A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/1038)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (2/1038)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) incorporation and conversion to novel products by endothelial cells. (3/1038)

13(S)-Hydroxy-[12,13-3H]octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), a linoleic acid oxidation product that has vasoactive properties, was rapidly taken up by bovine aortic endothelial cells. Most of the 13-HODE was incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, and 80% was present in the sn -2 position. The amount of 13-HODE retained in the cells gradually decreased, and radiolabeled metabolites with shorter reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times (RT) than 13-HODE accumulated in the extracellular fluid. The three major metabolites were identified by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry as 11-hydroxyhexadecadienoic acid (11-OH-16:2), 9-hydroxytetradecadienoic acid (9-OH-14:2), and 7-hydroxydodecadienoic acid (7-OH-12:2). Most of the radioactivity contained in the cell lipids remained as 13-HODE. However, some 11-OH-16:2 and several unidentified products with longer RT than 13-HODE were detected in the cell lipids. Normal human skin fibroblasts also converted 13-HODE to the three major chain-shortened metabolites, but Zellweger syndrome fibroblasts produced only a very small amount of 11-OH-16:2. Therefore, the chain-shortened products probably are formed primarily by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. These findings suggest that peroxisomal beta-oxidation may constitute a mechanism for the inactivation and removal of 13-HODE from the vascular wall. Because this is a gradual process, some 13-HODE that is initially incorporated remains in endothelial phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine. This may be the cause of some of the functional perturbations produced by 13-HODE in the vascular wall.  (+info)

Protective effect of flavonoids on endothelial cells against linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced toxicity. (4/1038)

The protective effect of flavonoids against linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH)-induced cytotoxicity was examined by using cultured endothelial cells. When the cells were incubated with both LOOH and flavonoids, most flavonols protected the cells from injury by LOOH. Flavones bearing an ortho-dihydroxy structure also showed a protective effect against the cytotoxicity of LOOH. However, flavanones had no effect. The structure-activity relationship revealed the presence of either the ortho-di-hydroxy structure in the B ring of the flavonoids or 3-hydroxyl and 4-oxo groups in the C ring to be important for the protective activities. The interaction between flavonoids and a-tocopherol was also examined in this system. Flavonoids that were protective against LOOH-induced cytotoxicity had at least an additive effect on the action of alpha-tocopherol against LOOH-induced damage.  (+info)

Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells. (5/1038)

Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids.  (+info)

Formation of 9-hydroxy linoleic acid as a product of phospholipid peroxidation in diabetic erythrocyte membranes. (6/1038)

The increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals (OFR) and lipid peroxidation may contribute to vascular complications in diabetes. Some lipid peroxidation products have already been reported to be formed via glucose-induced oxidative stress. We have identified 9-hydroxy linoleic acid (9-OH-C18:2) in the red cell membrane phospholipid of diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that 9-OH-C18:2 would be formed in hydroxyl radical reactions to linoleic acid (C18:2) during glucose-induced oxidative stress, and confirmed that the formation of 9-OH-C18:2 was induced by ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation to the synthetic C18:2. UV-C light generates highly reactive hydroxy radicals. C18:2 is confirmed to be the precursor of 9-OH-C18:2. To estimate the degree of oxidative damage to red cell membrane phospholipids, we developed a selective ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometric measurement for C18:2 and 9-OH-C18:2, following methanolysis of red cell membrane phospholipids. The relative peak height ratio of C18:2 to 9-OH-C18:2 (9-OH-C18:2/C18:2) was measured in phospholipid extracts of red cell membranes from healthy (n=29, 3.1+/-1.9%) and diabetic (n=27, 20. 9+/-16.1%) subjects. It was confirmed that 9-OH-C18:2/C18:2 is significantly (P<0.001) elevated in patients with diabetes. The measurement of 9-OH-C18:2/C18:2 in red cell membranes should be useful for assessing oxidative damage to membrane phospholipids in diabetes.  (+info)

Antiplatelet effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. (7/1038)

Conjugated diene isomers of linoleic acid (CLA) are normal constituents of certain foods and exhibit anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. In the present study, the effects of several CLA isomers on human platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism were examined. It was found that 9c,11t-CLA, 10t, 12c-CLA and 13-hydroxy-9c,11t-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) inhibited arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation with I50s in the 5-7 microM range. The nonconjugated 9c, 12c-LA was about 300% and 50%, respectively, less potent an inhibitor with these aggregating agents. Using either thrombin or the calcium ionophore A23187 as aggregating agents, a CLA isomer mix was also found to be more inhibitory than 9c,12c-LA. The 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA isomers as well as the CLA isomer mix inhibited formation of the proaggregatory cyclooxygenase-catalyzed product TXA2, as measured by decreased production of its inactive metabolite [14C]TXB2 from exogenously added [14C]arachidonic acid (I50s=9-16 microM). None of the CLA isomers tested inhibited production of the platelet lipoxygenase metabolite [14C]12-HETE. The additional presence of a hydroxyl group gave opposite results: 13-HODE (I50=3 microM) was about 4-fold more potent a cyclooxygenase inhibitor than the 9c,11t-CLA isomer but 9-HODE was 2- to 3-fold less effective an inhibitor (I50=34 microM) of [14C]TXB2 formation than the corresponding 10t,12c-CLA. In both the aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism experiments, the inhibitory effects of CLA on platelets were reversible and dependent on the time of addition of either the aggregating agent or the [14C]arachidonic acid substrate. These studies suggest that CLA isomers may also possess antithrombotic properties.  (+info)

