Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A genus of rod-shaped, oval, or bean-shaped bacteria found in soil and fresh water. Polar prosthecae are present and cells reproduce by budding at the tips of the prosthecae. Cells of this genus are aerobic and grow best with one-carbon compounds. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.
A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A notch receptor that plays an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION in a variety of cell types. It is the preferentially expressed notch receptor in mature B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic chemicals derived from aniline (aminobenzene), characterized by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring with amino groups (-NH2).
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A member of the family of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Mutations of the gene for TIMP3 PROTEIN causes Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (1/27)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

A comparison of electron-capture GLC, electrolytic-conductivity GLC and UV-absorption HPLC for the analysis of some herbicides in foods. (2/27)

A comparison of gas chromatography with electron-capture or electrolytic-conductivity (nitrogen mode) detection, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-absorption detection (254 nm) was carried out for the analysis of several herbicides in foods. Linuron, propanil, terbacil, benzoylprop-ethyl, and the fungicide DCNA in samples of cabbage, corn, potato, and wheat spiked at 2 and 0.2 ppm were examined. The pesticides were extracted with acetone, partitioned into petroleum ether-methylene chloride, and cleaned up on a 2% deactivated Florisil column before direct chromatographic analysis. Electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was most suitable for DCNA and benzoylprop-ethyl while UV-absorption HPLC was best for terbacil analysis. Linuron and propanil gave similar results for both electron-capture GLC and HPLC. Electrolytic-conductivity GLC could detect all pesticides at the 0.2 ppm level and exhibited the least number of extraneous peaks in the chromatograms.  (+info)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of linuron: an antiandrogenic herbicide that produces reproductive malformations in male rats. (3/27)

Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sex differentiation by several different mechanisms. Some, like flutamide, procymidone, or vinclozolin compete with androgens for the androgen receptor (AR), inhibit AR-DNA binding, and alter androgen-dependent gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Finasteride and some phthalate esters demasculinize male rats by inhibiting fetal androgen synthesis. Linuron, which is a weak competitive inhibitor of AR binding (reported Ki of 100 microM), alters sexual differentiation in an antiandrogenic manner. However, the pattern of malformations more closely resembles that produced by the phthalate esters than by vinclozolin treatment. The present study was designed to determine if linuron acted as an AR antagonist in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, we (1) confirmed the affinity of linuron for the rat AR, and found (2) that linuron binds human AR (hAR), and (3) acts as an hAR antagonist. Linuron competed with an androgen for rat prostatic AR (EC(50) = 100-300 microM) and human AR (hAR) in a COS cell-binding assay (EC(50) = 20 microM). Linuron inhibited dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-hAR induced gene expression in CV-1 and MDA-MB-453-KB2 cells (EC(50) = 10 microM) at concentrations that were not cytotoxic. In short-term in vivo studies, linuron treatment reduced testosterone- and DHT-dependent tissue weights in the Hershberger assay (oral 100 mg/kg/d for 7 days, using castrate-immature-testosterone propionate-treated male rats; an assay used for decades to screen for AR agonists and antagonists) and altered the expression of androgen-regulated ventral prostate genes (oral 100 mg/kg/d for 4 days). Histological effects of in utero exposure to linuron (100 mg/kg/d, day 14-18) or DBP (500 mg/kg/d, day 14 to postnatal day 3) on the testes and epididymides also are shown here. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that linuron is an AR antagonist both in vivo and in vitro, but it remains to be determined if linuron alters sexual differentiation by additional mechanisms of action.  (+info)

Enrichment and molecular characterization of a bacterial culture that degrades methoxy-methyl urea herbicides and their aniline derivatives. (4/27)

