Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A family of mechanosensitive sodium channels found primarily in NEMATODES where they play a role in CELLULAR MECHANOTRANSDUCTION. Degenerin sodium channels are structurally-related to EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS and are named after the fact that loss of their activity results in cellular degeneration.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for ACID-SENSING SODIUM CHANNELS.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
These currents are of similar appearance as those reported for ion channel proteins. They are thought to be caused by lipid ... PMID 21177017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Heimburg, T. (2010). "Lipid Ion Channels". Biophys. Chem. 150 (1-3 ... voltage-gated ion channels in the membrane open and allow sodium ions to enter the cell (inward current). The resulting ... act by binding to specific proteins such as ion channels but instead by dissolving in and changing the properties of the lipid ...
PA plays very important role in phototransduction in Drosophila PA is a lipid ligand that gates ion channels. See also lipid- ... Phosphatidic acids are anionic phospholipids important to cell signaling and direct activation of lipid-gated ion channels. ... Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ... Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ...
If general anaesthetics disrupt ion channels by partitioning into and perturbing the lipid bilayer, then one would expect that ... This means that optical isomers partition identically into lipid, but have differential effects on ion channels and synaptic ... gated ion channels in synapse and G-protein coupled receptors altering their ion flux. Particularly Cys-loop receptors[42] are ... 2 Outdated lipid hypotheses of general anaesthetic action. *3 Objections to the outdated lipid hypotheses *3.1 1. Stereoisomers ...
Ion channels, proton pumps, G protein-coupled receptor Lipid anchored proteins. Covalently bound to single or multiple lipid ... Examples of integral proteins include ion channels, proton pumps, and g-protein coupled receptors. Ion channels allow inorganic ... Lipid bilayer. Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. The yellow polar head groups ... Phospholipids forming lipid vesicles. Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22 ...
Ion channels, proton pumps, G protein-coupled receptor Lipid anchored proteins. Covalently bound to single or multiple lipid ... Examples of integral proteins include ion channels, proton pumps, and g-protein coupled receptors. Ion channels allow inorganic ... Lipid bilayer. Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. The yellow polar head groups ... are controlled by ion channels.[4] Proton pumps are protein pumps that are embedded in the lipid bilayer that allow protons to ...
Single ion channel recordings with CMOS- anchored lipid membranes. Nano Lett. 2013 Jun 12;13(6):2682-6. PMID 23634707; PMC ... This includes techniques employing nanopores, biological ion channels, and exposed-gate nanoscale transistors for detection. ... Other work has focused on interfacing in vitro lipid bilayers and neural tissue with CMOS integrated circuits. Power ...
Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ... This restriction to the membrane allows it to bind to and cluster ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. Also, in the ... Palmitoylation mediates the affinity of a protein for lipid rafts and facilitates the clustering of proteins. The clustering ... Petersen, EN; Chung, HW; Nayebosadri, A; Hansen, SB (15 December 2016). "Kinetic disruption of lipid rafts is a mechanosensor ...
Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ... dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Alcohol is also ... to a lipid metabolite phosphatidylethanol by phospholipase D2 and this metabolite is shown to bind directly to and regulate ion ... "Ethanol directly modulates gating of a dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channel in neurohypophysial terminals". The Journal of ...
Hansen, SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ... PIP2 domains (also called PIP2 clusters or PIP2 lipid rafts) are a type of cholesterol-independent lipid domain formed from ... They tend to inhibit GM1 lipid raft function. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphospahte (PIP2) is a anionic signaling lipid. Its ...
Hansen, SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... ion channel conductance, endocrine function and neurotransmission. All family members are capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis ... This membrane docking is mediated mostly by lipid-binding domains (e.g. PH domain and C2 domain) that display affinity for ... However, PLC-β binds to the lipid surface independent of PIP2 with all isozymes preferring phosphoinositol-3-phosphate or ...
The Kir2.1 inward-rectifier potassium ion channel is a lipid-gated ion channel encoded by the KCNJ2 gene. A defect in this gene ... Hansen, SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... and functional expression of a human brain inward rectifier potassium channel (hIRK1)". Recept. Channels. 3 (3): 175-83. PMID ... 1995). "Inward rectifier K+ channel from human heart and brain: cloning and stable expression in a human cell line". Am. J. ...
Many ion channels are regulated by anionic lipids. and the competition of PEtOH with endogenous signaling lipids is thought to ... Hansen SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... mediate the effect of ethanol on ion channels in some instances and not direct binding of the free ethanol to the channel. ... Disruption of lipid domains by anesthetics. or mechanical force. The protein may also undergo a conformational change upon PIP2 ...
Hansen (1 May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... which acts as a membrane anchor or allosteric regulator and an agonist for many lipid-gated ion channels. PIP2 also acts as the ... Edelfosine: lipid-like, anti-neoplastic agent (ET-18-OCH3) Autoinhibition of X-Y linker in mammalian cells: It is proposed that ... The acid/base catalysis requires two conserved histidine residues and a Ca2+ ion is needed for PIP2 hydrolysis. It has been ...
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 12 is a lipid-gated ion channel that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ12 gene. ... Hansen, SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... "Nuclear immunostaining in rat neuronal cells using two anti-Kir2.2 ion channel polyclonal antibodies". Journal of Molecular ... Kir2.2+channel at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the ...
DNA ion channels: Burns, JR; Göpfrich, K; Wood, JW; Thacker, VV; Stulz, E; Keyser, UF; Howorka, S (11 November 2013). "Lipid- ... DNA ion channels: Burns, JR; Stulz, E; Howorka, S (12 June 2013). "Self-assembled DNA nanopores that span lipid bilayers". Nano ... also flow on the DNA-lipid interface as no central channel lumen is present in the design that lets ions pass across the lipid ... DNA ion channels: Langecker, M; Arnaut, V; Martin, TG; List, J; Renner, S; Mayer, M; Dietz, H; Simmel, FC (16 November 2012). " ...
IP3 is rapidly converted to into derivatives that that do not open calcium ion channels. The prostaglandins are a group of ... Lipid Library - Lipid Chemistry, Biology, Technology and Analysis. Web. 30 Apr. 2011. <"Archived copy". Archived from the ... However PKC is only active in the presence of calcium ions, and it is DAG that increases the affinity of PKC for Ca2+ and ... These disorders may be described as fatty oxidation disorders or as a lipid storage disorders, and are any one of several ...
... direct flexoeffect in biological membrane with ion channels (1988 - 1993); helielectricity in chiral lyotropic lipid phases ( ... 332, 577-584 (1999) A.G. Petrov, Flexoelectricity and ion channels: a confirmation of the flexoelectric model for ion transport ... 98, 3076 3079 (1994) Flexoelectric effects in model and native membranes containing ion channels, A.G.Petrov, B.A.Miller, K. ... 58: Mechanosensitive channels, O.P. Hamil, Ed., Elsevier/Academic Press (2007), pp. 121-150. Alexander G. Petrov, Electricity ...
Lipid rafts organise the cell membrane, which includes trafficking and localising ion channels. Removal of lipid rafts in the ... Nav1.8 is a sodium ion channel subtype that in humans is encoded by the SCN10A gene. Nav1.8-containing channels are ... Voltage-gated sodium ion channels (VGSC) are essential in producing and propagating action potentials. Tetrodotoxin, a toxin ... Pristerà A, Baker MD, Okuse K (2012). "Association between tetrodotoxin resistant channels and lipid rafts regulates sensory ...
Glycerol Cardiolipin Lipid-gated_ion_channels Richard J. King, Mary Catherine MacBeth (6 October 1981). "Interaction of the ... found in pulmonary surfactant and in the plasma membrane where it directly activates lipid-gated ion channels. The general ... The Journal of Lipid Research. 8 (5): 447-455. PMID 4860577. Phosphatidylglycerols at the US National Library of Medicine ... lipid and protein components of pulmonarysurfactant Role of phosphatidylglycerol and calcium". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ...
Hansen, SB (May 2015). "Lipid agonism: The PIP2 paradigm of ligand-gated ion channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Robinson, CV; Rohacs, T; Hansen, SB (September 2019). "Tools for Understanding Nanoscale Lipid Regulation of Ion Channels". ... When saturated lipids and cholesterol increase in the membrane, lipid rafts increase their affinity for palmitoylated proteins ... PIP2 is primarily polyunsaturated which causes the lipid to localize away from lipid rafts and allows the PIP2 to oppose ...
... resulting in the opening of voltage-gated ion channels. An example of an ion allowed into the cell during a ligand-gated ion ... Kenny JJ, Martínez-Maza O, Fehniger T, Ashman RF (April 1979). "Lipid synthesis: an indicator of antigen-induced signal ... A ligand-gated ion channel, upon binding with a ligand, changes conformation to open a channel in the cell membrane through ... The influx of ions that occurs in response to the opening of these channels induces action potentials, such as those that ...
... and specific binding of ions, ligands, or regulatory lipids. Typical amphitropic proteins must interact strongly with the lipid ... The regulatory protein subunits of many ion channels and transmembrane receptors, for example, may be defined as peripheral ... Chugh J, Wallace B (2001). "Peptaibols: models for ion channels" (PDF). Biochemical Society Transactions. 29 (Pt 4): 565-70. ... Such proteins "deform" the lipid bilayer, decreasing the temperature of lipid fluid-gel transition. The binding is usually a ...
