Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of ribosome-inactivating proteins and triterpene glycosides.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.

alpha-oxidation of fatty acids in higher plants. Identification of a pathogen-inducible oxygenase (piox) as an alpha-dioxygenase and biosynthesis of 2-hydroperoxylinolenic acid. (1/203)

A pathogen-inducible oxygenase in tobacco leaves and a homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis were recently characterized (Sanz, A., Moreno, J. I., and Castresana, C. (1998) Plant Cell 10, 1523-1537). Linolenic acid incubated at 23 degrees C with preparations containing the recombinant enzymes underwent alpha-oxidation with the formation of a chain-shortened aldehyde, i.e., 8(Z),11(Z), 14(Z)-heptadecatrienal (83%), an alpha-hydroxy acid, 2(R)-hydroxy-9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid (15%), and a chain-shortened fatty acid, 8(Z),11(Z),14(Z)-heptadecatrienoic acid (2%). When incubations were performed at 0 degrees C, 2(R)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid was obtained as the main product. An intermediary role of 2(R)-hydroperoxy-9(Z), 12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid in alpha-oxidation was demonstrated by re-incubation experiments, in which the hydroperoxide was converted into the same alpha-oxidation products as those formed from linolenic acid. 2(R)-Hydroperoxy-9(Z),12(Z), 15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid was chemically unstable and had a half-life time in buffer of about 30 min at 23 degrees C. Extracts of cells expressing the recombinant oxygenases accelerated breakdown of the hydroperoxide (half-life time, about 3 min at 23 degrees C), however, this was not attributable to the recombinant enzymes since the same rate of hydroperoxide degradation was observed in the presence of control cells not expressing the enzymes. No significant discrimination between enantiomers was observed in the degradation of 2(R,S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid in the presence of recombinant oxygenases. A previously studied system for alpha-oxidation in cucumber was re-examined using the newly developed techniques and was found to catalyze the same conversions as those observed with the recombinant enzymes, i.e. enzymatic alpha-dioxygenation of fatty acids into 2(R)-hydroperoxides and a first order, non-stereoselective degradation of hydroperoxides into alpha-oxidation products. It was concluded that the recombinant enzymes from tobacco and Arabidopsis were both alpha-dioxygenases, and that members of this new class of enzymes catalyze the first step of alpha-oxidation in plant tissue.  (+info)

Specific protein targets of 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid (13-OXO) and export of the 13-OXO-glutathione conjugate in HT-29 cells. (2/203)

The linoleic acid metabolite, 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid (13-OXO), is reactive with cellular thiols. In the present report, incubations of HT-29 or CaCo-2 homogenates with 13-OXO and GSH indicate that HT-29 cell homogenates produce a 13-OXO-GSH conjugate. The conjugate formed was likely of enzymatic origin as chiral-phase HPLC showed the major product consisted of only one of two possible diastereomers. The glutathione transferase activity (GST), using chlorodinitrobenzene, was found to be 126 nmol/mg/min in HT-29 cells and 21 nmol/mg/min in CaCo-2 cells. These levels of activity are consistent with the relative ability of the two cell lines to conjugate GSH to 13-OXO. Incubation of intact HT-29 cells with either 13-OXO, or the metabolic precursor 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), showed detectable 13-OXO-GSH conjugate in the media, but none in the cells. The stereochemistry of the extracellular conjugate suggested an enzymatic origin. In additional experiments, the labeling of cellular protein by 13-HODE was much more specific than the labeling of protein by 13-OXO suggesting that in situ generation of 13-OXO from 13-HODE confers selectivity on the reactions between cellular thiols and 13-OXO. These results demonstrate that in HT-29 cells, 13-HODE is converted to 13-OXO which then either reacts with cellular protein or is conjugated to GSH by GST. The 13-OXO-GSH conjugate is then exported from the cell.  (+info)

Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid prevent a decrease in dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters in frontal cortex caused by a linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid deficient diet in formula-fed piglets. (3/203)

This study examined the effects of diets deficient (D) in linoleic [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)] at 0.8 and 0.05% energy, respectively, or adequate (C) in 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3) at 8.3 and 0.8% energy, respectively, without (-) or with (+) 0.2% energy arachidonic [20:4(n-6)] and 0.16% energy docosahexaenoic [22:6(n-3)] acid in piglets fed from birth to 18 d. Frontal cortex dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters and phospholipid fatty acids were measured. Piglets fed the D- diet had significantly lower frontal cortex dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations than did piglets fed the C- diets. Frontal cortex dopamine, norepinephrine, DOPAC, HVA, serotonin and 5-HIAA were higher in piglets fed the D+ compared to those fed the D- diet (P < 0.05) and not different between piglets fed the D+ and those fed the C- diets or the C- and C+ diets. Piglets fed the D- diet had lower frontal cortex phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 20:4(n-6) and PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 22:6(n-3) than did piglets fed the C- diet (P < 0.05). Piglets fed the D+ diet had higher frontal cortex PC and PI 20:4(n-6) and PC, PE, PS and PI 22:6(n-3) than did piglets fed the D- diet. These studies show that dietary essential fatty acid deficiency fed for 18 d from birth affects frontal cortex neurotransmitters in rapidly growing piglets and that these changes are specifically due to 20:4(n-6) and/or 22:6(n-3).  (+info)

Differential formation of octadecadienoic acid and octadecatrienoic acid products in control and injured/infected potato tubers. (4/203)

Lipoxygenases in plants have been implicated in the activation of defense responses against injury/infection. Pathogen-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and their metabolites have been shown to elicit defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. However, not much is known about the role of host-derived fatty acids and their metabolites in plant defense responses. In this study, isolation and characterisation of endogenous lipoxygenase metabolites formed in potato tubers in response to injury/infection was undertaken. While 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HPODE), derived from octadecdienoic acid (linoleic acid) is the major lipoxygenase product formed in control potato tubers, 9-hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (9-HPOTrE), derived from octadecatrienoic acid (alpha-linolenic acid) is the major lipoxygenase product formed in potato tubers in response to injury or infection with Rhizoctonia bataticola. As a result, the relative ratio of 9-HPODE to 9-HPOTrE showed a shift from 4:1 in control to 1:2 and 1:4.5 in injured and infected potato tubers respectively. From this study, it is proposed that lipoxygenase metabolites of octadecadienoic acid may be involved in physiological responses under control conditions, while octadecatrienoic acid metabolites are mediating the defense responses. This forms the first report on the differential formation of endogenous lipoxygenase products in potato tubers under control and stress conditions.  (+info)

Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products. (5/203)

The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O(2)] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.  (+info)

(10E,12Z,15Z)-9-hydroxy-10,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester as an anti-inflammatory compound from Ehretia dicksonii. (6/203)

The methanol extract of Ehretia dicksonii provided (10E, 12Z, 15Z)-9-hydroxy-10,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (1) which was isolated as an anti-inflammatory compound. Compound 1 suppressed 12-Otetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation on mouse ears at a dose of 500 microg (the inhibitory effect (IE) was 43%). Linolenic acid methyl ester did not inhibit this inflammation at the same dose. However, the related compounds of 1, (9Z,11E)-13hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (5) and (9Z,llE)13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (6), showed potent activity (IE500 microg of 63% and 79%, respectively). Compounds 1, 4 ((9Z, 12Z, 14E)-16-hydroxy-9,12,14-octadecatrienoic acid), 5 and 6 also showed inhibitory activity toward soybean lipoxygenase at a concentration of 10 microg/ml.  (+info)

A bifunctional delta-fatty acyl acetylenase/desaturase from the moss Ceratodon purpureus. A new member of the cytochrome b5 superfamily. (7/203)

Many plant genes have been cloned that encode regioselective desaturases catalyzing the formation of cis-unsaturated fatty acids. However, very few genes have been cloned that encode enzymes catalyzing the formation of the functional groups found in unusual fatty acids (e.g. hydroxy, epoxy or acetylenic fatty acids). Here, we describe the characterization of an acetylenase from the moss Ceratodon purpureus with a regioselectivity differing from the previously described Delta12-acetylenase. The gene encoding this protein, together with a Delta6-desaturase, was cloned by a PCR-based approach with primers derived from conserved regions in Delta5-, Delta6-fatty-acid desaturases and Delta8-sphingolipid desaturases. The proteins that are encoded by the two cloned cDNAs are likely to consist of a N-terminal extension of unknown function, a cytochrome b5-domain, and a C-terminal domain that is similar to acyl lipid desaturases with characteristic histidine boxes. The proteins were highly homologous in sequence to the Delta6-desaturase from the moss Physcomitrella patens. When these two cDNAs were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both transgenic yeast cultures desaturated Delta9-unsaturated C16- and C18-fatty acids by inserting an additional Delta6cis-double bond. One of these transgenic yeast clones was also able to introduce a Delta6-triple bond into gamma-linolenic and stearidonic acid. This resulted in the formation of 9,12,15-(Z,Z,Z)-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid, the main fatty acid found in C. pupureus. These results demonstrate that the Delta6-acetylenase from C. pupureus is a bifunctional enzyme, which can introduce a Delta6cis-double bond into 9,12,(15)-C18-polyenoic acids as well as converting a Delta6cis-double bond to a Delta6-triple bond.  (+info)

