A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Glucose in blood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Relating to the size of solids.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
Abstaining from all food.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.

Signal transduction triggered by lipid A-like molecules in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells. (1/1218)

The lipid A (endotoxin) moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits rapid cellular responses from many cell types, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In CD14 transfected 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells, these responses include activation of the MAP kinase homolog, p38, activation of NF-kappaB, and transcription of kappa light chains, leading to the assembly of surface IgM. In this work, we explored the specificity of the response with regard to lipid structure, and the requirement for p38 kinase activity prior to NF-kappaB activation in control and CD14 transfected 70Z/3 (CD14-70Z/3) cells. A p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, was used to block p38 kinase activity in cells. CD14-70Z/3 cells were incubated with 1-50 microM SB203580, and then stimulated with LPS. Nuclear extracts were prepared, and NF-kappaB activation was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SB203580 did not inhibit LPS induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, LPS failed to activate p38 tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells lacking CD14, in spite of rapid NF-kappaB activation and robust surface IgM production with appropriate higher doses of LPS. LPS stimulation of p38 phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and surface IgM expression were all blocked completely by lipid A-like endotoxin antagonists whether or not CD14 was present. Acidic glycerophospholipids and ceramides did not mimic lipid A-like molecules either as agonists or antagonists in this system. Our data support the hypothesis that lipid A-mediated activation of cells requires stimulation of a putative lipid A sensor that is downstream of CD14, but upstream of p38 and NF-kappaB.  (+info)

The Salmonella typhi melittin resistance gene pqaB affects intracellular growth in PMA-differentiated U937 cells, polymyxin B resistance and lipopolysaccharide. (2/1218)

Salmonella typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans. A cell-culture based assay involving the human monocyte macrophage cell line U937 has been developed to examine S. typhi invasion and survival. An S. typhi PhoP- (null) mutant was shown to be restricted in net growth in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) differentiated U937 (PMA-U937) cells, and an S. typhi PhoPc (constitutive) mutant showed a defect in invasion. Neither of the phoP/Q mutants were growth impaired in HeLa cells, however the PhoPc mutant was impaired in invasion. As opposed to what was found for S. typhi, Salmonella typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants grew equally well in PMA-U937 cells, indicating that the PhoP(-)-mediated net growth restriction in the PMA-U937 cells was S. typhi specific. An S. typhi mutation, pqaB::MudJ, recently shown to be a PhoP-activated locus, was shown to have a net growth defect in PMA-U937 cells. Sequencing of the S. typhipqaB gene revealed it had 98% identity to the fifth gene in a S. typhimurium PmrA/B regulated operon necessary for 4-aminoarabinose lipid A modification and polymyxin B resistance. The pqaB locus was regulated by PmrA/B (whose activity is modulated by PhoP-PhoQ) and the pqaB transposon mutant was sensitive to polymyxin B. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of S. typhi and S. typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants, were compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining. Differences in the LPS profile between the two Salmonella species were observed, and shown to be affected differently by the PhoPc mutation. Additionally, the pqaB::MudJ mutation affected S. typhi LPS. The effects on LPS may have ramifications for the difference between S. typhi and S. typhimurium infection of hosts.  (+info)

Lipoteichoic acid acts as an antagonist and an agonist of lipopolysaccharide on human gingival fibroblasts and monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner. (3/1218)

CD14 has been implicated as a receptor of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and other bacterial components as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since the structures of LTAs from various gram-positive bacteria are heterogeneous, we analyzed the effects of LTAs on the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by high- and low-CD14-expressing (CD14(high) and CD14(low)) human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). While Bacillus subtilis LTA had an IL-8-inducing effect on CD14(high) HGF which was considerably weaker than that of LPS, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans LTAs had practically no effect on the cells. B. subtilis LTA had only a weak effect on CD14(low) HGF, as did LPS. S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs at a 1,000-fold excess each completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing activities of both LPS and a synthetic lipid A on CD14(high) HGF. The effect of LPS was also inhibited by the presence of an LPS antagonist, synthetic lipid A precursor IVA (LA-14-PP), with a 100-fold higher potency than S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs and by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs, LA-14-PP, and anti-CD14 MAb had no significant effect on phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated IL-8 secretion by HGF. These LTAs also inhibited the IL-8-inducing activity of B. subtilis LTA on CD14(high) HGF, as did LA-14-PP and anti-CD14 MAb. The antagonistic and agonistic functions of LTAs were also observed with human monocytes. Binding of fluorolabeled LPS to human monocytes was inhibited by S. sanguis LTA, although the inhibition was 100 times weaker than that of LPS itself, and anti-CD14 MAb inhibited fluorolabeled LPS and S. sanguis LTA binding. Binding of LTAs to CD14 was also observed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that LTAs act as antagonists or agonists via a CD14-dependent mechanism, probably due to the heterogeneous structure of LTAs, and that an antagonistic LTA might be a useful agent for suppressing the periodontal disease caused by gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. (4/1218)

Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C.  (+info)

The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the core-lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide from a clinical isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. (5/1218)

Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strain Ruokola/71-c-PhiR1-37-R possesses mainly rough-type lipopolysaccaride (LPS) and smaller amounts of S-form LPS. Structural analysis of the former is reported here. After deacylation of the LPS, the phosphorylated carbohydrate backbone of the inner core-lipid A region could be isolated by using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Its structure was determined by means of compositional and methylation analyses and 1H-, 13C-, and 31P-NMR spectroscopy as: [see text] in which L-alpha-D-Hep is L-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptopyranose, D-alpha-D-Hep is D-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptopyranose, and Kdo is 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid. All hexoses are pyranoses.  (+info)

Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide oligosaccharide epitopes expressed by a capsule-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. (6/1218)

Structural elucidation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae, strain Rd, a capsule-deficient type d strain, has been achieved by using high-field NMR techniques and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on delipidated LPS and core oligosaccharide samples. It was found that this organism expresses heterogeneous populations of LPS of which the oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes are subject to phase variation. ESI-MS of O-deacylated LPS revealed a series of related structures differing in the number of hexose residues linked to a conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Glcp- (1-->4)-]- L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-alpha-Kdo, and the degree of phosphorylation. The structures of the major LPS glycoforms containing three (two Glc and one Gal), four (two Glc and two Gal) and five (two Glc, two Gal and one GalNAc) hexoses were substituted by both phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) and were determined in detail. In the major glycoform, Hex3, a lactose unit, beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp, is attached at the O-2 position of the terminal heptose of the inner-core element. The Hex4 glycoform contains the PK epitope, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp while in the Hex5 glycoform, this OS is elongated by the addition of a terminal beta-D-GalpNAc residue, giving the P antigen, beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-D-Glc p. The fully extended LPS glycoform (Hex5) has the following structure. [see text] The structural data provide the first definitive evidence demonstrating the expression of a globotetraose OS epitope, the P antigen, in LPS of H. influenzae. It is noteworthy that the molecular environment in which PCho units are found differs from that observed in an Rd- derived mutant strain (RM.118-28) [Risberg, A., Schweda, E. K. H. & Jansson, P-E. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 701-707].  (+info)

Strain-dependent cytotoxic effects of endotoxin for mouse peritoneal macrophages. (7/1218)

The cytotoxic effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on mouse leukocytes have been examined in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS into C57BL/6 mice greatly reduced the recovery of mononuclear cells; LPS was cytotoxic for macrophages, but had a mitogenic effect on lymphocytes. Similar effects of LPS on peritoneal leukocytes were observed in vitro. When monolayers of adherent peritoneal cells were studied in vitro, cytotoxicity was also observed, suggesting that the effect of LPS on macrophages is direct and does not require participation by lymphocytes. Entirely different results were obtained when peritoneal macrophages from LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice were studied. LPS failed to activate lymphocytes and was not cytotoxic for macrophages in vitro or in vivo. The effect of LPS on polymorphonuclear leukocytes appeared to be the same in all mouse stains studied. Lipid A was shown to be the most biologically active portion of the LPS molecule. Whereas polysaccharide-deficient endotoxins extracted from rough mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were cytotoxic for macrophages in vitro, polysaccharides that lacked esterified fatty acids did not exhibit this activity. Since LPS may mediate its effects through affinity for mammalian cell membranes, the cellular unresponsiveness of C3H/H3J mice to LPS may reflect an inability of cells from LPS-resistant strains to interact with LPS at the membrane level.  (+info)

Composition of the fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the lipopolysaccharide of a marine bacterium. (8/1218)

The sugar composition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from whole cells of Alteromonas haloplanktis 214 (previously referred to as marine pseudomonas B-16, ATCC 19855), variant 3, of the lipid A, core, and side-chain fractions derived from it, and of the LPS fractions (LPS I, II, and III) obtained by subjecting it to preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been determined. Conditions optimum for the release of constituent monosaccharides by hydrolysis were established. Sugars were quantitated by gas-liquid chromatography of their alditol acetate derivatives. Lipid A was detected by gel electrophoresis and by the spectral shift obtained with a carbocyanin dye. A comparison of the molar ratios of the various fractions suggest that LPS III is an LPS molecule lacking an O-antigenic side chain, whereas LPS I and II are LPS molecules differing in side-chain composition. LPS I may be a mixture of two LPS species. In double immunodiffusion experiments using anti-whole-cell serum, LPS I and II showed a homologous cross-reaction with isolated whole-cell LPS. LPS III as well as lipid A, core, and side-chain fractions failed to give rise to precipitin lines.  (+info)

The safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine with the antigen NY-ESO-1 in combination with the MPLA will be evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial conducted in patients with malignancies that express the antigen (lung, ovarian and melanoma). This study will involve 15 patients, who will receive 250 mcg of NY-ESO-1 and 100 mcg of MPLA ...
Endotoxin-associated protein (EP) from Salmonella typhi activated murine resident peritoneal macrophages to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Cells from both endotoxin nonresponder (C3H/HeJ) and the endotoxin responder (C3H/OuJ) mouse strains were activated by EP. This EP-induced prostaglandin E2 production was blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor H-7 as well as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, suggesting the involvement of both serine and threonine phosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in the activation of resident peritoneal macrophages by EP. Immunoblot analysis using antiphosphoserine and antiphosphothreonine antibodies showed that EP induced the serine and threonine phosphorylation of a 14-kDa protein (p14). This phosphorylation was not induced by phorbol myristic acid or by lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. Inhibitors of PKC, PKA, and PKG did not block the phosphorylation of p14. However, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor piceatannol blocked p14 serine and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the induction of endotoxin tolerance in endotoxemia and peritonitis by monophosphoryl lipid A and lipopolysaccharide. AU - Astiz, M. E.. AU - Saha, D. C.. AU - Brooks, K.. AU - Carpati, C. M.. AU - Rackow, E. C.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We compared the induction of endotoxin tolerance with Salmonella minnesota monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a nontoxic derivative of lipid A, and S. minnesota endotoxin (LPS) in lethal endotoxemia and peritonitis. Lethal endotoxemia was induced by injecting 750 μg/mouse LPS intravenously. Cecal ligation and perforation was used to induce peritonitis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured by immunoassay at 2 hr after lethal endotoxin infusion and 24 hr after peritonitis. A dose of 0.1 μg/mouse of MPL or LPS significantly reduced endotoxin mortality from 100% to 50% and 27%, respectively (P , 0.05). The LD50 for a 0.1 μg dose of MPL was 750 μg of LPS and the LD50 for a 0.1 μg dose of LPS was 1150 μg of endotoxin (P , ...
Adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A for nasal and oral immunization with soluble or liposome-associated antigen.: The effectiveness of monophosphoryl li
Background: Generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) is induced in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4, and a maturation stimulus is added to the monocyte culture to obtain mature Dendritic Cells (DCs) suitable for therapy. TNF-α is the most common cytokine used for activating DCs and generating mature MDDC either alone or in combination with other cytokines. Objective: To compare effects of traditional cytokine cocktail (TNF-α + IL-1β) versus TLR4-agonist monophosphoryl lipid A on the viability, phenotype, cytokine profile and functionality of MDDC. Methods: The study included 32 individuals; twenty Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) cases in complete remission and 12 healthy volunteers. They were divided into 3 groups: Group 1: control group: 12 subjects to measure the baseline levels of all markers in the monocytic preparation; Group 2: cytokine cocktail (TNF-α) group, which included 10 AML subjects; Group 3: MPLA group which included 10 AML subjects. Results: TNF-α group showed higher
An efficient synthesis of a derivative of monophosphoryl lipid A suitable for coupling to various structures for the construction of glycoconjugate vaccines and its conjugation with an N-modified form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3 is presented.
During vaccination, an additional stimulus to the immune response is often needed and is provided by a material called an adjuvant. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a potent stimulant of the innate immune response, but the potential for toxic shock does not allow for its use in humans. A recently approved adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), has limited side effects compared with LPS, from which it is derived (see the Perspective by Fitzgerald and Golenbock). Mata-Haro et al. show that MPLA activates only a specific signaling component of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway and avoids the myeloid differentiation factor 88 arm of TLR4 signaling, which can account for the much higher toxicity associated with LPS. Ohto et al. determined crystal structures of the TLR4 co-receptor MD-2 alone and in complex with the antiendotoxic tetra-acylated lipid A core of LPS. MD-2 has a deep hydrophobic cavity that accommodates the four acyl chains of the lipid ...
One approach to improve the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 subunit protein vaccine is to combine the immunogen with an adjuvant. Adjuvants may augment vaccine immunogenicity by several mechanisms, and as a result induce a more favorable antibody response with high titers, which appear earlier in the course of immunization and persist over time.. Volunteers are randomized to receive 50 mcg rgp120/HIV-1SF2 in combination with one of seven different adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide (alum), monophosphoryl lipid A, liposome-encapsulated monophosphoryl lipid A, MF59, MTP-PE/MF59, Syntex adjuvant formulation (SAF/2), and SAF/2 plus threonyl muramyl dipeptide (threonyl MDP). An additional placebo control arm of volunteers receive alum only. Doses are administered at 0, 2, and 6 months. Volunteers are followed for 1 year after the last immunization. Per 8/5/94 amendment, eligible volunteers except those who received monophosphoryl lipid A for the first three immunizations may receive a fourth dose at month ...
For both E. coli and H. influenzae,lpxL mutants with predominantly tetra-acylated lipid A show temperature-sensitive growth; indeed, this phenotype was the basis for the identification of lpxL in the first place (11). We did not find this to be the case in N. meningitidis, as growth at 37 or 42°C was not different for the mutants compared to the wild type; instead, the lpxL2 mutant displayed a different conditional phenotype, i.e., the requirement for a truncated galactose-deficient oligosaccharide chain. Conceivably, a proper balance between the size of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of LPS is required for maintenance of outer membrane stability. In both lpxL1 and lpxL2 mutants, the major OMPs PorA, PorB, and RmpM were observed in normal amounts, suggesting no major changes in outer membrane structure or composition (results not shown). The same lack of effect on expression of these OMPs was previously observed for a meningococcal lpxA mutant completely deficient in LPS due to a block ...
Catalyzes the N-acylation of UDP-3-O-(hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine using 3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor. Is involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP over (3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor in vitro, which is consistent with the structure of E.coli lipid A that contains over 95% (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoate at the 2 and 2 positions.
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Vaccine adjuvants using heterogeneous monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL) derived from Salmonella minnesota R595 have proven to be safe and effective at inducing Th-1 type immune responses to heterologous proteins in animal and human vaccines. Avanti revolutionized immunotherapy and vaccine development with the introduction of Synthetic MPL derivatives and adjuvant systems. Avanti now manufactures multiple synthetic analogs of MPL containing a single molecular species that are as effective and safe at inducing an immune response as their natural product predecessor. PHAD®, 3D-PHAD®, and 3D(6A)-PHAD® are manufactured according to cGMP guidelines and are available in bulk quantities for your clinical trials ...
The size distribution of adipocytes in a suspension, after collagenase digestion of adipose tissue, can be determined by computerized image analysis. Free lipid, forming droplets, in such suspensions implicates a bias since droplets present in the images may be identified as adipocytes. This problem is not always adjusted for and some reports state that distinguishing droplets and cells is a considerable problem. In addition, if the droplets originate mainly from rupture of large adipocytes, as often described, this will also bias size analysis. We here confirm that our ordinary manual means of distinguishing droplets and adipocytes in the images ensure correct and rapid identification before exclusion of the droplets. Further, in our suspensions, prepared with focus on gentle handling of tissue and cells, we find no association between the amount of free lipid and mean adipocyte size or proportion of large adipocytes. ...
With the development in extraction methods, more possibilities have been provided to exploration on applications of natural lipids. Natural lipids have potentials in food processing and health products manufacturing. However, the structural diversity is limited in natural lipids, as they are generated by organisms for certain biological functions. Therefore, natural lipids are often chemically modified to provide new properties and functions, thus known as modified lipids or semi-synthetic lipids. Modified lipids are useful tools in research, but limited in pharmaceutical and medical applications due to low thermostability and possible contamination from the animal or plant source. Synthetic lipids are chemically prepared from glycerol. The chemical route leads to even more diverse structures and high purity, which satisfy the special needs in the pharmaceutical industry.. ...
sample_1: DsbA, [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 15 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_2: DsbA, [2-13C-glycerol; U-15N], 10 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_3: DsbA, [1,3-13C-glycerol; U-15N], 10 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_4: DsbB, [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 7 mg; DDM 2 mg; E. coli lipids 7 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_5: DsbB, [2-13C-glycerol; U-15N], 5 mg; DDM 2 mg; E. coli lipids 7 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_6: DsbB, [1,3-13C-glycerol; U-15N], 4 mg; DDM 2 mg; E. coli lipids 7 mg; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_conditions_1: pH: 7.0; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 270 K. sample_conditions_2: pH: 7.8; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 261 K ...
LPS, கொழுப்பு-A (lipid-A) மற்றும் சர்க்கரை தொடரியைக் கொண்டது. கொழுப்பு-A பகுதியானது இம்மூலக்கூற்றின் நச்சு விளைவுகளுக்குக் காரணமாகும். சர்க்கரை தொடரியானது வெவ்வேறு பாக்டீரியாகளுக்கிடையில் அதிகமாக வேறுபட்டுக் காணப்படும். தோராயமாக, அகநச்சுகளின் அளவு 10 கிலோ டால்டன்கள் என்றாலும், அகநச்சுகள் 1000 கிலோ டால்டன்களுக்குச் சமமான திரட்டுகளை உருவாக்கும் தன்மை உள்ளதாகும். ...
The lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides from Fusobacterium nucleatum Fev 1 consists of beta-1,6-linked D-glucosamine disaccharides, which carry two phosphate groups: one in glycosidic and one in ester linkage. The amino groups of the glucosamine disaccharides are substituted by D-3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The hydroxyl groups of the disaccharide backbone are acylated by tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, and D-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acids. Part of the ester-bound D-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid is 3-O-substituted by tetradecanoic acid. Whereas a similar pattern of fatty acids was detected in lipopolysaccharides from two other F. nucleatum strains, the amide-bound fatty acid in F. varium and F. mortiferum was D-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid. The chemical relationships of lipid A from Fusobacteria and other gram-negative bacteria are discussed. ...
Although calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca2+-binding luminal resident protein, it can also appear on the surface of various types of cells and it functions as an immunopotentiating molecule. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the potent immunobiological activity of cell surface CRT are still unclear. In the present study, a recombinant fragment (rCRT/39-272) covering the lectin-like N domain and partial P domain of murine CRT has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The affinity-purified rCRT/39-272 assembles into homodimers and oligomers in solution and exhibits high binding affinity to various glycans, including carrageenan, alginic acids, and hyaluronic acids. Functionally, rCRT/39-272 is capable of driving the activation and maturation of B cells and cytokine production by macrophages in a TLR-4-dependent manner in vitro. It specifically binds recombinant mouse CD14, but not BAFFR and CD40. It is also able to trigger Ig class switching by B cells in the absence of T cell help both in ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and
Chemical analyses and mass spectrometry were used to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Aeromonas bestiarum strain K296, serotype O18. ESI-MS revealed that the most abundant A. bestiarum LPS glycoforms have a hexa-acylated or tetra-acylated lipid A with conserved architecture of the backbone, consisting of a 1,4′-bisphosphorylated β-(1→6)-linked d-GlcN disaccharide with an AraN residue as a non-stoichiometric substituent and a core oligosaccharide composed of Kdo1Hep6Hex1HexN1P1. 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) of A. bestiarum K296 consists of a branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit containing two 6-deoxy-l-talose (6dTalp), one Manp and one GalpNAc residues; thus, it is similar to that of the OPS of A. hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34) in both the sugar composition and the glycosylation pattern. Moreover, 3-substituted 6dTalp was 2-O-acetylated and additional O-acetyl groups were identified at O-2 and O-4 (or O-3) positions
The chemical structure of lipid A isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide was elucidated by compositional analysis, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydrophilic backbone of free lipid A was found to consisted of beta(1,6)-linked D-glucosamine disaccharide 1-phosphate. (R)-3-Hydroxy-15-methylhexadecanoic acid and (R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid are attached at positions 2 and 3 of the reducing terminal residue, respectively, and positions 2 and 3 of the nonreducing terminal unit are acylated with (R)-3-O-(hexadecanoyl)-15-methylhexadecanoic acid and (R)-3-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid, respectively. The hydroxyl group at position 4 is partially replaced by another phosphate group, and the hydroxyl groups at positions 4 and 6 are unsubstituted. Considerable heterogeneity in the fatty acid chain length and the degree of acylation and phosphorylation was detected by liquid secondary ion-mass spectrometry (LSI-MS). A significant ...
Despite considerable efforts toward vaccine development over decades, there is no available effective vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of P. vivax (PvTRAP) is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquitos salivary gland and vertebrates hepa …
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) as an acute-phase protein plays a crucial role in innate host response to bacterial challenge. Our previous study shows that LBP expression in human gingiva is associated with periodontal status. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontopathogen, and its LPS with lipid A structural heterogeneity critically accounts for periodontal pathogenesis. This study investigated the effects of LBP and its interactions with two featured isoforms of P. gingivalis LPS (tetra-acylated LPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated LPS1690) on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs), and the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. HOKs were pre-incubated with recombinant human LBP (rhLBP) at 10ng/ml, 100ng/ml and 1μg/ml for 1 h, followed by the treatment of P. gingivalis LPS1690 or LPS1435/1449 for 3h or 24h respectively. The expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and involvements of TLR2 and TLR4 were analyzed. The genes associated with
Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a derivative of LPS endotoxin, is a TLR4 agonist that displays as little as 0.1-1% as much toxicity as its parent molecule while retaining immunostimulatory properties. We discovered that MPLA activates a TRIF-biased pattern of TLR4 signaling, resulting in reduced production of MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory factors, and credited TRIF-bias for MPLAs reduced toxicity. A contemporary study showed that MPLA fails to promote maturation of the potent inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß. This dissertation seeks to reconcile MPLAs TRIF-biased signaling with IL-1 ß loss, and to determine the ultimate cause of MPLAs reduced toxicity compared to LPS. We find that TRIF-biased TLR4 activation results in weak MyD88-dependent induction of NLRP3, a critical inflammasome component required for IL-1 ß production. MPLAs loss of IL-1 ß results in decreased potentiation of MyD88-dependent inflammatory factors in vivo and reduced IL-1 RI-dependent hepatotoxicity. Ultimately, TRIF-biased TLR4
LPS has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice and humans9 ,12 and subcutaneous administration of LPS promotes adiposity and a slight impairment of glucose metabolism.11 However, little is known about how LPS from the gut affects metabolism. We therefore investigated the importance of gut-derived LPS in mediating glucose and insulin tolerance and macrophage accumulation and inflammation by colonising GF mice with either E.coli W3110 or the isogenic mutant MLK1067, a strain with reduced immunogenicity owing to its penta-acylated lipid A component,15 for 4 weeks. We first confirmed that the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce Tnfα expression and tumour necrosis factor α secretion in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages (online supplementary figure S2A,B), and showed that W3110 and MLK1067 colonised the mouse gut approximately to the same bacterial density (1.1×1010 and 1.5×1010 CFU/ml for W3110 and MLK1067, respectively).. As expected, colonisation with E.coli W3110 but not ...
Bioactive peptides and peptidases: biological and immunobiological activities in infectious diseases and cancer. Research Projects Thematic Grants. Luiz Rodolpho Raja Gabaglia Travassos. Biochemistry
Generating durable humoral immunity through vaccination depends upon effective interactions of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells with germinal center (GC) B cells. Th1 polarization of Tfh cells is an important process shaping the success of Tfh-GC B cell interactions by influencing costimulatory and cytokine-dependent Tfh help to B cells. However, the question remains as to whether adjuvant-dependent modulation of Tfh cells enhances HIV-1 vaccine-induced antienvelope (anti-Env) antibody responses. We investigated whether an HIV-1 vaccine platform designed to increase the number of Th1-polarized Tfh cells enhances the magnitude and quality of anti-Env antibodies. Utilizing a novel interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10)-adjuvanted HIV-1 DNA prime followed by a monophosphoryl lipid A and QS-21 (MPLA+QS-21)-adjuvanted Env protein boost (DIP-10 PALFQ) in macaques, we observed higher anti-Env serum IgG titers with greater cross-clade reactivity, specificity for V1V2, and effector functions than in ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. T2 - Structure, chemical synthesis, biogenesis and interaction with host cells. AU - Knirel, Yuriy A.. AU - Valvano, Miguel. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Book. SN - 978-3-7091-0732-4. BT - Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PB - Springer-Verlag. CY - Wien. ER - ...
Polysaccharides comprise a distinct class of biopolymers produced ubiquitously among living organisms. They play significant roles in modern science and technology and bestow several advantages to mankind ranging from achieving desirable food texture to serving as tissue scaffolds. Their recognition by Toll-like receptors that are key regulators of innate immunity toward responding to invading microorganisms as well as observation of immunopharmacological activity dependence on the polysaccharide conformation accentuates the essential need of structural information for deciphering the biological behavior. Their unique properties such as renewability and biodegradability further spawn the design and development of new biomaterial products namely hydrogels and implants that have the ability to respond to specific stimuli with desired pharmacokinetics. These functional behaviors rely greatly on polysaccharides molecular organizations as well as their time dependent structural transformations. ...
Another one in the series of endotoxin antagonism featuring so far vitamins D and B2. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) Is Endotoxin Antagonist Vitamin B2...
Поиск диссертаций, авторефератов, научных статей и публикаций в русскоязычных источниках и периодике. LpxM(msbB) mutant
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Petrou VI, Herrera CM, Schultz KM, Clarke OB, Vendome J, Tomasek D, Banerjee S, Rajashankar KR, Dufrisne MBelcher, Kloss B, et al. Structures of aminoarabinose transferase ArnT suggest a molecular basis for lipid A glycosylation. Science. 2016 ;351(6273):608-12. ...
Petrou VI, Herrera CM, Schultz KM, Clarke OB, Vendome J, Tomasek D, Banerjee S, Rajashankar KR, Dufrisne MBelcher, Kloss B, et al. Structures of aminoarabinose transferase ArnT suggest a molecular basis for lipid A glycosylation. Science. 2016 ;351(6273):608-12. ...