Soil treated with linuron for more than 10 years showed high biodegradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides. Untreated control soil samples taken from the same location did not express any linuron degradation activity, even after 40 days of incubation. Hence, the occurrence in the field of a microbiota having the capacity to degrade a specific herbicide was related to the long-term treatment of the soil. The enrichment culture isolated from treated soil showed specific degradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides, such as linuron and metobromuron, while dimethyl urea herbicides, such as diuron, chlorotoluron, and isoproturon, were not transformed. The putative metabolic intermediates of linuron and metobromuron, the aniline derivatives 3, 4-dichloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline, were also degraded. The temperature of incubation drastically affected degradation of the aniline derivatives. Whereas linuron was transformed at 28 and 37 degrees C, 3,4-dichloroaniline was transformed only at 28 degrees C. Monitoring the enrichment process by reverse transcription-PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a mixture of bacterial species under adequate physiological conditions was required to completely transform linuron. This research indicates that for biodegradation of linuron, several years of adaptation have led to selection of a bacterial consortium capable of completely transforming linuron. Moreover, several of the putative species appear to be difficult to culture since they were detectable by DGGE but were not culturable on agar plates.  (+info)

Inhibition of phenylamide hydrolysis by Bacillus sphaericus with methylcarbamate and organophosphorus insecticides. (5/27)

The degradation of the phenylamide herbicides monolinuron, linuron, and solan by cultures of Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 12123 was inhibited by the methylcarbamate insecticides metmercapturon, aldicarb, propoxur, and carbaryl and by the organophosphorus insecticides fenthion and parathion. The extent of inhibition was largest with metmercapturon and smallest with parathion inhibition of hydrolysis of the two phenylurea herbicides was greater than of the acylanilide compound. Tests with crude enzyme preparations of aryl acylamidase derived from B. sphaericus showed that the inhibition of the hydrolysis of linuron with methylcarbamates is a competitive one. The insecticides tested did induce the enzyme, nor could they serve as its substrate.  (+info)

Male rats exposed to linuron in utero exhibit permanent changes in anogenital distance, nipple retention, and epididymal malformations that result in subsequent testicular atrophy. (6/27)

Prenatal exposure to the herbicide linuron, a weak androgen receptor antagonist, has been shown to perturb androgen-dependent male rat reproductive development as evidenced by slight decreases in anogenital distance (AGD), increased retention of areolae/nipples, and induction of epididymal malformations in combination with testicular atrophy in the adult rat over dose levels ranging from 12.5 to 100 mg/kg/day. Studies were undertaken to determine whether linuron-mediated changes in AGD and nipple retention are permanent, whether linuron is a direct testicular toxicant, and if there was an association between areola/nipple retention and malformations. Pregnant rats were administered corn oil vehicle or linuron by gavage at 0 or 50 mg/kg/day (n = 8 controls, 20 treated) from gestation days 12 to 21. Male offspring were necropsied on postnatal days (PND) 35 and 56. Linuron-exposed male rats exhibited a significant (8%) decrease in AGD on PND 1 and a similar decrease was also observed on PND 56. Linuron-exposed male rats displayed an increase in areola retention on PND 13, as evidenced by 0.6 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4 areolae per rat in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Male rats displayed a significant increase in nipple retention on PND 35 and 56 (collectively) of 0 +/- 0.5 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 nipples per rat in control and exposed groups, respectively. On PND 35, 4/51 rats (3/9 litters) from linuron-treated dams displayed enlarged testes in combination with malformed epididymides. Epididymal malformations were observed in 19/51 rats (6/9 litters) in the linuron-exposed dose group. On PND 56, grossly enlarged and edematous testes were seen in 16/56 linuron-exposed rats (6/9 litters). Epididymal lesions were observed in 23/58 rats (6/9 litters). Microscopically, all linuron-exposed animals that exhibited a testicular lesion on PND 56 also displayed an epididymal lesion. These lesions were not seen in control animals. Approximately 25 and 60% of the male offspring that had malformations of the epididymis and vas deferens did not exhibit either areolae on PND 13 or nipples at necropsy, respectively. These data indicate that in utero linuron exposure to 50 mg/kg/day results in permanent changes in AGD and nipple retention in male rats. Moreover, these findings indicate that linuron-induced testicular atrophy, which is observed in adult rats, is secondary to increased intratubular pressure resulting from obstruction of testicular fluid outflow subsequent to malformation of the epididymides. These data also suggest that although linuron-mediated retention of areolae on PND 13 and nipples at necropsy may be suggestive of altered testosterone-mediated reproductive development seen in adult rats, these endpoints are not predictive.  (+info)