Loss-of-function mutations in PPAR gamma associated with human colon cancer. (8/1038)

The gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, regulates adipocyte differentiation and has recently been shown to be expressed in neoplasia of the colon and other tissues. We have found four somatic PPAR gamma mutations among 55 sporadic colon cancers: one nonsense, one frameshift, and two missense mutations. Each greatly impaired the function of the protein. c.472delA results in deletion of the entire ligand binding domain. Q286P and K319X retain a total or partial ligand binding domain but lose the ability to activate transcription through a failure to bind to ligands. R288H showed a normal response to synthetic ligands but greatly decreased transcription and binding when exposed to natural ligands. These data indicate that colon cancer in humans is associated with loss-of-function mutations in PPAR gamma.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation of Superoxide Anion during Ferrous Ion-Induced Decomposition of Linoleic Acid Hydroperoxide under Aerobic Conditions. AU - Kambayashi, Yasuhiro. AU - Tero-Kubota, Shozo. AU - Yamamoto, Yorihiro. AU - Kato, Masashi. AU - Nakano, Minoru. AU - Yagi, Kunio. AU - Ogino, Keiki. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - We studied the mechanism of formation of oxygen radicals during ferrous ion-induced decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide using the spin trapping and chemiluminescence methods. The formation of the superoxide anion (O2.-) was verified in the present study. The hydroxyl radical is also generated through Fenton type decomposition of hydrogen peroxide produced on disproportionation of O2.-. A carbon-centered radical was detected using 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DEPMPO) as a spin trap. Alkoxyl radical formation is essential for the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxide into the peroxyl radical by ferrous ion. It is likely that the ...
13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is the commonly used term for 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE). The production of 13(S)-HODE is often accompanied by the production of its stereoisomer, 13(R)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(R)-HODE). The adjacent figure gives the structure for the (S) stereoisomer of 13-HODE. Two other naturally occurring 13-HODEs that may accompany the production of 13(S)-HODE are its cis-trans (i.e., 9E,11E) isomers viz., 13(S)-hydroxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-EE-HODE) and 13(R)-hydroxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(R)-EE-HODE). Studies credit 13(S)-HODE with a range of clinically relevant bioactivities; recent studies have assigned activities to 13(R)-HODE that differ from those of 13(S)-HODE; and other studies have proposed that one or more of these HODEs mediate physiological and pathological responses, are markers of various human diseases, and/or contribute to the progression of certain diseases in humans. Since, however, ...
The latest report on the Hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid market closely surveys, examines and offers vital statistics on the Hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid market for the forecast period 2019 - 2026. This market intelligence assessment report weighs up on the potential region that reserves greater opportunities for this industry. Importantly, subject matter experts have taken into account every critical aspect right from the market size, share, and growth to the dramatic shift in the consumer behavior and their growing spending capacity. The industry assessment study depicts a perfectly clear picture of both the past and the future trends to offer the stakeholders, business owners, and marketing executives an opportunity to zero in on an effective marketing strategy and boost sales.. The report relies on advanced primary and secondary research methodologies to assess information. The data for the study is gathered from reliable and trustworthy sources, ensuring the authenticity and accuracy ...
Constituent of most vegetable oils and animal fats. The Fe salt is the major component of metallic drier compositions used to line food cans Linoleic acid is one of two essential fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest for good health, because the body requires them for various biological processes, but cannot synthesize them from other food components. (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid is found in many foods, some of which are green bean, cloves, kumquat, and pecan nut ...
9-HODE is an oxidation product of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2), is pro-inflammatory, and is a ligand for GPR132 which is involved in atherogenesis. By contrast, 13-HODE is protective and acts through PPARgamma. Plasma FABP4 is increased in diabetes and coronary artery disease. 9-HODE increases FABP4 expression in macrophages. We investigated whether GPR132 is a monocyte activation marker in diabetes, and if it mediates the effect of 9-HODE on FABP4. Monocyte populations from 31 type 2 diabetic patients and controls were studied using FACS. Plasma cytokines were measured using bead arrays and ELISA. THP-1 cells were used to investigate regulation of FABP4 secretion. Diabetic subjects had increased circulating CD14+, CD14+CD36+, CD14+CD11b+, CD14+CD54+ cells (p,0.01), and also increased GPR132 mRNA expression in CD14+ monocytes (p , 0.01). Levels of GPR132 expression did not correlate with any of the above cell populations, or with increased plasma levels of FABP4, sTNF-R, osteoprotegerin, MCP-1, ...
