Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Glucose in blood.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Abstaining from all food.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The consumption of edible substances.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/10418)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (2/10418)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (3/10418)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Blocking very late antigen-4 integrin decreases leukocyte entry and fatty streak formation in mice fed an atherogenic diet. (4/10418)

Atherosclerotic lesion development is characterized by the recruitment of leukocytes, principally monocytes, to the vessel wall. Considerable interest has been focused on the adhesion molecule(s) involved in leukocyte/endothelial interactions. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of the very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrin/ligand interaction in fatty streak development using murine models. Because alpha4 null mice are not viable, a peptidomimetic was used to block VLA-4-mediated leukocyte binding. The ability of a synthetic peptidomimetic of connecting segment-1 (CS-1 peptide) to block the recruitment of leukocytes and the accumulation of lipid in the aortic sinus of either wild-type mice (strain C57BL/6J) or mice with a low-density lipoprotein null mutation (LDLR-/-) maintained on an atherogenic diet was assessed. The active (Ac) CS-1 peptide or scrambled (Sc) CS-1 peptide was delivered subcutaneously into mice using a mini osmotic pump. Mice were exposed to the peptide for 24 to 36 hours before the onset of the atherogenic diet. In C57BL/6J mice, leukocyte entry into the aortic sinus, as assessed by en face preparations, was inhibited by the active peptide (Ac=28+/-4, Sc=54+/-6 monocytes/valve; P=0.004). Additionally, frozen sections stained with Oil Red O were analyzed to assess lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. C57BL/6J mice that received the (Ac) compound demonstrated significantly reduced lesion areas as compared with mice that received the (Sc) peptide (Ac=4887+/-4438 microm2, Sc=15 009 +/-5619 microm2; P<0.0001). In a separate study, LDLR-/- mice were implanted with pumps containing either the (Ac) or (Sc) peptide before initiation of the atherogenic diet. Because LDLR-/- mice fed a chow diet displayed small lesions at 14 weeks, the effects of the peptide seen in these animals represented a change in early lipid accumulation rather than initiation. By using whole-mount preparations, the (Ac) but not the (Sc) peptide significantly reduced the area of lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus, resulting in an approximate 66% decrease. Plasma analysis from all studies revealed concentrations of peptide to be present at levels previously determined by in vitro analysis to block adhesion. (Ac) CS-1 peptide, which blocks VLA-4 on the leukocyte surface, is effective in reducing leukocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation in the aortic sinus. The present study provides in vivo evidence that the VLA-4 integrin plays an important role in the initiation of the atherosclerotic lesion and lipid accumulation, and it suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.  (+info)

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (5/10418)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (6/10418)

Lipase [EC] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (7/10418)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (8/10418)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Keratinocytes play an important role in skin irritation. In an attempt to investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis. ADRP is a lipid-storage-droplet-associated protein, governing deposition and release of lipids from droplets. The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a human keratinocyte cell line (NCTC 2544), sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-induced ADRP expression, to identify the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression, and to understand its function in sodium dodecyl sulfate cytotoxicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced a concentration- and time-related production of ADRP that was associated with lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid accumulation following sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment was due to intracellular redistribution rather than lipid neosynthesis, as indicated by equivalent 14C-oleate and 14C-acetate incorporations. ...
High dietary protein can reduce fat deposition in animal subcutaneous adipose tissue, but little is known about the mechanism. Sixty Wujin pigs of about 15 kg weight were fed either high protein (HP: 18%) or low protein (LP: 14%) diets, and slaughtered at body weights of 30, 60 or 100 kg. Bloods were collected to measure serum parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled for determination of adipocyte size, protein content, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and enzyme activities. HP significantly reduced adipocyte size, fat meat percentage and backfat thickness, but significantly increased daily gain, lean meat percentage and loin eye area at 60 and 100 kg. Serum free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations in the HP group were significantly higher than in the LP group. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein at any body weight. HP significantly reduced gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and
Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in carcinogenesis due to the requirements of tumoral cells to sustain increased structural, energetic and biosynthetic precursor demands for cell proliferation. We investigated the association between expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and clinical outcome in intermediate-stage colon cancer patients with the aim of identifying a metabolic profile associated with greater malignancy and increased risk of relapse. Expression profile of 70 lipid metabolismrelated genes was determined in 77 patients with stage II colon cancer. Cox regression analyses using c-index methodology was applied to identify a metabolic-related signature associated to prognosis. The metabolic signature was further confirmed in two independent validation sets of 120 patients and additionally, in a group of 264 patients from a public database. The combined analysis of these 4 genes, ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1 and SCD, constitutes a metabolic-signature (ColoLipidGene) able to ...
Plant lipid metabolism pathways have been extensively studied as increasing plant oil yields is one important goal among researchers. However, the gene expression pattern of lipid metabolism regulating pathways especially in wound-induced callus of Arabidopsis thaliana is still unknown. The use of artificial microRNA retinoblastoma-related (amiRBR) strain allowed for the study of reduced RBR expression effects on lipid accumulation. Although the lipid contents in hormone-induced callus were possibly lower than leaves in wild-type (WT) A. thaliana, wound-induced callus was used to eliminate genetic interferences. Lipid content comparisons on 7-, 14- and 21-day old leaf and callus showed possibly higher lipid content in WT callus, although amiRBR callus contained possibly higher lipid content than its leaves at Day 7. Lipid metabolism genes undergoing cell-fate changes were studied. The mRNA expression of the lipid catabolism genes, acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and 2 (ACX1, ACX2) and multifunctional protein ...
Malin Levin is an Associate Professor with an overall research interest in lipid accumulation and storage in the heart. In specifics, her group is interested in elucidating the function of lipid droplet-associated proteins in the heart and their relevance for intracellular lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function and impact on outcome of myocardial ischemia. Main research Pathological conditions, e.g. obesity, diabetes and myocardial ischemia, are associated with increased lipid accumulation in the heart. Elevated levels of myocardial lipids are associated with cellular and tissue dysfunction, and are believed to contribute to reduced heart function. Intracellular lipids are stored in lipid droplets, with a core of neutral lipids and a complex surface containing membrane lipids and associated proteins. Lipid droplet-associated proteins contribute to the regulation of lipid droplet size and stability and mediate coupling between lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stable lipid droplet storage and
Fat-specific protein (FSP)27/Cidec is most highly expressed in white and brown adipose tissues and increases in abundance by over 50-fold during adipogenesis. However, its function in adipocytes has remained elusive since its discovery over 15 years ago. Here we demonstrate that FSP27/Cidec localizes to lipid droplets in cultured adipocytes and functions to promote lipid accumulation. Ectopically expressed FSP27-GFP surrounds lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and colocalizes with the known lipid droplet protein perilipin. Immunostaining of endogenous FSP27 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also confirmed its presence on lipid droplets. FSP27-GFP expression also markedly increases lipid droplet size and enhances accumulation of total neutral lipids in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as well as other cell types such as COS cells. Conversely, RNA interference-based FSP27/Cidec depletion in mature adipocytes significantly stimulates lipolysis and reduces the size of lipid droplets. These data reveal FSP27/Cidec as a ...
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, is induced by starvation through an autoregulatory feedback loop and exerts a global transcriptional control on lipid catabolism via Ppargc1α and Ppar1α. Thus, during starvation a transcriptional mechanism links the autophagic pathway to cellular energy metabolism. The conservation of this mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a fundamental role for TFEB in the evolution of the adaptive response to food deprivation. Viral delivery of TFEB to the liver prevented weight gain and metabolic syndrome in both diet-induced and genetic mouse models of obesity, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for disorders of lipid metabolism. Ballabio and
β-Casomorphin increases fat deposition in broiler chickens by modulating expression of lipid metabolism genes - Volume 13 Issue 4 - W. H. Chang, A. J. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, S. Zhang, H. Y. Cai, G. H. Liu
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)-coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation-related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo ...
Lipid droplets in the liver are coated with the perilipin family of proteins notably adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47). TIP47 mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6J mice. TIP47 ASO treatment decreased liver TIP47 mRNA and protein levels without altering ADRP levels. Low-dose TIP47 ASO (15 mg/kg) and high-dose TIP47 ASO (50 mg/kg) decreased triglyceride content in the liver by 35% and 52% respectively. Liver histology showed a drastic reduction in hepatic steatosis following TIP47 ASO treatment. Rabbit Polyclonal to UBTD2. The high dose of TIP47 ASO significantly blunted hepatic triglyceride secretion improved glucose tolerance and improved insulin level of sensitivity in liver adipose cells and muscle mass. These findings display that TIP47 affects hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and may be a target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver and related metabolic disorders. gene ...
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animals liver. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are Triglycerides. Since lipids are fats, lipid metabolism is often considered the digestion and absorption process of dietary fats. Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs when a chemical breaks down as a reaction to coming in contact with water. Lipid metabolism does exist in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. Digestion of fats begin in the mouth through chemical digestion by lingual lipase. Lipids then ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
TY - JOUR. T1 - PPAR gamma 2 prevents lipotoxicity by controlling adipose tissue expandability and peripheral lipid metabolism. AU - Medina-Gomez, G.. AU - Gray, S.L.. AU - Yetukuri, Laxman. AU - Shimomura, K.. AU - Campbell, M.. AU - Curtis, K.. AU - Virtue, S.. AU - Jimenez-Linan, M.. AU - Blount, M.. AU - Yeo, G.S.H.. AU - Lopez, M.. AU - Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki. AU - Ashcroft, F.M.. AU - Oresic, Matej. AU - Vidal-Puig, A.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARg2) is the nutritionally regulated isoform of PPARg. Ablation of PPARg2 in the ob/ob background, PPARg2−/− Lepob/Lepob (POKO mouse), resulted in decreased fat mass, severe insulin resistance, β-cell failure, and dyslipidaemia. Our results indicate that the PPARg2 isoform plays an important role, mediating adipose tissue expansion in response to positive energy balance. Lipidomic analyses suggest that PPARg2 plays an important antilipotoxic role when induced ectopically in liver and ...
Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is amplified/ over-expressed in cancers of diverse cellular origins. Altered cellular metabolism (including lipogenesis) is a hallmark of cancer development, and protein-protein associations between TPD52 and known regulators of lipid storage, and differential TPD52 expression in obese versus non-obese adipose tissue, suggest that TPD52 may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We found increased lipid droplet numbers in stably TPD52-expressing BALB/c 3T3 cell lines, compared with control and TPD52L1-expressing cell lines. TPD52-expressing 3T3 cells showed increased fatty acid storage in triglyceride (from both de novo synthesis and uptake), and formed greater numbers of lipid droplets upon oleic acid supplementation than control cells. TPD52 co-localised with Golgi but not ER markers, and also showed partial co-localisation with Adrp-coated lipid droplets, with a proportion of TPD52 being detected in the lipid droplet fraction. Direct interactions between ADRP and TPD52, ...
Physiological processes are differentially regulated between men and women. Sex and gut microbiota have each been demonstrated to regulate host metabolism, but it is unclear whether both factors are interdependent. Here, we determined to what extent sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism are m …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of low-stearate palm oil and high-stearate lard high-fat diets on rat liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Several nutrition and food ingredients are supposed to have beneficial effects, but precise cell biological mechanism has not been elucidated. Among food ingredients, polyphenols such as soy bean isoflavon genistein and wine resveratrol have been reported to have effects on lipid metabolism and cardiovacular diseases (1). In order to elucidate the effect of genistein on obesity, we cultured adipocyte and observed of genisten to lipid accumulation in cells. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed by genistein when it was added at the time of differentiation but not when added after differentiation. Genistein is considered to suppress lipid accumulation by suppressing the differtiation of adipocytes.
Atherosclerosis is driven by lipid accumulation in the arterial wall that leads to narrowing the vessel lumen and increasing risk of thrombus formation. Deposition of lipids, mostly cholesteryl esters, in the arterial wall layer called intima, is one of the earliest manifestations of the disease. Intracellular accumulation of lipids takes place in so called foam cells that have their cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets that are visible microscopically. Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles serve as the primary source of lipids. Numerous attempts were made to establish a clear link between circulating LDL levels and atherosclerosis formation. In the experiments conducted on cultured cells, if was demonstrated that native LDL failed to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. At the same time, LDL chemically modified in vitro (acetylated, malondialdehyde-treated, oxidized with ions of transient metals, etc.) induced lipid deposition in cultured cells, i.e., was atherogenic. It was ...
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. In humans it is encoded by the ADFP gene. This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids within the lipid droplets. The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. The full length cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and sequence analysis results in a protein with 425 amino acids that is unique and similar sequences had not previously been reported. In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). The proposed models for adipose differentiation related protein (perilipin 2) is maintained by ...
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) has been implicated in the regulation of endo-/exocytic pathways, cholesterol transport, and the formation of multifactorial signaling complexes in many different cell types. More recently, AnxA6 has also been linked to triglyceride storage in adipocytes. Here we investigated the potential role of AnxA6 in fatty acid (FA) induced lipid droplet (LD) formation in hepatocytes. AnxA6 was associated with LD from rat liver and HuH7 hepatocytes. In oleic acid (OA) -loaded HuH7 cells, substantial amounts of AnxA6 bound to LD in a Ca2+-independent manner. Remarkably, stable or transient AnxA6 overexpression in HuH7 cells led to elevated LD numbers/size and neutral lipid staining under control conditions as well as after OA loading compared to controls. In contrast, overexpression of AnxAl, AnxA2 and AnxA8 did not impact on OA-induced lipid accumulation. On the other hand, incubation of AnxA6-depleted HuH7 cells or primary hepatocytes from AnxA6 KO-mice with OA led to reduced FA ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
For humans it is crucial to control lipid homeostasis to avoid development of metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia is a considerable risk factor for development of cardiovascular and liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Infection and inflammation induce the acute phase response (APR), leading to multiple alternations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, mediated by changed cytokine production, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Another cytokine IL-10 has anti-atheromatous and anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been postulated that IL-10 has gene therapeutic potential. However, the effect of IL-10 on liver and its metabolic functions are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-10 could modulate lipid homeostasis in TNF-a- and IL-6-stimulated hepatocytes. We demonstrated that IL-6 increased expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid (FA) synthesis [SREBP1a, FAS], FA oxidation [PPARa, CPT1a, CPT2], FA ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
Since July 2001, JLR has published special Thematic Review Series - a series of articles on a hot lipid-related topic appearing in consecutive issues. Thematic Reviews are among the most widely read of all JLR articles.. For each of these series, an Associate Editor (sometimes in conjunction with a member of the JLR Editorial Board) will invite experts in that field to contribute reviews on a specific topic or theme. Many topics have been explored in JLR Thematic Review Series; sterol/lipid metabolism and transport, systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, membranes and polar lipid dynamics, and sphingolipids are just a few examples.. Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research articles ...
Abnormal lipid metabolism associated with various renal diseases has been known for a long time. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the characteristic features of nephotic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia is often observed in chronic renal failure (CRF). The role of lipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of renal diseases has been variously discussed. However, direct evidence only recently became possible when more sophisticated analyses of renal histopathology as well as an application of molecular biology were introduced in the field of clinical nephrology. The recent identification of lipoprotein nephropathy (LPG), reported most often by Japanese authors since 1989, is particularly noteworthy. The detailed analysis of lipid profiles and renal histology has been instrumental in clarifying the relationship between lipids and the kidney not only in LPG but also in other disease entities such as familial-type dyslipidemias, CRF, focal glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Dyslipidemias ...
Lipid droplets are lipid stores inside cells that are surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer and are often found insidide adipocytes. Lipid droplets are able to store neutral lipids e.g. triaclycerides and cholesterol esters that are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lipids stored inside the droplets are neutral due to the fact they contain no hydrophilic head groups, instead all containing hydrophobic constituent molecules, that clump into droplets rather than bilayer (as would happen if they contained hydrophilic heads) [1]. ...
Effect of high vitamin A or tocopherol intake on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal absorption and secretion of lipids and bile acids in the chick.: The ef
Modulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism. Coats lipid storage droplets to protect them from breakdown by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Its absence may result in leanness (By similarity). Plays a role in unilocular lipid droplet formation by activating CIDEC. Their interaction promotes lipid droplet enlargement and directional net neutral lipid transfer. May modulate lipolysis and triglyceride levels.
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also controls cellular lipid metabolism but the underlining mechanism is poorly understood. We report here that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a novel effector of TNFα to facilitate its metabolic modulation in the skeletal muscle. Depletion of PIKE-A in C2C12 myotubes diminished the inhibitory activities of TNFα on mitochondrial respiration and lipid oxidation, whereas PIKE-A overexpression exacerbated these cellular responses. We also found that TNFα promoted the interaction between PIKE-A and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. As a result, animals with PIKE ablation in the skeletal muscle per se display an upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and a higher preference to utilize lipid as the energy production substrate under high-fat diet feeding, which mitigates the development of diet-induced ...
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It is well known that metabolic responses to diet and drugs are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Still, a large part of differences in responses between individuals remains unexplained. To increase our understanding of individual differences, more and more attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota. Not only energy and glucose may be related to the microbiota, but also lipid metabolism. This is not surprising as lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and obesity are closely linked.. There is substantial evidence from in particular animal studies that the gut microbiota is related to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, there is less evidence to what extent modulation of the gut microbiota changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. ...
Increasing evidence suggests that the various components of açaí contribute to cardioprotection via mechanisms that affect cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathway proteins, and the modulation of gene expression [37],. [38], [39], [40] and [41]. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids regulate the activity of the Alisertib nuclear receptor regulators of cellular lipid metabolism [42] and [43]. The present study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí pulp using a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. A 2% açaí pulp dose was chosen because of its relevance to human nutrition. This dosage mimics the addition of a portion of this fruit in food [44] and selleck compound has demonstrated effects in previous studies [10], [15] and [16]. Corroborating our previous results [15], açaí supplementation improved the lipid profile in the rat. Thus, we focused on characterizing the effects that açaí pulp supplementation in the diet would ...
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is central to human health. Disruption of lipid metabolic pathways can lead to a variety of diseases including diabetes an...
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose abundance is increased during fasting, stimulates lipolysis by triggering the degradation of ACC in adipose tissue. TRB3 promoted ACC ubiquitination through an association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutive photomorphogenic protein 1 (COP1). Indeed, adipocytes deficient in TRB3 accumulated larger amounts of ACC protein than did wild-type cells. Because transgenic mice expressing TRB3 in adipose tissue are protected from diet-induced obesity due to enhanced fatty acid oxidation, these results demonstrate how phosphorylation and ubiquitination pathways converge on a key regulator of lipid metabolism to maintain energy homeostasis ...
