipid metabolism and other metabolic parameters relevant to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulated lipid and glucose photoreceptor energy metabolism may therefore be a driving force in macular telangiectasia, neovascular AMD and other retinal diseases. (nature.com)
  • Wong-Riley, M.T.T. Energy metabolism of the visual system. (nature.com)
  • Niu, Y.-G. & Evans, R.D. Very-low-density lipoprotein: complex particles in cardiac energy metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, our results suggest that the time-delayed pattern of eating can induce adiposity and lipid metabolic disorders, while l-carnitine supplementation might prevent these negative symptoms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These disorders may be described as fatty oxidation disorders or as a lipid storage disorders, and are any one of several inborn errors of metabolism that result from enzyme defects affecting the ability of the body to oxidize fatty acids in order to produce energy within muscles, liver, and other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis resulted in quantitative models that predict roles for phosphoproteins involved in oxidation-reduction in altered PUFA and triglyceride metabolism. (mit.edu)
  • Accumulation of excess intramyocellular lipid can be avoided by exercise, which improves the capacity for fatty acid oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • Where does the catabolism (breakdown) of lipids mainly occur in the cell? (proprofs.com)
  • Thus, despite lipid catabolism meeting the low energy costs of the diapausing pupae, primary lipid store utilization did not occur until the onset of growth and metamorphosis in spring. (biologists.org)
  • Join us for this GEN webinar, where we will focus first on developing assays with human iPSC-derived hepatocytes to interrogate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-and then on implementing these cells into research programs for the study of lipid dysregulation and metabolic disease state and progression. (genengnews.com)
  • The macrophages rapidly break down the triglyceride in the AdExos and release it as fatty acids, which Ferrante hypothesizes can then be taken up by adipocytes in a lipid cycle that resupplies fat cells with fresh lipid. (news-medical.net)
  • The VLDL receptor plays a major role in chylomicron metabolism by enhancing LPL-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis. (nature.com)
  • Since Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll contribute to hepatic triglyceride hydrolysis, gene regulation was studied under conditions of elevated hepatic lipids. (wur.nl)
  • A lipid-binding protein in yeast integrates lipid and amino acid metabolism to establish growth or quiescence as appropriate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipids make up the final big category of metabolism , in addition to carbohydrates and amino acids . (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, they are influenced by factors in the TME to become adipocytes or adipocyte-like cells that store excessive lipid energy. (jci.org)
  • These lipid-filled particles, called adipocyte exosomes (AdExos), are taken up by macrophages in fat. (news-medical.net)
  • Phosphoinositide metabolism is subject to exquisite spatial and temporal regulation both at the level of synthesis (by lipid kinases) and degradation (by phospholipases and phosphatases). (asbmb.org)
  • In red clover, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been suggested to protect lipids against degradation, both in the silage as well as in the rumen, leading to a higher output of PUFA in ruminant products (meat and milk). (ugent.be)
  • In conclusion, this review demonstrates that protein-bound phenols and encapsulation in protein-phenol complexes, induced by PPO-mediated diphenol oxidation, could be of interest when aiming to protect lipids against pre-ruminal and ruminal degradation. (ugent.be)
  • Plant ER membranes are the major site of biosynthesis of several lipid families (phospholipids, sphingolipids, neutral lipids such as sterols and triacylglycerols). (springer.com)
  • At the ASBMB 2011 annual meeting, the "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme will cover phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, phospholipases D and neutral lipids. (asbmb.org)
  • Changes in relevant indexes to blood glucose and lipid metabolisms and inflammatory factors were compared between the two groups. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this mini review, we will discuss sexual dimorphism in glucose and lipid metabolism during different metabolic states while concentrating on in vivo mechanistic studies that have used isotopic tracer methods and/or hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp studies to investigate gender-based differences in substrate metabolism during fasting, hypoglycemia, or exercise. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, the researchers utilized both genomics and lipidomics (large-scale lipid analysis) approaches. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first large-scale study of this type, with access to genome-wide data, lipidomics data with 141 lipid species in almost 2200 Finnish study participants and phenome-wide data for over 500 000 individuals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our results show that lipidomics provides higher statistical power and thus better chances to identify lipid-modulating genetic variants with much smaller sample size than traditional lipid measures", said Rubina Tabassum, the lead author of the study from the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM at the University of Helsinki. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to enhancing the current understanding of the genetic determinants of circulating lipids, the study highlights the potential of lipidomics in genetic studies focusing on lipid levels and cardiovascular diseases over traditional lipid measures. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many different classes of lipids also are known to serve as metabolic precursors to various second messengers or as signaling molecules in their own right. (asbmb.org)
  • One thousand four references, briefly annotated, to literature from 1943 to the present pertinent to heparin, lipoprotein lipase, serum lipids, and other related factors. (annals.org)
  • Morré DJ, Panel C, Morré DM, Sandelius AS, Moreau P, Andersson B (1991) Cell-free transfer and sorting of membrane lipids in spinach. (springer.com)
  • Other types of lipids found in the body are fatty acids and membrane lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those questions only receive partial response in the present review because studies of the systemic effects of prebiotics are still in their infancy, and require fundamental research devoted to elucidating the biochemical and physiological events that allow prebiotics to exert systemic effects on lipid metabolism. (lww.com)
  • This chapter will evaluate these contributors and their effects on lipid deposition and quality, as well as nutritional and managerial interventions. (intechopen.com)
  • As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our study strongly supports this, which is why further investigation on whether the positive changes in lipid metabolism are also observed in humans is warranted,'' concluded Heli Anglenius, MD, senior scientist, IFF, in a press release. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • A collaborative Stony Brook University research team has discovered a novel metabolic pathway of the lipid ceramide, which is involved in cell death. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our next step is to investigate whether these lipid particles appear in humans and, if so, whether they contribute to lipids we measure in the circulation and in metabolic diseases,' Ferrante says. (news-medical.net)
  • Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimer's, cancer, and asthma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The role of lipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of renal diseases has been variously discussed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This procedure enables the study of the intestinal digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of dietary lipid in the conscious mouse. (uc.edu)
  • Dietary fructans are nutritionally interesting oligosaccharides that strictly conform to the definition of prebiotics and (in view of experimental studies in animals and of less numerous studies in humans) exhibit interesting serum or hepatic lipid lowering properties. (lww.com)
  • Despite the expected influence of dietary intake on the circulatory lipids, genetic factors were shown to explain 10 to 54 % of the variability. (eurekalert.org)
  • Three major contributors to lipid quality in swine are regulation of de novo lipogenesis, dietary lipid composition, and environmental stressors. (intechopen.com)
  • In general, the fatty acid profiles of swine carcass lipids are reflective of dietary fatty acid composition and de novo lipogenesis. (intechopen.com)
  • The level of unsaturation in dietary fat sources is mimicked in the carcass fatty acid profile, altering the lipid firmness by increasing the degree of unsaturation. (intechopen.com)
  • In the exogenous pathway ( Figure 1 ), chylomicrons transport dietary lipids that are absorbed from the intestine via the systemic circulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, researchers from Morocco examined the effect of basil extract on high lipid levels and oxidative stress in an animal model. (naturalnews.com)
  • Natural News ) A study published in the journal Food Science and Human Wellness revealed that basil ( Ocimum basilicum ) can help reduce high lipid levels and prevent atherosclerosis. (naturalnews.com)
  • Metabolism of Lipids as Related to Atherosclerosis. (annals.org)
  • This compilation of papers presented at the dedication on June, 1963, of the Burnside Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois, Urbana, is a basic review of lipid factors as they relate to the development of atherosclerosis. (annals.org)
  • Current concepts of the role of the several lipid factors relating to atherosclerosis are summarized briefly but succinctly. (annals.org)