In enzymology, a hydroperoxide dehydratase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate, and two products, (9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate 12,13-hydro-lyase [(9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate-forming]. Other names in common use include hydroperoxide isomerase, linoleate hydroperoxide isomerase, linoleic acid hydroperoxide isomerase, HPI, (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate, and 12,13-hydro-lyase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with ...
68683-44-3 - 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (9Z,12Z)-, dimer, polymer with 11-aminoundecanoic acid and 4,4-(1,3-propanediyl)bis(piperidine) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
9-Hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) are accumulated in the low density lipoproteins of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for a factor of 20-50 compared to healthy individuals of the same age. Both acids, derived by lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid, induce the release of interleukin 1 beta. The ...
822-17-3 - WYPBVHPKMJYUEO-NBTZWHCOSA-M - Sodium linoleate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Data are presented on the formation of a linoleic acid oxygenation product under basal conditions by guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM). Under non-stimulated conditions 20 × 106 AM released about 1 nmol 9-hydroxylinoleic acid (9-HODE) during a 15 min incubation. Furthermore, AM released more than 2 nmol 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT), ... read more a byproduct of the formation of thromboxane A2. 9-HODE and HHT were the most prominent products formed under the incubation conditions used. These products were formed via a Cyclooxygenase-catalyzed reaction, since their formation was inhibited by 1 μM indomethacin. Thus, under basal conditions AM possess substantial cyclooxygenase activity. The biological significance of 9-HODE and related substances is discussed. show less ...
A study published by the Harvard School of Public Health has determined that the risk of coronary heart disease, (CHD), is lowered if saturated fats are replaced with polyunsaturated fats.. The research consisted of a systematic review and analysis of available studies to summarize the evidence regarding the link between dietary linoleic acid intake and CHD risk in generally healthy people. Thirteen published and unpublished cohort studies were identified with a total of 310,602 individuals and 12,479 total CHD events including 5,882 CHD deaths.. The analysis revealed that dietary linoleic acid intake is inversely associated with CHD risk in a dose-response manner - meaning, higher intake of linoleic acid resulted in a lower risk of CHD. Comparing the highest to the lowest level of consumption, dietary linoleic acid was associated with a 15% lower risk of CHD events and a 21% lower risk of CHD deaths. These results were independent of common coronary heart disease risk factors such as smoking ...
Evening Primrose Oil; Vitamin E information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Trophic Canada, Evening Primrose Oil; Vitamin E indications, usages and related health products lists
The majority of evidence suggests that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid (LA), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as reflected by current dietary recommendations. However, concern has been expressed that a high intake of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid contribute …
Arachidonic acid is arguably the most important PUFA associated with membrane phospholipids. Upon release, AA can be enzymatically metabolized to a myriad of bioactive derivatives, eicosanoids, known to contribute to a variety of chronic diseases, but are also known to be involved in tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation [1-4, 22]. The relative abundance of AA in membrane phospholipids positively influences eicosanoid production [23]. It is well known that dietary PUFA can affect tissue AA levels; however, what is uncertain and controversial is whether modifying current intakes of dietary LA will result in concomitant changes in tissue AA content, i.e., increasing LA intake results in an increase in tissue AA content and decreasing LA has the opposite effect [8]. The goal of this paper was to ascertain the relationship between dietary LA and tissue AA content (phospholipid pools of plasma/serum and erythrocytes) in adults consuming a Western-style background diet. It was not ...
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The SDHS had several important strengths. The combination of randomization, provision of a specific study oil (safflower) delivering n-6 LA but not n-3 PUFAs, and detailed longitudinal diet assessments allowed for estimation of the specific effects of LA. Although several observational studies have reported associations between LA and risk of coronary heart disease,77 78 79 the food frequency questionnaires used may have limited ability to distinguish the respective intakes of n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid.80 81 Discrimination among PUFA species is limited in observational studies, owing to the wide variability in n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid contents of apparently similar food items (table 1); the lack of vegetable oil and PUFA labeling requirements on packaged foods; and the lack of consumer appreciation for the specific vegetable oils used when dining away from home, which accounts for a large share of total PUFA consumption.82 Therefore, provision of a study oil containing a large ...
The SDHS had several important strengths. The combination of randomization, provision of a specific study oil (safflower) delivering n-6 LA but not n-3 PUFAs, and detailed longitudinal diet assessments allowed for estimation of the specific effects of LA. Although several observational studies have reported associations between LA and risk of coronary heart disease,77 78 79 the food frequency questionnaires used may have limited ability to distinguish the respective intakes of n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid.80 81 Discrimination among PUFA species is limited in observational studies, owing to the wide variability in n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid contents of apparently similar food items (table 1); the lack of vegetable oil and PUFA labeling requirements on packaged foods; and the lack of consumer appreciation for the specific vegetable oils used when dining away from home, which accounts for a large share of total PUFA consumption.82 Therefore, provision of a study oil containing a large ...