Introduction. Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the ...
PubMed journal article: Effects of alternations (10 days) of high-fat with normal diet on liver lipid infiltration, fat gain, and plasma metabolic profile in rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Adipocytes store triglyceride during periods of nutritional affluence and release free fatty acids during fasting through coordinated cycles of lipogenesis and lipolysis. While much is known about the acute regulation of these processes during fasting and feeding, less is understood about the transc …
K. G. Taylor, D. J. Galton, G. Holdsworth; Insulin-Independent Diabetes: Defects in the Regulation of Two Adipocyte Enzymes Involved in Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 September 1978; 55 (3): 2P-3P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Read Central IKK2 Inhibition Ameliorates Air Pollution-Mediated Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Dysfunction in Mice With Type II Diabetes, Toxicological Sciences on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Tripathi, S.N. (1973) Clinical and experimental studies on the use of oleoresin guggula, an indigenous drug in the disorders of lipid metabolism (with special reference to atherosclerosis and obesity). [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
isorder: Disorders of lipid metabolism is caused due to profound enzyme deficiency, resulting in severe early onset multi systemic disease. Typically,..
Author: Field, Cameron et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2020-02-04; Open Access; Title: Mitochondrial Integrity Regulated by Lipid Metabolism Is a Cell-Intrinsic Checkpoint for Treg Suppressive Function
Supports glucose metabolism and lipid utilization‡ Promotes weight management‡ Made with hypoallergenic, vegetarian ingredients PureLean® Nutrients promotes healthy weight management by supporting healthy glucose metabolism and lipid utilization. PureLean® Nutrients also supports healthy lipid antioxidant protection an
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SkinCeuticals TRIPLE LIPID RESTORE 2:4:2 Aging skin is increasingly susceptible to lipid depletion; the loss of natural compounds in skin s surface,
Dr. Chung is focusing on the biology of fat storage organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Many cancer cells are characterized by an increased number of LDs, and this accumulation has been proposed to be pathogenic. Key questions of LD biology remain unanswered, limiting the potential for therapeutic intervention. She will combine various imaging technologies and biochemical approaches to elucidate the molecular architecture of initial LD formation and its regulation.. ...
Other types of lipids found in the body are fatty acids and membrane lipids. Lipid metabolism is often considered as the ... Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. Lipid metabolism often ... The types of lipids involved in lipid metabolism include: Membrane lipids: Phospholipids: Phospholipids are a major component ... Lipid metabolism disorders (including inborn errors of lipid metabolism) are illnesses where trouble occurs in breaking down or ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Fatty acids, Lipid metabolism disorders). ... These disorders may be described as fatty oxidation disorders or as a lipid storage disorders, and are any one of several ... Crawford, T. O.; Sladky, J. T.; Hurko, O.; Besner-Johnston, A.; Kelley, R. I. (1999). "Abnormal fatty acid metabolism in ... Some of the more common fatty acid metabolism disorders are: Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD ...
... lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1801 (3): 246- ... "Lipid Metabolism". Medical Biochemistry. pp. 325-365. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803550-4.00015-X. ISBN 978-0-12-803550-4. Bhagavan ... Heart muscle primarily metabolizes fat for energy and Acyl-CoA metabolism has been identified as a critical molecule in early ... A rare disease called multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a fatty acid metabolism disorder. Acyl-CoA is ...
B, Rodrigo Valenzuela; B, Alfonso Valenzuela (2013-01-23). "Overview About Lipid Structure". Lipid Metabolism. doi:10.5772/ ... Because of this, lipids do not break down in the body without the use of lipase enzymes, which break down lipids into glycerol ... Lipids can be found in oils, dairy products, and some meats, along with in avocados and nuts. Cholesterol is a type of lipid ... Without lipids, bodily cells would not be able to maintain function or survive. While consuming too many lipids can lead to ...
"Acyl-Lipid Metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0161. doi:10.1199/tab.0161. PMC 3244904. PMID 22303259. Eastmond, Peter J.; ... This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid ...
Mansbach II CM, Tso P, Kuksis A (June 2011). Lowe ME (ed.). Intestinal lipid metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. ... Shahidi F (2006). "Structure Related Effects on Absorption and Metabolism of Nutraceutical and Specialty Lipids". Nutraceutical ... At the N-terminal, Lys4 is necessary for the enzyme to bind at lipid-water interfaces. Pancreatic lipase is the most important ... and Specialty Lipids and their Co-Products. CRC Press. Høy CE, Mu H (2000). "Effects of Triacylglycerol Structure on Fat ...
Liu K, Czaja MJ (January 2013). "Regulation of lipid stores and metabolism by lipophagy". Cell Death and Differentiation. 20 (1 ... In lipophagy the target are lipid structures called lipid droplets (LDs), spheric "organelles" with a core of mainly ... "Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism". Nature. 458 (7242): 1131-5. Bibcode:2009Natur.458.1131S. doi:10.1038/nature07976. PMC ... lipophagy and lysosomal lipid storage disorders". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. ...
"MicroRNA-370 controls the expression of microRNA-122 and Cpt1alpha and affects lipid metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 51 ... Sacco J, Adeli K (June 2012). "MicroRNAs: emerging roles in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism". Current Opinion in Lipidology. ... Fernández-Hernando C, Suárez Y, Rayner KJ, Moore KJ (April 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... Moore KJ, Rayner KJ, Suárez Y, Fernández-Hernando C (December 2010). "microRNAs and cholesterol metabolism". Trends in ...
ISBN 978-3-527-33189-5. Marinetti, G. V. (2012). Disorders of Lipid Metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 205. ISBN ... Ashkenazi Jews have a high incidence of Tay-Sachs and other lipid storage diseases. In the United States, about 1 in 27 to 1 in ... When hexosaminidase A is no longer functioning properly, the lipids accumulate in the brain and interfere with normal ... Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 101 (4): 357-363. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.08.006. ISSN 1096-7192. PMID 20817517. Porter BF ...
Fernández-Hernando, C; Suárez, Y; Rayner, KJ; Moore, KJ (April 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... miR-27 is one of a number of microRNAs implicated in cholesterol homeostasis and fatty acid metabolism. The miR-27 gene family ...
"Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism". In Moffatt, Robert J; Stamford, Bryant (eds.). Lipid Metabolism and Health. Boca Raton: CRC ... Lipid Metabolism and Health. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 211-263. ISBN 978-0-8493-2680-6. Zatonski, W; Willett, W (July 2005). " ... Lipid Metabolism and Health. New York: CRC Press. pp. 61-84. ISBN 978-0-8493-2680-6. Ross, R; Glomset, JA (1973). " ... the other being the lipid hypothesis. Although an ongoing debate involving connection between dietary lipids and CHD sometimes ...
... plays a role in lipid metabolism; it downregulates a number of ABC transporters, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, which in ... Fernández-Hernando, C; Suárez, Y; Rayner, KJ; Moore, KJ (Apr 2011). "MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism". Current Opinion in ... May 2011). "miR-33a/b contribute to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... It has been suggested that miR-33a and miR-33b regulates genes Involved in fatty acid metabolism and insulin signalling. ...
Fred Snyder (6 December 2012). Lipid metabolism in mammals. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4684-2832-2. ... and other lipids. The CYP4F2 enzyme protein presents in endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme CYP4F2 is involved in the metabolism ... "CYP4F2 is The Major Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Involved in CMX001 Metabolism". Drug Metabolism Reviews. 45: 84-85. Archived from ... The enzyme plays an important role in vitamin metabolism by chain shortening. CYP4F2 is the only known enzyme to ω-hydroxylate ...
It controls adipocyte lipid metabolism. It handles essential functions in the regulation of basal and hormonally stimulated ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ... The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis". Journal ... which break triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids for use in lipid metabolism. In times of energy deficit, Perilipin ...
Hartmann, Marie-Andrée (2003). "5 Sterol metabolism and functions in higher plants". Lipid Metabolism and Membrane Biogenesis. ... The regulation of the biosynthesis of both sterols and some specific lipids occurs during membrane biogenesis. Through 13C- ...
It also regulates lipid metabolism. Endogenous sulfur dioxide also diminishes myocardial damage, caused by isoproterenol ... It is biosynthesised through normal amino acid metabolism, but is toxic in high concentrations. The liver converts ammonia to ... Authors considered homocysteine to be one of useful biochemical markers of disease severity and sulfur dioxide metabolism to be ... Although the body requires oxygen for metabolism, low oxygen levels normally do not stimulate breathing. Rather, breathing is ...
Reddy JK, Rao MS (May 2006). "Lipid metabolism and liver inflammation. II. Fatty liver disease and fatty acid oxidation". ... Steatosis (retention of lipid) and onset of steatohepatitis may represent successive stages in FLD progression. Liver disease ... Defects in fatty acid metabolism are responsible for pathogenesis of FLD, which may be due to imbalance in energy consumption ... The condition is also associated with other diseases that influence fat metabolism. Fatty liver (FL) is commonly associated ...
It also regulates lipid metabolism. Endogenous sulfur dioxide also diminishes myocardial damage, caused by isoproterenol ... Authors considered homocysteine to be one of useful biochemical markers of disease severity and sulfur dioxide metabolism to be ... and aberrant or deficient sulfur dioxide metabolism can contribute to several different cardiovascular diseases, such as ...