Positional distribution of fatty acids in the glycerophospholipids of Tetrahymena pyriformis. (8/203)

The positional distributions of the fatty acids in the major glycerophospholipids of Tetrahymena pyriformis W were analyzed. A comparison was made of the acyl distributions in normal and ergosterol-grown cells. It was assumed that the positional arrangement of fatty acids would serve as an indicator of acyltransferase enzyme specificity. The acyltransferases in this protozoan have substrate specificities that direct unsaturated groups, particularly polyunsaturates, to the 2-carbon of the glycerophospholipids. An exception is gamma-linolenic acid, which represents a substantial proportion of the total acids at both carbons. Saturated and iso-acids are esterified primarily at the 1-carbon. The qualitative pattern of the fatty acyl distribution is the same in both normal and ergosterol-grown organisms. Sterol substitution produces quantitative differences in the acyl components at both the 1- and 2-carbons of the glycerophospholipids. These differences include a shortening of the average chain length and a decrease in total unsaturation at both the 1- and 2-positions. In addition, there is a modification at the 2-carbon in the relative amounts of the products of two pathways involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The data are interpreted to indicate that the fatty acid transformations in the glycerophospholipids of organisms that contain ergosterol are not the result of altered acyltransferase specificities.  (+info)

Linolenic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are essential to the human body, meaning they cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of linolenic acids: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid.

Alpha-linolenic acid is found in plant-based sources such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, and soybeans. It is a precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two other important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fatty fish and are associated with numerous health benefits.

Gamma-linolenic acid is found in smaller amounts in certain plant-based oils such as borage oil, black currant seed oil, and evening primrose oil. It has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

It is important to maintain a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and chronic disease. ALA and GLA are both important components of a healthy diet and have been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, improved heart health, and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a type of essential fatty acid, which means that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is an 18-carbon fatty acid with three cis double bonds, and its chemical formula is C18:3 n-3 or 9c,12c,15c-18:3.

ALA is one of the two essential omega-3 fatty acids, along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is found in a variety of plant sources, including flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, soybeans, and some vegetable oils such as canola and soybean oil.

ALA is an important precursor to EPA and DHA, which have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function. However, the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is limited in humans, and it is recommended to consume foods rich in EPA and DHA directly, such as fatty fish and fish oil supplements.

Medically speaking, a deficiency in ALA can lead to various health issues, including dry skin, hair loss, poor wound healing, and increased risk of heart disease. Therefore, it is important to include adequate amounts of ALA-rich foods in the diet to maintain optimal health.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a type of fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Linoleic acid is found in foods such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds, while alpha-linolenic acid is found in foods such as flaxseeds, walnuts, and fatty fish. These essential fatty acids play important roles in the body, including maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting the development and function of the brain and nervous system.

Deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to a variety of health problems, including skin disorders, poor growth and development, and increased risk of heart disease. It is important to maintain a balanced intake of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, as excessive consumption of omega-6 relative to omega-3 has been linked to inflammation and chronic diseases.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid that the body derives from linoleic acid, another omega-6 fatty acid. It is found in small amounts in some plant-based oils such as evening primrose oil, borage oil, and black currant seed oil. GLA has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory effects and has been suggested to help with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and diabetic neuropathy. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits.

Unsaturated dietary fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in foods from plants. They are called "unsaturated" because of their chemical structure, which contains one or more double bonds in the carbon chain of the fat molecule. These double bonds can be either monounsaturated (one double bond) or polyunsaturated (multiple double bonds).

Monounsaturated fats are found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, while polyunsaturated fats are found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and vegetable oils. Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be heart-healthy, as they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease.

It is important to note that while unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated and trans fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

Lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene structure, forming hydroperoxides. This reaction is important in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are involved in various inflammatory responses and immune functions. There are several isoforms of lipoxygenase found in different tissues and organisms, including arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase.

Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil, is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide you with some relevant information from a medical perspective.

Linseed oil is a type of drying oil that is derived from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum). It is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid, and has been used in various industrial and artisanal applications.

In the context of medicine and health, linseed oil is sometimes discussed for its potential health benefits due to its high ALA content. Some studies suggest that consuming a balanced diet with adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids may help support heart health, reduce inflammation, and promote brain function. However, it's essential to note that the overall scientific evidence is still limited, and more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish appropriate dosages.

Additionally, linseed oil should not be confused with linsed oil, a topical preparation used in traditional medicine for skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis. Linsed oil typically contains a mixture of linseed oil, lead salts, and turpentine, which is not recommended due to the potential toxicity of lead.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a type of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is an important structural component of the phospholipid membranes in the brain and retina, and plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. DHA is also involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and immune response.

DHA is not produced in sufficient quantities by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. The richest dietary sources of DHA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as algae and other marine organisms. DHA can also be found in fortified foods such as eggs, milk, and juice.

Deficiency in DHA has been linked to various health issues, including cognitive decline, vision problems, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is recommended that individuals consume adequate amounts of DHA through diet or supplementation to maintain optimal health.

Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acid molecules, thereby reducing their saturation level. These enzymes play a crucial role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential components of cell membranes and precursors for various signaling molecules.

The position of the introduced double bond is specified by the type of desaturase enzyme. For example, Δ-9 desaturases introduce a double bond at the ninth carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain. This enzyme is responsible for converting saturated fatty acids like stearic acid (18:0) to monounsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid (18:1n-9).

In humans, there are several fatty acid desaturases, including Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, which introduce double bonds at the fifth and sixth carbon atoms from the methyl end, respectively. These enzymes are essential for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3).

Disorders in fatty acid desaturase activity or expression have been linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of these enzymes is crucial for developing strategies to modulate fatty acid composition in cells and tissues, which may have therapeutic potential.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

I apologize for any confusion, but "flax" is not a medical term. It is actually a type of plant also known as Linum usitatissimum. The seeds of the flax plant are used in making linseed oil, and flax fibers are used to make linen. Flaxseeds are often consumed for their health benefits, as they are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and lignans. If you have any questions about the use of flax or its components in a medical context, I would be happy to try to help further.

'Borago' is the common name for a plant species, specifically Borago officinalis, which is also known as the borage plant. It is a herb that is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used in traditional medicine and cooking. The leaves and flowers of the borage plant are edible and have a cucumber-like taste. In addition, the plant contains high levels of antioxidants and omega-6 fatty acids.

In a medical context, borage oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the plant, has been studied for its potential health benefits. Borage oil is rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid that has anti-inflammatory properties. Some studies have suggested that borage oil may help to reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and other inflammatory conditions. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosage and safety of borage oil supplements.

It's important to note that while borage oil may have some health benefits, it can also interact with certain medications and may not be safe for everyone. Therefore, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Hydrogenation, in the context of food science and biochemistry, refers to the process of adding hydrogen atoms to certain unsaturated fats or oils, converting them into saturated fats. This is typically done through a chemical reaction using hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst, often a metal such as nickel or palladium.

The process of hydrogenation increases the stability and shelf life of fats and oils, but it can also lead to the formation of trans fats, which have been linked to various health issues, including heart disease. Therefore, the use of partially hydrogenated oils has been largely phased out in many countries.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and grapeseed oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other personal care products.

Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, which means they slow down the activity of the brain and nerves. They were commonly used in the past to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures, but their use has declined due to the risk of addiction, abuse, and serious side effects. Barbiturates can also be used for surgical anesthesia and as a treatment for barbiturate or pentobarbital overdose.

Barbiturates work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, hypnosis, and anticonvulsant effects. However, at higher doses, barbiturates can cause respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Some examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and amobarbital. These drugs are usually available in the form of tablets, capsules, or injectable solutions. It is important to note that barbiturates should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they carry a high risk of dependence and abuse.