Various organic hydroperoxides are reduced when added to rat liver mitochondrial suspensions. Succinate increases the rate and duration of the reductions except for linoleic acid hydroperoxide which appears to inhibit its own reduction. 3-Hydroxybutyrate replaces succinate but other reductants used are less effective. The rate of reduction of tert-butyl hydroperoxide by succinate is not inhibited by cyanide but is partly inhibited if antimycin or rotenone are also added; ATP reverses the antimycin inhibition. Other inhibitors include the uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyhydrazone, ADP + Pi, the thiol reagents N-ethylmaleimide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and inhibitors of the mitochondrial transport of carboxylic acids. In some cases, the GSH concentration of the mitochondria during the reductions correlates with the reduction rate (e.g. with succinate and after N-ethylmaleimide) but in others it is dissociated. The results suggest that hydroperoxide reduction requires the GSH-glutathione
Previous studies demonstrated a requirement for arachidonic acid metabolites in tumor development in mouse skin. The goal of this study was to determine whether the arachidonate content of epidermal phospholipids could be altered by increasing dietary levels of linoleate and whether specific metabolites of linoleate and arachidonate have dissimilar biological effects. In a series of tumor studies in which the quantity of dietary linoleate was incrementally increased, a slight reduction in phospholipid levels of arachidonate was observed that correlated with an increased phospholipid level of linoleate and a suppression in tumor yield. A comparison of the arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) with the 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) lipoxygenase metabolite of linoleate revealed that 12-HETE has biological activities that mimic the phorbol ester tumor promoters, whereas 13-HODE has antithetical effects. Specifically, 12(S)-HETE enhanced the ...
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to act via induction of apoptosis-programmed cell death-as potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents. NSAIDs can alter the production of different metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) through effects on lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases. 15-LOX-1 is the main enzyme for metabolizing colonic linoleic acid to 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE), which induces apoptosis. In human colorectal cancers, the expression of this enzyme is reduced. NSAIDs can increase 15-LOX enzymatic activity in normal leukocytes, but their effects on 15-LOX in neoplastic cells have been unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NSAIDs induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells by increasing the protein expression and enzymatic activity of 15-LOX-1. METHODS: We assessed 15-LOX-1 protein expression and enzymatic activity, 13-S-HODE levels, and 15-LOX-1 inhibition in association with cellular growth ...
Rich in gamma linoleic acid and omega fatty acids, Evening Primrose Oil is an excellent addition to skincare products as it rejuvenates & moisturizes skin.
When linoleic acid is added to the diet of the rat there is an average increase in incorporation of radiocarbon into liver cholesterol of 259 per cent. By contrast, the addition of coconut oil to the diet does not increase the incorporation of radiocarbon into liver cholesterol. The addition of linoleic acid to a stock diet is associated with an increased fecal excretion of Liberman-Burchard chromogens, 3-β-hydroxy sterols and bile acids.. ...
Why is there linoleic acid throughout the liver? The liver likes linoleic acid! In an utterly artificial model, the cholesterol fed hamster (youd better believe it!) on moderate fat diets (45% of calories from fat) show an upregulation of the LDL receptor as the proportion of fat from linoleic acid rises. Dietary saturated fat down regulates the receptor. It seems that this holds true across species and it certainly seems to work in humans, diets high in omega 6 PUFA were the classical cholesterol lowering approach pre statins. You can see why the liver should ignore an LDL particle full of saturated fat. This is Krauss large fluffy non atherogenic lipid, used for delivering calories and cholesterol to wherever they are needed. It came from the liver, why should it go back? But why is the liver so keen to uptake LDL particles when the diet is high in linoleic acid? My guess is that linoleic acid loaded anything is a novel phenomenon and in pre agriculture times linoleic acid was probably very ...
Research Methodology of report titled - Linoleic Acid Market Size by Application (Cosmetics, Paints & Coatings, Food & Beverages, Adhesives), By Downstream Potential (Ethyl Linoleic Acid), Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook, Application Potential, Price Trend, Competitive Market Share & Forecast, 2018 - 2024
Industry Segmentation and Research Coverage for report titled - Linoleic Acid Market Size by Application (Cosmetics, Paints & Coatings, Food & Beverages, Adhesives), By Downstream Potential (Ethyl Linoleic Acid), Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook, Application Potential, Price Trend, Competitive Market Share & Forecast, 2018 - 2024
Although P. acnes is a commensal bacterium of normal skin, together with the sebaceous gland, it clearly is implicated in acne. Here, P. acnes and other possible causes are reviewed, and a hexylresorcinol and ethyl linoleate anti-acne treatment to target them is described.
What are the benefits of linoleic acid, a common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)? Besides turmeric, what are other sources of omega-6 fatty acid?