柔潤劑、乳化劑,飽和性脂肪酸,棕櫚油中之主要成份,與強鹼類皂化後即形成肥皂。 柔潤劑, 乳化劑 ...
Learn about how important it can be to consider endogenous toxins where a client is displaying inflammatory symptoms and to work on the gut to improve outcomes.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by broad clinical manifestations including cardiovascular and renal complications with periodic disease flares and significant morbidity and mortality. One of the main contributing factors to the pathology of SLE is the accumulation and impaired clearance of immune complexes of which the principle components are host auto-antigens and antibodies. The contribution of host lipids to the formation of these autoimmune complexes remains poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze candidate lipid autoantigens and their corresponding anti-lipid antibody responses in a well-defined SLE patient cohort using a combination of immunological and biophysical techniques. Disease monitoring in the SLE cohort was undertaken with serial British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) scoring. Correlations between specific lipid/anti-lipid responses were investigated as disease activity developed from active flares
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue in Kdo-lipid IV(A) at the 4-OH position.
Gram negative and positive bacteria have evolved toxins to aid in their ability to colonize host organisms. Some gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins called superantigens that hyper-stimulate the immune system by crosslinking the variable region of the beta chain (Vβ) of T cell receptors with the antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex II molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cells. This hyper-stimulation leads to overproduction of cytokines, which can result in toxic shock. In addition, the action of the superantigens has been implicated in many diseases including necrotizing pneumonia and endocarditis. Gram-negative bacteria produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, as a major constituent in their outer cell walls. LPS binds to the host protein called MD-2 and the LPS:MD-2 complex associates with cell surface homodimeric Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This tri-molecular interaction can lead to massive stimulation of cytokines from TLR4+ antigen presenting ...
Deletion mutants in the lpxM gene in two Yersinia pestis strains, the live Russian vaccine strain EV NIIEG and a fully virulent strain, 231, synthesise a less toxic penta-acylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Analysis of these mutants revealed they possessed marked reductions in expression and immunoreactivity of numerous major proteins and...
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The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its sign
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Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Brown H, Glass C, Merrill JA, Murphy R, Raetz C, Russell D, Seyama Y, Shaw W, Shimizu T, Spener F, van Meer G, Vannieuwenhze M, White S, Witztum J and Dennis E.A.,A comprehensive classification system for lipids. J. Lipid Res. (2005) 46: 839-861.PubMed ID:15722563. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
To battle against premature aging, three essential lines of protection and correction exist that are crucial for the maintenance of the skins natural beauty, including: shielding against UV radiation; protecting the skins natural lipid structure; and counteracting internal damage.
Deoarece si noi, in interior, de abia ne miscam. Aspectele aferente terapiei CranioSacrale sunt extrem de subtile. Necesita exercitiu, dar, o data însusite, ramân pe viata.. De ce se simt unii oameni mai rau, în urma unui tratament?. Foarte rar se întâlnesc cazuri în care clientul se poate simti mai rau dupa terapie si asta se datoreaza faptului ca poate, în timpul terapiei, odata cu relaxarea tesutului conjunctiv, clientul retraieste din punct de vedere emotional momentul în care trauma s-a produs, sau corpul lor re-experimenteaza pe masura eliberarii acesteia din tesuturi, o trauma anterioara sau o ranire si asta dureaza câteva zile pâna se disipeaza complet, sau poate corpul s-a obisnuit cu raul si-i ia timp sa se obisnuiasca cu binele . Se mai numeste si criza vindecarii.. Un alt motiv poate fi acela conform caruia zona de amorteala a revenit la viata si a devenit mai sensibila. De asemeni, se întâmpla adeseori ca un corp sa se adapteze unui defect. Atunci când ...
SkinCeuticals TRIPLE LIPID RESTORE 2:4:2 Aging skin is increasingly susceptible to lipid depletion; the loss of natural compounds in skin s surface,
Bridging the gap between the lab and the clinic, Lipids in Health and Diseases publishes high-quality, high-volume research on all aspects of lipids. We ...
We explain Introduction to Lipids with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p| This lesson will introduce the basic structure and function of a lipid.|/p|
The NLA was created out of the success established by the Southeast Lipid Association (SELA), which was formed in 1997 by a group of pioneering lipid ...
Akhilesh Bajpai and Sravanthi Davuluri (Correspondence: Acharya KK, [email protected]), A list of resources for lipids; In: Startbioinfo; 09 Sep 2012, http://www.shodhaka.com/cgi-bin/startbioinfo/prelimresources.pl?tn=Lipids ...
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A lipid that helps lotion soften the skin also helps cells find and stay in the right location in the body by ensuring they keep their antennae up, scientists report.
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in: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, in: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Lipids and Lipid Metabolism . - Amsterdam : Elsevier, ISSN 0005-2760, ZDB-ID 2209461-1 Vol. 1170, No. 2 (1993), p. 197- ...
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Lipid. Mediat. 68-69: 511-20. doi:10.1016/S0090-6980(02)00052-7. PMID 12432940. Christmas P, Weber BM, McKee M, Brown D, ...
Non-specific lipid-transfer protein also known as sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2) or propanoyl-CoA C-acyltransferase is a ... 1999). "Lipid-binding proteins in rat and human kidney". Kidney Int. Suppl. 71: S159-62. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.07141.x. ... Lipids. 76 (1): 73-84. doi:10.1016/0009-3084(95)02436-M. PMID 7788802. Vesa J, Hellsten E, Barnoski BL, et al. (1994). " ... This gene is highly expressed in organs involved in lipid metabolism, and may play a role in Zellweger syndrome, in which cells ...
Lipid biotechnology. Tsung Min Kuo, Harold W. Gardner. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2002. ISBN 0-585-40371-6. OCLC 48691412.{{cite ...
Lipid Res. 18 (1): 31-53. doi:10.1016/0163-7827(79)90003-1. PMID 42927. Taketani S, Nishino T, Katsuki H (1979). " ... ACAT-mediated esterification of cholesterol limits its solubility in the cell membrane lipids and thus promotes accumulation of ... The different isoforms are also associated with different pathologies associated with abnormalities in lipid metabolism. ... Journal of Lipid Research. 48 (7): 1618-27. doi:10.1194/jlr.M700109-JLR200. PMID 17438337. Huttunen HJ, Greco C, Kovacs DM ( ...
"Myriocin". Lipid Maps. October 27, 2010. doi:10.1038/lipidmaps.2010.34. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved ...
Lipid Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID 15748653. Nithipatikom K, Endsley MP, Pfeiffer AW, Falck JR, ... Newman JW, Morisseau C, Hammock BD (2005). "Epoxide hydrolases: their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. ... Lipid Res. 55 (10): 2093-102. doi:10.1194/jlr.M051284. PMC 4174002. PMID 24958911. Zusterzeel PL, Peters WH, Visser W, Hermsen ...
"Lipid hypothesis". The Weston A. Price Foundation. Archived from the original on 2022-07-16. Retrieved 2022-07-16. Butler, ... The Weston A. Price Foundation is known for its controversial position against the lipid hypothesis, maintaining a positive ...
Kamal-Eldin, A.; Yousif, G.; Iskander, G. M.; Appelqvist, L.-Å (1992). "Seed Lipids of Sesamum indicum, L. and Related Wild ... Species in Sudan I: Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols". Lipid / Fett. 94 (7): 254-259. doi:10.1002/lipi.19920940705. ISSN 1521- ...
... whereas liquid extraction would also remove lipids. Lipids can be removed using pure CO2 at higher pressures, and then ... ISBN 978-0-495-01201-6. King, Jerry W. (2002). "34, Supercritical Fluid Technology for Lipid Extraction, Fractionation and ... Reactions" (PDF). In Tsung Min Kuo and Harold Gardner (ed.). Lipid Biotechnology. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. pp. 663-687. " ...
Lipid Res. 43 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2003.12.001. PMID 15003397. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004 ... Lipid Res. 43 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2003.12.001. PMID 15003397. "Entrez Gene: CHKB choline kinase beta". This ... Lipid Res. 41 (3): 452-64. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)34484-9. PMID 10706593. Ishidate K (1997). "Choline/ethanolamine kinase ...
Lipid Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID 15748653. Fretland AJ, Omiecinski CJ (2000). "Epoxide ... Newman JW, Morisseau C, Hammock BD (2005). "Epoxide hydrolases: their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. ...
doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803550-4.00015-X. ISBN 978-0-12-803550-4. Bhagavan, N.V.; Ha, Chung-Eun (2015). "Lipids I: Fatty Acids ... Li, Lei O.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A. (March 2010). "Acyl-CoA synthesis, lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity". ... Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1801 (3): 246-251. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.09.024 ... "Preservation of Acyl-CoA Attenuates Pathological and Metabolic Cardiac Remodeling Through Selective Lipid Trafficking". ...
"The influence of frying technique, cooking oil and fish species on the changes occurring in fish lipids and oil during shallow- ... Hrncirik, Karel (2010). "Stability of fat-soluble vitamins and PUFA in simulated shallow-frying". Lipid Technology. 22 (5): 107 ...
Lipid Technology. 22 (12): 270-273. doi:10.1002/lite.201000068. Clean Technica - Successful F-22 Flight on 50% Camelina Biofuel ...
Lipid enzymology. Academic Press, Inc., New York. Kagan V. E. (1989). "Tocopherol stabilizes membrane against phospholipase A, ...
Sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke". Lipids. 38 (7): 773-80. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1126-5. PMID 14506841. S2CID 4026737. Villarreal-Lozoya ... This gives rise to the arachidonic acid cascade, a metabolic pathway that yields lipid mediator compounds such as ... "Conditions We Treat". Flider, Frank J. (2013). "Development and commercialization of GLA safflower oil". Lipid Technology. 25 ( ... 3.1: Arachidonic Acid-Derived Bioactive Lipids. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEdwards,_McCarthy_&_Wenceslau2020 (help) Wang, B ...