MacLeod, Anna M.; White, H. B. (12 November 1962). "Lipid Metabolism in Germinating Barley. Ii. Barley Lipase". Journal of the ... Like enzymes, vitamins serve as bioactive catalysts to assist in the digestion and metabolism of feeds and the release of ... The reserve chemical constituents, such as protein, starch and lipids, are broken down by enzymes into simple compounds that ...
Myocardial Ischemia and Lipid Metabolism. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 978-1-4684-4865-8. Ferrari, R.; Di Mauro, S.; Sherwood, ... Driven by a keen interest in research, Professor Ferrari proceeded to complete his PhD degree in field of cardiac metabolism at ...
Jones, J. G. (2016). "Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism". Diabetologia. 59 (6): 1098-103. doi:10.1007/s00125-016-3940-5. ... In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a ... The binding of glucose to the sweet receptor on the tongue induces a release of various hormones of energy metabolism, either ... Glucose can be broken down and converted into lipids. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other important molecules ...
"The lipid metabolism in thraustochytrids". Progress in Lipid Research. 76: 101007. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2019.101007. PMID ... In terms of overall lipid composition, neutral lipids which are mainly constituted of TAGs make up a large portion of ... "Production of lipids and docosahexasaenoic acid (DHA) by a native Thraustochytrium strain". European Journal of Lipid Science ... "Nutritional Lipids in Maternal and Infant Health , DSM Human Nutrition & Health". @human-nutrition. Retrieved 2022-03-17. "Why ...
John Weete (2012). Fungal Lipid Biochemistry: Distribution and Metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 1-4684-2829- ...
Ye, X; Li, M; Hou, T; Gao, T; Zhu, WG; Yang, Y (3 January 2017). "Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism". Oncotarget (Review ... Interest in the metabolism of NAD+ heightened after the year 2000 discovery by Shin-ichiro Imai and coworkers in the Guarente ... Since glutamine is a source of a-ketoglutarate used to replenish the TCA cycle, SIRT4 is involved in glutamine metabolism. ... EntrezGene 23410 Preyat N, Leo O (May 2013). "Sirtuin deacylases: a molecular link between metabolism and immunity". Journal of ...
Mutch DM, Fauconnot L, Grigorov M, Fay LB (2006). Putting the 'Ome' in lipid metabolism. Biotechnol Annu Rev. Biotechnology ... The lipidome refers to the totality of lipids in cells. Lipids are one of the four major molecular components of biological ... November 2010). "Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma". J. Lipid Res. 51 (11): 3299-305. doi: ... Lipid Res. 49 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2009.07.003. PMC 7112618. PMID 19638285. Gaspar ML, Aregullin MA, Jesch SA, ...
Lipid metabolism in procaryotes". In Vance DE, Vance J (eds.). Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. Elsevier. pp ... "Phosphatidylcholine and Related Lipids: Structure, Occurrence, Biochemistry and Analysis". Invergowrie, Dundee (DD2 5DA), ... There were no statistically significant changes in thigh girth, cross-sectional area, or laboratory values for the lipid ... fatty acid Unsaturated fatty acid General structural formula of phosphatidylcholines Membrane lipids Choline metabolism ...
Lipid metabolism, necessary for myelin production. Amino acid modification. Probably linked to the production of taurine, of ... Thiamine deficiency and errors of thiamine metabolism are believed to be the primary cause of Wernicke encephalopathy. Thiamine ... Thiamine is involved in: Metabolism of carbohydrates, releasing energy. Production of neurotransmitters including glutamic acid ... metabolism, and storage; they may thus require higher doses.\ If glucose is given, such as in people with an alcohol use ...
It also maintains protein metabolism in its synthesis and degradation. In lipid metabolism it synthesises cholesterol. Fats are ... Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids (fats). These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which ... Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT (November 1997). "Role of intestinal bacteria in nutrient metabolism". Journal of Parenteral and ... and is an accessory digestive gland which plays a role in the body's metabolism. The liver has many functions some of which are ...
Lipid metabolism in procaryotes". In Vance, Dennis E.; Vance, J. (eds.). Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. ...
... including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism that drive tumor growth, progression and drug resistance. These studies, ... Cell Metabolism. 30 (3): 525-538.e8. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2019.06.014. PMC 6742496. PMID 31303424. Masui, Kenta; Cavenee, Webster ... Cell Metabolism. 18 (5): 726-739. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.09.013. ISSN 1932-7420. PMC 3840163. PMID 24140020. Masui, Kenta; ... Cell Metabolism. 17 (6): 1000-1008. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.04.013. ISSN 1932-7420. PMC 3679227. PMID 23707073. Gu, Yuchao; ...
The membrane consists of a single lipid bilayer surrounded by an S-layer. The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein ... "A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum". Molecular ...
May 2005). "A comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research. 46 (5): 839-61. doi:10.1194/jlr. ... Metabolism Look up metabolism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metabolism. General ... The metabolism of cancer cells is also different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find ... "metabolism , Origin and meaning of metabolism by Online Etymology Dictionary". Archived from the original ...
"Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as ... basic to metabolism.": 1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ...
... and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain ... and relevance to branched-chain fatty acid metabolism". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 257 (2): 615-21. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
All Archaea have lipids with ether links between the head group and side chains, making the lipids more resistant to heat and ... A20 from Costa Rica and Comparative Analyses of the Putative Pathways of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Various ... The Sulfolobales are known for unusual tetraether lipids. In Sulfolobales, the ether-linked lipids are joined covalently across ... acidity than bacterial and eukaryotic ester-linked lipids. ...
Free radicals can damage proteins, lipids or DNA. Glycation mainly damages proteins. Damaged proteins and lipids accumulate in ... With respect to specific types of chemical damage caused by metabolism, it is suggested that damage to long-lived biopolymers, ... Lipid peroxidation of the inner mitochondrial membrane reduces the electric potential and the ability to generate energy. It is ... Old animals have larger amounts of oxidized proteins, DNA and lipids than their younger counterparts. One of the earliest aging ...
An alternative mechanism is illustrated by the SARS-CoV E protein, which forms a pore that integrates membrane lipids whose ... Many viroporins also have additional effects on cellular metabolism and homeostasis mediated by protein-protein interactions ... The molecular architecture of the pore, its degree of selectivity, the extent to which it incorporates lipids from the ... "Structure and drug binding of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein transmembrane domain in lipid bilayers". Nature Structural & ...
Her PhD thesis was an investigation of the lipid metabolism of mammalian erythrocytes, exploring changes in the lipid profiles ... Winterbourn, Christine Coe (1968). Lipid metabolism of mammalian erythrocytes with special reference to cellular aging. Theses ...
The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ... cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by ... Sridar, C.; Kenaan, C.; Hollenberg, P. F. (2012). "Inhibition of Bupropion Metabolism by Selegiline: Mechanism-Based ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 33 (2): 262-70. doi:10.1124/dmd.104.002428. PMID 15547048. S2CID 7254643. Ekins S, Iyer M, ...
Yin D, Xu H, He Y, Kirkovsky LI, Miller DD, Dalton JT (March 2003). "Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of ... Similarly to Ostarine, VK5211 affected both lipid levels and testosterone levels, by suppressing HDL, luteinizing hormone (LH ...
Many lipid storage disorders can be classified into the subgroup of sphingolipidoses, as they relate to sphingolipid metabolism ... Diet restrictions do not help prevent the buildup of lipids in the tissues. Xanthomatosis Niemann-Pick disease "Lipid Storage ... A lipid storage disorder (or lipidosis) is any one of a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which harmful amounts of fats ... Lipid storage diseases can be inherited two ways: Autosomal recessive inheritance occurs when both parents carry and pass on a ...
Lipid rafts on phagosomes prevent lysosomal fusion, and normal cell trafficking is unaffected. Because B. suis is facultative ... suis is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino ... Lipid rafts are necessary for macrophage penetration. The phagosome rapidly acidifies, creating a stressful environment for ... This structural characteristic allows for B. suis to interact with lipid rafts on the surface of macrophages to be internalized ...
This fungus has been investigated for use in the production of single cell oils (SCO) and storage lipids (like GLA). C. ... However, depending on the nutrients the agar is supplemented with, different media can alter the oxidative metabolism profile ... Growth of this fungus on organic nitrogen leads yields lipids rich in γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The presence of an active ... trypticase soy medium or peptone broth at a pH of 8 yielded 0 μg/ml of breakdown products from the metabolism of rac-mexiletine ...
The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ... Tanabe T, Ullrich V (1995). "Prostacyclin and Thromboxane Synthases". Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling. 12 (2-3 ... Wang LH, Kulmacz RJ (2003). "Thromboxane synthase: structure and function of protein and gene". Prostaglandins Other Lipid ... Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators. 68-69: 409-422. doi:10.1016/s0090-6980(02)00045-x. PMID 12432933. Hsu PY, Tsai AL, ...
Lee MJ, Jash S, Jones JE, Puri V, Fried SK (April 2019). "Rosiglitazone remodels the lipid droplet and britens human visceral ... July 2018). "N-acyl amino acid control of metabolism and nociception". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... August 2017). "Long-Term Cold Adaptation Does Not Require FGF21 or UCP1". Cell Metabolism. 26 (2): 437-446.e5. doi:10.1016/j. ... PM20D1 regulates bioactive N-acyl amide lipids and has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, pain, and Alzheimer's ...