Isomerism is a term used in chemistry and biochemistry, including the field of medicine, to describe the existence of molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. This means that although these isomers contain the same number and type of atoms, they differ in the arrangement of these atoms in space.

There are several types of isomerism, including constitutional isomerism (also known as structural isomerism) and stereoisomerism. Constitutional isomers have different arrangements of atoms, while stereoisomers have the same arrangement of atoms but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms in three-dimensional space.

Stereoisomerism can be further divided into subcategories such as enantiomers (mirror-image stereoisomers), diastereomers (non-mirror-image stereoisomers), and conformational isomers (stereoisomers that can interconvert by rotating around single bonds).

In the context of medicine, isomerism can be important because different isomers of a drug may have different pharmacological properties. For example, some drugs may exist as pairs of enantiomers, and one enantiomer may be responsible for the desired therapeutic effect while the other enantiomer may be inactive or even harmful. In such cases, it may be important to develop methods for producing pure enantiomers of the drug in order to maximize its efficacy and minimize its side effects.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slight odor. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have various health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other industrial products.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a type of omega-3 fatty acid that is found in fish and some algae. It is a 20-carbon long polyunsaturated fatty acid with five double bonds, and has the chemical formula C20:5 n-3. EPA is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet.

EPA is a precursor to a group of hormone-like substances called eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inflammation, blood clotting, and immune function.

EPA has been studied for its potential health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, and improving symptoms of depression. It is often taken as a dietary supplement in the form of fish oil or algal oil. However, it is important to note that while some studies have suggested potential health benefits of EPA, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages.

Arachidonic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found naturally in the body and in certain foods. It is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Arachidonic acid is a key component of cell membranes and plays a role in various physiological processes, including inflammation and blood clotting.

In the body, arachidonic acid is released from cell membranes in response to various stimuli, such as injury or infection. Once released, it can be converted into a variety of bioactive compounds, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, which mediate various physiological responses, including inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting.

Arachidonic acid is found in high concentrations in animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, as well as in some plant sources such as certain nuts and seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of arachidonic acid can contribute to the development of inflammation and other health problems, so it is recommended to consume this fatty acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

"Momordica charantia" is the scientific name for a plant also known as bitter melon or bitter gourd. It's a tropical and subtropical vine that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes cucumbers, melons, and squashes. The fruit of the plant is used in various culinary traditions, and it has a distinctively bitter taste. In traditional medicine, different parts of the Momordica charantia plant have been used for their perceived medicinal properties, such as potential antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. However, it's essential to note that while some preliminary research shows promise, more rigorous studies are needed to confirm these benefits and understand the potential risks associated with its use.

Corn oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the germ of corn (maize). It is rich in polyunsaturated fat, particularly linoleic acid, and contains about 25% saturated fat. Corn oil has a high smoke point, making it suitable for frying and baking. It is also used as an ingredient in margarine, salad dressings, and other food products. In addition to its use as a food product, corn oil is sometimes used topically on the skin as a moisturizer or emollient.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-3" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid, specifically three carbon atoms from the end of the molecule.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as in algae. ALA is found in plant sources, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and some vegetable oils.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and supporting eye health. They are also important for fetal development during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended that adults consume at least 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day, although higher intakes may be beneficial for certain conditions. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but this process is not very efficient, so it is important to consume preformed EPA and DHA from dietary sources or supplements.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, oils are typically defined as lipid-based substances that are derived from plants or animals. They are made up of molecules called fatty acids, which can be either saturated or unsaturated. Oils are often used in medical treatments and therapies due to their ability to deliver active ingredients through the skin, as well as their moisturizing and soothing properties. Some oils, such as essential oils, are also used in aromatherapy for their potential therapeutic benefits. However, it's important to note that some oils can be toxic or irritating if ingested or applied to the skin in large amounts, so they should always be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of chemicals found in the fatty acid family known as omega-6 fatty acids. They are called "conjugated" because of the particular arrangement of double bonds in their chemical structure. CLAs are primarily found in meat and dairy products from ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including weight loss promotion, cancer prevention, and immune system enhancement. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective dosages.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Galactolipids are a type of glycolipid, which are lipids that contain a carbohydrate moiety. They are the most abundant lipids in plant chloroplasts and play important roles in membrane structure and function. The term "galactolipid" refers to lipids that contain one or more galactose molecules as their polar headgroup.

The two major types of galactolipids are monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). MGDGs contain a single galactose molecule, while DGDGs contain two. These lipids are important components of the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts, where they help to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of the membrane, as well as facilitate the movement of proteins and other molecules within it.

In addition to their role in plant cells, galactolipids have also been found to be important in animal cells, particularly in the brain. They are a major component of myelin sheaths, which surround and insulate nerve fibers, allowing for efficient electrical signaling. Abnormalities in galactolipid metabolism have been linked to several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Krabbe disease.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are a type of fatty acid that contains one double bond in its chemical structure. The presence of the double bond means that there is one less hydrogen atom, hence the term "unsaturated." In monounsaturated fats, the double bond occurs between the second and third carbon atoms in the chain, which makes them "mono"unsaturated.

MUFAs are considered to be a healthy type of fat because they can help reduce levels of harmful cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL) while maintaining levels of beneficial cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL). They have also been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and improved insulin sensitivity.

Common sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. It is recommended to consume MUFAs as part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lipid peroxides are chemical compounds that form when lipids (fats or fat-like substances) oxidize. This process, known as lipid peroxidation, involves the reaction of lipids with oxygen in a way that leads to the formation of hydroperoxides and various aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde.

Lipid peroxidation is a naturally occurring process that can also be accelerated by factors such as exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, or enzymatic reactions. It plays a role in many biological processes, including cell signaling and regulation of gene expression, but it can also contribute to the development of various diseases when it becomes excessive.

Examples of lipid peroxides include phospholipid hydroperoxides, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and triglyceride hydroperoxides. These compounds are often used as markers of oxidative stress in biological systems and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions associated with oxidative damage.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-6" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid. Specifically, the double bond is located six carbons from the omega end of the molecule.

Omega-6 fatty acids play important roles in the body, including supporting brain function, stimulating skin and hair growth, regulating metabolism, and maintaining the reproductive system. They are also involved in the production of hormones that regulate inflammation and blood clotting.

The most common omega-6 fatty acids found in the Western diet include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). LA is found in vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil, while AA is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and eggs.

While omega-6 fatty acids are essential for human health, it's important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. A diet that is too high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to chronic inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. Therefore, it's recommended to consume omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1 to 4:1.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Fish oils are a type of fat or lipid derived from the tissues of oily fish. They are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids have been associated with various health benefits such as reducing inflammation, decreasing the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and promoting eye health. Fish oils can be consumed through diet or taken as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules or liquid. It is important to note that while fish oils have potential health benefits, they should not replace a balanced diet and medical advice should be sought before starting any supplementation.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), steal electrons from lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, which can decompose to form a variety of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and ketones.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one such compound that is commonly used as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can cause damage to cell membranes, leading to changes in their fluidity and permeability, and can also result in the modification of proteins and DNA, contributing to cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. It is associated with various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose.

Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun. They also contain a system of membranes and enzymes that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions known as the Calvin cycle. This process not only provides energy for the organism but also releases oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of most life forms on Earth.

Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from ancient cyanobacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells and eventually became integrated into their host's cellular machinery through a process called endosymbiosis. Over time, chloroplasts evolved to become an essential component of plant and algal cells, contributing to their ability to carry out photosynthesis and thrive in a wide range of environments.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

... α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid γ-Linolenic acid, an omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid Linoleic acid, the similarly named ... Linolenic acid is a type of naturally-occurring fatty acid. It can refer to either of two octadecatrienoic acids (i.e. with an ... Alkenoic acids, Aromatase inhibitors, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acids, Essential nutrients). ... Linolenate (in the form of triglyceride esters of linolenic acid) is often found in vegetable oils; traditionally, such fatty ...
... or GLA (γ-linolenic acid) (INN: gamolenic acid) is an n−6, or omega-6, fatty acid found primarily in seed ... It is an isomer of α-linolenic acid, which is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid, found in rapeseed canola oil, ... Although there are α- and γ- forms of linolenic acid, there is no β- form. One was once identified, but it turned out to be an ... From GLA, the body forms dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA). This is one of the body's three sources of eicosanoids (along with AA ...
... "linolic acid"; for the acid C18H30O2 [I suggest] the name "linolenic acid".) Linolenic acid is discussed on pp. 265-268. See: ... We designate this linolenic acid, which the solid hexabromide [of linolenic acid] provides, as α-linolenic acid in order to ... Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an 18:3 (n ... α-Linolenic acid, also known as alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) (from Greek alpha meaning "first" and linon meaning flax), is an n−3 ...
... (DGLA) is a 20-carbon ω−6 fatty acid. (also called, cis,cis,cis-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid) In ... Gamma linolenic acid. Rev. Contemp. Pharmacother. 1, 1-45 Huang, Y.-S. and Mills, D. E. (Eds.), 1996. Gamma-linolenic acid ... "Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in ... 1997). "Dietary supplementation with γ-linolenic acid alters fatty acid content and eicosanoid production in healthy humans". J ...
CAS Registry Number 463-40-1. γ-linolenic acid (gamma-linolenic's) has 18 carbons, the structural isomers of α- linolenic acid ... CAS Registry Number 20590-32-3. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (dihomo-gamma-linolenic's, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, DGLA) has 20 ... Gamma linolenic acid. Rev. Contemp. Pharmacother. 1, 1-45 Huang, Y.-S. and Mills, D. E. (Eds.), 1996. Gamma-linolenic acid ... CAS Registry Number 7370-49-2. The following fatty acids have three unsaturated bonds. α-linolenic acid (alpha-linolenic's) has ...
Horrobin's efforts focused on evening primrose oil, which contains gamma-linolenic acid. In the 1980s, Horrobin sold primrose ... ISBN 0-471-56693-4. Horrobin, David F. (1990). "Gamma linolenic acid". Reviews in Contemporary Pharmacotherapy. Carnforth, UK: ... When it was found that borage contained a higher percentage of gamma-linolenic acid than did the evening primrose, rival ... Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Science writer Susan Allport, in her book on dietary fatty acids, states that Horrobin ...
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and linoleic acid are present. Mainly for these polyunsaturated fatty acids, evening primrose oil ... "Gamma linolenic acid". American Cancer Society. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 1 August ... Brosnan, J.T.; Brosnan, M.E. (2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6): 1636S ... Ghasemnezhad, A.; Honermeier, B. (2007). "Seed yield, oil content and fatty acid composition of Oenothera biennis L. affected ...
"Gamma Linolenic Acid". American Cancer Society. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2013. "Evening primrose oil". National Center ... The main phytochemical in this evening primrose seed oil is gamma-linolenic acid. There is no high-quality scientific evidence ...
Other desaturases convert oleic acid into linolenic acid, which is the precursor to alpha-linolenic acid, gamma-linolenic acid ... "convert oleic acid (18:1n-9) into linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3)". Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic ... and α-linolenic acid (ALA: C18H30O2; 18:3-n3), creating γ-linolenic acid (GLA: C18H30O2,18:3-n6) and stearidonic acid (SDA: ... synthesized from α-linolenic acid); arachidonic acid and adrenic acid (synthesized from linoleic acid). This is a multi-stage ...
"Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in humans is influenced by the absolute amounts of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in ... 3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ( ... Three omega−3 fatty acids are important in human physiology, α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n- ... Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega−3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ...
Linseed oil is an edible oil in demand as a dietary supplement, as a source of α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. In ... omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA), 18% omega-9 fatty acids (oleic acid), and 6% omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid); the seeds ... 1993). "High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans". Br J Nutr. 69 (2): ... J. C. P. Dribnenkil and A. G. Green (1995). "Linola '947' low linolenic acid flax". Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 75 (1): ...
This variety was developed to provide a source of edible linseed oil with a low alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content of ... J. C. P. Dribnenkil and A. G. Green (1995). "Linola '947' low linolenic acid flax". Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 75 (1): ... Linola has a correspondingly higher content of the linoleic acid, omega-6 fatty acid, around 65% to 75%. The seed colour was ... bred for producing linseed oil with a low alpha-linolenic acid content. Linola was developed in the early 1990s by the ...
... ω-3 fatty acid: α-linolenic acid or ALA (18:3n-3) ω-6 fatty acid: linoleic acid or LA (18:2n-6) These two fatty acids cannot be ... ω-6 fatty acids: gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (18:3n-6) dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid or DGLA (20:3n-6) arachidonic acid or AA (20 ... Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an ... examples include docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and gamma-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). Whitney Ellie; ...
Caffieri, S.; Daga, A.; Vedaldi, D.; Dall'Acqua, F. (1988-12-01). "Photoaddition of angelicin to linolenic acid methyl ester". ... 4-Coumaric acid 2-hydroxylase (C2'H) hydroxylates the p-coumaric acid at the ortho position. Notably, this reaction uses alpha- ... whereas the anaerobic pathway leads to the conjugation of angelicin with unsaturated fatty acid chains such as linolenic acid ... Subsequent acid-catalysed fragmentation of vaginol with dichloromethane in trifluoroacetic acid yields angelicin. The compound ...
A 2014 review of health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was ... Rajaram, S (2014). "Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 100 (Suppl ... To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid ... Finally, the canola oil is refined using water precipitation and organic acid to remove gums and free fatty acids, filtering to ...
... seed oil is rich in vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid ... "McGinnis Berry Crops". Traitler, H.; Winter, H.; Richli, U.; Ingenbleek, Y. (1984). "Characterization of gamma-linolenic acid ... It can be made into jams and jellies which set readily because of the fruit's high content of pectin and acid. For culinary use ...
Stymne, Sten (1980). The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants. ISBN 9157607044. OCLC 63571586. The ... "The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants". The following year, Stymne was appointed associate Professor of ... Later in his career, Stymne focused on studying the biochemical processes involved in the biosynthesis of exotic fatty acids, ... previously identified only in animals and responsible for transferring fatty acids between phospholipids and diacylglycerol ...
... is an ω-3 fatty acid, sometimes called moroctic acid. It is biosynthesized from alpha-linolenic acid (ALA: C18H30O2; 18:3, n-3 ... List of omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids Essential fatty acids Galasso, Incoronata; Russo, Roberto; Mapelli, Sergio; ... Fatty acids, Alkenoic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... "Stearidonic acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2022-11-22. "Corn Gromwell". NIAB. Archived from the original on 2011-07 ...
3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid: Related terms". Omega−3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. Mayo Clinic ... Omega-3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Omega−3 fatty ... Mammals are unable to synthesize omega−3 fatty acids, but can obtain the shorter-chain omega−3 fatty acid ALA (18 carbons and 3 ... Fatty acid Essential fatty acid Essential nutrient "Omega− ... "Omega−3 Fatty Acids and Health: Fact Sheet for Health ...
... is a conjugated linolenic acid or CLnA; i.e. it has three conjugated double bonds. It is chemically similar to the ... Punicic acid (also called trichosanic acid) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, 18:3 cis-9, trans-11, cis-13. It is named for the ... Punicalagin Polyunsaturated fatty acids-conjugated fatty acids Cyberlipid. "POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS". Archived from the original ... "Conjugated linolenic acid is slowly absorbed in rat intestine, but quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid". J Nutr. 136 ...
Growth of this fungus on organic nitrogen leads yields lipids rich in γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The presence of an active ... The fungus is able to synthesize γ-linolenic acid. It also possesses the ability to bioabsorb metals, with the highest levels ... Gema, H.; Kavadia, A.; Dimou, D.; Tsagou, V.; Komaitis, M.; Aggelis, G. (2002). "Production of γ-linolenic acid by ... and is currently of interest to the biotechnology industry due to its ability to synthesize γ-linolenic acid as well as its ...
"Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 4 February 2014. Montgomery P, Richardson AJ (2008 ... Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain ... both omega-3 acid ethyl esters), Vascepa (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid), and Epanova (omega-3 carboxylic acids). None of these ... Lovaza (omega-3 acid ethyl esters) was approved on 10 November 2004. Omtryg (omega-3 acid ethyl esters) was approved on 23 ...
α-Linolenic acid (ALA: C18H30O2; 18:3-n3) → Δ6-desaturation → stearidonic acid (SDA: C18H28O2; 18:4-n3) and/or → Δ6-specific ... eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20H30O2; 20:5-n3). By a Δ17-desaturase, gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA: C18H30O2; 18:3-n6) can be ... dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHGLA/DGLA: C20H34O2; 20:3-n6) to eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA: C20H32O2; 20:4-n3; omega-3 ... Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA: C20H34O2; 20:3-n6) → Δ5-desaturase → arachidonic acid (AA: C20H32O2; 20:4-n6) → also ...
"Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid". Mayo Clinic. 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017. Institute of Shortenings and ... Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc. These ... Catalpic acid, (9E,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid according to IUPAC nomenclature, has the code "18:3 cis-13 trans-9, ... Thus, oleic acid is formally named (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, which describes that the compound has: an 18 carbon chain (" ...
Synthesis is initiated with the conversion of linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which then undergoes a ... Jasmonates (JA) are oxylipins, i.e. derivatives of oxygenated fatty acid. They are biosynthesized from linolenic acid in ... Only the conversion of linolenic acid to OPDA occurs in the chloroplast; all subsequent reactions occur in the peroxisome. JA ... Arachidonic acid (AA), the counterpart of the JA precursor α-LeA occurring in metazoan species but not in plants, is perceived ...
Its biosynthesis starts from the fatty acid linolenic acid, which is oxygenated by lipoxygenase (13-LOX), forming a ... It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid by the octadecanoid pathway. It was first isolated in 1957 as the methyl ester of ... A series of β-oxidations results in 7-isojasmonic acid. In the absence of enzyme, this isojasmonic acid isomerizes to jasmonic ... This conversion is catalyzed by the jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase enzyme. It can also be conjugated to amino acids ...
doi:10.1007/s10068-013-0240-4. Grosch, Werner; Schwarz, Jorg M. (May 1971). "Linoleic and linolenic acid as precursors of the ... Isotopic labeling has indicated that nonadienal is formed from α-linolenic acid. Such reactions are typically catalyzed by ...
Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each ... and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids as well as the metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid to prostanoids and mead acid to 5(S)- ... Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid viz., 8,9-epoxy-eicosadienoic acid (8,9-EpEDE), 11,12-EpEDE, and 14,15-EpEDE; and d) Adrenic acid viz ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), i.e.i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid is an ω-3 fatty acid with five cis double bonds ...
"Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid: MedlinePlus Supplements". Archived from the original on 8 February 2006. ... Regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease. These fatty acids can ... Sardines are also a natural source of marine omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. ... November 2002). "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation. 106 (21): 2747-2757 ...
"Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid: MedlinePlus Supplements". Retrieved 2010-01-22. Fish oil supplements may ... These fatty acids may also help lower blood sugar levels a small amount. They are also a good source of vitamin D, calcium, and ... Sardines are a source of omega-3 fatty acids. Sardines are often served in cans, but can also be eaten grilled, pickled, or ... Sardines are also a natural source of marine omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Recent ...
... α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid γ-Linolenic acid, an omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid Linoleic acid, the similarly named ... Linolenic acid is a type of naturally-occurring fatty acid. It can refer to either of two octadecatrienoic acids (i.e. with an ... Alkenoic acids, Aromatase inhibitors, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acids, Essential nutrients). ... Linolenate (in the form of triglyceride esters of linolenic acid) is often found in vegetable oils; traditionally, such fatty ...
Learn about Alpha-linolenic acid or find a doctor at Mount Sinai Health System. ... Alpha-linolenic acid is similar to the omega-3 fatty acids that are in fish oil, called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ... Researchers dont know whether alpha-linolenic acid supplements would have the same benefits as foods with alpha-linolenic acid ... Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid ...
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) refers to a fatty substance plant seed oils from borage oil and evening primrose oil and it is ... Gamma Linolenic Acid FAQs. Q: What is Gamma Linolenic Acid?. A: Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty ... Gamma Linolenic Acid Overview. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid present in various plant seed oils, ... Gamma Linolenic Acid: Recommendations, Side Effects and Interactions. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) refers to a fatty substance ...
Alpha-Linolenic Acid*Arachidonic Acid*Calcium*Carbohydrates*Carnitine*Chloride*Choline*Copper*Docosahexaenoic Acid*Fat*Folic ... Powder for Suspension; Oral; Alpha-Linolenic Acid 540 mg; Arachidonic Acid 167 mg; Calcium 590 mg; Carbohydrates 54 g; ... Folic Acid 196 mcg; Inositol 220 mg; Iodine 123 mcg; Iron 8.3 mg; Linoleic Acid 4.5 g; Magnesium 44 mg; Manganese 31 mcg; ... Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)*Vitamin B6*Vitamin C*Vitamin D*Vitamin E*Vitamin H (Biotin)*Vitamin K*Water*Zinc. ...
A flurry of studies supports a role for gamma-linolenic acid to further suppress chronic inflammatory reactions. ... Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. The gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group. Diabetes Care. ... Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging (Milano). 1998;10(5):385- ... Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006;7(6):531-4. ...
Modification : Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3α) Oligo. Catalog Reference Number Category Modification Code 5 Prime 3 Prime ... Arachidonic acid (C20:4) Oligo Linoleic acid (C18:2) Oligo Palmityl C16 (3) LMO ...
Gamma linolenic acid is a fatty substance found in various plant seed oils such as borage oil and evening primrose oil. People ... interacts with GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID: Gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting. Taking gamma linolenic acid along with ... Phenothiazines interacts with GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID: Taking gamma linolenic acid with phenothiazines might increase the risk of ... Gammalinolenic Acid, Gamma-Linolenic Acid, (Z,Z,Z)-Octadeca-6,9,12-trienoic acid. ...
... conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic ... OA, oleic acid; VA, vaccenic acid; CLA, conjugated linoleic acid; FA, fatty acids; ALA, α-linolenic acid; VLC n-3 PUFA, very ... butyric acid), 6 : 0 (caproic acid), 10 : 0 (capric acid), 13 : 0 (tridecylic acid), 18 : 0 (stearic acid), 12 : 0+14 : 0+16 : ... cis-decenoic acid), 12 : 1 (lauroleic acid), 14 : 1 (myristoleic acid), 16 : 1 (palmitoleic acid), 17 : 1 (heptadecenoic acid ...
Read on to learn more about why the short-chain omega-3 fatty acid ALA has been overlooked by many experts, and why that should ... Alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA, is one of the most important short-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and it is found in some nuts and ... Health Benefits of Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA). Marine omega-3 fatty acids tend to get all the hype for being healthy, but the ... Classified as long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are regularly in the ...
Essential omega-3 fatty acid in chia, linseed, and hemp oil. Promotes a healthy diet. Benefits for body and mind. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (α-linolenic acid). Alpha-linolenic acid, often just called linolenic acid, is a triple unsaturated fatty ... acid of the group of so-called omega-3 fatty acids, which play a major role in a healthy diet. Alpha-linolenic acid is found as ... The triglycerides of various naturally derived vegetable oils are rich in linolenic acid residues. Well known are e.g. chia oil ...
Chemicalbull deals with Alpha-Linolenic Acid in all major pharma industries. ... Chemicalbull is a Leading Manufacturer of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in India. Its applications are Organic Synthesis, Pharmaceutical ...
Is alpha linolenic acid the same as linolenic acid?. α-Linolenic acid (ALA), (from Greek linon, meaning flax), is an n−3, or ... Is alpha linolenic acid an amino acid?. Overview. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid found in nuts ... Why is alpha linolenic acid called alpha?. CHEBI:27432 - α-linolenic acid A linolenic acid with cis-double bonds at positions 9 ... Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an 18:3 (n ...
Dive into the research topics of Update on alpha-linolenic acid. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
You can only take this supplement if you are purchasing a look at dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid the ... But this dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid is a matter of stress-release study on the journal of Nutrition, ... You can only take this dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid supplement if you are purchasing a look at the ... The companys manufacturers report how dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid it is the best popular use of this ...
... greater ratios of unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (U/S), and poly-unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ( ... P/S), but a lesser concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA). In cashmere goat kids, a combination of linseed and palm oils ... the substrate for synthesis of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in muscle. In vitro studies have shown that rumen ... a gene associated with fatty acid oxidation) and increased the mRNA expression of FADS1 and FADS2 (genes associated with n-3 ...
Linolenic acid was done by using Gas chromatography and the results showed 12.9894% for the γ- Linolenic acid extracted from ... Optimization of production media for high yield production of γ- linolenic acid by using cunninghamella sp. rkc008 through ...
Gamma Linolenic Acid offered by Akshar Molecules, Sonipat, Haryana. ... Niacinamide, Folic Acid , Zinc Sulphate, Copper Sulphate, Maganese Chromium Lycopene Softgel Capsule ... Calcium Citrate Malate, Calcitriol, Omega 3 Fatty Acid Vitamin K2-7 lycopene Softgel Capsule ... Vitamin C, Vit.E Zinc Alpha Liopic , Folic Acid & Vitamin A Tablets ...
Breeding for High Oleic/Low Linolenic Acid Soybeans with Competitive Yield. Parent Project:. This is the first year of this ...
Harris, W. S. (2008). Editorial: Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify? Circulation, 118(4), 323-324 ... Harris, WS 2008, Editorial: Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify?, Circulation, vol. 118, no. 4, ... Editorial: Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify? / Harris, William S. In: Circulation, Vol. 118, No ... Harris, William S. / Editorial : Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify?. In: Circulation. 2008 ; Vol ...
Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Vanilla Planifolia Fruit Extract, Dipotassium ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linolenic acid., antistatic, cleansing ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of oleic acid., emollient, emulsifying. ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid., antistatic, cleansing ...
Cosmetics Database Rating for Cvs Health Rich Hydrating Cream With Hyaluronic Acid. ... LINOLEIC ACID, LINOLENIC ACID, TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, RETINYL PALMITATE, MARRUBIUM VULGARE EXTRACT, PHENOXYETHANOL, ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linolenic acid., antistatic, cleansing ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid., antistatic, cleansing ...