Lipid Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID 15748653. Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, ... Newman JW, Morisseau C, Hammock BD (2005). "Epoxide hydrolases: their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. ... The Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (4): 712-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M009639. PMC 3284163. PMID 21217101. Pace-Asciak, C. R. (2009). " ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1851 (4): 383-96. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.09.007. PMID 25240838. Cronin, A; Decker, M; ...
... MS Spectrum Fatty Acids: Methylene-Interrupted Double Bonds, AOCS Lipid Library (CS1 maint: multiple names: ... Cyber Lipid. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2017. Mattes, RD (2009). "Is there a fatty acid ... How Cholesterol and Ceramides Control Receptor-Dependent and Receptor-Independent Signal Transmission Pathways of a Lipid ...
Studies using a lipid epoxide as a substrate detected this activity in the soluble fraction of multiple organs, though at a ... These lipids play a role in asthma, pain, and inflammation and are the targets of several pharmaceuticals. The EET receptor or ... These lipid epoxides have been shown to have biological effects in vitro in which they inhibit platelet aggregation. In fact, ... EETs are lipid signaling molecules that function in an autocrine and paracrine manner. They are produced when arachidonic acid ...
List, Gary R. "The AOCS-Supelco Research Award 1982 to 1996". Lipid Library. Retrieved June 15, 2021. "UW Biochemist Tells of ...
"The role Acyl-CoA thioesterases play in mediating intracellular lipid metabolism". Prog. Lipid Res. 41 (2): 99-130. doi:10.1016 ... J Lipid Res. 46 (9): 2029-32. doi:10.1194/jlr.E500003-JLR200. PMID 16103133. Hunt MC, Rautanen A, Westin MA, Svensson LT, ...
Lipid Res. 31 (1): 65-86. doi:10.1016/0163-7827(92)90016-C. PMID 1641397. Portal: Biology v t e (EC 2.3.1, Enzymes of unknown ...
The lipidome refers to the totality of lipids in cells. Lipids are one of the four major molecular components of biological ... November 2010). "Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma". J. Lipid Res. 51 (11): 3299-305. doi: ... Lipid Res. 49 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2009.07.003. PMC 7112618. PMID 19638285. Gaspar ML, Aregullin MA, Jesch SA, ... van der Meer-Janssen YP, van Galen J, Batenburg JJ, Helms JB (January 2010). "Lipids in host-pathogen interactions: pathogens ...
Lipid Res. 50, 403-410 Judy, K.J.; Schooley, D.A.; Dunham, L.L.; Hall, M.S.; Bergot, B.J.; Siddall, J.B. (1973). "Isolation, ... Journal of Lipid Research. 24 (12): 1586-1594. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)37857-3. PMID 6366103. Journal of the American ...
... so proteins and lipid molecules are then free to diffuse laterally through the lipid matrix and migrate over the membrane. ... as through the study of lipid polymorphism it is now known that the behaviour of lipids under physiological (and other) ... Lipid bilayers occur when hydrophobic tails line up against one another, forming a membrane of hydrophilic heads on both sides ... Modern lipid profiling employs more absolute methods of analysis, with NMR spectroscopy, particularly 31P-NMR, while HPLC-ELSD ...
Lipid uptake. Lipids are broken down by pancreatic lipase aided by bile, and then diffuse into the enterocytes. Smaller lipids ... Bile that was released and not used in emulsification of lipids are reabsorbed in the ileum. Also known as the enterohepatic ... are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...
Wang Y, Jacome-Sosa MM, Vine DF, Proctor SD (20 May 2010). "Beneficial effects of vaccenic acid on postprandial lipid ... metabolism and dyslipidemia: Impact of natural trans-fats to improve CVD risk". Lipid Technology. 22 (5): 103-106. doi:10.1002/ ...
Massrieh, Wael (2008). "Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from Neptune krill oil". Lipid Technology. 20 (5): 108-111. doi: ...
Lipid Res. 43: 534-552. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.09.002. PMID 15522763. Munford RS, Weiss JP, Lu M (2020). "Biochemical ... This reaction inactivates the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin); the tetraacyl lipid A product can inhibit LPS signaling. ... a fatty acid The enzyme removes from lipid A the secondary acyl chains that are needed for lipopolysaccharides to be recognized ...
... , such as polymers and lipids have found applications in nanotechnology as well. The realization that soft matter ... 1-2. ISBN 978-0-19-850589-1. Mashaghi S.; Jadidi T.; Koenderink G.; Mashaghi A. (2013). "Lipid Nanotechnology". Int. J. Mol. ...
Table 3. Lipid cut points. Category. Lipid cut points (mg/dl) for youth 0-19 years of age. Lipid cut points (mg/dl) for young ... Lipid screening may also provide opportunities for educating youth and families on the risks of other adverse lifestyle habits ... Deciding whether or not lipid screening in youth offers high value is perhaps more difficult to evaluate than the cost- ... Screen all children for lipid abnormalities with a nonfasting, non-HDL cholesterol between ages 9-11 and 17-21 years, in ...
Disorders like Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs cause problems with how your body uses lipids. Read more. ... Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like ... If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. Or the enzymes may not work properly ... They cause a harmful amount of lipids to build up in your body. Over time, that can damage your cells and tissues, especially ...
Community Forum LIPID MAPS® Highlights Lipid Matters (blog) Lipid of the Month Lipid Trends LipidWeb Podcasts Tutorials ... 2003-2023 LIPID MAPS® Terms of Use How to Cite How to Link Browsers Supported Manage Cookies ...
The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, ... services to organizations and laboratories worldwide to improve the accuracy and reliability of cholesterol and other lipid ...
Here the authors design a DNA nanostructure that catalyzes the transport of lipids between bilayers at a rate three orders of ... Through a combination of microscopic simulations and fluorescence microscopy we find the lipid transport rate catalyzed by the ... The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating ... DNA nanostructure exceeds 107 molecules per second, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of lipid transport ...
... through investigation of its large lipid droplet (LD). The adipocyte LD is a unique organelle specialized in storing energy in ... Adipocyte hypertrophy is a condition associated with larger than normal lipid droplets (LDs), the adipocyte organelles that ... SPHERES project is to investigate the hypothesis that disturbances in the interaction between LD proteins and LD lipid ...
Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation activity in evaluating hepatocellular damage in children  ...
Use this form to report a technical problem with this website. Please include a clear description of what went wrong ...
Lipids play diverse roles in the normal functioning of the body: ... Dietary lipids. Some of the fatty acids need to be taken in ... Lipids are also biomarkers of disease and are involved in several pathological conditions. Lipids are also known to play a role ... Lipids and chronic diseases. Fats in diet play a role in chronic diseases. Up to 70% of all cancers in the United States are ... Lipids play diverse roles in the normal functioning of the body:. *they serve as the structural building material of all ...
Berberine and probiotics supplementation decreases post-meal lipid spike in Type II diabetes patients - 12-week RCT 31-Jan-2022 ... A Korean RCT showed that the intake of the probiotic lactobacillus plantarum Q180 (LPQ180) is able to regulate post-meal lipid ... The supplementation of both berberine and probiotics has been shown to reduce post-meal lipid spike in Type II diabetes ... Probiotics intake boosts post-meal lipid metabolism - Korean RCT 27-Feb-2020. By Tingmin Koe ...
... ... Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 15 (‎1)‎, 157-166, 2009 https://apps.who.int/iris/ ...
Drs Pam Taub and Steve Nissen discuss the current state of lipid management and what is on the horizon, thanks to the impact of ... Whats New on the Lipid Management Landscape? The Experts Compare Notes. Pam R. Taub, MD, FACC, FASPC; Steven E. Nissen, MD, ... Not only do the lipid-rich plaques regress, but there is a change in this fibrous cap, which at least some people have linked ... Taub: Steve, youve really had a front-row seat to the evolution of lipid-lowering medications. Youve been in charge of such ...
Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health ... Computational Modeling of Lipid Metabolism in Yeast Front Mol Biosci. 2016 Sep 27;3:57. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2016.00057. ... While all lipid species are treated objects in the model, they can be modified by the respective converting reactions based on ... Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health ...
Lipid-Lowering Agents. Class Summary. Agents in this class reduce serum bilirubin levels. They have been used for their effects ...
Purchase Advances in Lipid Research, Volume 2 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781483199382, 9781483224411 ... Bacterial Lipids. I. Introduction. II. Lipid Composition of Whole Cells. III. Intracellular Distribution of Lipids. IV. ... Advances in Lipid Research. Holiday Sale. :. Save up to 25% on print and eBooks with FREE shipping. No promo code needed. More ... Comparative Evaluation of Lipid Biosynthesis in Vitro and in Vivo. I. Introduction. II. Study of Precursors. III. The Enzymatic ...
Lipids definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now! ... Words nearby lipids. lipemia, Li Peng, Lipetsk, lip gloss, lipid, lipids, Lipitor, Lipizzaner, lip-lock, Lipmann, lip ... Lipids do not dissolve in water. In animals, including humans, lipids store energy and form parts of cell structures, such as ... lipids. in a sentence. *. During the plentiful dry season, women consumed more calories and more energy-rich lipids. ...
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Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Lipids News. ... USPSTF Declines to Recommend Lipid Tests for All Kids The US Preventive Services Task Force is calling for more research on ... screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents before it recommends universal testing. Medscape Medical News, ...
Community Forum LIPID MAPS® Highlights Lipid Matters (blog) Lipid of the Month Lipid Trends LipidWeb Podcasts Tutorials ... 2003-2022 LIPID MAPS® Terms of Use How to Cite How to Link Browsers Supported Manage Cookies ...
Community Forum LIPID MAPS® Highlights Lipid Matters (blog) Lipid of the Month Lipid Trends LipidWeb Podcasts Tutorials ... 2003-2022 LIPID MAPS® Terms of Use How to Cite How to Link Browsers Supported Manage Cookies ...
The conference centers around an aspect of lipid metabolism and maintains an informal atmosphere, encourages free and open ... Participants are investigators in the field of lipids and lipoproteins from the around the world. Interested scientists are ...