Endocrine active agents: implications of adverse and non-adverse changes. (7/27)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently in the process of developing screening and testing methodologies for the assessment of agents that may possess endocrine-like activity--the so-called endocrine disruptors. Moreover, the EPA has signaled its intention of placing information arising from such studies on the worldwide web. This has created significant interest in how such information may be used in risk assessment and by policymakers and the public in the potential regulation or deselection of specific chemical agents. The construction of lists of endocrine disruptors, although fulfilling the requirements of some parties, is really of little use when the nature of the response, the dose level employed, and the lifestage of the test species used are not given. Thus, we have already seen positive in vitro information available on the interaction with a receptor being used as a key indicator when the results of large, high quality in vivo studies showing no adverse changes have been ignored. Clearly a number of in vitro systems are available to ascertain chemical interaction with specific (mainly steroid) hormone receptors including a number of reporter gene assays. These assays only provide indicators of potential problems and should not be, in isolation, indicators of toxicity. Likewise, short-term in vivo screens such as the uterotrophic and Hershberger studies are frequently conducted in castrated animals and thus indicate the potential for a pharmacological response in vivo rather than an adverse effect. A number of new end points have been added to standard rodent testing protocols in the belief of providing more sensitivity to detect endocrine related changes. These include the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), developmental landmarks [vaginal opening (VO), preputial separation (PPS)], and in some studies the counting of nipples and areolae on males. AGD, VO, and PPS are all affected by the size of the pup in which they are measured and should always be compared using bodyweight as a covariate. The historical control database for such changes is gradually growing, albeit that if pups are not individually identified it becomes problematic to associate any change with a specific malformation or to assess whether a delay or advance in, for example, developmental landmarks is biologically significant. Agents that significantly reduce AGD in males (it is an androgen-dependent variable) frequently have other more adverse changes associated with this end point (eg, reproductive tract malformations), but a 2 to 3% change in AGD although measurable is unlikely to be biologically of importance and in isolation would not necessarily be considered adverse. Retention of thoracic nipples in male rat pups is also an indicator of impaired androgen status. Recent studies have also shown that this retention for some endocrine active chemicals is permanent. Thus, the presence of a permanent structural change that is rarely found in adult control animals could be considered a malformation and therefore a developmental adverse effect on which risk assessment decisions could be made. The advent of multigeneration reproduction studies as the definitive studies for the assessment of the dose-response relationships and risk assessment for endocrine disruptors has shown that current testing protocols may be inadequate to reliably detect the adverse effects of concern as only 1 adult/sex/litter is examined. A number of the effects on reproductive development although, due to an in utero exposure, will not be manifest until after puberty or at adulthood. The use of only a limited number of animals to examine such changes, particularly for weaker acting materials indicates that some agents may have been examined in well-conducted, modern protocols but have insufficient power to detect low incidence phenomena (eg, a 5% incidence of malformations).  (+info)

Evaluation of a 15-day screening assay using intact male rats for identifying antiandrogens. (8/27)