Levitan I, Singh DK, Rosenhouse-Dantsker A (2014). "Cholesterol binding to ion channels". Front Physiol. 5: 65. doi:10.3389/ ... Lipids. 199: 74-93. doi:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2016.02.003. PMID 26874289. Nozawa Y, Sakai N, Matsumoto K, Mizoue K (2002). "A ...
These small aggregates can form ion channels through lipid bilayer membranes and activate NMDA and AMPA receptors. Channel ... Kagan BL, Azimov R, Azimova R (November 2004). "Amyloid peptide channels". The Journal of Membrane Biology. 202 (1): 1-10. doi: ... been hypothesized to account for calcium dysregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction by allowing indiscriminate leakage of ions ...
"A simple method for the determination of the pore radius of ion channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes". FEMS Microbiology ... In biophysics, polyethylene glycols are the molecules of choice for the functioning ion channels diameter studies, because in ... encased in a bubble of oily molecules called lipids. Proprietary lipid technology is used for each. In both vaccines, the ... A PEGylated lipid is used as an excipient in both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Both RNA vaccines ...
... calcium ions, and potassium ions. Each ion species has its own corresponding protein channel located in the lipid bilayer of ... As more ions enter the cell, the membrane potential continues to rise. The process continues until all of the ion channels are ... The depolarizing is caused by the closing of the ion channels that prevent sodium ions from entering the neuron, and they are ... The channels will start to open if the membrane potential increases, allowing sodium or calcium ions to flow into the cell. ...
Dimers are long enough to span cellular lipid bilayers and thus function as ion channel -type of ionophores. Gramicidin mixture ... Their dimers form ion channel -like pores in cell membranes and cellular organelles of bacteria and animal cells. Inorganic ... Lum K (2017). "Exchange of gramicidin between lipid bilayers: implications for the mechanism of channel formation". Biophysical ... This destroys vital ion concentration differences, i.e. ion gradients, between membranes thereby killing the cell via various ...
Yool AJ, Weinstein AM (April 2002). "New roles for old holes: ion channel function in aquaporin-1". News in Physiological ... "The Architecture of a Water-Selective Pore in the Lipid Bilayer Visualized by Electron Crystallography in Vitreous Ice". Ion ... "Single amino acids in the carboxyl terminal domain of aquaporin-1 contribute to cGMP-dependent ion channel activation". BMC ... This gene encodes an aquaporin which functions as both a molecular water channel protein and as a non-selective cation channel ...
... signalling proteins associated with an ion channel. The channelosome is frequently clustered within a lipid microdomain or ... potassium channels". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (11): 850-62. doi:10.1038/nrn1785. PMID 16261179.. ...
Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ...
"IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. http://www.iuphar-db.org ... "J. Lipid Res. 22 (8): 1265-70. PMID 6119348. *↑ Fitzpatrick, David; Purves, Dale; Augustine, George (2004). "Table 20:2". ...
Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open its chloride channel to allow chloride ions into the neuron, making the ... R´´ in position 1 is usually, H but CH3 in that position yields less lipid solubility and duration. Exchanging S for O atom in ... ion channel pore, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces, and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric ... But if the γ2 is expressed with α1 and β2 the sensitivity is low and channel conductance is high.[7] γ2 subunit has to be ...
"Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303-315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN ... Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907.. ... Cochrane Collaboration concluded that low glycemic index or low glycemic load diets led to more weight loss and better lipid ...
... the two established methods for monitoring proton permeation through ion channels such as gramicidin. In 1989, while returning ... His advisor was David Cornwell, a lipid biochemist, so Deamer focused on calcium interactions with fatty acid and phospholipid ... Mark Akeson joined the research effort in 1997, and in 1999 published a paper showing that the hemolysin channel, now referred ... Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid bilayer of membranes to reveal integral proteins ...
Ion channels and Gates. *Gap junction Proteins. *G protein coupled receptors (e.g., Beta-adrenergic receptor) ... Type V proteins are anchored to the lipid bilayer through covalently linked lipids. Finally Type VI proteins have both ... Proteins that cross the membrane are surrounded by annular lipids, which are defined as lipids that are in direct contact with ... Integral monotopic proteins are associated with the membrane from one side but do not span the lipid bilayer completely. ...
A group at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, in a 2008 paper, stated they had isolated large amounts of lipids from ... Research in lithium-ion batteries. *Silicon-air battery. *Thermal energy storage. *Ultracapacitor ... Rodrigo E. Teixeira from the University of Alabama in Huntsville demonstrated the extraction of biofuels lipids from wet algae ... Sergeeva, Y. E.; Galanina, L. A.; Andrianova, D. A.; Feofilova, E. P. (2008). "Lipids of filamentous fungi as a material for ...
Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 12. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-1_2. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4.. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... and membrane channels. Inside of the cell are extensive internal sub-cellular membrane-bounded compartments called organelles. ... The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free ...
Others modulate the activity of ion channels that control fluid transport across lung membranes or target surfactant, a ... Cells exposed to these agents demonstrate significant ATP depletion, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, followed by death ... Type 2 pneumocytes are more resistant to damage, which is important as these cells produce surfactant, transport ions and ... Inhibition of lung fluid clearance and epithelial Na+ channels by chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines. J Biol Chem. ...
The intercellular cleft itself is a channel, but what flows through the channel, like ions, fluid, and small molecules and what ... from navigating the intercellular cleft and limit the lateral diffusion of intrinsic membrane proteins and lipids between the ... Research at the cell level can deliver proteins, ions, or specific small molecules into the intercellular cleft as a means of ... An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions ...
The membrane can then be analyzed on a patch clamp apparatus to determine the phenotype of the ion channels embedded in it. It ... and the bacteria collapse into very large spheres surrounded by a single lipid bilayer. ... Specially prepared giant spheroplasts of Gram-negative bacteria can be used to study the function of bacterial ion channels ... Martinac, B., Buechner, M., Delcour, A. H., Adler, J., and Kung, C. (1987) Pressure-sensitive ion channel in Escherichia coli. ...
ion channel binding. • microtubule binding. • ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein ... The anchoring on a GPI raft in the lipid bilayer supports claims of an extracellular scaffolding function.[16] ... cupric ion binding. • cuprous ion binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • ... cellular copper ion homeostasis. • cellular response to copper ion. • cell cycle. • metabolism. • negative regulation of ...
The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions through the chain. From the electron transport chain, the released hydrogen ions ... An uncoupling protein known as thermogenin is expressed in some cell types and is a channel that can transport protons. When ... Lipid metabolism (lipolysis, lipogenesis). Fatty acid metabolism. *Fatty acid degradation (Beta oxidation) ... Lastly, ATP leaves through the ATP channel and out of the mitochondria. ...
Many ion channel proteins are specialized to select for only a particular ion; for example, potassium and sodium channels often ... Proteins can interact with many types of molecules, including with other proteins, with lipids, with carboyhydrates, and with ... Membrane proteins often serve as receptors or provide channels for polar or charged molecules to pass through the cell membrane ... Membrane proteins contain internal channels that allow such molecules to enter and exit the cell. ...
... especially ion channels and hormone or neurotransmitter receptors)[64] giving rise to lethargy, muscle weakness, anorexia, ... Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 81-137. doi: ... The hydrogen ions combine with the excess bicarbonate ions in the plasma, once again forming an excess of carbonic acid which ... Here it causes the reabsorption of sodium ions from the renal tubular fluid, in exchange for potassium ions which are secreted ...
metal ion binding. • protein binding. • heme binding. • electron carrier activity. Cellular component. • cytosol. • protein ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-78 - Calculated orientations of cytochromes c in the lipid ... Mannella CA (1998). "Conformational changes in the mitochondrial channel protein, VDAC, and their functional implications". ... Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 14. Springer. pp. 211-236. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9269-1_9.. ...
Membrane lipids. The most common red blood cell membrane lipids, schematically disposed as they are distributed on the bilayer ... The blood's red color is due to the spectral properties of the hemic iron ions in hemoglobin. Each human red blood cell ... Gardos Channel.. Cell adhesion *ICAM-4 - interacts with integrins;. *BCAM - a glycoprotein that defines the Lutheran blood ... Simply put, this lipid bilayer is composed of cholesterol and phospholipids in equal proportions by weight. The lipid ...
Increased expression of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels can cause a reduced atrial refractory period and wavelength. ... Also, it accelerates atherosclerosis, due to its effect of oxidative stress on lipids and inflammation, which leads to the ... modulation of ion channels and in cardiac development. Have been also identified new genes involved in tachycardia (CASQ2) or ... Six variations in genes of Na+ channels that include SCN1-4B, SCN5A and SCN10A have also been found. All of these mutations ...
It is believed that the connection strength between cells is caused by the number and types of ion channels embedded in the ... Lipemia retinalis is a white appearance of the retina, and can occur by lipid deposition in lipoprotein lipase deficiency. ... resulting in the closing of Na+ cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGs). Thus the cell is hyperpolarised. The amount of ... Inside the cell the normal levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) keep the Na+ channel open, and thus in the resting ...
HlyD recruits TolC to the inner membrane and HlyA is excreted outside of the outer membrane via a long-tunnel protein channel. ... Type I secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20 - 900 kDa). The ... forming nano-scale spherical structures made of a lipopolysaccharide-rich lipid bilayer enclosing periplasmic materials, and ... elements in bacteria.T4SS are cell envelope-spanning complexes or in other words 11-13 core proteins that form a channel ...