Search Funded PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships in lipid. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, ... Mycobacteria contain more lipid than any other bacteria. In addition to a characteristically lipid-rich cell envelope, ... Deciphering the lipid code for SLC7 transporters using native MS and cryoEM. University of Oxford Division of Medical Sciences ... Designer MCE proteins: Unity and diversity of lipid transport function in double membranes. Queen Mary University of London ...
Lipid disorders do not cause symptoms. However people with a certain type, or those with very high cholesterol may have:. * ... Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/lipid-disorders/dyslipidemia. Updated ...
That a relation exists between lipids/lipoproteins and coronary artery disease is no longer an arguable point. However, the ... Lipids/Lipoproteins as a Risk Factor in Coronary Heart Disease. Basic Lipidology. Lipid/Lipoprotein Metabolism. Biology of ... Lipid Metabolism and Health, in presenting the latest statement from those positioned on the cutting edge in this arena, ... Lipid Metabolism and Health provides a useful scientific and educational tool for researchers, clinicians, academicians, and ...
They play an essential role in lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. In fact, LDs are complex organelles, involved in many ... LDs play a central role in cellular energy storage and lipid metabolism. Viruses from the Flaviviridae family, namely dengue ... Flaviviruses have a similar structure, with a lipid bilayer, where the envelope and membrane proteins are located, surrounding ... interact with LDs to usurp the host lipid metabolism for their own viral replication and pathogenesis. In general, during ...
Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, interaction of membrane lipids with them constitutes an important area of research ... lipids [64]. The rate of exchange of lipids between the annular lipid shell and the bulk lipid phase was shown to be ... Cholesterol: A Lipid Intimately Associated with GPCRs. Cholesterol is an important and representative membrane lipid in higher ... X. Xu and E. London, "The effect of sterol structure on membrane lipid domains reveals how cholesterol can induce lipid domain ...
Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its ... Brasaemle, D. L. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of ... nuclei and lipid droplets were stained with DAPI and FITC respectively. Nuclei were indicated by white arrow. In panel B, lipid ... no lipid droplets). Finally, it must be stressed that our hypothesis regarding insulin and lipid droplets was also confirmed by ...
  • Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease , involve lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This PPAR gene is important for lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (news-medical.net)
  • A Korean RCT showed that the intake of the probiotic lactobacillus plantarum Q180 (LPQ180) is able to regulate post-meal lipid metabolism. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health studies. (nih.gov)
  • However, mathematical modeling by means of classical approaches such as stoichiometric networks and ordinary differential equation systems has not yet provided satisfactory insights, due to the complexity of lipid metabolism characterized by many different species with only slight differences and by promiscuous multifunctional enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Applied to yeast metabolism during one cell cycle period, we could analyze the distribution of all lipids to the various membranes in time-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • The presented approach allows to efficiently treat the complexity of cellular lipid metabolism and to derive conclusions on the time- and location-dependent distributions of lipid species and their properties such as saturation. (nih.gov)
  • Other chapters consider the two aspects of the relationship between lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The conference centers around an aspect of lipid metabolism and maintains an informal atmosphere, encourages free and open discussion, and is a forum for the presentation of new and unpublished data. (asbmb.org)
  • Lipid Metabolism and Health, in presenting the latest statement from those positioned on the cutting edge in this arena, provides an overview and historical perspective of the evolution of serum lipids and lipoproteins. (routledge.com)
  • Considerable attention is focused on the fundamentals, beginning with a chapter on basic lipidology, and progresses through such topics as lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, and the biology of atherosclerosis. (routledge.com)
  • Lipid Metabolism and Health provides a useful scientific and educational tool for researchers, clinicians, academicians, and students seeking a timely and bona fide source of information on the relationship between lipids and health. (routledge.com)
  • Lipid/Lipoprotein Metabolism. (routledge.com)
  • They play an essential role in lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viruses from the Flaviviridae family, namely dengue virus (DENV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV), interact with LDs to usurp the host lipid metabolism for their own viral replication and pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The first ANGPTL-3 inhibitor to receive FDA approval, evinacumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting ANGPTL-3, which regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Lipids are the primary molecules that build life - structurally by forming cell membranes, and mechanistically by regulating every aspect in cell metabolism. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Maria Fedorova's group "Lipid metabolism: analysis and integration" explores the complexity and dynamics of natural lipidomes and combines high resolution mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Silibinin inhibits aberrant lipid metabolism, proliferation and emergence of androgen-independence in prostate cancer cells via primarily targeting the sterol response element binding protein 1. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Here, we evaluated efficacy and associated mechanisms of silibinin in inhibiting lipid metabolism in PCA cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • PRY-1, an Axin family member, showed differentially regulated genes related to lipid metabolism. (thesil.ca)
  • Our paper has demonstrated, for the first time, the role of this protein in lipid metabolism. (thesil.ca)
  • To our surprise, we found highly enriched genes involved in lipid metabolism and the aging process. (thesil.ca)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key nuclear receptor in the control of lipid metabolism. (avhandlingar.se)
  • We have also identified a further acyl-CoA thioesterase, peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterase 2, PTE-2, as a novel PPARalpha target gene, and have shown that this enzyme acts as a 'general' acyl-CoA thioesterase in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The induction of this enzyme by fibrates, which act as ligands for the PPARalpha, suggests a link between cholesterol and lipid metabolism mediated via the PPARalpha. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Among them, the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays an important role in hepatic and systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that hepatic SIRT1 is an important factor in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in response to nutrient deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data suggest that Pi limitation activates Pi-related metabolism, RNA degradation, and TAG biosynthesis while inhibits ribosome biosynthesis and TCA cycle, leading to enhanced carbon fluxes into lipids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present invention relates to a food, a drug and a feed which have lipid metabolism improving activity or anti-obesity activity. (justia.com)
  • The term lipid metabolism refers to the in vivo process of catabolism (decomposition) and anabolism (accumulation) of lipids, which are mainly triglycerides derived from food, and is intended to include, in the broad sense, reactions for transforming lipids into energy, biosynthesis of fatty acids, biosynthesis of acylglycerol, phospholipid metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism. (justia.com)
  • Thus, a need exists for a development of an effective lipid metabolism improving agent. (justia.com)
  • As a result, a lipid metabolism abnormality sometimes occurs in these livestock, poultry and cultivated fish. (justia.com)
  • However, there has been no report on lipid metabolism improving activity or anti-obesity activity thereof. (justia.com)
  • However, there has been no report on the above three compounds in respect of lipid metabolism improving activity or anti-obesity activity. (justia.com)
  • As the master regulator of systemic lipid storage and through secretion of a number of these adipokines, adipose tissue has an influence on many processes, including energy metabolism, inflammation, and pathophysiological changes such as cancer and infectious disease ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Now, a lot of times, lipids are strongly associated with fats, and that's not incorrect. (khanacademy.org)
  • Fats are lipids, but not all lipids are fats. (khanacademy.org)
  • Just going back to fats, let's actually take a look at what some of these lipid molecules look like. (khanacademy.org)
  • But as I also mentioned, all lipids are not fats. (khanacademy.org)
  • Lipids belong to a family of organic compounds which includes fats, vegetable oils, waxes, cholesterol , phospholipids, steroids, and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). They are formed by either or both carbanion-based condensation of thioesters and carbocation-based condensation of isoprene units. (wikibooks.org)
  • They're all lipids , a type of compound produced by plants and animals that includes fats and oils as well as waxes and steroids. (visionlearning.com)
  • Cholesterol and triglycerides are fats (lipids). (rochester.edu)
  • Adipocyte hypertrophy is a condition associated with larger than normal lipid droplets (LDs), the adipocyte organelles that store energy in the form of triglycerides. (europa.eu)
  • These results from the excessive storage of energy in the form of triglycerides (TGs) in lipid droplets (a monolayer membrane with a structure similar to very low-density lipoprotein 10 ) within adipocytes, which links to obesity and to IR. (nature.com)
  • Nonfasting testing for baseline and follow-up complete lipid profiles, including LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, is recommended by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the College of Family Physicians of Canada guidelines for lipids. (cmaj.ca)
  • However, recent evidence has shown that nonfasting lipid testing is more suitable, and nonfasting testing for baseline and follow-up complete lipid profiles, including low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, is now recommended by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2 and the College of Family Physicians of Canada 3 guidelines for lipid testing. (cmaj.ca)