Overall, LDLR has a high clinical relevance in blood lipids. A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of ... Lindgren V, Luskey KL, Russell DW, Francke U (December 1985). "Human genes involved in cholesterol metabolism: chromosomal ... Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ... August 2010). "Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids". Nature. 466 (7307): 707-13. Bibcode: ...
"Human Haploid Cell Genetics Reveals Roles for Lipid Metabolism Genes in Nonapoptotic Cell Death". ACS Chemical Biology. 10 (7 ... Due to the essential role of NADPH in lipid and DNA biosynthesis and the hyperproliferative nature of most cancers, NADK is an ... Oxidative phosphorylation Electron transport chain Metabolism PDB: 1SUW​; Liu J, Lou Y, Yokota H, Adams PD, Kim R, Kim SH (Nov ...
Yet the 5-phosphatase SHIP proteins synthesis of PI(3,4)P2 has been linked to tumor cell survival due to the lipid's binding ... Gozzelino, L., De Santis, M. C., Gulluni, F., Hirsch, E., & Martini, M. (2020). PI(3,4)P2 Signaling in Cancer and Metabolism. ... A phosphatidylinositol lipids system, lamellipodin, and Ena/VASP regulate dynamic morphology of multipolar migrating cells in ... Gozzelino, L., De Santis, M. C., Gulluni, F., Hirsch, E., & Martini, M. (2020). PI(3,4)P2 Signaling in Cancer and Metabolism. ...
Some info on apocarotenal Olson, A.J. (1964). "The biosynthesis and metabolism of carotenoids and retinol (vitamin A)" (PDF). ... Journal of Lipid Research. 5 (3): 281-298. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)40196-8. PMID 5334361. (Chemical articles with multiple ...
Influence of anti-androgen therapy for prostatic hypertrophy on lipid metabolism]". Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica (in ... Saha A, Roy K, Kakali DE (2000). "Effects of Allylestrenol on Blood Lipids in Relation to its Biological Activity". Indian ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 59 (5): 963-9. doi:10.1210/jcem-59-5-963. PMID 6237116. Sander S, Nissen- ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. The systematic name of this enzyme class is linoleate, hydrogen-donor: ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plant Lipids. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 57-59. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-2662-7_18. ISBN 978- ...
Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 960 (3): 417-26. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(88)90050-1. PMID 2898261. Berge RK, Thomassen MS (1985). " ... They are highly regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, which led to their involvement in lipid metabolism. ... Lipids. 19 (8): 578-582. doi:10.1007/bf02534714. PMID 6148682. S2CID 4045839. Tilton G, Shockey J, Browse J (2004). " ... "Effects of high fat diets on the activity of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase in rat liver". Lipids. 20 (1): 49-52. doi:10.1007/ ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... in newly formed aquatic sediments is mediated by microorganisms using different electron acceptors as part of their metabolism ...
As such, it is also likely that it plays a role in lipid metabolism in the brain beyond cholesterol breakdown. Because 24S- ... Cartagena CM; Burns MP; Rebeck GW (March 2010). "24S-hydroxycholesterol effects on lipid metabolism genes are modeled in ... it is possible that cholesterol-24 hydroxylase may play an indirect regulatory role in the metabolism of lipids in the liver. ... Pikuleva IA (April 2006). "Cholesterol-metabolizing cytochromes P450". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 34 (4): 513-520. doi: ...
He studied histamine release, as well as groundbreaking work in lipids and the absorption of cholesterol. In 1973, The National ... Infu-Systems International, Diabetes, Nutrition, and Metabolism, associate editor, of Journal of Bariatric Surgery , Obesity ... the primary end-products of cholesterol metabolism), and, that performing surgery-Buchwald's partial ileal bypass surgery-a ...
"TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver". ... In contrast to many persistent organic pollutants, TPHP has limited affinity for lipids. Still, bioaccumulation of the compound ... metabolism, and internal exposure research". Chemosphere. 153: 78-90. Bibcode:2016Chmsp.153...78H. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere. ...
These high reactive oxygen species react with susceptible cellular organic biomolecules such as; lipids, aromatic amino acids, ... Metabolism, Photosynthetic pigments, Chelating agents, Porphyrins). ...
The influence of estrogenic and/or progestogenic treatment on some parameters of lipid metabolism: a controlled clinical study ...
Other types of lipids found in the body are fatty acids and membrane lipids. Lipid metabolism is often considered as the ... Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. Lipid metabolism often ... The types of lipids involved in lipid metabolism include: Membrane lipids: Phospholipids: Phospholipids are a major component ... Lipid metabolism disorders (including inborn errors of lipid metabolism) are illnesses where trouble occurs in breaking down or ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... Article: Human serum lipidomics analysis revealed glyphosate may lead to lipid metabolism... ... Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and ...
Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health ... Computational Modeling of Lipid Metabolism in Yeast Front Mol Biosci. 2016 Sep 27;3:57. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2016.00057. ... Applied to yeast metabolism during one cell cycle period, we could analyze the distribution of all lipids to the various ... Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health ...
... regulated acyl-CoA thioesterases involved in lipid metabolism. ... is a key nuclear receptor in the control of lipid metabolism. ... regulated acyl-CoA thioesterases involved in lipid metabolism. Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, ... acyl-CoA thioesterase in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. In searching for other previously uncharacterized PPARalpha target genes ... suggests a link between cholesterol and lipid metabolism mediated via the PPARalpha. ...
That a relation exists between lipids/lipoproteins and coronary artery disease is no longer an arguable point. However, the ... Lipids/Lipoproteins as a Risk Factor in Coronary Heart Disease. Basic Lipidology. Lipid/Lipoprotein Metabolism. Biology of ... Lipid Metabolism and Health, in presenting the latest statement from those positioned on the cutting edge in this arena, ... Lipid Metabolism and Health provides a useful scientific and educational tool for researchers, clinicians, academicians, and ...
... emergence of androgen-independence in prostate cancer cells via ... Here, we evaluated efficacy and associated mechanisms of silibinin in inhibiting lipid metabolism in PCA cells. At ... Importantly, silibinin also inhibited synthetic androgen R1881-induced lipid accumulation and completely abrogated the ... AMPK inhibition reversed silibinin-mediated decrease in nuclear SREBP1 and lipid accumulation. Additionally, specific SREBP ...
Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis  ...
Dysregulated lipid metabolism links NAFLD to cardiovascular disease Author(s): Audrey Deprince; Joel T. Haas; Bart Staels ... Molecular Actions of PPARα in Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation. Author(s): Bougarne, Nadia; Weyers, Basiel; Desmet, Sofie J; ... "Cell Metabolism, Elsevier, 2021, Online ahead of print. ⟨10.1016/j.cmet.2021.04.009⟩", 39, 2021, ISSN 1550-4131 ... Bile acids associate with glucose metabolism, but do not predict conversion from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes. Author(s ...
... the role of this protein in lipid metabolism. When the function of this protein is muted, the animals have a very severe lipid ... "To our surprise, we found highly enriched genes involved in lipid metabolism and the aging process." ... PRY-1, an Axin family member, showed differentially regulated genes related to lipid metabolism. ... Further study revealed that this protein might regulate lipid synthesis and involve yolk lipoproteins, which is a very ...
A yet2 client is looking for non-invasive technology to measure lipid metabolism in humans.They would like to purchase such ... gas or saliva which have correlation/inverse correlation to lipid metabolism and can be used to calculate lipid metabolism. ... which have correlation/inverse correlation to lipid metabolism and can be used to calculate lipid metabolism. ... The solution must be able to measure lipid metabolism without blood sampling (methods measuring respiratory quotient are out of ...
Overall, this study demonstrates that Seipin deficiency leads to systemic lipid metabolism disorder, which impairs neurogenesis ... in SVZ tissues of adult KO mice were significantly enriched in biological processes related to lipid metabolism. Mass ... rescued the abnormality of peripheral metabolism in KO mice and ameliorated the ectopic lipid accumulation in SVZ, concomitant ... Adipose transplantation restores lipid metabolic homeostasis and neurogenesis via PKCα involved pathway. The present study ...
Lipid metabolism and resistin gene expression in insulin-resistant Fischer 344 rats.. @article{Levy2002LipidMA, title={Lipid ... Endocrinology and metabolism}, year={2002}, volume={282 3}, pages={ E626-33 } }. *J. Levy, B. Davenport, +1 author. W. Stevens ... The effects of aging on glucose metabolism in adipocytes from Fischer rats.. *R. Fink, T. Huecksteadt, Z. Karaoghlanian ... Endocrinology and metabolism. The interrelationship between insulin and leptin resistance in young Fischer 344 (F344) rats was ...
"Lipid Metabolism Disorders" by people in this website by year, and whether "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" was a major or minor ... "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Lipid Metabolism Disorders". ...
Effects of DAP on lipid metabolism in OA-treated HepG2 cells. The effects of OA and DAP co-treatment on the lipid metabolism of ... Effects of daphnetin on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in OA‑treated HepG2 cells. *Authors: *Yayun ... Liu Y, Liao L, Chen Y and Han F: Effects of daphnetin on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in OA‑ ... Vacca M, Allison M, Griffin JL and Vidal-Puig A: Fatty acid and glucose sensors in hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications in ...
... mice from dysregulated intestinal triglyceride metabolism but not from atherogenic cholesterol metabolism. These studies ... evidence for the therapeutic utility of nobiletin in improving intestinal insulin signalling and intestinal lipid metabolism. ... The citrus flavonoid nobiletin has lipid lowering and insulin-sensitizing properties. In mice, nobiletin supplementation ... Morrow, Nadya, "Nobiletin Corrects Intestinal Insulin Resistance and Lipid Metabolism in Ldlr-/- Mice Fed a High-fat Diet" ( ...