Participants who meet inclusion criteria will start placebo treatment by taking olive oil for 2 months. This period will include screening activities including 3 monthly MRIs. Those with 2 enhancing lesions on three placebo run-in period MRIs will continue in the study and receive omega-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) for 6 months. Brain MRIs will be repeated after 4,5, and 6 months after treatment ...
Compared to men, women generally had higher C18 trans levels, and between the ages of 10-29 years, they had DHA and lower EPA levels. Among the major FA classes, saturated (41% of total) and trans (∼0.85%) fats did not vary appreciably by age, whereas monounsaturated fats tended to rise slightly. Of the two major n-6 polyunsaturates, arachidonic and linoleic acids, the former was unchanged across decades (16.4% abundance) whereas the latter decreased by about 2 percentage points (13.0-11.1%). The overall median Omega-3 Index was 4.5%, and across the decades it increased by about 1.5 percentage points. The Omega-3 Index and linoleic acid stabilized after age 70 ...
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Low prices on Evening Primrose Oil! Evening primrose oil is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acid. Evening primrose oil contains large amounts of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid. The omega-6 essential polyunsaturated fats are required by the body for a variety of vital functions. Essential fatty acids are important for joint health, cardiovascular health and immune system health.
Low prices on Evening Primrose Oil! Evening primrose oil is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acid. Evening primrose oil contains large amounts of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid. The omega-6 essential polyunsaturated fats are required by the body for a variety of vital functions. Essential fatty acids are important for joint health, cardiovascular health and immune system health.
Evening Primrose Oil is a rich source of omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids, linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which the body can only get through the di
Nutrients found in Evening Primrose Oil is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) - by far the richest source of GLA. Supports overall womens health in various ways.
you can find evening primrose oil, or linoleic acid, in sunflower seeds and safflower oil. there is some evidence that taking it as a supplement may slightly improve multiple sclerosis symptoms.
What exactly is Linoleic Acid? Getting back together a substantial area of the lipids (obviously occurring particles) within the body that is human fatty acids are an essential energy source. Significantly more than 60 essential fatty acids happen present in blood plasma and cells. Nevertheless, only a small percentage are,fraction that is small relevant. A body that is large of regarding efas, total content that is fat and peoples health implies that major sets of efas may be related to a diverse number of health impacts. In the event the diet does not have an amount that is adequate of efas, you may possibly experience deficiency signs, dry and flaky epidermis, dry eyes, exorbitant thirst, and stiff and painful bones. One vital fatty acid is linoleic acid, which can be with this article. What exactly is linoleic acid? And exactly why could it be essential? Whats Linoleic Acid: Characteristics & Characteristics Two for the primary efas needed for a healthy eating plan are linoleic fatty acid ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to decrease body fat content in pigs. It is possible that feeding pigs diets rich in CLA may increase carcass lipid CLA to levels that could provide health benefits when included as a part of a healthy diet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA supplementation has any effect on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue in pigs. Thirty-five female cross bred (Large White X Landrace) pigs (initial weight 57·2 kg and initial P2 back fat 11·5 mm) were used in the present study. Pigs were housed individually and randomly allocated to one of six dietary treatments (0·00, 1·25, 2·50, 5·00, 7·50 and 10·00 g CLA55 (55 g CLA isomers/100 g total fatty acids; Natural Lipids Ltd, Hovdebygda, Norway)/kg ...
Available in easy-to-swallow softgels for maximum assimilation and absorption.Supplement Facts Serving Size:1 Softgel Evening Primerose Oil 1300 mg. Linoleic Acid Gamma Linolenic Acid 135 mg. Oleic Acid 135 mg. Other Ingredients: Gelatin, glycerin, water.
Octadecadienoic acids (linoleic acid and linolelaidic acid) and the diacylglycerol, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol (OAG) concentration-dependently induced activation of gel-filtered human platelets, i.e. aggregation and phosphorylation of 20 kDa and 47 kDa peptides. In contrast, octadecenoic acids (oleic and elaidic acid) and octadecanoic (stearic) acid were inactive. Octadecadienoic acid-induced platelet activation was suppressed by the protein kinase C inhibitor, polymyxin B, but not by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. OAG-induced activation was potentiated by octadecadienoic acids present at non-stimulatory concentrations. Our data suggest that octadecadienoic acids and diacylglycerol synergistically induce platelet activation via protein kinase C. Furthermore, linolelaidic acid may provide a useful experimental tool to study fatty acid regulation of protein kinase C in intact cells. ...
Expires Nov 18 Evening Primrose Oil is a rich natural source of Omega-6 essential fatty acids, Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA) and Linoleic Acid (LA). GLA helps supp
Learn more about Conjugated Linoleic Acid at St. Marks Hospital Supplement Forms/Alternate Names CLA Uses Principal Proposed Uses Improving...