An in vivo screening assay using intact adult male rats has been evaluated for its ability to detect six antiandrogenic compounds via oral administration. The test compounds included cyproterone acetate (CPA), flutamide (FLUT), p,p'-DDE (DDE), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), linuron (LIN), and vinclozolin (VCZ). Two of the test compounds (DDE and FLUT) have been previously evaluated in the 15-day intact male assay with compound administration via intraperitoneal injection (ip). For the current studies, male rats were dosed for 15 days via oral gavage and euthanized on the morning of test day 15. The endpoints evaluated included final body and organ weights (liver, thyroid gland, testes, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles with fluid, accessory sex gland unit [ASG]), serum hormone concentrations (testosterone [T], estradiol [E2], dihydrotestosterone [DHT], luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], prolactin [PRL], T(3), T(4), and thyroid stimulating hormone[TSH]), and histopathology of the testis, epididymis, and thyroid gland; positive results for each endpoint are described below. In addition, an evaluation of immune system endpoints (humoral immune function, spleen and thymus weights, and spleen cell number) was conducted on a subset of animals dosed with either DDE or FLUT. All six endocrine-active compounds (EACs) increased relative liver weight. FLUT and VCZ caused the typical pattern for an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, although not all endpoints were statistically significant for VCZ: decreased ASG weights, hormonal alterations (increased T, DHT, LH, and FSH), and induced Leydig cell hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. CPA caused effects consistent with its mixed AR antagonist/progesterone receptor agonist activity: it decreased ASG weights, caused hormonal alterations (increased T and E2; decreased FSH), and caused spermatid retention. DBP, a compound with antiandrogen-like activity via a nonreceptor mediated mechanism, caused hormonal alterations (decreased T, DHT, and E2; increased LH, FSH, and PRL) and induced general testicular degeneration. LIN, a weak AR antagonist, decreased ASG weights, caused hormonal alterations (decreased T, DHT, and LH; increased E2), and caused spermatid retention. Unlike the other AR antagonists evaluated, DDE, a weak AR antagonist, did not alter reproductive parameters. All six antiandrogens caused some effects on thyroid parameters, although only CPA, DDE, and VCZ caused results consistent with a potential thyroid-modulator. FLUT and DDE did not alter the primary humoral immune response to SRBC, spleen or thymus weights, or spleen cell number. In the current study, 5 of the six test substances were identified as endocrine-active substances consistent with their known/proposed mechanism(s) of action. The effects that were observed in the current study via oral (gavage) compound administration were similar to the responses that were observed by the ip route in previous studies for DDE and FLUT. This report, in addition to the > 20 compounds that have already been examined using the 15-day intact male assay, supports this assay as a viable screening assay for detecting EACs, and also illustrates that the ability to identify EACs using the intact male assay will be equivalent regardless of the route of compound administration.  (+info)

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyphomicrobium" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the bacterial kingdom, specifically within the class Betaproteobacteria. These are typically aerobic, motile bacteria that are often found in soil and water environments. They play a role in various biogeochemical processes such as denitrification and carbon cycling. If you have any questions related to biological or environmental sciences, I'd be happy to help with those!

Comamonadaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and the rhizosphere of plants. The name Comamonadaceae comes from the type genus Comamonas. Members of this family are known to be metabolically versatile and can degrade a wide range of organic compounds, including aromatic compounds and polysaccharides. Some species in this family are also known to be opportunistic pathogens in humans, causing infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis.

Linuron is a type of pesticide called a selective herbicide, which is used to control weeds in various crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. It works by inhibiting the growth of susceptible plants, causing them to die. Linuron is absorbed by the leaves and roots of the plants and moves throughout the plant to provide long-lasting control of weeds.

It is important to note that linuron can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. It can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Therefore, it is essential to follow all safety guidelines when using linuron or any other pesticide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Humic Substances" are not considered medical terms with a specific clinical definition. They are organic compounds that are commonly found in soil, sediments, and water, formed by the decomposition and transformation of plant and animal materials over time. Humic substances can have various complex structures and properties, and they play important roles in nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and water quality. However, they are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions or healthcare.

Microbial consortia refer to a group or community of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, that naturally exist together in a specific environment and interact with each other. These interactions can be synergistic, where the organisms benefit from each other's presence, or competitive, where they compete for resources.