In the body's tissues, the concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+. ) outside cells is normally about 10000-fold higher than the ... Theoretical treatment with lipid emulsion therapy has been considered in severe cases, but is not yet standard of care. ... "Calcium-Channel Blockers (CCBs)". CV Pharmacology. Retrieved 2020-02-07.. *^ Domenic A. Sica, MD. "Calcium Channel Blocker- ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists[2] are a group of medications that disrupt ...
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to ... Protein channels float through the phospholipids, and, collectively, this model is known as the fluid mosaic model. Aquaporins ... An example of a biological semi-permeable membrane is the lipid bilayer, on which is based on the plasma membrane that ... Rozendal, R.A.; Sleutels, T.H.; Hamelers, H.V. & Buisman, C.J. (2008). "Effect of the Type of Ion Exchange Membrane on ...
ion channels. *vesicular transport. *solute carrier. *ABC transporters. *ATPase. *oxidoreduction-driven. Disease. *Structural * ...
Prostaglandin is a large family of lipids. Prostaglandin I2/PGI2/prostacyclin is just one member of it. Prostaglandins other ... Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium blockers. * ...
Weylandt KH (August 2016). "Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine ... Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium blockers. * ... "Resolution phase lipid mediators of inflammation: agonists of resolution". Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 13 (4): 632-40. ...
This signal channel contains information about the energy dissipated by the cantilever in each oscillation cycle. Samples that ... Tapping mode imaging is gentle enough even for the visualization of supported lipid bilayers or adsorbed single polymer ... Scanning ion-conductance. *Scanning joule expansion. *Scanning Kelvin probe. *Scanning SQUID microscope ... contain regions of varying stiffness or with different adhesion properties can give a contrast in this channel that is not ...
In biochemical signaling, diacylglycerol functions as a second messenger signaling lipid, and is a product of the hydrolysis of ... IP3 stimulates the release of calcium ions from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, whereas DAG is a physiological activator of ... an activator of a subfamily of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) cation channels, TRPC3/6/7. ... Flickinger, Brent D.; Matsuo, Noboru (February 2003). "Nutritional characteristics of DAG oil". Lipids. 38 (2): 129-132. doi: ...
cellular iron ion homeostasis. • heme transport. • drug transmembrane transport. • xenobiotic transport. • transmembrane ... "Role of ABCG1 and other ABCG family members in lipid metabolism". J. Lipid Res. 42 (10): 1513-20. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20) ... It is inhibited by some calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, felodipine and nifedipine.[10] ... "Calcium channel blocker overdose: Experience with amlodipine". Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. Jaypee Brothers ...
The GABAA receptors are ligand-gated chloride-selective ion channels that are activated by GABA, the major inhibitory ... Diazepam is highly lipid-soluble, and is widely distributed throughout the body after administration. It easily crosses both ... which in turn increases the total conduction of chloride ions across the neuronal cell membrane. This increased chloride ion ... Sustained repetitive firing seems limited by benzodiazepines' effect of slowing recovery of sodium channels from inactivation.[ ...
... mechanism of action for chloroform is that it increases movement of potassium ions through certain types of potassium channels ... Amylene has been found ineffective, and the phosgene can affect analytes in samples, lipids, and nucleic acids dissolved in or ...
Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. B L Kagan, M E ... Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes ... Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes ... Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes ...
The ability of ion channels to function in BLMs was assessed using a method recently reported to improve the efficiency of ... Voltage-gated sodium channel activation by veratridine and inhibition by saxitoxin showed activity for PTFE, nylon, and ... Bilayers that self-assembled on PTFE filters were the longest lived and produced the most channel activity using this method. ... and thickness were examined for their ability to support bilayer lipid membranes as determined by electrical impedance ...
Lipid bilayer mediates ion-channel cooperativity in a model of hair-cell mechanotransduction. Francesco Gianoli, Thomas Risler ... Lipid bilayer mediates ion-channel cooperativity in a model of hair-cell mechanotransduction ... It also indicates that the lipid bilayer modulates channel gating, although it is not clear how. Here, we design and analyze a ... The key players involved in this process are mechanosensitive ion channels. They are located in the stereocilia of hair cells ...
Lipid-gated ion channels are a class of ion channels whose conductance of ions through the membrane depends directly on lipids ... Other classes of lipid-gated channels include the mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to lipid tension, thickness, and ... A theory involving the lipid membrane, called "force from lipid", is thought to directly open ion channels. These channels ... PIP2 is a cell membrane lipid, and its role in gating ion channels represents a novel role for the molecule. Kir channels: PIP2 ...
... which conduct ions. Coupling of voltage sensing and pore … ... Voltage-gated ion channels generate dynamic ionic currents that ... Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 6;110(32):13180 ... channels, suggesting that lipids play an important role in coupling in many ion channels. ... Voltage-gated ion channels generate dynamic ionic currents that are vital to the physiological functions of many tissues. These ...
... of ion permeability through the channels made of porins from the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium in lipid bilayer ... From the permeability of the pore for large ions (Tris+, glucosamine+, Hepes-) a minimum pore diameter of 0.8 nm is estimated. ... findings reported here are consistent with the assumption that the different porins form large aqueous channels in the lipid ... The conductance pathway has an ohmic current voltage characteristic and a poor selectivity for different alkali ions. Further ...
Ion-permeable channels often derive their generic names from the specialized conductance and permeability properties they ... possess, the voltage-dependent Na+channel being no exception. Apart from... ... Ion Conduction Through Sodium Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers. In: Miller C. (eds) Ion Channel Reconstitution. Springer, ... Apart from their use in identifying ion channels, measurements of ion selectivities and single-channel conductances also ...
Both isomeric Aβs form β-barrel-like ion-permeable channels in an anionic lipid bilayer.19 The dynamic channel assembly in the ... All-d-Enantiomer of β-Amyloid Peptide Forms Ion Channels in Lipid Bilayers. Ricardo Capone,†. Hyunbum Jang,‡. Samuel A. Kotler, ... MD simulations also show that d-Aβ1-42 forms ion-conducting channels in an anionic lipid bilayer composed of DOPS/POPE. In the ... In our previous simulations of the truncated Aβ channels (p3 (Aβ17-42) and N9 (Aβ9-42) channels),14−16,32,35,42 the channels ...
Ion conduction through sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers. In Ion Channel Reconstitution. C. Miller, editor. Plenum Press ... Recording of ion channel activity in planar lipid bilayer experiments. Methods Mol. Biol. 998:109-118. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703- ... channels. The final channel, Fluc-Ec2, belongs to a family of dual-topology, F−-specific ion channels that protect bacteria ... including ion channels. In a few recent publications, it was already reported that ion channels could be successfully ...
ion channel. Zubcevic et al. (2018b). PDB ID 5AN8. PMID:26779611. Other. Cryo-electron microscopy structure of rabbit TRPV2 ion ... Thank you for submitting your article "Symmetry transitions during gating of the TRPV2 ion channel in lipid membranes" for ... Symmetry transitions during gating of the TRPV2 ion channel in lipid membranes. ... Single-particle cryo-EM structure of a voltage-activated potassium channel in lipid nanodiscs. eLife. 2018. doi: 10.7554/eLife. ...
Single-channel electrophysiology of cell-free expressed ion channels by direct incorporation in lipid bilayers ... Single-channel electrophysiology with lipid bilayer systems requires ion channel expression, purification from cell culture, ... Single-channel electrophysiology with lipid bilayer systems requires ion channel expression, purification from cell culture, ... Single-channel electrophysiology of cell-free expressed ion channels by direct incorporation in lipid bilayers ...
... Katrine R. Laub, ... "Comparing Ion Conductance Recordings of Synthetic Lipid Bilayers with Cell Membranes Containing TRP Channels." Biochimica Et ... "Comparing Ion Conductance Recordings of Synthetic Lipid Bilayers with Cell Membranes Containing TRP Channels." Biochimica et ... Comparing ion conductance recordings of synthetic lipid bilayers with cell membranes containing TRP channels. Biochimica et ...
Title:Ion-channel-like behavior in lipid bilayer membranes at the melting transition. Authors:Jill Gallaher, Katarzyna ... It is well known that at the gel-liquid phase transition temperature a lipid bilayer membrane exhibits an increased ion ...
... and hyperpolarization-activated channels. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the hyperpolarization-activated K+ channel ... Here we suggest a molecular mechanism for electromechanical coupling and gating polarity in non-domain-swapped Kv channels on ... the general determinants of channel gating polarity remain poorly understood4. ... the basis of the cryo-electron microscopy structure of KAT1, the hyperpolarization-activated Kv channel from Arabidopsis ...
Ion channels as lipid sensors: from structures to mechanisms Ion channel structures reveal mechanisms of lipid action, ... Structural and functional consequences of reversible lipid asymmetry in living membranes The asymmetric distribution of lipids ... Structural and functional consequences of reversible lipid asymmetry in living membranes The asymmetric distribution of lipids ... including how channel gating is altered by direct binding of signaling lipids and those within the membrane itself, as well as ...