Learn more about Conjugated Linoleic Acid at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Supplement Forms/Alternate Names CLA Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
Conjugated linoleic acids are slightly modified essential fatty acids. This characteristic offers a series of health benefits to the body, especially when
Human PCSK9 is known to enhance the degradation of membrane-bound receptors such as the hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), ApoER2, and very low-density lipoprotein receptor. Because the LDLR is suspected to be involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, we also tested whether PCSK9 can affect the levels of CD81, a major HCV receptor. Interestingly, stable expression of PCSK9 or a more active membrane-bound form of the protein (PCSK9-ACE2) resulted in a marked reduction in CD81 and LDLR expression. Therefore, we analyzed the antiviral effect of PCSK9 in vitro using the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus. The results clearly demonstrated that cells expressing PCSK9 or PCSK9-ACE2, but not the ACE2 control protein, were resistant to HCV infection. Furthermore, addition of purified soluble PCSK9 to cell culture supernatant impeded HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, HuH7 cells expressing PCSK9-ACE2 were also resistant to infection by HCV pseudoparticles. In addition, we ...
Cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa (marijuana) exert biological effects via cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. We recently demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors regulate progression of experimental liver fibrosis. We therefore investigated the impact of cannabis smoking on fibrosis progression rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Two hundred seventy consecutive untreated patients with CHC of known duration undergoing liver biopsy were studied. Demographic, epidemiological, metabolic, and virological data were recorded, and detailed histories of cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco use over the span of hepatitis C virus infection were obtained. Fibrosis stage, steatosis, and activity grades were scored according to Metavir system. Patients were categorized as noncannabis users (52.2%), occasional users (14.8%), or daily users (33.0%), and the relationship between cannabis use and fibrosis progression rate (FPR) or fibrosis stage was assessed. On multivariate analysis, six factors ...
the body eats foods containing these nutrients.. In days past when there were better agricultural and livestock feeding practices, our foods were higher in these essential fatty acids. For example, most cattle ate fresh greens; as a result, those cattle would have provided beef higher in essential fatty acids because fresh greens provide a decent source of one of the two essential fatty acids.. This is why I like free range eggs so much. The quality of the feed fed to the free range chickens has a dramatic effect on the nutrients in the eggs including the amount of EFAs.. Like with so many good supplements, essential fatty acids can really make a difference in helping to prevent and in helping to cure so many ailments, but once again, it is only part of the solution and not the solution itself. It is just that these nutrients are soooo essential that they cannot help but make a difference and make improvements.. The therapeutic benefits of essential fatty acids are enormous and too numerous to ...
BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been established as a natural peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-y) ligand. Recent studies have explored the possible health benefits associated with CLA for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in relation to the insulin sensitising properties of PPAR-y activation. However, synthetic PPAR-y ligands such as rosiglitazone are claimed to exert detrimental cardiovascular complications. Thus, with the alarming side effects possibly generated from rosiglitazone, this study will test the hypothesis that natural PPAR-y ligand CLA does not exert cytotoxic effects on monocytic cell viability. METHOD: Cell culture techniques employed THP-I monocytic cells. THP-I monocytes were treated with CLA (20µM and 100µM), once with a bolus dose and with a repeated dose which was administered at every passage (3/4 days) over a 14 day duration. Caspase glo 3/7 and MTS assays were preformed daily to assess cell viability and apoptosis. ...
Evening Primrose And Pregnancy at Walgreens. View current promotions and reviews of Evening Primrose And Pregnancy and get free shipping at $35.
Health-wise, the oil contains a high concentration of naturally occurring gamma linoleic acid (GLA) which is an Omega-6 fatty acid. GLA supports the bodys cardiovascular, immune, nervous and reproductive systems. It also contains oleic acid and palmitic acid. Recent research has shown its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are found useful in treating arthritis, menopausal problems, heart disease, eczema, itchy skin and sunburn. Is said to lower the risk of osteoporosis in women and relieves PMS and breast feeding breast pain, bloating and depression. Plus many men swear by it as a hangover cure ...
Find patient medical information for POMEGRANATE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that Find patient medical information for CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user
Effects of palmitic and linoleic acids on the expression of UPR-associated genes in mRNA level. The tumor cells were treated with TG, PA(250 μM), LA (250 μM)
Harbige LS. School of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Greenwich, London, and UK. [email protected] Clearly there is much evidence to show that under well-controlled laboratory and dietary conditions fatty acid intake can have profound effects on animal models of autoimmune disease. Studies in human autoimmune disease have been less dramatic; however, human trials have been subject to uncontrolled dietary and genetic backgrounds, infection and other environmental influences, and basic trial designs have been inadequate. The impact of dietary fatty acids on animal autoimmune disease models appears to depend on the animal model and the type and amount of fatty acids fed. Diets low in fat, essential fatty acid-deficient, or high in n-3 fatty acids from fish oils increase the survival and reduce disease severity in spontaneous autoantibody-mediated disease, whilst linoleic acid-rich diets appear to increase disease severity. In experimentally induced T-cell-mediated autoimmune ...