Microbial consortia play important roles in various biological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, plant growth promotion, and wastewater treatment. The study of microbial consortia is essential to understanding the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and has implications for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

Betaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several genera of bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, and can be found in soil, water, and various organisms including humans. Some members of Betaproteobacteria are important pathogens, causing diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Other members of this class are capable of breaking down environmental pollutants, making them useful in bioremediation applications.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to a class of chemicals called phthalates. It is a colorless, oily liquid with a mild odor and is widely used as a plasticizer to make plastics more flexible and durable. DBP is commonly added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products such as vinyl flooring, wall coverings, shower curtains, and consumer products like cosmetics, personal care products, and cleaning solutions.

In medical terms, DBP has been identified as a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor, which means it can interfere with the body's hormonal system and potentially affect reproductive health. Studies have shown that exposure to DBP during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes such as reduced fetal growth, abnormalities in male reproductive development, and behavioral problems in children.

Therefore, it is important to limit exposure to DBP and other phthalates, especially for pregnant women and young children. Some steps you can take to reduce your exposure include avoiding plastic containers with the recycling codes 3 or 7 (which may contain phthalates), choosing personal care products that are labeled "phthalate-free," and using natural cleaning products whenever possible.

Environmental remediation is the process of treating, removing, or containing contamination from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the purpose of reducing the impact on human health and the environment. The goal of environmental remediation is to return the contaminated area to its original state, or to a state that is safe for use and poses no significant risk to human health or the environment. This process often involves various techniques such as excavation, soil washing, bioremediation, chemical treatment, and thermal treatment. The specific method used depends on the type and extent of contamination, as well as site-specific conditions.

The Wolffian ducts, also known as the mesonephric ducts, are a pair of embryological structures present in the developing urinary system of male fetuses. They originate from the intermediate mesoderm and descend towards the posterior end of the developing kidney, or the metanephros.

The Wolffian ducts play a crucial role in the formation of the male reproductive system. In males, these ducts give rise to the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts. They also contribute to the development of the kidneys, specifically the pronephros and mesonephros, which are transient structures that eventually give way to the permanent kidney, or metanephros.

In females, the Wolffian ducts regress due to the absence of testicular hormones, as they do not contribute to the formation of female reproductive organs. Instead, the paramesonephric ducts, also known as the Mullerian ducts, develop into the female reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina.

Tritolyl phosphates are not a medical term, but rather a class of industrial chemicals. They are organophosphate esters made from the reaction of toluene with phosphoric acid. These chemicals have various uses, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, and hydraulic fluids.

Exposure to high levels of tritolyl phosphates can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, they are not typically considered a significant health concern at the low levels encountered in most occupational or environmental settings. There is no known medical condition specifically associated with "tritolyl phosphates."

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of androgens, which are hormones that contribute to male sexual development and characteristics. They work by binding to androgen receptors in cells, preventing the natural androgens from attaching and exerting their effects. This can be useful in treating conditions that are caused or worsened by androgens, such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and acne. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.

Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that help facilitate the breakdown of various types of chemical bonds through a process called hydrolysis, which involves the addition of water. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of bonds in substrates by adding a molecule of water, leading to the formation of two or more smaller molecules.

Hydrolases play a crucial role in many biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and detoxification. They can act on a wide range of substrates, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, breaking them down into smaller units that can be more easily absorbed or utilized by the body.

Examples of hydrolases include:

1. Proteases: enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids.
2. Lipases: enzymes that hydrolyze lipids, such as triglycerides, into fatty acids and glycerol.
3. Amylases: enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, like starches, into simpler sugars, such as glucose.
4. Nucleases: enzymes that cleave nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, into smaller nucleotides or oligonucleotides.
5. Phosphatases: enzymes that remove phosphate groups from various substrates, including proteins and lipids.
6. Esterases: enzymes that hydrolyze ester bonds in a variety of substrates, such as those found in some drugs or neurotransmitters.