... Klughammer B, Benz B, Betz M, Thume M, Dietz K-J (1992) ... Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1104(2), p 308-316. ... "Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1104.2 (1992): 308-316. ... Klughammer B, Benz B, Betz M, Thume M, Dietz K-J. Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers. ...
We conclude that Tpcn1/2(-/-) mice show mature-onset obesity due to reduced lipid availability and use, and a defect in β- ... Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in ... Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect ... Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige ...
mRNA levels of ion channels/pumps.. The expression of several ion channels important for the stimulation of insulin secretion ... Reversibility of changes in metabolism enzymes and ion channels/pumps in db/db mice. mRNA levels were compared by real-time RT- ... ion channels/pumps, and other normally suppressed metabolism enzymes and stress response genes in islets from 10- and 16-week- ... and ion channels/pumps (Kir6.2, SERCA2b, and SERCA3) were downregulated. Furthermore, parallel increases were observed for a ...
Lipid bilayers at gel/gel interface for ion channel recordings. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Lipid bilayers ... Lipid bilayers at gel/gel interface for ion channel recordings. e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology. 2008 May 31;6: ... Lipid bilayers at gel/gel interface for ion channel recordings. In: e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology. 2008 ; Vol ... Hirano, M., Kobayashi, T., & Ide, T. (2008). Lipid bilayers at gel/gel interface for ion channel recordings. e-Journal of ...
Crown ether helical peptides are preferentially inserted in lipid bilayers as a transmembrane ion channels. ... Crown ether helical peptides are preferentially inserted in lipid bilayers as a transmembrane ion channels ... The use of synchrotron radiation as light source allowed the study of peptide:lipid molar ratios from 1:20 to 1:1000. For all ... The influence of different N- and C-functionalities was assessed using at variable peptide:lipid ratios from 1:20 to 1:200. ...
Reconstitution of Human Ion Channels into Solvent-free Lipid Bilayers Enhanced by Centrifugal Forces. / Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; ... Reconstitution of Human Ion Channels into Solvent-free Lipid Bilayers Enhanced by Centrifugal Forces. In: Biophysical Journal. ... Reconstitution of Human Ion Channels into Solvent-free Lipid Bilayers Enhanced by Centrifugal Forces. Biophysical Journal. 2016 ... フィンガープリント 「Reconstitution of Human Ion Channels into Solvent-free Lipid Bilayers Enhanced by Centrifugal Forces」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。 ...
... neurodegenerative diseases and mental illnesses changes how cells starved of sugar metabolize fatty compounds known as lipids, ... Learn how patch clamp technology meets high-throughput to benefit ion channel research in this interview with Tim and James, ... How Patch Clamp Technology Can Benefit Ion Channel Research. Tim Strassmaier and James Constantin ... a process called de novo lipid biogenesis, or by digesting other components of the cell to make lipids, a process called ...
Voltage-gated lipid ion channels. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review ... Thermodynamics of lipid multi-lamellar vesicles in presence of sterols at high hydrostatic pressure. / Peters, J.; Marion, J.; ... Mechano-capacitive properties of polarized membranes and the application to conductance measurements of lipid membrane patches. ... Protein reconstitution into freestanding planar lipid membranes for electrophysiological characterization. / Gutsmann, Thomas; ...
Scientists show the role of ion channel TRESK in regulating the master clock ...
Calculating number of ion channels in lipid bilayer (Replies: 6) * Find the radii of the two stars (Replies: 1) ... Similar Discussions: Calculation of ion radii * Bohr radii and energy (Replies: 3) ... e) The radius of the O^2- ion is assumed to be 0.126 nm. By x-ray diffraction experiments the dimensions of the unit cells for ...
The channel-forming protein called VDAC forms the major pathway in the mitochondrial outer membrane and controls metabolite ... Ion Channel Gating / physiology * Ion Channels / physiology * Lipid Bilayers / metabolism * Liposomes / metabolism ... The channel-forming protein called VDAC forms the major pathway in the mitochondrial outer membrane and controls metabolite ... Mouse VDAC isoforms expressed in yeast: channel properties and their roles in mitochondrial outer membrane permeability J Membr ...
Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Ion ... Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening. / Zaydman, Mark A.; Silva, Jonathan R.; Delaloye ...
A novel taste sensor based on ion channels incorporated in nano-lipid bilayer membranes. ...
Architecture of a lipid transport protein revealed. For the first time, the complex architecture of a protein that controls the ... Ion channel. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help establish and control the small voltage gradient across the ... X-raying ion channels. The Nobel Prize winner Roderick MacKinnon suggested that ion channels were like rigid tubes through ... Studying dynamics of ion channels. Scientists from the Vaziri lab at the Vienna Biocenter, together with colleagues at the ...
Bacterial Proteins, Cyclic AMP, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Ion Channel Gating, Membrane Lipids, Mesorhizobium, Potassium ... A KcsA/MloK1 chimeric ion channel has lipid-dependent ligand-binding energetics.. ... A KcsA/MloK1 chimeric ion channel has lipid-dependent ligand-binding energetics.. ... highly expressed chimeric ion channel consisting of the transmembrane domains of the well characterized potassium channel KcsA ...
  • The ability of ion channels to function in BLMs was assessed using a method recently reported to improve the efficiency of proteoliposome incorporation into PTFE-supported bilayers. (hindawi.com)
  • Bilayers that self-assembled on PTFE filters were the longest lived and produced the most channel activity using this method. (hindawi.com)
  • Such measurements and their interpretations may be ambiguous, even in the case of channels incorporated into the comparatively simple planar lipid bilayers. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that membrane proteins can be efficiently synthesized in vitro before spontaneously inserting into soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers called nanodiscs (NDs). (rupress.org)
  • We present data showing that two model K + channels, Kcv and KcsA, as well as a recently discovered dual-topology F − channel, Fluc, can be reliably reconstituted from different types of NDs into bilayers without contamination from the in vitro translation cocktail. (rupress.org)
  • Altogether, the data show that synthesis of ion channels into NDs and their subsequent reconstitution into conventional bilayers provide a fast and reliable method for functional analysis of ion channels. (rupress.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that single-channel current measurements of the potassium channels KcsA and hERGS5-S6 can be obtained by direct insertion in interdroplet lipid bilayers from microliters of a cell-free expression medium. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Laub KR, Witschas K, Blicher A, Madsen SB, Lückhoff A, Heimburg T. Comparing ion conductance recordings of synthetic lipid bilayers with cell membranes containing TRP channels. (ugent.be)
  • Klughammer B, Benz B, Betz M, Thume M, Dietz K-J. Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , vol. 1104, 1992, pp. 308-316. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Lipid bilayers on polyacrylamide brushes for inclusion of membrane proteins. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We have developed a practical method to produce durable artificial lipid bilayers using a hydrogel-hydrogel interface for ion channel measurements. (elsevier.com)
  • Bilayers were formed by forcing a hydrogel-bead into contact with the hydrogel layer (hydrogel plate) in a lipid solution. (elsevier.com)
  • Hirano, M, Kobayashi, T & Ide, T 2008, ' Lipid bilayers at gel/gel interface for ion channel recordings ', e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology , vol. 6, pp. 130-133. (elsevier.com)
  • The energetics of ligand binding to channels reconstituted in lipid bilayers are substantially different from those observed in detergent micelles, suggesting that the conformation of the chimera's transmembrane domain is sensitive to its (lipid or lipid-mimetic) environment and that ligand binding induces conformational changes in the transmembrane domain. (cornell.edu)
  • Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. (mdpi.com)
  • By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • Ion channel-like activity of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin in planar lipid bilayers. (usp.br)
  • Salay LC, Procopio J, Oliveira E, Nakaie CR, Schreirer S. Ion channel-like activity of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin in planar lipid bilayers. (usp.br)
  • This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. (upr.edu)
  • Using experimental methods, we explore the temperature dependence of electropore formation in a model membrane system (droplet-interface bilayers), using optical single-channel recording to image the real-time gating of individual electropores. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is also worth highlighting that stepwise 'channel-like' gating can also be generated in pure lipid bilayers using an applied potential [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Klinke, N., Goldermann, M. and Hanke, W.: The properties of alamethicin incorporated into planar lipid bilayers under the influence of microgravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-Assembly, Volume 27 , formerly titled Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, provides a global platform for a broad community of experimental and theoretical researchers studying cell membranes, lipid model membranes, and lipid self-assemblies from the micro- to the nanoscale. (elsevier.com)
  • The assortment of chapters in this volume represents both original research and comprehensive reviews written by world leading experts and young researchers, with topics of note in this release including TiO2 Nanomaterials as Electrochemical Biosensors for Cancer, the Reconstitution of Ion Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers: New Approaches, and Shear-Induced Lamellar/Onion Transition in Surfactant Systems. (elsevier.com)
  • ion channels in lipid bilayers. (anaspec.com)
  • b) PtP of pure lipid bilayers and bilayers containing WALP at 1:20 peptide/lipid molar ratio as a function of lamellar spacing D . The WALP density is the same as that of gramicidin channels, since the latter are dimers. (els.net)
  • Harroun TA, Heller WT, Weiss TM, Yang L and Huang HW (1999) Experimental evidence of hydrophobic matching and membrane‐mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin. (els.net)
  • Levine YK and Wilkens MHF (1971) Structure of oriented lipid bilayers. (els.net)
  • Weiss TM, van der Wel PCA, Killian JA, Koeppe II RE and Huang HW (2003) Hydrophobic mismatch between helices and lipid bilayers. (els.net)
  • This review will discuss the reconstitution of membrane protein activities in four different types of model membrane-monolayers, supported lipid bilayers, liposomes and nanodiscs, comparing their advantages in membrane protein reconstitution. (mdpi.com)
  • We currently have a limited understanding of the partitioning behavior of amino acids into lipid bilayers. (rupress.org)
  • Single-molecule FRET (smFRET) can visualize conformational dynamics ofindividual ion channels in lipid bilayers ofdefined composition. (mendeley.com)