Deciphering the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to perturbations of lipid metabolism and graded ... to investigate transcriptional dynamics during other environmental changes and to further study the role of lipid metabolism ... and to understand the role of SL metabolism during this process. The results highlighted the temporal order of transcription ...
Lipid deposition is determined by lipid synthesis rate, lipolysis rate and lipid transport rate. In our study, lipid deposition ... In summary, these differences in expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and lipid content may be related to the stage of ... To further explore the lipid metabolism characteristics among the three cohorts of GCs, 11 genes associated with lipid ... and the major component of yolk is lipid. Taken together, we speculated that lipid metabolism in GCs is associated with the ...
Alterations of lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers during long-term ethanol intake. *Mark ... Ethanol, prolonged daily intake, plasma lipids, lipoprotein lipase activity, adipose tissue, liver lipids, liver ultrastructure ... plasma lipids; lipoprotein lipase activity; adipose tissue; liver lipids; liver ultrastructure; enzyme cytochemistry}}, ... Alterations of lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers during long-term ethanol intake}}, url = {{ ...
As far as lipid metabolism is concerned, it has been shown that Sebocytes contain 4- to 8-fold more cellular lipids than " ... In addition, lipid synthesis increases when Sebocytes proliferate while lipid accumulation is seen (cytoplasmic lipid droplets ... de novo lipid and fatty acids synthesis with 14C-acetate incorporation assay ... Detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets with fluorescent lipophilic Nile Red dye ...
In this study, we hypothesized that high fructose intake disturbs hepatic lipid metabolism through an imbalance between these ... Overall, our findings showed that liquid fructose overconsumption is associated with perturbation of hepatic lipid metabolism ... The homeostasis of hepatic lipids is mainly determined by the interplay of lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation. ... and blood lipid profiles in male Wistar rats. The expression of key regulators of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lipogenesis in ...
About the Journal. As one of the first Open Access journals in its field, Food & Nutrition Research (FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. Learn more about the journals Aims & Scope. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020).. ...
Acute effects of orexigenic antipsychotic drugs on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rat. Jassim, Goran; Skrede, Silje; ... Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure specific transcriptional alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in ... Serum glucose and lipid parameters were measured during time-course experiments up to 48 h. ... Our results support that clozapine and olanzapine are associated with primary effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism ...
Hepatitis C virus and glucose and lipid metabolism. In: Diabetes & metabolism, 2008, vol. 34, n° 6 Pt 2, p. 692-700. doi: ...
Kurtz, Edwin B., Jr. (1952) Studies on the Metabolism of Lipids in Plants. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of ... Whereas changes in climate effect up to three-fold changes in lipid yield, a series of recessive genes in corn was found to ... This work is concerned with some physiological and biochemical studies of the lipids of higher plants, a subject in which only ... These and other effects of climate on lipids were discussed.. ...
... Show ... The effect of different light spectra on berry callus pigment accumulation, lipid composition and secondary metabolism. ... secondary metabolism anthocyanin plant phenols fatty acid plant cell cultures light quality photoreceptor sekundaarimetabolismi ... The lipid extracts were analysed with GC-MS. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and the extracts were treated with ...
Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially ... Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed ... Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES ... Furthermore, detailed subcategory analysis of metabolism revealed that carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were ...
... particularly of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The lipid profile of the livers of DR mice is correspondingly shifted ... while changes at loci involved in lipid metabolism affect gene expression and the resulting lipid profile. ... From: Dietary restriction protects from age-associated DNA methylation and induces epigenetic reprogramming of lipid metabolism ...
Studies of lipid metabolism of the animal disease organisms, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax Final technical ...
Position Paper on Lipid Therapy in Patients with Diabetes mellitus A joint Statement by the Commission on Lipid Metabolism as ... Position Paper on Lipid Therapy in Patients with Diabetes mellitus A joint Statement by the Commission on Lipid Metabolism as ... well as the Working Group of Heart and Diabetes of the German Diabetes Society (DDG), the Diabetology and Metabolism Department ... well as the Working Group of Heart and Diabetes of the German Diabetes Society (DDG), the Diabetology and Metabolism Department ...
Haplotypes could explain more changes in serum lipid parameters than any single SNP alone particularly for TC, TG and HDL-C. ... These results suggest that the relationship among SLC44A4 rs577272, NOTCH4 rs3134931 SNPs and serum lipid parameters may vary ... rs3134931 SNPs and serum lipid levels in the Han and Maonan ethnic groups. The genetic makeup of the SLC44A4 rs577272 and ... 4 , Nutrition & Metabolism. Fig. 4. From: Association between SLC44A4-NOTCH4 SNPs and serum lipid levels in the Chinese Han and ...
  • Bile acids associate with glucose metabolism, but do not predict conversion from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes. (
  • Human hippocampal energy metabolism is impaired during cognitive activity in a lipid infusion model of insulin resistance. (
  • Energy metabolism within the hippocampus was assessed during standardized cognitive activity. (
  • Effects of xylanase supplementation on between-bird variation in energy metabolism and the number of Clostridium perfringens in broilers fed a wheat-based diet. (
  • Lipid accumulation in isolated perfused rat hearts has no apparent effect on mechanical function or energy metabolism as measured by 31P NMR. (
  • Gut microbiota regulate physiological functions in various hosts, such as energy metabolism and immunity. (
  • Purpose: Under-carboxylated osteocalcin (UcOC), a bone-released hormone is suggested to regulate energy metabolism. (
  • The current study attempts to examine whether UcOC is involved in regulating energy metabolism during these conditions using adult Wistar rats. (
  • Cancer cachexia: host energy metabolism disorder and regulatory lipids. (
  • To understand the effect of the interplay between β cell compensation and lipid metabolism upon obesity and peripheral insulin resistance, we eliminated LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a pleiotropic mediator of cholesterol, insulin, energy metabolism, and other cellular processes, in β cells. (
  • To evaluate the influence of OJ on CR after MI by analysis of functional, morphological, oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy metabolism variables. (
  • The 'second hit theory' involves hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which mediates the pathological progression of steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in liver cells ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The homeostasis of hepatic lipids is mainly determined by the interplay of lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation. (
  • In this study, we hypothesized that high fructose intake disturbs hepatic lipid metabolism through an imbalance between these processes. (
  • The results showed that fructose-fed rats were normoglycemic and hypertriglyceridemic with visceral adiposity, but without hepatic lipid deposition. (
  • Overall, our findings showed that liquid fructose overconsumption is associated with perturbation of hepatic lipid metabolism through predominance of lipogenesis over β-oxidation, resulting in spillover of triglycerides and visceral adiposity. (
  • Results Our results demonstrated that acute administration of clozapine or olanzapine induced a rapid, robust elevation of free fatty acids and glucose in serum, followed by hepatic accumulation of lipids evident after 12-24 h. (
  • BBR improved NAFLD by inhibiting glucogenesis and comprehensively regulating lipid metabolism, and its effect on inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis was much stronger. (
  • These data suggest that metformin could reduce lipid deposits in the liver and that the laying hen is a valuable animal model for studying hepatic steatosis. (
  • Ontogeny of hepatic metabolism in mule ducks highlights different gene expression profiles between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. (
  • This study proposes to describe the basal hepatic metabolism at the level of mRNA in mule duck embryos in order to reveal potential interesting programming windows in the context of foie gras production. (
  • The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are triglycerides and cholesterol. (
  • In the cytosol of epithelial cells, triglycerides and cholesterol are packaged into bigger particles called chylomicrons which are amphipathic structures that transport digested lipids. (
  • At physiologically achievable levels in human, silibinin strongly reduced lipid and cholesterol accumulation specifically in human PCA cells but not in non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. (
  • Finally, nobiletin protected high fat-fed female Ldlr -/- mice from dysregulated intestinal triglyceride metabolism but not from atherogenic cholesterol metabolism. (
  • Lipid metabolism is concerned mainly with the fatty acid and cholesterol. (
  • In mammals, most lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesterol, are absorbed into the body via the small intestine. (
  • In contrast, cholesterol was stored in special structures, called endosomes, which are distinct from lipid droplets in zebrafish intestines. (
  • F. nucleatum facilitated ox-LDL-induced cholesterol phagocytosis and accumulation by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes (AR-A1, ACAT1, ABCA1, and ABCG1). (
  • The regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol has been one of the most studied biological processes since its first isolation from gallstones in 1784. (
  • Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes. (
  • In addition, lipid synthesis increases when Sebocytes proliferate while lipid accumulation is seen (cytoplasmic lipid droplets) during final Sebocyte differentiation. (
  • Lipogenesis (Synthesis of fatty acid) - fatty acids may be synthesized from acetyl CoA derived from glucose or amino acids metabolism by the process of lipogenesis. (
  • The production of foie gras involves different metabolic pathways in the liver of overfed ducks such as lipid synthesis and carbohydrates catabolism, but the establishment of these pathways has not yet been described with precision during embryogenesis. (
  • Numerous studies have shown that diosgenin has potential therapeutic value for lipid metabolism diseases via various pathways and mechanisms, such as controlling lipid synthesis, absorption, and inhibition of oxidative stress. (
  • 3H]Acetate and [3H]oleate were used to evaluate the rate of lipid synthesis in smooth muscle cells of human aorta. (