Hydrolases are essential for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and their dysregulation can contribute to various diseases and disorders.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA fragments (or PCR products) based on their melting behavior. This technique is particularly useful for the analysis of complex DNA mixtures, such as those found in environmental samples or in studies of microbial communities.

In DGGE, the DNA samples are subjected to an increasing gradient of denaturing agents (such as urea and formamide) during electrophoresis. As the DNA fragments migrate through the gel, they begin to denature (or melt) at specific points along the gradient, depending on their sequence and base composition. This results in a distinct melting profile for each DNA fragment, which can be visualized as a band on the gel.

The technique allows for the separation of DNA fragments that differ by only a few base pairs, making it a powerful tool for identifying and comparing different DNA sequences within a mixture. DGGE is often used in conjunction with PCR to amplify specific regions of interest in the DNA sample, such as genes or operons involved in specific metabolic pathways. The resulting PCR products can then be analyzed by DGGE to identify and compare different sequence variants (or "types") within a population.

Overall, DGGE is a valuable tool for studying the diversity and composition of complex DNA mixtures, and has applications in fields such as microbial ecology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering.

Notch2 is a type of receptor that belongs to the Notch family of single-pass transmembrane proteins. The Notch signaling pathway plays critical roles in various developmental processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.

The Notch2 receptor is composed of several domains, including an extracellular domain containing multiple epidermal growth factor-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain. The extracellular domain of the Notch2 receptor interacts with its ligands, which are expressed on the surface of neighboring cells. This interaction triggers a series of proteolytic cleavage events that release the intracellular domain of the Notch2 receptor into the cytoplasm.

The intracellular domain of the Notch2 receptor then translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the DNA-binding protein CSL (CBF1/RBPJkappa in humans) and other cofactors to regulate gene transcription. Dysregulation of the Notch2 signaling pathway has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group (-NH2). Aniline itself is the simplest and most common aniline compound, with the formula C6H5NH2.

Aniline compounds are important in the chemical industry and are used in the synthesis of a wide range of products, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and rubber chemicals. They can be produced by reducing nitrobenzene or by directly substituting ammonia onto benzene in a process called amination.

It is important to note that aniline compounds are toxic and can cause serious health effects, including damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. They can also be absorbed through the skin and are known to have carcinogenic properties. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aniline compounds.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) is a member of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) family, which are natural inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of enzymes involved in the degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix components.

TIMP-3 is unique among TIMPs because it can inhibit all known MMPs and also has the ability to inhibit some members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family, which are involved in protein ectodomain shedding and cell adhesion.

TIMP-3 is a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular matrix and regulates MMP activity locally. It has been shown to play important roles in various biological processes, including tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of TIMP-3 expression or function has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, fibrosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