  • We report here that defensins form voltage-dependent, weakly anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes, and we suggest that this channel-forming ability contributes to their antimicrobial properties observed in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • To identify materials suitable as membrane supports for ion channel biosensors, six filter materials of varying hydrophobicity, tortuosity, and thickness were examined for their ability to support bilayer lipid membranes as determined by electrical impedance spectroscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Two major barriers to the development of biosensors using ion channels are the fragility of biological membranes and their analogues, and the functional requirement of membrane proteins of having solution on both sides of the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • When an enzyme forms a complex with a channel it is thought to produce ligand near the channel in concentrations that are higher than the ligand in bulk membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of ion permeability through the channels made of porins from the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium in lipid bilayer membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The three types of porin (matrix-proteins) from Salmonella typhimurium with molecular weights of 38,000, 39,000 and 40,000 were reconstituted with lipid bilayer membranes either as a trimer or as an oligomer (complex I). The specific conductance of the membranes increased several orders of magnitude after the addition of the porins into the aqueous phase bathing the membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The findings reported here are consistent with the assumption that the different porins form large aqueous channels in the lipid bilayer membranes and that the single conductance unit is a trimer. (nih.gov)
  • 6 reported the Aβ-induced nongated ion channels in model membranes that showed cation selectivity and could be inhibited by Tris (tromethamine) and zinc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 9 Channel-like structures embedded in membranes with mostly tetramer to hexamer arrangements have been observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ion channels are protein tunnels, which conduct a regulated and selective transport of ions across cell membranes ( Hille, 2001 ). (rupress.org)
  • Read our Focus on Lipids and Membranes! (nature.com)
  • This themed issue features a collection of articles that explore long-standing questions in the study of lipids and membranes. (nature.com)
  • The asymmetric distribution of lipids, including cholesterol, in biological membranes established actively by flippases and scramblases has structural, biophysical and functional consequences in cells and implications for communication across membranes. (nature.com)
  • The alignment of the 21-mer peptides was also examined with lipid membranes of different bilayer thickness. (ulaval.ca)
  • Artificially formed bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) provide well-defined systems for functional analyses of various membrane proteins, including ion channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechano-capacitive properties of polarized membranes and the application to conductance measurements of lipid membrane patches. (ku.dk)
  • Protein reconstitution into freestanding planar lipid membranes for electrophysiological characterization. (ku.dk)
  • VDAC3 can also form channels in planar phospholipid membranes. (nih.gov)
  • PA 63 (the 63-kD, C-terminal portion of PA) forms heptameric channels ((PA 63 ) 7 ) in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes that enable the translocation of LF and EF across the membrane. (rupress.org)
  • The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. (mdpi.com)
  • The goals of this project were to monitor the incorporation of Alamethicin into 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) model biomimetic membranes and characterize the opening and closing of these incorporated Alamethicin channels. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. (upr.edu)
  • Lipid membranes provide the permeability barrier that keeps a cell's 'insides' in and their 'outsides' out-it is an understatement to say we have a vested interest in understanding exactly how this barrier is maintained. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In general, lipid membranes are not spontaneously leaky, and in order to form a pore the energetic barrier to parting the lipid leaflets and making a hole must be overcome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Free fatty acids (FFA) are essential components of the cell, where they play a key role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and most particularly in cell membranes, where they are central actors in shaping the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the cellular adaptation to the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to these systemic and more general effects of FFA, the activity of many membrane proteins is modulated by the lipid composition of the membranes in which they are embedded and the physicochemical properties of the FFA produced locally are increasingly gaining attention in this regulatory role. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sugar permeation through maltoporin of Escherichia coli, a trimer protein that facilitates maltodextrin translocation across outer bacterial membranes, was investigated at the single channel level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of micro and hyper gravity on the activity of artificial and native ion channels as well in artificial lipid membranes as in living cells. (uni-bremen.de)
  • The electrophysiological experiments showed that artificial as well as native ion channels incorporated into lipid membranes do react to changes in gravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • The results clearly show that the ion channels activity in artificial lipid membranes as well as in complex neuronal tissue interact very sensitive with gravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • We have demonstrated that oligomeric A β Ps directly incorporate into neuronal membranes, form cation-sensitive ion channels ("amyloid channels"), and cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis via the amyloid channels. (hindawi.com)
  • Other disease-related amyloidogenic proteins, such as prion protein in prion diseases or α -synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies, exhibit similarities in the incorporation into membranes and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. (hindawi.com)
  • Of these, we focus on the "amyloid channel hypothesis"-direct insertion into membranes of A β P, formation of channels (pores), and disruption of calcium homeostasis via unregulated cytotoxic channels may be the molecular basis of its neurotoxicity [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The biological physics group of Matthias Schneider has studied propagation of two-dimensional sound waves in lipid interfaces and their possible role in biological signalling The model starts with the observation that cell membranes always have a freezing point (the temperature below which the consistency changes from fluid to gel-like) only slightly below the organism's body temperature, and this allows for the propagation of solitons. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the fluid mosaic model of S. J. Singer and Garth Nicolson 1972, the biological membranes can be considered as a two-dimensional liquid where all lipid and protein molecules diffuse more or less freely [ 3 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Organellar communication occurs at membrane contact sites ( MCS s), where the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) membrane is tethered to cellular organelle membranes by specific tether proteins and where lipid transfer proteins and cell signaling proteins are located. (embopress.org)
  • and finally (4) to analyze the FRET distributions and dynamics that reflect the dynamic conformational transitions of ion channels in membranes. (mendeley.com)
  • Integral membrane proteins such as receptors and/or ion channels are responsible for a range of cellular functions that include recognition of pathogens, intracellular signalling, energy transduction, development of energy gradients, and the transport of nutrients and metabolites. (hindawi.com)
  • These proteins contain separate voltage-sensing domains, which detect changes in transmembrane voltage, and pore domains, which conduct ions. (nih.gov)
  • The functional properties of Kcv and KcsA were characterized electrophysiologically and exhibited sensitivity to the lipid composition of the target DPhPC bilayer, suggesting that the channel proteins were fully exposed to the target membrane and were no longer surrounded by the lipid/protein scaffold. (rupress.org)
  • The single-channel properties of the three tested channels are compatible with studies from recordings of the same proteins in other expression systems. (rupress.org)
  • After standard purification procedures, which are, depending on the expression system, more ( P. pastoris ) or less demanding and time consuming ( E. coli ), the proteins can be reconstituted into PLBs for single-channel analysis. (rupress.org)
  • This Perspective highlights the evolution from the use of detergents to detergent-free membrane mimetics, as well as advances in structure determination and mass spectrometry that have allowed new insights into regulation and function of membrane proteins in native-like lipid environments. (nature.com)
  • However, the researchers' protein level analysis showed that when deprived of glucose, the cells lacking the C9orf72 protein produced significantly more lipid metabolism-related proteins compared to cells with this gene. (news-medical.net)
  • They found higher amounts of the proteins associated with both routes in cells without the C9orf72 gene, suggesting that each lipid-producing pathway was abnormally regulated. (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast, electrophysiological studies on purified proteins showed very different channel properties. (nih.gov)
  • Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help establish and control the small voltage gradient across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. (phys.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. (upr.edu)
  • Ion channels are proteins composed of amino acids, the blueprint of which is coded by the genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • eLife has published papers on topics related to the molecular structure and functional mechanisms of a diverse array of ion channel proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ion channel proteins open and close ion permeation pathways in response to changes in membrane voltage, neurotransmitters and other chemical ligands, temperature and mechanical forces, enabling ions to move between cellular compartments to generate electrical and chemical signals that are fundamental for a diverse array of physiological cellular process. (elifesciences.org)
  • This collection highlights a series of important papers that delve into fundamental questions concerning the structure, mechanisms and physiological roles of a diverse array of ion channel proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • A family of proteins (OSCA/TMEM63) that encode mechanosensitive ion channels has been characterized in plants, flies, and mammals. (elifesciences.org)
  • The primary cilia polycystin proteins, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, affect cilia length in the kidney collecting duct epithelia, but only polycystin-2 is required for the functional ion channel in this organelle. (elifesciences.org)
  • TMEM206 proteins are identified as constituting the pore of the widely expressed acid-activated chloride channel PAORAC/ASOR, which is important in acid toxicity. (elifesciences.org)
  • This review focuses on how membrane lipid rafts have been detected and isolated, mostly from lymphocytes, and their associated proteins identified. (springer.com)
  • A role for lipid shells in targeting proteins to caveolae, rafts, and other lipid domains. (springer.com)
  • Other amyloidogenic disease-related proteins, such as the prion protein or α -synuclein, also exhibit similarities in the formation of amyloid channels and in the disruption of calcium homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • Active transport proteins establish electrochemical potential gradients across the membrane, providing the energy for passive ion flux through channels. (fz-juelich.de)