Alterations in six metabolic pathways were found on D 17 and D 45, including variations in the level of alpha-linolenic acid ... An "essential fatty acid", alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), was decreased on D 17 and D 45 of pregnancy in this study, consistent ... Alterations in six metabolic pathways were found on D 17 and D 45, including variations in the level of alpha-linolenic acid ... a) alpha-linolenic acid; (b) glycerophospholipid metabolism; (c) pentose and glucuronate interconversions; (d) glycerolipid ...
Among them are omega-3 fatty acids, which may provide a variety of benefits to the body. Learn more here. ... alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA mainly come from animal-based foods and are important for heart and brain health. While ... Omega-6 fatty acids can play a role in a nutritious diet. However, some research suggests. that diets high in omega-6s and low ... Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of fat present in certain foods. This article covers their function in the body, their benefits ...
Approximate essential fatty acid(EFA) content:. Alpha-Linolenic Acid (Omega-3). 500 mg. ***. ... Flaxseed oil is the worlds richest source of Omega-3 fatty acids containing almost twice the amount of Omega-3 fatty acids as ... Omega-3 fatty acids have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects. ...
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a form of omega-3 fat that our bodies convert into another omega-3 fat, called EPA ( ... Simon JA, Chen YH, Bent S. The relation of alpha-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta- ... Dietary supplementation of α-linolenic acid induced conversion of n-3 LCPUFAs and reduced prostate cancer growth in a mouse ... Fatty Acids, Mitochrondia and Molecular Genetics of Colon Cancer. 95B025:. Short Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and APC Initiated ...
Linolenic acid, and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) are three nutritionally essential omega-3 fatty acids. All three fatty acids have ... acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). are three types of omega-3 fatty acids and are nutritionally ... Flaxseed contains good amount of á-Linolenic Acid. (ALA), omega-3 fatty acid, protein, dietary fiber, lignan specifically ... It also has high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids (typically ALA- Alpha-Linolenic Acid).  Each tablespoon of ... [Show full ...
Subchronic Alpha-Linolenic Acid Treatment Enhances Brain Plasticity and Exerts an Antidepressant Effect- A Versatile Potential ... Subchronic Alpha-Linolenic Acid Treatment Enhances Brain Plasticity and Exerts an Antidepressant Effect- A Versatile Potential ... We previously showed that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduced ischemic brain damage after a single treatment. To follow-up this ... Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have therapeutic potential in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. ...
Alpha Linolenic Acid Vitamin B6 Zinc Gamma Linolenic Acid Saw Palmetto Azelaic Acid Procyanidin Oligomers ... Y-Linolenic & Fatty Acid inhibitors of 5AR (DHT). Study to determine if topical application of Fatty Acids found in this ... Aliphatic Fatty Acid 5AR (DHT) Inhibition (Study II). A third study focused on Aliphatic Fatty acids found in the Scalp Therapy ... Aliphatic Unsaturated Fatty Acid 5AR (DHT) Inhibition. A second study done on the ingredients in the Scalp Therapy for DHT ...
Linolenic acid (100 µM) and -Tocopherol in IVM medium on IVC of presumptive zygotes. To study the effect of -Linolenic acid ( ... linolenic acid; -tocoferol; -tocopherol; Buffalo; Búfalo; Desenvolvimento embrionário; Embryonic development; Maturação nuclear ... Synergistic impact of -linolenic acid and -tocopherol on in vitro maturation and culture of buffalo oocytes ... Abstract The objective of the current study was to investigate the synergistic impact of -Tocopherol and -Linolenic acid (100 ...
  • Linolenic acid is a type of naturally-occurring fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • traditionally, such fatty acylates are reported as the fatty acids: α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid γ-Linolenic acid, an omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid Linoleic acid, the similarly named essential fatty acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid is a type of omega-3 fatty acid found in plants. (mountsinai.org)
  • Preliminary research suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplements (particularly perilla seed oil, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid) may decrease inflammation and improve lung function in some people with asthma. (mountsinai.org)
  • Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid present in various plant seed oils, including borage oil, black currant seed oil, and evening primrose oil. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Gamma linolenic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, aids in the formation of substances that not only promote cell growth but also reduce inflammation . (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid, which the body can convert to substances that reduce inflammation and cell growth. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Read on to learn more about why the short-chain omega-3 fatty acid ALA has been overlooked by many experts, and why that should change. (healwithfood.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid, often just called linolenic acid, is a triple unsaturated fatty acid of the group of so-called omega-3 fatty acids , which play a major role in a healthy diet. (kingnature.de)
  • a fatty acid with whose molecule has an 18-carbon unbranched backbone with three double bonds. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid found in nuts such as walnuts. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an 18:3 (n−6) fatty acid (i.e., a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid with three double bonds). (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • decreased the mRNA expression of CPT1β (a gene associated with fatty acid oxidation) and increased the mRNA expression of FADS1 and FADS2 (genes associated with n-3 LCPUFA synthesis), compared with the LSO diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The next challenge is that the ruminal "by-pass" C18:3n-3 can be oxidized in the various tissues and organs that are involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism [ 7 ], leading to a reduction in the tissue deposition of C18:3n-3, and therefore the local synthesis of n-3 LCPUFA in muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flaxseed contains good amount of á-Linolenic Acid (ALA), omega-3 fatty acid, protein, dietary fiber, lignan specifically Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). (researchgate.net)
  • In fact, DHA makes up over 33% of fatty acids in the retina, and this fatty acid is absorbed by the fetus for retinal development during the last 3 months of pregnancy. (positivehealth.com)
  • Membrane proteins implicated in long-chain fatty acid uptake by mammalian cells: CD36, FATP and FABPm. (springer.com)
  • The seeds of the evening primrose plant contain gamma linolenic acid, or GLA, which is a fatty acid used by the body for a variety of functions. (naturalnews.com)
  • The evening primrose is one of the few sources of this essential fatty acid. (naturalnews.com)
  • Adding the omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid to infant formula, along with an omega-3 fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), doesn't seem to improve brain development, vision, or growth in infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There isn't enough reliable information to know if omega-6 fatty acid supplements are safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use omega-6 fatty acid supplements if you have COPD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, COX - also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), fatty acid COX, prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase, and EC 1.14.99.1 - is implicated in the production of fever, inflammation, and pain. (medscape.com)
  • Twenty-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid with cyclopentane ring. (medscape.com)
  • Their distinct biosynthetic activity includes an endoperoxidase synthase reaction that oxygenates and cyclizes polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors (eg, arachidonic acid) to form prostaglandin G 2 (PGG2), and a peroxidase reaction that converts PGG2 to prostaglandin H 2 (PGH2), as shown below. (medscape.com)
  • Furthering an understanding of West African plant foods Mineral, fatty acid and protein content of seven cultivated indigenous leafy vegetables of Ghana. (cdc.gov)
  • Saturated and trans fatty acid intake. (who.int)
  • Instead, it incorporates healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which have a higher omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio. (medscape.com)
  • A crucial period of fetal polyunsaturated fatty acid accretion bypassed with prematurity. (bvsalud.org)
  • to study how the fatty acid composition of breast milk in breast-fed premature infants is associated with cognitive, language, and motor development. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fatty acid composition of breast milk samples from the first week postpartum was analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography. (bvsalud.org)
  • GLA is an anti-inflammatory compound that is found in very small amounts in some leafy greens and nuts, while the pro-inflammatory fats linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are present in ample amounts in vegetable oils and chicken, and eggs and meat, respectively. (lifeextension.com)
  • The body can make small amounts of GLA from linoleic acid. (lifeextension.com)
  • What is the formula of linoleic acid? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • The solubility of linoleic acid in these solvents is approximately 100 mg/ml. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • What does alpha linoleic acid do? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Linoleic Acid (min. (dog.com)
  • A higher proportional intake of fatty acids from polyunsaturated sources (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acids), compared with saturated fats, is associated with lower risk for developing hypertension. (who.int)
  • regression analyses revealed that the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid was positively associated with receptive language development (â = 1.49, p = 0.03). (bvsalud.org)
  • Women with preterm infants showed breast milk long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations consistent with worldwide levels and a high ratio of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid that might be beneficial for language development in the premature infant. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) refers to a fatty substance plant seed oils from borage oil and evening primrose oil and it is usually used for medicinal purposes. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Most health food stores get gamma linolenic acid oils in the form of capsules. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Again, the data for gamma linolenic acid uses in persons with rheumatoid arthritis is promising but limited, with a few studies yielding mixed results. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • The findings are promising but not enough to support the health benefits of gamma linolenic acid. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Though more researches are needed, here are some other benefits of Gamma Linolenic acid. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • A flurry of studies supports a role for gamma-linolenic acid to further suppress chronic inflammatory reactions. (lifeextension.com)