... acts via inhibition of photosystem II, which is necessary for photosynthetic electron transport in plants. Linuron has ... Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) is a phenylurea herbicide that is used to control the growth of grass ... Curtis M. "Linuron fails to gain renewed approval". Briefing Media Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2017. (Articles with ... 744-. ISBN 978-0-85404-494-8. "Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance linuron". EFSA Journal. 14 ...
In the UK, following the withdrawal of linuron in 2017, aclonifen began to be used as a pre-emergence herbicide in potatoes. ... Cunningham, Charlotte (12 April 2019). "New herbicide to help replace linuron". Crop Production Magazine. Retrieved 3 May 2021 ...
Linuron is a nonselective herbicide used in the control of grasses and broadleaf weeds. It works by inhibiting photosynthesis. ...
... linuron MeSH D02.948.828.071 - acetohexamide MeSH D02.948.828.204 - carbutamide MeSH D02.948.828.283 - chlorpropamide MeSH ...
... isoxacarbole isoxachlortole isoxaflutole isoxapyrifop karbutilate ketospiradox kuicaoxi lactofen lancotrione lenacil linuron ...
Animal studies with vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and the DDT metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p.p'-DDE) have ...
Linuron acts via inhibition of photosystem II, which is necessary for photosynthetic electron transport in plants. Linuron has ... Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) is a phenylurea herbicide that is used to control the growth of grass ... Curtis M. "Linuron fails to gain renewed approval". Briefing Media Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2017. (Articles with ... 744-. ISBN 978-0-85404-494-8. "Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance linuron". EFSA Journal. 14 ...
Active Ingredient: Linuron. Human Health Risk Assessment and Mitigation. Documents and Activities. Back to Human Health Risk ... January 1999 - Final Report for the 1997 Linuron Air Monitoring (PDF) *>Appendices (PDF) ... Use Information and Air Monitoring Recommendation for the Pesticide Active Ingredient Linuron (PDF). ... August 2012 - Initiation of Risk Assessment Process for the Active Ingredient Linuron (PDF) ...
Corrigendum to Maternal linuron exposure alters testicular development in male offspring rats at the whole genome level [ ...
Dyk ned i forskningsemnerne om Spatial variability in the mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide linuron within a Danish ... Spatial variability in the mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide linuron within a Danish agricultural field: multivariate ...
and linuron (93%). At 8 WAA, IFT plus MTZ provided 86% control of GR giant ragweed, which was equivalent to the treatments ... Linuron, amitrole and 2,4-D at 2250, 2000 and 500 g a.i./a.e. ha−1, respectively were included as industry standards for ... containing 2,4-D, amitrole or linuron. For both the density and biomass evaluations IFT plus MTZ was equivalent to the ...
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linuron 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 18. Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Common Ragweed. ... linuron, and metribuzin 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 18. Ambrosia artemisiifolia. ...
linuron 17. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 61. Conyza canadensis. Horseweed. 451. ...
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linuron 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 15. Amaranthus powellii. Powell Amaranth. 17123 ... atrazine, linuron, monolinuron, and prometryne 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 15. ...
linuron 6. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 16. Amaranthus retroflexus. Redroot Pigweed. 45 ... linuron 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 16. Amaranthus retroflexus. Redroot Pigweed. ... linuron 7. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 16. Amaranthus retroflexus. Redroot Pigweed. ...
Beyond Pesticides, August 12, 2009) A new study examining the effects of the mosquito repellent DEET on insects, mice and human proteins reports that the chemical interferes with a prominent central nervous system enzyme. This effect is magnified when exposure to DEET is combined with exposure to certain other pesticides.. Entitled, "Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet," and published in BioMed Central (BMC) Biology, the study utilized toxicological, biochemical and electrophysiological techniques to show that DEET is not simply a behavior-modifying chemical, but that it also inhibits cholinesterase activity in both insect and mammalian neuronal preparations. The researchers examined DEETs effects on mosquitoes, cockroach nerves, mouse muscles, and enzymes purified from fruit flies and humans. Applications of DEET slowed or halted the actions of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This enzyme is crucial for regulating ...