  • It is estimated that up to 30% of all proteins are integral membrane proteins [ 1 ], with at least one part of the protein sequence passing through a lipid bilayer membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • [ 2 ] It contains a wide variety of biological molecules , primarily proteins and lipids , which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion channel conductance and cell signaling. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The arrangement of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails of the lipid bilayer prevent polar solutes (e.g. amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions) from diffusing across the membrane, but generally allows for the passive diffusion of hydrophobic molecules. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Integral membrane proteins have at least one polypeptide segment spanning the membrane bilayer whereas peripheral membrane proteins are temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to integral membrane proteins by various interactions such as hydrophobic, electrostatic and other types of non-covalent interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • thus the composition of the lipid bilayer can affect the inter- or intra-molecular interactions between the lipid bilayer and membrane proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Many tethering proteins have additional functions, such as lipid transfer or regulation of ion channels. (embopress.org)
  • We briefly discuss lipid transfer at MCSs by lipid transport proteins. (embopress.org)
  • Neither the precise lipid composition nor much about integral membrane proteins is known. (asm.org)
  • Using complementary approaches of planar lipid bilayer (PLB) electrophysiological recordings and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that the d -Aβ isomer exhibits ion conductance behavior in the bilayer indistinguishable from that described earlier for the l -Aβ isomer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The planar lipid bilayer (PLB) technique is one of the many methods that are currently used for studying channel activity and their sensitivity to the lipid environment and to drugs ( Zakharian, 2013 ). (rupress.org)
  • Lipid-gated ion channels are a class of ion channels whose conductance of ions through the membrane depends directly on lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • PIP2 regulates the conductance of most TRP channels either positively or negatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conductance pathway has an ohmic current voltage characteristic and a poor selectivity for different alkali ions. (nih.gov)
  • Ion-permeable channels often derive their generic names from the specialized conductance and permeability properties they possess, the voltage-dependent Na + channel being no exception. (springer.com)
  • Using the voltage-dependent Na + channel as an example, we show in this chapter that, even though the lipid bilayer system offers many experimental advantages, the determination and the analysis of single-channel conductance and permeability data are not always simple. (springer.com)
  • The d isomer forms channel-like pores with heterogeneous ionic conductance similar to the l -Aβ isomer channels, and the d -isomer channel conductance is blocked by Zn 2+ , a known blocker of l -Aβ isomer channels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The calculated values of the single-channel conductance are approximately in the range of the experimental values. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A laser microsurgical method of cell wall removal allows detection of large-conductance ion channels in the guard cell plasma membrane. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • At small sugar concentrations an elementary event consists of maltoporin channel closure by one third of its initial conductance in sugar-free solution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, while channel conductance is only slightly asymmetric showing about 10% higher values at -200 mV than at +200 mV (from the side of protein addition), asymmetry in dependence of the sugar binding constant on the voltage polarity is about 20 times higher. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The two channels retained different single-channel conductances and current-voltage relationships: LT and HT channels elicited large- and small-channel conductance with outwardly rectifying and linear I-V relationships, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • TRUE OR FALSE: If the conductance to any ion is increased the membrane potential will move closer to the equilibrium potential for that ion. (brainscape.com)
  • State-of-the-art biomolecular dynamics simulations provide detailed in-sight into their transport mechanisms at atomic resolution-including accurate estimates of ion conductance, selectivity, and voltage dependence. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Alpha-synuclein aggregates induced cell membrane disruption was observed in real time with scanning ion conductance microscopy. (rsc.org)
  • Single-channel conductance recordings indicated that Omp85 Tt forms ion channels with two different conducting states, characterized by conductances of ∼0.4 nS and ∼0.65 nS, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Our study raises the question of whether we should be looking at problems with lipid metabolism as a potential cause for these diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • A biological bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is approximately four nanometres thick consisting of two adjacent monolayer sheets, each composed of molecules with hydrophilic headgroups exposed to water and acyl chains buried into the hydrophobic membrane interior. (hindawi.com)
  • The Nobel Prize winner Roderick MacKinnon suggested that ion channels were like rigid tubes through which molecules of varying size move. (phys.org)
  • Meyer and Overton had discovered the striking correlation between the physical properties of general anaesthetic molecules and their potency: the greater is the lipid solubility of the compound in olive oil the greater is its anaesthetic potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Simulations were performed on a system containing 64 lipid molecules, 2,804 water molecules, and two side chains. (rupress.org)
  • Diffusion in plant and animal cells is the spontaneous net movement of ions and molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, this is also referred to as moving down a concentration gradient. (bartleby.com)
  • Lipid-soluble molecules and some small molecules can permeate the membrane, but the lipid bilayer effectively repels the many large, water-soluble molecules and electrically charged ions that the cell must import or export in order to live. (britannica.com)
  • In this paper, we present experimental details that allow a combination of in vitro translation of ion channels into commercially available NDs followed by their direct reconstitution from these nanobilayers into standard bilayer setups for electrophysiological characterization. (rupress.org)
  • Single-channel electrophysiology with lipid bilayer systems requires ion channel expression, purification from cell culture, and reconstitution in proteoliposomes for delivery to a planar bilayer. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Membrane vesicles containing the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, the human cardiac sodium channel (Na v 1.5), and the human GABA A receptor (GABA A R) channel were formed, and the functional reconstitution of the channels into BLMs via vesicle fusion was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Ion Channel Reconstitution (Miller, C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Polycarbonate filters have also been utilised as a support for mixed hybrid BLMs formed over 1 μ m pore diameters rendered hydrophobic by a gold coating and octadecanethiol [ 5 ] in which a glutamate-gated chloride channel was functional [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Coupling of voltage sensing and pore opening is critical to the channel function and has been modeled as a protein-protein interaction between the two domains. (nih.gov)
  • From the permeability of the pore for large ions (Tris+, glucosamine+, Hepes-) a minimum pore diameter of 0.8 nm is estimated. (nih.gov)
  • Aβ channels are characterized by heterogeneous conductances, suggesting a dynamic conformation of the pore structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fig. 3: The KAT1 VSD-pore interface and lipid-binding conformation. (nature.com)
  • Molecular coupling between voltage sensor and pore opening in the Arabidopsis inward rectifier K + channel KAT1. (nature.com)
  • Vardanyan, V. & Pongs, O. Coupling of voltage-sensors to the channel pore: a comparative view. (nature.com)
  • Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect of simultaneously knocking out TPC1 and TPC2 on body composition and energy balance in male mice fed a chow diet. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our previous work supported a toroidal pore mechanism, where lipids initially part in the plane of the membrane to form a hydrophobic pore, followed by rearrangement to form a hydrophilic (toroidal) pore lined with lipid head groups ( figure 1 a ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Enlargement of the pore and subsequent transit of ions across the membrane then takes place by molecular reorientation of the lipids to form an electrically conductive, headgroup-stabilized toroidal defect. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • [4] IRK channels possess a pore domain, homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels , and flanking transmembrane segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inward rectifiers also differ from tandem pore domain potassium channels , which are largely responsible for "leak" K + currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomenon of inward rectification of K ir channels is the result of high-affinity block by endogenous polyamines , namely spermine , as well as magnesium ions, that plug the channel pore at positive potentials, resulting in a decrease in outward currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryo-EM structures of the gating cycle of bestrophin reveal the molecular underpinnings of activation and inactivation gating in this calcium-activated chloride channel and reveal a surprisingly wide pore. (elifesciences.org)
  • KCNE1 alters the voltage-sensing domains-pore coupling to modulate KCNQ1 channel properties. (elifesciences.org)
  • Observation by single molecule FRET of MscL, a prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel, reveals that MscL opens via the helix-tilt model and its pore reaches 2.8 nm in diameter. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, we have pharmacologically characterized and biophysically mapped the transducer channel pore. (stanford.edu)
  • channel pore can inhibit A? (anaspec.com)
  • Kovermann, P., Machtens, J. P., Ewers, D. & Fahlke, C. A conserved aspartate determines pore properties of anion channels associated with excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4). (fz-juelich.de)
  • Upon binding acetylcholine, the channel opens and allows diffusion of sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) ions through the conducting pore. (britannica.com)
  • Classically the lipids are membrane resident anionic signaling lipids that bind to the transmembrane domain on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane with properties of a classic ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid binds in a well-defined ligand binding site in the transmembrane domain and causes the helices to splay opening the channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • For TRPV5, binding of PIP2 to a site in the transmembrane domain caused a conformational change that appeared to open the conduction pathway, suggesting the channel is classically lipid-gated. (wikipedia.org)
  • K2p: PA directly activates TREK-1 potassium channels through a putative site in the transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For all conditions studied, the peptides were found to be predominantly incorporated as a transmembrane helix into the membrane, especially at low peptide concentration, but started to aggregate on the membrane surface at higher peptide:lipid ratios. (ulaval.ca)
  • To overcome this limitation, we designed a stable, highly expressed chimeric ion channel consisting of the transmembrane domains of the well characterized potassium channel KcsA and the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains of the prokaryotic cyclic nucleotide-modulated channel MloK1. (cornell.edu)
  • Electrical signaling in cells is mediated by the opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels in response to electrical stimuli and the consequent transmembrane voltage changes. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The transmembrane potential is restored by delayed opening of potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels play crucial roles in signal transduction in eukaryotes. (cornell.edu)