  • A blood lipid profile measures the levels of each type of fat in your blood: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and others. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. (cdc.gov)
  • The HF diet group had significantly increased abundance of triglycerides and phosphatidylinositol lipids, as well as decreased lysophosphatidic lipids and cardiolipin. (cdc.gov)
  • The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating the lipid composition. (nature.com)
  • Through a combination of microscopic simulations and fluorescence microscopy we find the lipid transport rate catalyzed by the DNA nanostructure exceeds 10 7 molecules per second, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of lipid transport catalyzed by biological enzymes. (nature.com)
  • The LIPID MAPS initiative seeks to identify and quantify all lipids and their interacting moieties in mammalian cells (namely the 'lipodome'), using sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, in order for the scientific community to begin to understand how these molecules play a part in various lipid-based disease mechanisms, including diabetes, stroke, and cancer. (soci.org)
  • Although the immediate application of SMLs by the Szoka group is concerned with enhanced liposomal drug delivery, where SML-doped liposomes are highly resistant to contents leakage due to the enhanced liposome stability associated with a reduction in cholesterol exchange with biomembranes, such lipid molecules are of great interest to anyone conducting studies of a biophysical nature on model membranes. (soci.org)
  • As the lipid molecules stabilise the aqueous-oil interface, a bilayer (or 'DIB') is formed as a result of the two monolayers coming into close proximity. (soci.org)
  • We use analytical, biochemical, biophysical and computational methods on one hand, and disease model systems and clinical cohorts on the other to comprehend lipid function, dysfunction, and interaction with other molecules. (tu-dresden.de)
  • A better definition or a better association for lipids would be a class of molecules that you often see in biological systems that are not so water soluble. (khanacademy.org)
  • [1] Although lipids are amphiphatic molecules (containing both components of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions within the molecule), lipids are generally hydrophobic due largely in part to their large proportion of hydrocarbons to polar regions (due to oxygen containing functional groups). (wikibooks.org)
  • The bonding differences between water and lipid molecules is important because "like attracts like. (visionlearning.com)
  • While storage and release of lipids are major functions of adipocytes, the adipocyte also uses specific lipid molecules for intracellular signaling and uses a host of protein factors to communicate with essentially every organ system in the body. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Participants are investigators in the field of lipids and lipoproteins from the around the world. (asbmb.org)
  • That a relation exists between lipids/lipoproteins and coronary artery disease is no longer an arguable point. (routledge.com)
  • Lipids/Lipoproteins as a Risk Factor in Coronary Heart Disease. (routledge.com)
  • Lipids can form bonds to proteins and carbohydrates forming lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides. (wikibooks.org)
  • Other high-quality studies have shown that nonfasting lipid levels predict risk for coronary heart disease and stroke better than fasting lipid levels. (cmaj.ca)
  • Are fasting lipid levels more predictive of cardiovascular outcomes than nonfasting lipid levels? (aafp.org)
  • Hypercholesterolemia is the strongest modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease, 1 and measurement of plasma lipid levels is an integral part of overall cardiovascular risk assessment. (cmaj.ca)
  • In unison, the bioinformatics core has developed a novel lipid classification system - this consists of a unique molecular identifier for each lipid molecule, incorporating the chemical skeleton, any stereochemistry, degree of unsaturation and charge. (soci.org)
  • Here are more examples of lipids, and I'm not gonna go into detail into their molecular structure. (khanacademy.org)
  • Molecular dynamics, combined with biochemical analysis, reveal a lipid mediated dimer interface and mechanism for coordinating structural rearrangements during transport. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation has been found sufficient to promote conversion of sugars into lipids, yet the molecular basis of cellular response to Pi limitation and concurrent lipid accumulation remains elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonetheless, the molecular basis of cellular responses to Pi-limitation and concurrent lipid accumulation by oleaginous species remains elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At physiologically achievable levels in human, silibinin strongly reduced lipid and cholesterol accumulation specifically in human PCA cells but not in non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • AMPK inhibition reversed silibinin-mediated decrease in nuclear SREBP1 and lipid accumulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Additionally, specific SREBP inhibitor fatostatin and stable overexpression of SREBP1 further confirmed the central role of SREBP1 in silibinin-mediated inhibition of PCA cell proliferation and lipid accumulation and cell cycle arrest. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Importantly, silibinin also inhibited synthetic androgen R1881-induced lipid accumulation and completely abrogated the development of androgen-independent LNCaP cell clones via targeting SREBP1/2. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The aim of our study was to detect mechanisms by which a HP diet affects hepatic lipid accumulation. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Lipid accumulation by oleaginous microorganisms is of great scientific interest and biotechnological potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we performed multi-omic analyses of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to shield lights on Pi-limitation-induced lipid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spatial distribution of lipids. (nih.gov)
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles for neutral lipid storage, originated from the endoplasmic reticulum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. (nature.com)
  • DIBs are formed simply by bringing together two or more aqueous droplets in an oil environment where lipids are present. (soci.org)
  • Here, we show in vivo that hepatic SIRT1 is a factor in systemic and hepatic glucose, lipid, and cholesterol homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Welding fume inhalation exposure and high-fat diet change lipid homeostasis in rat liver. (cdc.gov)
  • This approach allows to follow the dynamics of all lipid species with different fatty acids, different degrees of saturation and different headgroups over time and to analyze the effect of parameter changes, potential mutations in the catalyzing enzymes or provision of different precursors. (nih.gov)
  • The lipids modified by the enzymes are two types of essential fatty acids that come from food, since mammals cannot synthesize them. (newswise.com)
  • The three main lipid-modifying enzymes compete with each other to modify whatever fatty acids are available from the diet. (newswise.com)
  • One common biological lipid is the fatty acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Purchase our lipids and fatty acids standards suitable for your broad range of industrial applications specifically for food matrix testing, microbiology testing, analysis of functional foods or nutraceutical formulations, clinical and diagnostic testing, and biomarker discovery, both prognostic and diagnostic. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • And I didn't say outright hydrophobic, which means not attracted to water, because there are definitely lipids that have parts that are hydrophobic, that are trying to get away from the water. (khanacademy.org)
  • Lipids are mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms , and this hydrophobic ("water fearing") nature of lipids is driven by the bonds between these many carbons and hydrogens. (visionlearning.com)
  • D.A.B.F.M., Dc.A.B.C.T., to support healthy blood lipid levels already in the normal range. (nutriessential.com)
  • Clinically formulated to support normal range blood lipid levels. (nutriessential.com)
  • Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, interaction of membrane lipids with them constitutes an important area of research in GPCR biology. (hindawi.com)
  • Together these results provide further insight into how SLC35 family transporters function within the secretory pathway and sheds light onto the role that membrane lipids play in regulating transport across the membrane. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • For each survey year from 2005-2006 to 2015-2016, the percentage of both men and women with high cholesterol taking lipid-lowering medications was higher among those aged ≥60 years than those in younger age groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Large population studies performed in Copenhagen and Calgary over the last decade showed that serum lipid levels after eating show minor variation, with triglyceride levels increasing by only 20%, at most, postprandially. (cmaj.ca)
  • A total of 758 Anniston residents had multiple measurements of blood pressure, provided information on demographic factors, medications, smoking, and exercise and provided blood samples for determination of PCBs and total serum lipids. (cdc.gov)
  • Hypertension also increased with body mass index (BMI), but was not related to total serum lipids levels, gender, smoking or exercise. (cdc.gov)
  • Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC Lipids Reference Laboratory (LRL) performs reference measurement procedures for total cholesterol, total glycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • Other lipid fractions, including total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100, do not change substantially after eating. (cmaj.ca)
  • The ASPEN PN Safety Committee has developed a new video series highlighting best practices for dosing, preparing and administering intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE). (nutritioncare.org)
  • Thus, development of biocompatible and easy to adapt synthetic analogues to repair and/or control lipid scrambling activity in cell membranes is of considerable medical interest. (nature.com)
  • In animals, including humans, lipids store energy and form parts of cell structures, such as cell membranes . (dictionary.com)
  • If, for example, one would wish to produce cholesterol-containing DIBs, hence aligning the complexity of the lipid content towards that of more biologically relevant mammalian membranes, one may foresee potential problems associated with cholesterol demixing into the oil phase. (soci.org)