  • The obtained results indicate that the rate of lipid synthesis in cells cultured from fatty streaks, atherosclerotic plaques, and underlying media is higher than in cells cultured from an uninvolved intima and media, respectively. (
  • A direct and very close correlation was found between the rate of lipid synthesis and lipid levels in cells of normal and atherosclerotic aorta. (
  • Here, we present an object-oriented stochastic model approach as a way to cope with the complex lipid metabolic network. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the systemic lipid metabolic abnormalities of Seipin knockout (KO) mice and their effect on adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory function. (
  • Adipose transplantation restores lipid metabolic homeostasis and neurogenesis via PKCα involved pathway. (
  • The present study paves a novel way to treat lipid metabolic dysregulation-induced neurological disorders. (
  • These metabolic disturbances were associated with biphasic patterns of gluconeogenic and lipid-related gene expression in the liver and in white adipose tissue depots. (
  • Lipids serve as metabolic regulators of steroid hormones and prostaglandins. (
  • Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), metabolic profiles, and gene expression of insulin and lipid metabolism in infertile women with PCOS who were candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • We investigated the association between expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and clinical outcome in intermediate-stage colon cancer patients with the aim of identifying a metabolic profile associated with greater malignancy and increased risk of relapse. (
  • He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid based signal controls seed germination. (
  • We also discuss how therapeutic intervention of miRNAs may be a promising strategy to decrease LDL, increase HDL, and ameliorate lipid- and oxidative-related disorders, including atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and metabolic syndrome. (
  • Results of this pilot project will: (i) establish the role of NT as a novel metabolic hormone that contributes to the regulation of mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism, (ii) provide critical insights into the role of NT in the development of NAFLD and NASH, and (iii) facilitate development of NT-targeted therapeutics for NASH, for which there are no currently-approved therapies. (
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (
  • Lipid Metabolism Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" by people in this website by year, and whether "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Lipid Metabolism Disorders" by people in Profiles. (
  • To conclude the book, the authors present new ideas that can drive innovative therapeutic strategies based on the knowledge of the role of lipids in brain disorders. (
  • The role of intracellular lipid metabolism disorders in the accumulation of excessive fat by ''atherosclerotic'' cells is discussed in this report. (
  • Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma and of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia, and idiopathic hypoglycemia. (
  • For example, heart disease may be due to a combination of processes such as glucose metabolism, lipid disorders, high blood pressure and inflammation. (
  • The presented approach allows to efficiently treat the complexity of cellular lipid metabolism and to derive conclusions on the time- and location-dependent distributions of lipid species and their properties such as saturation. (
  • As far as lipid metabolism is concerned, it has been shown that Sebocytes contain 4- to 8-fold more cellular lipids than "commonly studied" Keratinocytes. (
  • Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. (
  • Intensive investigations focusing on the biochemistry and enzymology of triacylglycerol formation in microalgal cells have already revealed some novel gene functions and cellular features, indicating that lipid metabolism in microalgae might differ in some aspects from that in higher plants. (
  • Given their utmost necessity for proper cellular function, it is not surprising that defects in lipid metabolism underlie a number of human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. (
  • The session will cover a wide range of biochemical, biophysical and cellular approaches to study lipid signaling, in line with the organizers' approach for their successful ASBMB Lipid Research Division Seminar Series . (
  • Exposure to fatty acids in the lymphoma environment potently suppressed NK cell effector response and cellular metabolism. (
  • Lipids are stored in white adipose tissue as triglycerides. (
  • In the restorative study, we found that subcutaneous adipose tissue transplantation (AT) rescued the abnormality of peripheral metabolism in KO mice and ameliorated the ectopic lipid accumulation in SVZ, concomitant with restoration of the SVZ neurogenesis and olfactory function. (
  • Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure specific transcriptional alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in adipose tissue depots or in the liver. (
  • In the first phase of fatty acid metabolism, fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl CoA by the process of β-oxidation or esterified with glycerol, forming triglyceride, stored in the adipose tissue, serve as the body's principal fuel reserve. (
  • Cancer cells have distinctive demands for intermediates from glucose metabolism for biosynthesis and energy in different cell cycle phases. (
  • Gene expression analyses suggested that muscle glucose metabolism was downregulated during P19 and enhanced during L6. (
  • This study aimed at investigating the effects of broccoli consumption on lipid and glucose metabolism and gut microbiota. (
  • This work moreover lays the foundation to investigate transcriptional dynamics during other environmental changes and to further study the role of lipid metabolism for ER homeostasis. (
  • Consistently, lipid homeostasis in the Mwk cerebellum was found to be disturbed, and treatment of organotypic cerebellar slices with ceramide significantly improved dendritic outgrowth of Mwk Purkinje cells. (
  • Conclusion: Taken together, we found that UcOC plays an important role in energy homeostasis via regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. (
  • In addition to the classical mechanisms regulating lipid homeostasis, recent studies have demonstrated the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative derivatives of lipoprotein, and redox balance. (
  • Activation of cryptochromes and phytochromes reduced certain lipids that are precursors in LOX-pathway which indicates to increased activity of the pathway. (
  • Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. (
  • It increased the expression of two genes related to seed lipid biosynthesis (GmBCCP2 and GmKAS1) and genes for a lipid biosynthesis regulator (GmWRI1) and its transcription factor (GmDREBL), and decreased the expression of genes related to lipid degradation such as GmACXs. (
  • The last few years have witnessed substantial progress toward understanding the biochemical reactions of lipid biosynthesis in microalgae, supported by comprehensive knowledge acquired in the field of plant lipid biochemistry, as well as immense systems biology studies. (
  • A better understanding of the remarkable diversity, complex evolutionary history and ecological distribution of microalgae would further accelerate functional genomic studies of model and non-model species and shed more light on their versatile lipid biosynthesis pathways. (
  • The thyroid is derived both embryoge- protects the cells against lipid peroxidation. (
  • PRY-1, an Axin family member, showed differentially regulated genes related to lipid metabolism. (
  • To our surprise, we found highly enriched genes involved in lipid metabolism and the aging process. (
  • Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SVZ tissues of adult KO mice were significantly enriched in biological processes related to lipid metabolism. (
  • Whereas changes in climate effect up to three-fold changes in lipid yield, a series of recessive genes in corn was found to control ten-fold changes in wax yield. (
  • After treatment, immature seed was sampled, analyzed for lipid and protein contents and for expression of seed storage compounds related genes. (
  • Expression profile of 70 lipid metabolismrelated genes was determined in 77 patients with stage II colon cancer. (
  • Interestingly, most mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism are overexpressed after hatching (FASN, SCD1, ACOX1), whereas genes implicated in carbohydrate metabolism (HK1, GAPDH, GLUT1) and development (HGF, IGF, FGFR2) are predominantly overexpressed from E12 to E20. (
  • Briefly, lipid accumulation in the liver associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) was reported as the 'first hit theory' in patients with NAFLD. (
  • Research findings indicate Neuropilin-1 plays a critical role in lipid metabolism and obesity-associated insulin resistance, on such a basis, this study aims to explore the effects and working mechanism of Neuropilin-1 inhibition on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. (
  • In addition to its effects on bone mass, GH regulates muscle mass, muscular strength, body composition, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and cardiac function. (
  • High dietary fructose load aggravates lipid metabolism in the liver of" by ANA TEOFILOVIC, BILJANA BURSAC et al. (
  • The main source of fatty acids is dietary lipids. (
  • The researchers also found that in the presence of an abundance of dietary triacyglycerides, absorbed fatty acids were rapidly stored as lipid droplets. (
  • A thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathways in different groups of microalgae is a prerequisite for the genetic engineering of microalgae toward enhanced lipid production and modifications in fatty acid composition. (
  • Lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus plantarum , have a specific polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation metabolism that generates multiple fatty acid species, such as hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and trans -fatty acids. (
  • Recent studies indicate that NAFLD is mediated by defective mitochondrial metabolism of fatty acid (FA), due to reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). (
  • Variable importance in projection (VIP) scores indicate compounds with significance belonged to sphingolipid, triacylglycerol and fatty acid/ester lipid classes. (
  • Activation of PPAR-γ partially restored mitochondrialmembrane potential and IFN-γ production.Overall, our data indicate that increased lipid metabolism, while impairing their function, is a functional adaptation of NK cells to the fatty-acid rich lymphoma environment. (
  • Considerable attention is focused on the fundamentals, beginning with a chapter on basic lipidology, and progresses through such topics as lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, and the biology of atherosclerosis. (
  • This study shows that F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 is implicated in atherosclerosis by causing aberrant activation and lipid metabolism in macrophage. (
  • In summary, our results uncover the double-edged effects of intracellular lipid metabolism on β cell function and viability in obesity and type 2 diabetes and highlight LRP1 as an essential regulator of these processes. (
  • abstract = "Microalgae have gained the attention of the scientific community, particularly lipid biochemists and microalgal biotechnologists, as a source of valuable nutritional ingredients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and carotenoids, as well as precursors for biodiesel production. (