  • Phosphoinositides have been recognized since the 1980s as important regulatory lipids supporting signal transduction from G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • In the naked mole-rat, however, this mutated ion channel is sufficient to inhibit signal transduction. (innovations-report.com)
  • Similar approaches, applied to other model cell systems, will provide valuable new insights into both cellular signal transduction and lipid raft biology. (springer.com)
  • Their states and positions are coupled by membrane-mediated elastic forces arising from the interaction between the channels' hydrophobic cores and that of the lipid bilayer. (pnas.org)
  • Other classes of lipid-gated channels include the mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to lipid tension, thickness, and hydrophobic mismatch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic matching between lipids and peptides. (els.net)
  • It is well known that at the gel-liquid phase transition temperature a lipid bilayer membrane exhibits an increased ion permeability. (arxiv.org)
  • This variation, caused by the lipid bilayer, gives the membrane its characteristic permeability . (britannica.com)
  • Further information on the structure of the pores formed by the different porins from Salmonella was obtained from the selectivity for various ions. (nih.gov)
  • PA 63 ) 7 channels are highly cation selective, and, here, we investigate the effects on both cation selectivity and protein translocation of mutating each of these anionic residues to a serine. (rupress.org)
  • The mechanistic basis behind both pH- and voltage-driven translocation through the (PA 63 ) 7 channel is critically dependent on the channel's cation selectivity. (rupress.org)
  • Sodium selectivity of acid-sensing ion channels is mediated by negatively charged side chains and not by a size-exclusion mechanism. (elifesciences.org)
  • Efflux of xenobiotic fluoride from microorganisms occurs through a novel family of ion channels with stringent selectivity for fluoride ion and dual-topology molecular architecture. (elifesciences.org)
  • The role of the host lipid membrane on those channels as well as the mechanisms of channel selectivity are some of the explored topics for several protein channels. (uji.es)
  • Tetrodotoxin, a puffer fish toxin, inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel (VSGC), a key protein of neurotransmission, however, dose not show subtype selectivity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aβ-dependent ionic dysregulation most likely occurs either directly via unregulated ionic transport through the membrane or indirectly via Aβ binding to cell membrane receptors and subsequent opening of existing ion channels or transporters. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3 Loss of cellular ionic homeostasis could occur via several mechanisms, including Aβ-specific membrane receptors and amyloid-specific membrane channels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) BAT, whereas mitochondrial respiratory chain function and uncoupling protein-1 expression remained intact. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Channel self-assembly begins when monomeric PA binds to either of two known receptors (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) and is subsequently activated by proteolytic cleavage, which removes the N-terminal 20-kD portion of PA (PA 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, naked mole-rats are an exception: they have an altered ion channel in their pain receptors that is inactivated by acid and makes the animals insensitive to this type of pain. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is also the case when in the nerve cells of the naked mole-rats other ion channels are activated by acid stimuli that would normally activate pain receptors. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ruthenium red modifies the cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) by multiple mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of ruthenium red (RR) on the skeletal and cardiac muscle ryanodine receptors (RyRs) were studied in vesicle-Ca(2+) flux, [(3)H]ryanodine binding, and single channel measurements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This technique has the advantage over other electrophysiological approaches in that it allows recording of channel activity on a single-molecule level under very defined conditions (e.g., phospholipid composition and electrolyte concentrations). (rupress.org)
  • Patch-clamp electrophysiology enables direct recordings of electrogenic transport processes mediated by ion channels and transporters. (fz-juelich.de)
  • We use all-atom MD simulations, combined with patch-clamp electrophysiology and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, to investigate functional dynamics of neurotransmitter transporters and Cl - channels. (fz-juelich.de)
  • We developed kinetic state models to explain the functional coupling of secondary active glutamate transport and channel-like anion conduction in EAAT glutamate transporters (1-3), and advanced noise analysis techniques to measure unitary properties of transporter-associated channels (4). (fz-juelich.de)
  • Further research projects include ion transport mechanisms in vesicular glutamate transporters, Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channels and lipid scramblases of the TMEM16 (anoctamin) family and Cl - channels and Cl - /H + exchangers of the ClC family. (fz-juelich.de)
  • This review discusses several aspects of MCS s in the context of lipid transfer, formation of lipid domains, generation of Ca 2+ and cAMP second messengers, and regulation of ion transporters by lipids. (embopress.org)
  • This review focuses on cell signaling and regulation of ion channels and transporters by lipids at MCSs. (embopress.org)
  • Voltage-gated ion channels generate dynamic ionic currents that are vital to the physiological functions of many tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Currents of various types of channel such as gramicidin, hemolysin and BK-channel have been recorded. (elsevier.com)
  • Ion channel currents were recorded in 67% of the BLMs that were centrifuged with membrane vesicles under appropriate centrifugal conditions (14-55 × g). (elsevier.com)
  • Those more "typical" potassium channels preferentially carry outward (rather than inward) potassium currents at depolarized membrane potentials, and may be thought of as "outwardly rectifying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other inwardly rectifying channels, termed "strong inward rectifiers," carry very little outward current at all, and are mainly active at voltages negative to the K + reversal potential, where they carry inward current (the much larger currents below the 0 nA line in figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified two distinct types of MS channels in sensory neurons that probably give rise to the observed MS whole-cell currents and transduce mechanical stimuli to neural signals involved in somatosensation, including pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Design #1 is suitable for recording ion currents as low as 20pA within 9kHz bandwidth using minimal power. (cdc.gov)
  • Ion channel structures reveal mechanisms of lipid action, including how channel gating is altered by direct binding of signaling lipids and those within the membrane itself, as well as mechanical and architectural effects of membrane lipids. (nature.com)
  • We conclude that Tpcn1/2(-/-) mice show mature-onset obesity due to reduced lipid availability and use, and a defect in β-adrenergic receptor signaling, leading to impaired thermogenic activity, in BAT. (ox.ac.uk)
  • report a mechanism through which TMEM24, a lipid transport protein that concentrates at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, regulates the pulsatility of cytosolic Ca 2+ and phosphoinositide signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • His research is focused on understanding the role of electrostatics in the structure-function properties of mnultiionic ion channels like several bacterial porins, the mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel, coronavirus E protein channels and other channel forming peptides. (uji.es)
  • The structural information on the preferred trans-bilayer alignment of the crown ether functional groups explains their ion conductivity and is useful for the further development of membrane-active nanochemotherapeutics. (ulaval.ca)
  • Overall, these results show that the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analog detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, while the opposite is true about non-lipid analog detergents. (upr.edu)
  • The activity of ion channels is the functional basis of signal processing in the brain. (uni-bremen.de)
  • Chemistry and Physics of Lipids publishes research papers and review articles on chemical and physical aspects of lipids with primary emphasis on the relationship of these properties to biological functions and to biomedical applications . (elsevier.com)
  • and the role of lipids in the regulation of membrane-dependent biological processes. (elsevier.com)
  • For most substances of biological interest, the concentrations inside and outside the cell are different, creating concentration gradients down which the solutes spontaneously diffuse, provided they can permeate the lipid bilayer. (britannica.com)
  • The implication of composition of membrane lipids and the possible development of new drugs by influencing membrane properties and attenuating amyloid channels for the treatment and prevention of AD is also discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • The lipid composition of the OM is not precisely known. (asm.org)
  • To further understand the biology of lipid rafts, new methodological approaches are needed to help characterize the raft protein component, and changes that occur in this component as a result of cell perturbation. (springer.com)
  • these channels can directly mediate Aβ effects even in the absence of receptor-peptide interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 7 These results prompted the amyloid channel hypothesis where Aβ directly forms channels toxic to neurons when sufficient peptide is available. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The influence of different N- and C-functionalities was assessed using at variable peptide:lipid ratios from 1:20 to 1:200. (ulaval.ca)
  • The use of synchrotron radiation as light source allowed the study of peptide:lipid molar ratios from 1:20 to 1:1000. (ulaval.ca)
  • Diffraction from peptide-lipid mixtures can be used to study a great variety of membrane problems. (els.net)
  • Data of six different peptide/lipid systems are shown: alamethicin in diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine ( DPhPC ), alamethicin in a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine ( DOPC ) and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine ( DOPE ), melittin in DPhPC , melittin in DOPC , melittin in palmitoyl‐oleoyl phosphatidylcholine ( POPC ), and melittin in dieicosenoyl phosphatidylcholine (DiC20:1PC). (els.net)
  • One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of RasGEFs functions are lipid second messengers. (frontiersin.org)
  • MCS s have many cellular functions and are the sites of lipid and ion transfer between organelles and generation of second messengers. (embopress.org)
  • Hoshi, T. Regulation of voltage dependence of the KAT1 channel by intracellular factors. (nature.com)
  • Absence of intracellular ion channels TPC1 and TPC2 leads to mature-onset obesity in male mice, due to impaired lipid availability for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige adipocytes, respectively transient receptor potential melastin-8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hearing relies on molecular machinery that consists of springs stretched by mechanical stimuli and mechanosensitive ion channels responding to the generated tension. (pnas.org)
  • It describes a physiological function for the bilayer-mediated cooperativity between mechanosensitive ion channels in a vertebrate sensory system. (pnas.org)
  • The key players involved in this process are mechanosensitive ion channels. (pnas.org)