  • This article describes published scientific findings as to how gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and healthier diets can suppress chronic inflammatory reactions that are a leading killer of aging Americans. (lifeextension.com)
  • Healthy fats such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and omega-3s work by several pathways to reduce the dangers of inflammation throughout the body. (lifeextension.com)
  • Of particular interest is the omega-6 fat GLA ( gamma-linolenic acid ), which has remarkable anti-inflammation mechanisms. (lifeextension.com)
  • Gamma linolenic acid is a fatty substance found in various plant seed oils such as borage oil and evening primrose oil. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is used for conditions that affect the skin including systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, and eczema. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Gamma linolenic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts of no more than 2.8 grams per day for up to a year. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Since gamma linolenic acid might slow blood clotting, there is concern that it might increase the risk of extra bleeding during and after surgery. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Stop taking gamma linolenic acid at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Taking gamma linolenic acid along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. (nutrawiki.org)
  • Taking gamma linolenic acid with phenothiazines might increase the risk of having a seizure in some people. (nutrawiki.org)
  • You can only take this dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid supplement if you are purchasing a look at the Institute of the ingredients. (unand.ac.id)
  • dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid medical trials weight loss ukoduline - L-Trankins, Vitamin S3 is a natural that helps in curbing hunger. (unand.ac.id)
  • The company's manufacturers report how dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid it is the best popular use of this product. (unand.ac.id)
  • This is a natural product that has been shown dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid to increase metabolism and reduce appetite. (unand.ac.id)
  • Because it comes from an dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid idea of its substance, the ingredients & aren't customer reviewed to dramatically follow a special diet pills. (unand.ac.id)
  • One of the best fat burner supplement is to receive one with a free of capsules per bottle, which is a free of natural dietary supplement containing gamma linolenic acid appetite suppressant. (unand.ac.id)
  • The use of gamma linolenic acid in the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma-linolenic acid in diabetic neuropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma linolenic acid-containing borage oil may have therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthama. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids, such as gamma linolenic acid, are a family of fats found in some plant oils and seeds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are different types of omega-6 fatty acids, such as gamma linolenic acid (GLA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytochrome p450-dependent metabolism of ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • The third trimesters of gestation is a vulnerable period for nutritional insults, such as essential fatty acids (EFA) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), necessary for optimal development of the central nervous system (CNS) and organ membranes 4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • One of the best ways to help prevent and treat heart disease is to eat a diet that is low in saturated and trans fats, and rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, particularly omega-3 fatty acids. (mountsinai.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid is similar to the omega-3 fatty acids that are in fish oil, called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (mountsinai.org)
  • Classified as long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are regularly in the headlines because of their wide-ranging health benefits. (healwithfood.org)
  • Furthermore, using sequence analysis of human genomic DNA, researchers concluded that the amino acids important for catalysis by COX-1 are conserved and are equally important for catalysis by COX-2. (medscape.com)
  • Purpose - The main purpose of this paper is to determine the content of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in seven indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) in Ghana. (cdc.gov)
  • An omega-6 fat called arachidonic acid forms necessary pro -inflammatory substances like prostaglandin E2. (lifeextension.com)
  • The ratios of DGLA to arachidonic acid and DGLA to stearic acid increased significantly in these cells. (utmb.edu)
  • The antiinflammatory effects of GLA administration observed in animal models, and the apparent clinical improvement experienced by 6 of 7 rheumatoid arthritis patients given borage seed oil in this open, uncontrolled study may be due in part to reduced generation of arachidonic acid oxygenation products. (utmb.edu)
  • By 1964, after recognition of this basic structure, Bergstrom and colleagues successfully synthesized series 2 prostaglandins from arachidonic acid using sheep seminal fluid. (medscape.com)
  • Further investigations by Smith concluded that aspirin and indomethacin inhibited synthesis by specifically blocking oxygenation of arachidonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). (medscape.com)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a form of omega-3 fat that our bodies convert into another omega-3 fat, called EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). (aicr.org)
  • In another study, supplementation with perilla seed oil, which is one of the best sources of alpha-linolenic acid , was found to improve symptoms in some asthma sufferers. (healwithfood.org)
  • Flaxseed oil is the worlds richest source of Omega-3 fatty acids containing almost twice the amount of Omega-3 fatty acids as fish oils. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Naturally a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, salmon is a nutritious meal choice. (coles.com.au)
  • The phytochemicals in this diet have key anticarcinogenic and anti-cardiovascular disease properties, promote important antioxidants (eg, polyphenols, flavonoids), and are high in oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in monounsaturated fatty acids, which promote the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic prostaglandin pathway. (medscape.com)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids -- especially EPA and DHA -- have been shown to reduce inflammation and may help prevent chronic diseases, such as heart disease and arthritis. (mountsinai.org)
  • GLA, when combined with other fatty acids, may aid in alleviating eye dryness and inflammation. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Oral GLA (mixed with other fatty acids and artificial tears) reduced eye dryness and inflammation in three trials involving over 150 persons with pink eye. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Effects of an energy-restricted diet rich in plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid on systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with metabolic syndrome traits. (fh-muenster.de)
  • Most importantly, omega-3 fatty acids promote the production and secretion of tears and tear film quality, protecting eyes against infection and inflammation. (positivehealth.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Alterations in six metabolic pathways were found on D 17 and D 45, including variations in the level of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, glycerolipid metabolism, folate biosynthesis, and tyrosine metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole body lipid metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The triglycerides of various naturally derived vegetable oils are rich in linolenic acid residues. (kingnature.de)
  • Several studies suggest that diets or supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure slightly in people with hypertension. (mountsinai.org)
  • Other phytochemicals in these diets (eg, alpha linolenic acid, beta-carotene, curcumin) offer important anti-inflammatory mediators. (medscape.com)
  • Interest in flaxseed and cancer prevention often focuses on its ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) and lignans, although evidence is clearest regarding its role as a source of dietary fiber. (aicr.org)
  • essential fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber of flaxseed are discussed. (researchgate.net)
  • Higher intake of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet doesn't seem to lower cholesterol or triglyceride levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids can raise triglyceride levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interestingly, compared to Longissimus dorsi , Biceps femoris had greater concentrations of PUFA, greater ratios of unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (U/S), and poly-unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (P/S), but a lesser concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • They also support a specific preventive effect of linolenic acid intake. (bmj.com)
  • While there is no RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) for omega-3 fatty acids so far, research by the American Heart Association suggests that a total daily intake of 500 mg-1.8 grams of DHA and EPA can reduce the risk of cardiac problems. (positivehealth.com)
  • Intake of omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA during pregnancy can also help with healthy vision development in babies and young children. (positivehealth.com)
  • Higher intake of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet doesn't reduce the risk of heart disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High intake of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure in people with diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Excessive intake of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids, along with higher consumption of salt and sugar, are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. (who.int)
  • Intake of trans fatty acids can be reduced by replacing them with polyunsaturated fatty acids. (who.int)
  • These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of myristic acid, that can be sourced from dietary intake of dairy foods or via de novo synthesis, may increase breast cancer risk. (who.int)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the functioning of the body's cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Essential Fatty Acids contained in Flax Seed Oil may help support cardiovascular health and can help maintain a healthy balance of fatty acids. (vitacost.com)
  • Pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy: the role of the n-6 essential fatty acids and their eicosanoid derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • The building blocks of fat are known as fatty acids, and what we call healthy fats are actually essential fatty acids (EFAs). (positivehealth.com)
  • The only way we can get these essential fatty acids into our system is by eating foods that include them. (positivehealth.com)
  • Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. (springer.com)
  • Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s)? (springer.com)
  • In U. N. DAs (Ed.), Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of essential fatty acids (pp. 181-200). (springer.com)
  • Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 75 (3), 197-202. (springer.com)