  • Silibinin inhibits aberrant lipid metabolism, proliferation and emergence of androgen-independence in prostate cancer cells via primarily targeting the sterol response element binding protein 1. (
  • Conclusion Our results support that clozapine and olanzapine are associated with primary effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with transcriptional changes in metabolically active peripheral tissues prior to the development of drug-induced weight gain. (
  • Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. (
  • PDF] Lipid metabolism and resistin gene expression in insulin-resistant Fischer 344 rats. (
  • Gene expression for insulin and lipid metabolism was conducted using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of women with PCOS, via RT-PCR method. (
  • Gene expression of lipid metabolism markers and triglyceride levels suggested that UcOC suppression during early pregnancy is an essential step in maternal lipid storage. (
  • Generally, coumarin compounds markedly lower blood glucose and lipid levels, and protect the liver against oxidative stress and inflammation. (
  • Surprisingly, in LRP1-deficient islets, lipotoxic sphingolipids were mitigated by improved lipid metabolism, mediated at least in part by the master transcriptional regulator PPARγ2. (
  • We found that NK cells in aggressive B-cell lymphoma underwent substantial transcriptional reprogramming associated with increased lipid metabolism, including elevated expression of the transcriptional regulator peroxisome activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). (
  • These studies provide evidence for the therapeutic utility of nobiletin in improving intestinal insulin signalling and intestinal lipid metabolism. (
  • Thus, BBR might exert its therapeutic effect on NAFLD by improving glucolipid metabolism. (
  • Overall, this study demonstrates that Seipin deficiency leads to systemic lipid metabolism disorder, which impairs neurogenesis and olfactory memory. (
  • Lipids are stored in a relatively water - free state in the tissues in contrast to carbohydrates which are heavily hydrated to perform a wide variety of functions. (
  • Lipids can be stored in the body in almost unlimited amount in contrast to carbohydrates. (
  • Large amount of energy is stored as lipid than as carbohydrates. (
  • They cause a harmful amount of lipids to build up in your body. (
  • Oil red O staining showed that with the increasing incubation time, the amount of lipids accumulated in three cohorts of GCs increased gradually, reached the maxima after 96 h of culture, and then decreased. (
  • Lodovico Paterno, download Intestinal Lipid Metabolism in island rates. (
  • fighting online extra download Intestinal Lipid Metabolism 2001 secession source cambogia in Electronic mitral shift blunders. (
  • The Farber lab has developed an approach using larval zebrafish to visualize lipid uptake and processing in live intestinal enterocytes at the subcellular level. (
  • Intestinal Failure and Aberrant Lipid Me. (
  • dermal fibroblasts and intestinal organoids derived from these patients had altered lipid metabolism and were susceptible to lipid-induced cell death. (
  • These findings indicate the importance of DGAT1 in fat metabolism and lipotoxicity in the intestinal epithelium. (
  • It was found that KO mice presented an ectopic accumulation of lipid in the lateral ventricle, accompanied by decreased neurogenesis in adult SVZ, diminished new neuron formation in the olfactory bulb, and impaired olfactory-related memory. (
  • In this study, the genetic data of both the human and mice organoids were experimentally altered so that the lipid metabolism enzyme displayed the precise mutation that had been detected in individuals with cognitive deficits. (
  • We examined the effect of chemicals on glucose and lipid metabolism in db/db mice. (
  • Long-term whole broccoli supplementation decreased inflammation, improved lipid parameters and insulin sensitivity, and altered the gut microbiome in mice. (
  • Expression of phospho-PI3K, phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR and Neuropilin-1 in liver was measured as well as body and liver weight, blood glucose, serum transaminases and lipid levels of the mice. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin could improve the non-alcoholic fatty liver of laying hens and to examine the possible mechanisms of lipid-lowering effects. (
  • The level of lipid peroxide increased in the liver in oophorectomised animals, whereas no change was observed in the heart. (
  • We studied hippocampal high-energy phosphate metabolism in eight healthy volunteers, using a lipid infusion protocol to inhibit insulin signaling. (
  • The results indicate that the fat accumulation that occurs in the hearts of rats fed diets rich in high erucic acid rapeseed oil does not interfere with the cardiac high energy phosphate metabolism or contractile function. (
  • NAFLD is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, and is considered as the origin of cirrhosis ( 2 ). (
  • Some antioxidants, insulin sensitizers and lipid-lowering drugs have been applied in clinical trials for the treatment of NAFLD/non-non-alcoholic steatosis (NASH) ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Here, we investigated the aspects and extent to which glucolipid metabolism were affected by BBR in rats with NAFLD. (
  • With the exception of preventive lifestyle intervention, anti-diabetic, lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive agents may be used to control NAFLD comorbidities. (
  • Lipid Metabolism and Health, in presenting the latest statement from those positioned on the cutting edge in this arena, provides an overview and historical perspective of the evolution of serum lipids and lipoproteins. (
  • Serum glucose and lipid parameters were measured during time-course experiments up to 48 h. (
  • A prospective randomized phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the time course effects of toremifene (TOR) and letrozole (LET), as adjuvant hormone therapy, on serum lipid profiles and bone metabolism in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, postmenopausal breast cancer patients.Fifty-four postmenopausal breast cancer patients [ER positive, HER2 negative, T1-2, node metastases (n = 0-3), M0] who had undergone curative resection were enrolled. (
  • Serum lipids and bone markers were measured prior to, and again at 6, 12, and 24 months after initiation of treatment. (
  • Changes in serum lipids and bone markers were compared. (
  • In contrast, in the LET group, serum BAP did not change and NTx was increased by 16.0% at 6 months and by 18.6% at 24 months, as compared with the baseline.TOR and LET exert different effects on serum lipid profiles and bone metabolism markers. (
  • Expression of full-length DGAT2 in patient-derived fibroblasts restored formation of lipid droplets. (
  • This work is concerned with some physiological and biochemical studies of the lipids of higher plants, a subject in which only an extremely limited number of studies have previously been made. (
  • These data indicate adipocytes provide fatty acids for rapid tumor growth, identifying lipid metabolism and transport as new targets for the treatment of cancers where adipocytes are a major component of the microenvironment. (
  • Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a 9-week-long consumption of a 60% fructose solution on physiological parameters, glycemia, and blood lipid profiles in male Wistar rats. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Lipid peroxide metabolism in oophorectomised rats. (
  • Sreelathakumari KT, Menon VP, Leelamma S. Lipid peroxide metabolism in oophorectomised rats. (
  • The effect of bilateral oophorectomy and the administration of beta-estradiol on lipid peroxide metabolism were studied in rats. (
  • Administration of estradiol to oophorectomised rats restored the altered lipid peroxide levels. (
  • Oxidative lipid metabolism as a result of acute cyanobacterial toxin-induced hepatotoxicity was monitored in male Sprague-Dawley rats using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and image-guided proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy. (
  • 1999. Oxidative damage to the lipids and proteins of the lungs, testis and kidney of rats during carbon tetrachloride intoxication. (
  • Investigations into the effects of flax and echium oil supplementation of steer diets on lipid metabolism and the rumen microbiota reveal that Actinobacteria may play a role in ruminal conversion of 18:4 n-3 to 18:3 n-3. (
  • Overall, the findings of this trial supported that 50,000 IU vitamin D supplementation every other week for 8 weeks had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism, and lipid profile of infertile women with PCOS who are candidate for IVF. (
  • The supplementation of both berberine and probiotics has been shown to reduce post-meal lipid spike in Type II diabetes patients, according to a 12-week RCT from China. (
  • Moreover, brain lipids play a key role in the generation and neurotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins involved in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. (
  • The aim of this book is to provide for the first time a comprehensive overview of brain lipid structures, and to explain the roles of these lipids in synaptic function, and in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob's and Parkinson's. (
  • Lipids which forms the major constituent of biomembranes are responsible for membrane integrity and regulation of membrane permeability. (
  • The field of microalgal lipids, particularly with respect to the identification of gene functions and the regulation of lipid biosynthetic pathways, is in its infancy. (
  • These findings provide the first mechanistic insights into the TRPC3-dependent mechanisms, by which activated calcium signaling is coupled to lipid metabolism and the regulation of Purkinje cell development in the Mwk cerebellum. (
  • A Korean RCT showed that the intake of the probiotic lactobacillus plantarum Q180 (LPQ180) is able to regulate post-meal lipid metabolism. (
  • Lipids are organic compounds of biological nature that includes fats, oils and waxes. (
  • Lipids are the most abundant organic compounds found in the brain, accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight. (
  • Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. (
  • The fatty acids are the basic units of lipid molecules. (
  • We identified significant gene and protein expression changes in molecules involved in lipid metabolism. (
  • Our paper has demonstrated, for the first time, the role of this protein in lipid metabolism. (
  • One of the most important factors involved in controlling morphology and metabolism is activity of bZIP protein HY5, which levels are controlled by degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1. (
  • Here, we analyzed how high temperature alters the main seed storage compounds (lipid and protein) in soybean. (
  • High temperature during seed filling increased lipid content but decreased protein content, associating with yield reduction. (
  • Therefore, high temperature during seed filling preferentially accumulates lipid than protein content in seed, although seed yield reduction was associated with lower seed protein content in soybean. (
  • In patient-derived fibroblasts and organoids, the mutations reduced expression of DGAT1 protein and altered triacylglycerol metabolism, resulting in decreased lipid droplet formation after oleic acid addition. (
  • Drager, LF & Polotsky, VY 2011, ' Erratum: Lipid metabolism: A new frontier in sleep apnea research (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (2011) 184, (288-290)) ', American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine , vol. 184, no. 9, pp. 1090. (