Bioactive components in milk like trans fatty acids, bioactive lipids, conjugated linoleic acid, PUFA, poly unsaturated fatty acids, butyrates are explained in this article.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity ...
Product Features Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is thought to play a role in reducing body fat, increasing lean muscle
Rationale: Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can protect against the atherosclerosis development in several animal models. Studies in transgenic mice have shown that mechanisms might involve beneficial effects on lipoprotein metabolism and insulin sensitivity and in addition activation of anti-inflammatory pathways. A very limited amount of human studies have not shown similar beneficial effect of cis9,trans11-CLA on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects, yet cis9,trans11-CLA did improve the lipoprotein profile in healthy subjects. The effect of cis9,trans11-CLA supplementation on alternative early biomarkers of atherosclerosis, like aortic pulse wave velocity, and alternative biomarkers identified through platelet proteomics, has not been assessed before, and may add valuable insights into the mechanism of this functional fatty acid in humans.. Objective: To assess the effect of increased intake of cis9 trans11-CLA on development of atherosclerosis, as assessed with aortic pulse ...
A Comparison among Analytical Methods to Assess Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) Content and Repeatability of Ruminant Faeces
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring free fatty acid. CLA occurs naturally in foods such as cheese, milk, lamb and beef as well as many p
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring free fatty acid. CLA occurs naturally in foods such as cheese, milk, lamb and beef as well as many p
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) & Weight Loss - The long-term effects of conventional weight-management programs are unsatisfactory, and alternative therapies, including dietary supplements, are repeatedly used by obese persons in society. Although the use of dietary supplements is widespread, the documentation on their efficacy and safety is not convincing.
Pure Encapsulations CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid - 180 softgels) promotes healthy body composition when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.
Information about Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), including dosage recommendations, uses, potential side effects, and deficiency signs
The efficacy and safety of a cosmeceutical cream containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for improving the appearance of facial photodamage skin was investigated in a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, split-face study of 25 women. Assessments of changes in periorbital skin showed statistically significant differences favoring use of the CLA-containing cream. No skin irritation was noted throughout the study.
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As with other products on the market, its important to read Conjugated Linoleic Acid reviews to understand if its effective or not.
Essential fatty acids are components of every cell, to provide energy, to insulate the nerves and maintain the integrity of cell membranes. Evening primrose oil works by supplying essential fatty acids in the form of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid.
The plant |i |Typhonium flagelliforme|/i|, commonly known as “rodent tuber” in Malaysia, is often used as a health supplement and traditional remedy for alternative cancer therapies, including leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate |i |in vitro|/i| anti-leukemic activity of dichloromethane extract/fraction number 7 (DCM/F7) from |i |T. flagelliforme|/i| tuber on human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEMss) cell line. The DCM extract of tuber has been fractionated by column chromatography. The obtained fractions were evaluated for its cytotoxicity toward CEMss cells as well as human primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Assessment of apoptosis produced by the most active fraction was evaluated by various microscopic techniques and further confirmation of apoptosis was done by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Phytochemical screening was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results shows that 7 out of 12 fractions showed significant
Many different kinds of conjugated linoleic acid are on the market, and every model has its advantages and flaws. So, before you go out and make your purchase, consider whats needed to fit your needs.. There are many brands out there, how are you to know which one to choose? Which type of conjugated linoleic acid would best suit you?. If you have been looking for a cheap conjugated linoleic acid reviews, this GNC Total Lean Thermo CLA is a noticeable product. Many good reviews already proving the quality of this product. The Dr. Wade s Organics is equipped with a large number of features that makes it great product. The most sold product is not expensive and it is highly desirable, and if you want to buy it, you should not miss this opportunity because this product is the price length applications. ...
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Yet, most researches of CLA have actually been done on pets, however human tests are soon to begin and scientists are really excited regarding what they will locate. In the meanwhile, it is thought that modest amounts of CLA taken in supplement form are most definitely not harmful as well as might in fact be useful with a couple of possible exemptions, consisting of those suffering or in jeopardy for diabetes. Remarkably, among the foods which contains a lot of CLA is the manufactured cheese food Cheek Whiz. Certainly, this isnt a particularly healthful food for the diet overall, so your best choice is to get it in supplement form. When you get your CLA in supplement form, you can manage how much you take due to the fact that you utilize premeasured soft gel capsules. In addition, you do not need to absorb a considerable boost in calories to get the CLA you require. It isnt fairly yet comprehended how CLA functions, yet it is assumed that it counteracts linoleic acids negative results, and ...
... s contain essential linoleic acids as well. They also have greater vitamin content by weight compared to beef, B12 not ...
... oleic acid; 5-11% linoleic acid; 7.5-10% palmitic acid; 1.5-3% stearic acid - the ratios are similar to that found in wild ... Another analysis of several cultivars found : 82-84% unsaturated acids of which 68-77% oleic acid; and 7-14% polyunsaturated ... Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan (2016), "Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid ... "Fatty acid composition of Camellia oleifera oil", Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 6 (11): 9-12, doi: ...