  • Findings - All seven ILVs contained a large amount of protein (15.5-22.8 percent), which compared favorably to the essential amino acid pattern of a WHO standard. (cdc.gov)
  • and C18:3n-3 that by-passes the rumen still can be lost through oxidation in muscle, theoretically reducing the deposition of C18:3n-3, the substrate for synthesis of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The long chain n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), such as C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, have a wide range of biological effects that have long been believed to be beneficial for human health [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Two decades later, the prostaglandins were deduced to be a family of related compounds that contain 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids with a cyclopentane ring, as depicted below. (medscape.com)
  • It can refer to either of two octadecatrienoic acids (i.e. with an 18-carbon chain and three double bonds, which are found in the cis configuration), or a mixture of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • An octadecatrienoic acid is a chemical compounds with formula C. 18H. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • In terms of its structure, it is named all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • In comparison to quercetin and ascorbic acid, the scavenging of superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide, and 2, 2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by a model (most biologically active) of the anticancer plant was also evaluated. (who.int)
  • The anticancer model's overall antioxidant activity (34.72 µg/mL) was slightly lower than quercetin (30.44 µg/mL) but higher than ascorbic acid (41.68 µg/mL). (who.int)
  • Zahler's Flax Seed Oil is high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is partially converted by the body into other important nutrients like DHA and EPA. (vitacost.com)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid is thought to decrease the risk of heart disease by helping to maintain normal heart rhythm and pumping. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • A diet high in omega-3 fatty acids may decrease healing time for corneal epithelium abrasions, i.e. injuries to the outer surface of the eye, such as scrapes or scratches caused by contact lenses or fingernails. (positivehealth.com)
  • Although the strength of the evidence is not nearly the same as for marine omega-3 fatty acids, there has been an increase in the number of studies that support the idea that ALA is good for the cardiovascular system. (healwithfood.org)
  • Editorial: Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify? (elsevierpure.com)
  • Harris, William S. / Editorial : Cardiovascular risk and a-linolenic acid can costa rica clarify? . (elsevierpure.com)
  • The Mediterranean Diet -- which emphasizes whole grains, root and green vegetables, daily servings of fruit, fish and poultry, olive and canola oils, and alpha-linolenic acid (found in flaxseed oil) -- is an example. (mountsinai.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid is found as an ester chemically bound in many triglycerides, which are the main component of natural fats and oils. (kingnature.de)
  • He localized the biologic activity to a fraction of lipid soluble acids that he termed "prostaglandin," hypothesizing that these substances originate in the prostate gland. (medscape.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids are commonly consumed as part of the diet in amounts between 5% and 10% of daily calories. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But there isn't enough reliable information to know if omega-6 fatty acids are safe to use in larger amounts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They all contained nutritionally useful amounts of alpha-linolenic acid and had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 0.1-0.9. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, some supplements are used as sources of omega-6 fatty acids, such as evening primrose, borage, and black currant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Marine omega-3 fatty acids tend to get all the hype for being healthy, but the plant-based alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA, deserves its own spotlight. (healwithfood.org)
  • Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans. (springer.com)
  • One study suggests that people who eat a diet high in alpha-linolenic acid are less likely to have a fatal heart attack. (mountsinai.org)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids can play a role in a nutritious diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Why Do We Need to Include More Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Our Diet? (positivehealth.com)
  • Typically, there's an imbalance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids if our diet includes a lot of processed foods and red meat. (positivehealth.com)
  • Health and nutrition experts advise a ratio of 1:4 for these two EFA types, but the typical diet may contain 10-30 times more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. (positivehealth.com)
  • In addition, walnuts -- which are rich in alpha-linolenic acid -- have been shown to lower cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol. (mountsinai.org)
  • Another study found that women who ate high levels of alpha-linolenic acid (1.5 g per day) had a 46% lower risk of sudden cardiac death than those who ate the lowest amount of alpha-linolenic acid (about half a gram per day). (mountsinai.org)
  • Some studies found that alpha-linolenic acid may help lower cholesterol, while others found it didn't. (mountsinai.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA, is one of the most important short-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and it is found in some nuts and seeds. (healwithfood.org)
  • Both linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, which means that they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms that are otherwise found in saturated fatty acids. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • You have probably heard a lot about other omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, which are found in fish oil. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Infants and Children - According to various studies, omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA help with vision development in infants, and are naturally found in breast milk. (positivehealth.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids are found everywhere in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts). (springer.com)
  • Researchers don't know whether taking alpha-linolenic acid supplements would have the same effect as eating foods rich in alpha-linolenic acid. (mountsinai.org)
  • Researchers don't know whether alpha-linolenic acid supplements would have the same benefits as foods with alpha-linolenic acid. (mountsinai.org)
  • There's some evidence that eating foods high in alpha-linolenic acid may help, too. (mountsinai.org)
  • However, studies with flaxseed oil, which is high in alpha-linolenic acid, have been mixed. (mountsinai.org)
  • Optimization of production media for high yield production of γ- linolenic acid by using cunninghamella sp. (journalcra.com)
  • People use omega-6 fatty acids for heart disease, child development, high cholesterol, cancer, diabetes, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Funk and co-investigators localized COX-1 to 9q32-q33.3 via somatic hybrid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Background: The success of in vitro-fertilization (IVF) cycles is determined in large part by the quality of embryo cleavage, which in turn, is dependent on the quality of the embryo culture media (CM). Many factors can influence the quality of embryo CM, one of which is the levels of Cell Free Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • This article reviews the current knowledge and experimental research about the mechanisms by which fatty acids and their derivatives control specific gene expression involved during carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function. (springer.com)
  • The transcription of COX-1 yields a 2.7-kilobase (kb) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that encodes a 576-residue, 65-kd protein. (medscape.com)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid may not have the same benefits as EPA or DHA. (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Let's take a closer look at the benefits these fatty acids offer for our vision and eye health, as well as common sources from where we can get them. (positivehealth.com)
  • Your body can change alpha-linolenic acid into EPA and DHA. (mountsinai.org)
  • Some researchers think the same may be true for alpha-linolenic acid. (mountsinai.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid is not the same as alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant that helps the body turn glucose into energy. (mountsinai.org)
  • This can be confusing because both alpha-linolenic acid and alpha-lipoic acid are sometimes abbreviated as ALA. (mountsinai.org)
  • Other population studies show that as people eat more foods with alpha-linolenic acid, heart disease deaths go down. (mountsinai.org)
  • What is the structure of alpha-linolenic acid? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Why is alpha linolenic acid called alpha? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Is alpha-linolenic acid saturated or unsaturated? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Is alpha linolenic acid an amino acid? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • How do you find the alpha linolenic acid? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • Is alpha linolenic acid the same as linolenic acid? (thegatheringbaltimore.com)
  • We previously showed that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduced ischemic brain damage after a single treatment. (bioseb.com)
  • Summary The report forecast global Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA) market to grow to reach xxx Million USD in 2020 with a CAGR of xx% during the period 2021E-2026F due to coronavirus situation. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • The report offers detailed coverage of Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA) industry and main market trends with impact of coronavirus. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • The market research includes historical and forecast market data, demand, application details, price trends, and company shares of the leading Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA) by geography. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • First, this report covers the present status and the future prospects of the global Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA) market for 2016-2025. (reportsnmarkets.com)
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  • Finally, the report provides detailed profile and data information analysis of leading Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA) company. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • a higher ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid in breast milk could exert beneficial effects for receptive language development in preterm infants fed breast milk. (bvsalud.org)
  • These beneficial fatty acids are abundant in oily fish and a few other non-vegan foods such as omega-3 eggs , but they can also be made by the body from short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. (healwithfood.org)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Supplementation of - tocopherol in maturation media having - Linolenic acid and/or in embryo culture media did not further enhance in vitro maturation of oocyte or embryo production . (bvsalud.org)