  • A specialized set of mechanosensitive ion channels is gated by lipid deformation in the membrane in response to mechanical force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many mechanosensitive channels require anionic lipids for activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are present in a variety of cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results demonstrate that IL-4 can restore insulin sensitivity in adipocytes via mechanisms not associated with induced adipogenesis or de novo formation of lipid depots. (chemweb.com)
  • The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. (springer.com)
  • Ion channels formed by Alamethicin are voltage-gated due to their large molecular dipoles. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Chowdhury, S. & Chanda, B. Perspectives on: conformational coupling in ion channels: thermodynamics of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated ion channels. (nature.com)
  • Thermodynamics of lipid multi-lamellar vesicles in presence of sterols at high hydrostatic pressure. (ku.dk)
  • Using this chimeric construct, we were able to measure for the first time the binding thermodynamics of cAMP to an intact cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channel using isothermal titration calorimetry. (cornell.edu)
  • 12 , 13 Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) based structures also indicated channel structures, 14 − 16 fitting well the dimensions and subunit arrangements observed in AFM 12 , 13 and electron microscopy (EM) 17 experiments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electron microscopy of negatively stained lipid-embedded Omp85 Tt revealed ring-like structures with a central cavity of ∼1.5 nm in diameter. (asm.org)
  • heat is absorbed during recharge of the membrane capacitance as potassium ions move with their concentration gradient but against the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mainly the channel kinetics are effected, giving an increasing open state probability with increasing gravity and decreasing open state probability with micro gravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • We have also performed the only kinetic analysis of activation, again demonstrating tonotopic variations in the kinetics of the mechanotransduction channel. (stanford.edu)
  • Our further analysis shows that ionic current remodelling is primarily due to changes in ion channel density rather than current kinetics. (biologists.org)
  • In black lipid bilayer experiments done using OM preparations from HB8, one 185-kDa protein was identified as a putative porin that formed unusually large pores ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Kir channels: PIP2 binds to and directly activates inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole-cell current recordings of K ir 2 inwardly-rectifying potassium channels expressed in an HEK293 cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • While activated by a common mechanism, both functions in TMEM16F - lipid scrambling and ion conduction - are likely mediated by alternate protein conformations that are at equilibrium in the ligand-bound state. (elifesciences.org)
  • The study of ion channels is known as channelomics and involves many scientific techniques such as voltage clamp electrophysiology (in particular patch clamp), immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. (phys.org)
  • Single-channel electrophysiology measurements and theoretical modeling are combined in our lab. (uji.es)
  • Insights into the function of ion channels by computational electrophysiology simulations. (fz-juelich.de)
  • A lipid ligand differs from a lipid cofactor in that a ligand derives its function by dissociating from the channel while a cofactor typically derives its function by remaining bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these procedures are well established and have been extensively used in the past decades to study structure/function correlates of many channels. (rupress.org)
  • This, along with the ease of its expression and purification, made KcsA an experimental system of choice to study structure-function relationships in ion channels. (mdpi.com)
  • Anapoe-C12E9 (Polyoxyethylene-(9)-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N′-bis-(3-d- Gluconamidopropyl) cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function when compared to lipid-analog detergents. (upr.edu)
  • We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, contrasting the still conflicting evidence on direct vs. indirect mechanisms of action. (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers therefore investigated the function of this ion channel in naked mole-rat and in mouse sensory nerves to determine whether there is a difference between the two species in the function of this ion channel. (innovations-report.com)
  • Membrane thickening reversibly alters function of membrane ion channels thus providing anaesthetic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. (springer.com)
  • Akopian AN, Souslova V, England S, Okuse K, Ogata N, Ure J et al (1999) The tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel SNS has a specialized function in pain pathways. (springer.com)
  • Bardou O, Trinh NTN, Brochiero E (2009) Molecular diversity and function of K + channels in airway and alveolar epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Dynamic and distance measurements from smFRET, combined with single channel recordings, can provide previously unattainable direct mechanistic insights into ion channel function and modulation. (mendeley.com)
  • Such radicals cause lipid peroxidation, altering their function and structure. (medscape.com)
  • Here we suggest a molecular mechanism for electromechanical coupling and gating polarity in non-domain-swapped K v channels on the basis of the cryo-electron microscopy structure of KAT1, the hyperpolarization-activated K v channel from Arabidopsis thaliana . (nature.com)
  • The molecular mechanism by which ligand binding leads to channel opening remains poorly understood, due in part to the lack of a robust method for preparing sufficient amounts of purified, stable protein required for structural and biochemical characterization. (cornell.edu)
  • The first structure of the human epithelial sodium channel provides vital insight into the assembly, stoichiometry and molecular mechanism of the ion channel central to sodium homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is a perfect electrical insulator and provides the basis for molecular information processing at the cell membrane. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Single ion channel CMOS electrochemical instrument for high throughput recording arrays. (cdc.gov)
  • The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is an example of a ligand-gated ion channel. (britannica.com)
  • PIP2 is a cell membrane lipid, and its role in gating ion channels represents a novel role for the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-gated potassium (K v ) channels coordinate electrical signalling and control cell volume by gating in response to membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization. (nature.com)
  • To better understand why lipids increased in cells without the C9orf72 gene, the researchers looked at the two different pathways that cells use to create lipid droplets: either creating them from scratch, a process called de novo lipid biogenesis, or by digesting other components of the cell to make lipids, a process called autophagy. (news-medical.net)
  • For the first time, the complex architecture of a protein that controls the transport of lipids between the two layers of a cell membrane has been described. (phys.org)
  • A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • At membrane potentials negative to potassium's reversal potential , inwardly rectifying K + channels support the flow of positively charged K + ions into the cell, pushing the membrane potential back to the resting potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • These channels differ from the potassium channels that are typically responsible for repolarizing a cell following an action potential , such as the delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • They, along with the "leak" channels, establish the resting membrane potential of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin for cell culture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The model is proposed as an alternative to the Hodgkin-Huxley model in which action potentials: voltage-gated ion channels in the membrane open and allow sodium ions to enter the cell (inward current). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a hormone binding to a receptor could open an ion channel in the receptor and allow calcium ions to flow into the cell. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, to reconcile theoretical models based on this mechanism with experimental data, an unrealistically large structural change of the channel is required. (pnas.org)
  • however, due to theoretical calculations of lipids diffusion in a membrane, the ligand was thought to diffuse away much to fast to activate a channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-gated sodium channel activation by veratridine and inhibition by saxitoxin showed activity for PTFE, nylon, and silanised silver, but not polycarbonate. (hindawi.com)
  • Kv: PA binding can also influence the midpoint of voltage activation (Vmid) for voltage-activated potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of PA shifted the Vmid -40 mV near resting membrane potential which could open the channel absent a change in voltage suggesting these channels may also be lipid-gated. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage channel. (nih.gov)
  • Männikkö, R., Elinder, F. & Larsson, H. P. Voltage-sensing mechanism is conserved among ion channels gated by opposite voltages. (nature.com)
  • Blunck, R. & Batulan, Z. Mechanism of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated potassium channels. (nature.com)
  • Integrated allosteric model of voltage gating of HCN channels. (nature.com)
  • The conformational cycle of a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel as it transitions from resting to activated open to inactivated closed states can be constructed from various crystal structure snapshots. (nature.com)
  • This chimera demonstrates KcsA-like pH-sensitive activity which is modulated by cAMP, reminiscent of the dual modulation in hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that display voltage-dependent activity that is also modulated by cAMP. (cornell.edu)
  • Because LF N translocation through the channel occurs when positive voltages are applied to the cis solution, the carboxyl groups on LF N must be neutralized for voltage-driven translocation to occur. (rupress.org)
  • Simply put, this channel passes much more current in the inward direction than the outward one, at its operating voltage range. (wikipedia.org)
  • These channels are not perfect rectifiers, as they can pass some outward current in the voltage range up to about 30 mV above resting potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optogenetic tools enable sophisticated measurements of a voltage-gated sodium channel implicated in pain, as well as high-throughput screening of candidate channel blockers. (elifesciences.org)
  • Amaya F, Decosterd I, Samad TA, Plumpton C, Tate S, Mannion RJ, Costigan M, Woolf CJ (2000) Diversity of expression of the sensory neuronspecific TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium ion channels SNS and SNS2. (springer.com)
  • The resulting decrease in membrane potential opens nearby voltage-gated sodium channels, thus propagating the action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of lipids on voltage-gated ion channels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reproducing the experimental data theoretically without requiring unrealistically large conformational changes of the channels has been a longstanding hurdle. (pnas.org)
  • The classical explanation for the gating compliance is that the conformational rearrangement of a single channel directly shortens the tip link. (pnas.org)
  • These findings are in agreement with amyloids forming Ca 2+ leaking, unregulated channels in AD, and suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a receptor-independent, nonstereoselective mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel is a member of the temperature-sensing thermoTRPV family. (elifesciences.org)
  • such as the cationic dye YO-PRO-1 and the sodium channel blocker QX-314. (elifesciences.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the epithelial sodium channel. (nih.gov)