  • Many vitamins, which are not so soluble in water, making them, in fact, lipids, need fat in order to be absorbed into the body properly. (khanacademy.org)
  • Therefore, Lipids are not soluble in water but are soluble in nonpolar solvents (ex: benzene and chloroform). (wikibooks.org)
  • Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/lipid-disorders/dyslipidemia. (epnet.com)
  • the high prevalence of dyslipidemia, observed since the pre-school age, reinforces the need to monitor the lipid profile, in the presence of obesity or overweight condition, independently of age. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rodgers, JT & Puigserver, P 2007, ' Fasting-dependent glucose and lipid metabolic response through hepatic sirtuin 1 ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 104, no. 31, pp. 12861-12866. (elsevier.com)
  • If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down lipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why are lipids and lipid-modifying enzymes important in inflammation and resolving inflammation? (newswise.com)
  • Three key lipid modifying enzymes in the body change the lipids into various signaling agents. (newswise.com)
  • They reasoned that this would increase the metabolites produced by the other two main enzymes, cyclooxygenase and cytochrome P450 because they no longer had to compete with 12/15 lipoxygenase for lipids to modify. (newswise.com)
  • Lipid disorders do not cause symptoms. (epnet.com)
  • EAS Advanced Course, Rare Lipid Disorders in Turkey. (eas-society.org)
  • Management of lipid disorders / by David A. Leaf. (who.int)
  • Advances in Lipid Research, Volume 2 provides a discussion of theories of triglyceride structure and presents a provocative comparison of in vitro versus in vivo lipid biosynthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The final chapter deals with the methods best adopted for in vitro and in vivo investigations of lipid biosynthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Pi limitation leads to dephosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate and the allosteric activator of isocitrate dehydrogenase key to lipid biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trends in apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein for adults 60 years and older by use of lipid-lowering medications: United States, 2005-2006 to 2013-2014 [Research Letter]. (cdc.gov)
  • The scope of the EU-funded SPHERES project is to investigate the hypothesis that disturbances in the interaction between LD proteins and LD lipid composition lead to adipocyte hypertrophy. (europa.eu)
  • The results of the MALDI-IMS analysis revealed unique hepatic lipid profiles for each treatment group. (cdc.gov)
  • Hence, WC was a better anthropometric index of fat location than WHR to estimate lipid profile in overweight and obese adult women. (who.int)
  • Dietary lipids help in biochemical and physiological functions as modulators of cell actions and genes. (news-medical.net)
  • all natural lipid structures have been incorporated into the database, of around 20,000 records, and are now encouraging researchers to utilise the additional features of PubChem, which include the citation of 'Bioassays', and lipids' roles in biochemical pathways. (soci.org)
  • Human primary preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and the pure adipocyte fractions were assessed by monitoring morphologically and via lipid droplet labeling ( Figure 1 A-B ). The efficacy of differentiation reached approximately 90-95%, indicating that adipocytes could be considered as a specific homogenous cell type. (nature.com)
  • There are lots of these carrier oils, eight with one outlier to make a total of nine related lipid compounds. (lipidoils.com)
  • The primary rat hepatocytes maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium were treated with [2-14C]acetate as substrate for cholesterol synthesis in the presence or absence of test compounds at 0.05 to 4.0 mmol/L. Eleven water-soluble and six lipid-soluble compounds of garlic were tested. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present an object-oriented stochastic model approach as a way to cope with the complex lipid metabolic network. (nih.gov)
  • The American Heart Association recommends that all adults older than 20 have a lipid profile once every 4 to 6 years as long as your risk for cardiovascular disease stays low. (rochester.edu)
  • La Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) tiene como misión elaborar recomendaciones que sirvan de ayuda a los profesionales sanitarios del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) en la toma de decisiones para el manejo de los lípidos como factor de Riesgo Cardiovascular. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using a mouse heart attack model, Ganesh Halade, Ph.D., and his University of Alabama at Birmingham colleagues have shown that knocking out one particular lipid-modifying enzyme, along with a short-term dietary excess of a certain lipid, can improve post-heart attack healing and clear inflammation. (newswise.com)
  • WRAP-structural-basis-substrate-specificity-nucleotide-sugar-lipid-Parker-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The goal of this study was to use matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to analyze the spatial distribution and abundance changes of lipid species in Sprague Dawley rat liver maintained on a HF diet combined with WF inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • While lipids cannot dissolve in polar solvents , they can dissolve in nonpolar solvents - those with a balanced electron distribution - such as gasoline and chloroform. (visionlearning.com)
  • We, the scientist at the Center for Membrane Biochemistry and Lipid Research, aim to entrench basic lipid research into clinical medicine, to make its impact palpable for patients. (tu-dresden.de)
  • The Center for Membrane Biochemistry and Lipid Research was founded in summer 2021 and is currently under development (as of May 2022). (tu-dresden.de)
  • The research of the Coskun lab focuses on membrane biochemistry in the context of cellular signaling, specifically lipid-protein interactions that they investigate with a variety of methods including protein biochemistry, structural biology and biophysics. (tu-dresden.de)
  • The extent of microsomal lipid peroxidation was measured. (cdc.gov)
  • Microsomal lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at all time points. (cdc.gov)
  • Owing to the paucity of outcomes data (with respect to CVD risk) in very-low-risk populations (i.e., young adults and youth randomized to statin therapy), the economic impact of early statin therapy and, by extension, the cost-effectiveness of lipid screening in young populations, remains largely unknown. (medscape.com)
  • Purpose: The goal of this study was to compare the lipid-lowering efficacy of the combination of ezetimibe and low- or intermediate-intensity statin therapy versus that of high-intensity statin monotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Implications: Ezetimibe combined with low- or intermediate-intensity statin therapy has lipid-lowering efficacy comparable to or better than that of high-intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • 4 In Canada, reporting of the nonfasting complete lipid profile, including LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, was adopted in Alberta in 2014 and has been recommended by the College of Family Physicians of Canada lipid guideline since 2015. (cmaj.ca)
  • It also improved heart function, increased the levels of bioactive lipids during the reparative phase of healing, and led to higher levels of reparative cytokine markers. (newswise.com)
  • Guidelines recommend checking lipid levels in nonfasting patients. (aafp.org)
  • For this cross-sectional study, data were analyzed from randomly selected adults (n=774) who completed the Anniston Community Health Survey and underwent measurements of height, weight, fasting glucose, lipid and PCB levels and verification of medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Emollient components contained in the balm replenish intercellular cement and restore optimum lipid levels in the epidermis. (lifepharmacy.com)
  • Upon T cell activation of human peripheral blood T cells, we found that the majority of cAMP was generated in T cell lipid rafts followed by activation of protein kinase A. However, upon TCR and CD28 coligation, beta-arrestin in complex with cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) was recruited to lipid rafts which down-regulated cAMP levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Another focus of her research is the development and application of novel mass spectrometry methods to investigate the epilipidome and the role of modified lipids in cellular signaling. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) for the delivery of mRNA have jumped to the forefront of non-viral gene delivery. (biorxiv.org)
  • Psychotropic drugs interaction with the lipid nanoparticle of COVID-19 mRNA therapeutics. (who.int)
  • During an ileal infusion of a lipid emulsion, healthy subjects ate a smaller amount compared to control infusions. (centerwatch.com)
  • to assess lipid profile alterations and associated factors in obese or overweight children and adolescent. (bvsalud.org)
  • The six sessions spanned a variety of areas that looked at membrane-protein interactions, cell and tissue imaging and roles of lipids in inflammatory disease and cell biology. (soci.org)
  • Thus, citric acid cycle intermedi- ates are not used for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and are shuttled out of the mitochondria, providing precursors for nucleotide, amino acid, and lipid synthesis path- ways for the dividing cell [13]. (who.int)
  • GPCRs regulate physiological responses to a variety of stimuli that include endogenous ligands such as biogenic amines, peptides, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleotides, Ca 2+ ions, and various exogenous ligands for sensory perception such as odorants, pheromones, and even photons. (hindawi.com)
  • The Ikonen group is interested in the cell biology of cholesterol and related lipids and has developed tools to visualize their distribution and trafficking in cells. (helsinki.fi)
  • Lipids have several functions in biology. (wikibooks.org)
  • Retrieved on December 02, 2022 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Lipid-Health-and-Nutrition.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • This class of drugs has been shown to raise blood lipids and significantly increase the risk of type II diabetes. (dictionary.com)
  • Steve, you've really had a front-row seat to the evolution of lipid-lowering medications. (medscape.com)
  • For more on lipid management with statins, read here . (medscape.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Lipid storage myopathy. (who.int)
  • Lipid storage myopathy. (who.int)
  • This book discusses as well the lipolytic and esterolytic activity of various tissues in connection with lipid transport and its relevancy to the development of atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)