Beyond Pesticides, November 5, 2018) As you know, the stakes in this midterm election are high. Many races are too close to call and will be decided by voter turnout. As we have read, our vote will make a difference!. The stakes are high. People and the environment are being poisoned. Pollinators are disappearing. Waterways are being contaminated. Biodiversity is threatened. Children -especially farmworker children-are suffering brain damage, and pesticide exposure is linked to the increase in ADHD and autism. Pesticide exposure is implicated in cancer, Parkinsons disease, reproductive dysfunction, diabetes, learning disabilities, and more.. We need people in elected positions - from local officials to national offices - who will listen to constituents who know the need for protection from pesticides and understand the urgent need to adopt of organic practices. Learn about your candidates and vote!. What more we can do. Take someone with you to the polls. Offer assistance to your neighbors who ...
Strategies for Enhancing Degradation of Linuron by sp. Strain SRS 16 Under the Guidance of Metabolic Modeling. Front. Bioeng. ...
linuron 17. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 61. Conyza canadensis. Horseweed. 451. ...
sum of linuron and 3,4- dichloroaniline. mg/kg. 0.05. malathion (maldison) ...
linuron 17. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 61. Conyza canadensis. Horseweed. 451. ...
linuron 17. PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2). 61. Conyza canadensis. Horseweed. 451. ...
Analysis of fish tissue for kepone, mirex, atrazine, linuron and alachlor /. 1977. ...
The herbicide linuron is used worldwide, and has been detected in surface waters as well as in food and drinking water. ... The herbicide linuron is used worldwide, and has been detected in surface waters as well as in food and drinking water. ... In contrast, for linuron, a strong inhibition of spiggin was observed under 97% AS, but this effect was supressed under reduced ... In contrast, for linuron, a strong inhibition of spiggin was observed under 97% AS, but this effect was supressed under reduced ...
Un herbicide rémanent de prélevée, tel que la métribuzine ou le linuron, actif contre une gamme étendue de mauvaises herbes est ... In 1997, the addition of linuron or fomesafen gave the highest yields. Yields with addition of all other herbicides and with ... The addition of metribuzin or linuron gave yields that were higher than all the other added herbicides in 1996. In 1997, ... A pre-emergence residual herbicide, such as metribuzin or linuron, that controls a broad spectrum of weeds is recommended after ...
Linuron (330-55-2). Metazachlor (67129-08-2). Methoxychlor (72-43-5). Metolachlor (51218-45-2). N-(2,4-Dimethylphenyl)formamide ...
Linuron at 4 lb/acre gave comparable results (Higaki 1973). In. Indonesian tea plantations, three liters of glyphosate in 700 ...
Linuron, Naphthalene, Endosulfan-diol, Fenthion, Phenanthrene, and DDT). Also the test substance was diluted to 100 mL with ...
Treflan-linuron mixt, Linuron-treflan mixt., Treflan-linuron mixt., Linuron-trifluralin mixt, Trifluralin-linuron mixt, Linuron ... Synonyms: Trinulan, Chandor, Mudekan, Afalon-treflan mixt., Afalon-treflan mixt, Linuron-treflan mixt, ... mixt., Trifluralin-linuron mixt., CID165705, LS-159758, Urea, N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methyl-, mixt. with 2,6- ...
HPLC Method for the Analysis of Chlortoluron, Isoproturon and Linuron in Water. DWI0655a. ...
  • Our previous work used ZnO nanoparticles as the catalyst for photo-degradation of various phenyl urea herbicides, such as diuron (3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethyl urea) and linuron (3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methyl urea), and found that the degradation intermediates depended upon how ZnO was synthesized. (
  • Aqueous solutions of diuron, linuron and 3, 4-dichloroaniline, which is a common degradation intermediate of both diuron and linuron, were prepared at various concentrations. (
  • It should be noted that diuron, linuron and 3, 4-dichloroaniline share the same molecular structure on the aromatic side of the molecules, while their aliphatic sides are different. (
  • For the adsorption of either diuron or linuron on both ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods, the results indicated that the adsorption capacity increases with the decrease in pH. (
  • The simulation results showed that diuron and linuron turn their aliphatic side toward ZnO surface, while 3, 4-dichloroaniline turns chlorine atoms attaching on its aromatic ring toward the surface. (
  • 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloroazobenzene is not manufactured commercially but is formed during the production and degradation of chloroanilide herbicides such as propanil, linuron, and diuron. (
  • The best weed control ratings were recorded on the DCPA (dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate) plus paraquat (1,1'- dimethyl-4,4'bipyridinium ion) treatment, linuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1-methoxy-1-methylurea] plus paraquat treatment and the alachlor [2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(methoxy ethyl) acetanilide] plus linuron plus paraquat treatment. (
  • Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) is a phenylurea herbicide that is used to control the growth of grass and weeds for the purpose of supporting the growth of crops like soybeans. (