Stymne, Sten (1980). The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants. ISBN 9157607044. OCLC 63571586. The ... "The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants". The following year, Stymne was appointed associate Professor of ... Later in his career, Stymne focused on studying the biochemical processes involved in the biosynthesis of exotic fatty acids, ... previously identified only in animals and responsible for transferring fatty acids between phospholipids and diacylglycerol ...
Octenol is formed during oxidative breakdown of linoleic acid. It is also a wine fault, defined as a cork taint, occurring in ...
"Glucuronidation of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Journal of Lipid Research ...
It can be formed during baking fats that contain linoleic acid. 13-Hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and 9-hydroperoxy-10, ... 12-octadecadienoic acid are intermediates in the process. The aldehyde also forms in cooked beef when it sits in the ... "Quantification of key odorants formed by autoxidation of arachidonic acid using isotope dilution assay". Lipids. 36 (7): 749- ...
They contained linoleic acid (40%) and oleic acid (30%). As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can ... The oil content and methyl esters of fatty acids of the seed were also examined. ...
Conjugated linoleic acids This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Clas. If an internal link led you ...
... or fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in powder form. Research into artificial marbling through fat injection ... "Injection of conjugated linoleic acid into beef strip loins" (PDF). Meat Sci. 75 (1): 84-93. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.006 ... study by Tyson Foods and the University of Arkansas used beef strip loin and injected it with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in ...
They are derived from linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids and have an S configuration. According to the study, other species' ...
The former is derived from linoleic acid, and produced by mature white truffle T. borchii. Thiophene derivatives appear to be ... Metabolites of nonsulfur amino acid constituents (simple and branched-chain hydrocarbons) such as ethylene (produced by mycelia ... Fatty acid-derived volatiles (C8-alcohols and aldehydes with a characteristic fungal odor, such as 1-octen-3-ol and 2-octenal ...
Agriculture and Agronomy portal Animals portal Conjugated linoleic acid List of cattle breeds "Beef Production". University of ...
Its fatty fraction consists mostly of esters of the oleic (60%) and linoleic (21%) acids. The tea from its bark or leaves is ... The fruit's skin contains a strongly irritating oil composed mostly of anacardic acid, cardol, cardanol and other aromatic ...
... is a triglyceride in which glycerol is esterified with linoleic acid. It's a primary constituent of sunflower oil and ...
... stearic acid, 16% oleic acid, 20% linoleic acid, and less than 3% linolenic acid. Historically, it has been valued as an ... palmitic acid, 2-3% stearic acid, 15-18% linoleic acid, and 30-33% linolenic acid. Oils from Maritime Southeast Asia (Indonesia ... The oil typically contains 15% oleic acid, 40% linoleic acid, and less than 30% linolenic acid. Analysis of nut oil samples ... East Timor) had different unsaturated content, with 20-25% oleic, 34-42% linoleic, and 27-32% linolenic acid, with palmitic and ...
It also contains linoleic acid as well as 2-4 percent stearidonic acid. There are some indications that blackcurrant seed oil ... as well as a high amount of omega-3 fatty acids (12-14 percent). ...
Lewis; Offer; Eunson (2000). Investigating the Conjugate Linoleic Acid (CLA) content of Shetland lamb and beef (Report). SAC. ... The meat and milk of the breed are proven through a range of studies to contain far more minerals and healthy fatty acids and ... These included weaning weight analysis and fatty acid analysis. As an 'unimproved' breed it still retains healthsome ... far less unhealthy trans fatty acids than conventional modern breeds. Shetland cattle are currently used as beef cattle in ...
The ucuhuba oil contains 13% lauric acid, 69% myristic acid, 7% palmitic acid and traces of oleic acid and linoleic acid. ... of the total fatty acids. Although additional saturated fatty acids were found (decanoic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid ... Small amounts of several unsaturated fatty acids were found including 2.4% oleic acid and 0.4% linoleic acid. Composition of ... Its seeds provide oil rich in myristic acid. ... fatty acids of ucuhuba butter:[citation needed][clarification ...
It contains 12.7% saturated fats, 53.8% monounsaturated fats, 32.7% linoleic acid, and 0.8% omega-3 fatty acid. Pistachio oil ...
The major fatty acids in nagkesar oil are oleic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. Polyphenols and volatiles ...
The oil is chiefly composed of oleic acid and linoleic acid, both of which are unsaturated fats. Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin ... E, Omega 9, Omega 6, Omega 3, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid Lee, Hyun-hee (September 2014). "Chemical Composition and ...
Stimuli for cercarial penetration into host skin include unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and linolenic acids. These ...
... linoleic, stearic, and palmitic acid. Physical characteristics Fatty acids present in oil[citation needed] Another source[ ... benzoic and oxibenzoic acids, phospho-amino lipids, glycerides, saturated fatty acids, and 4-phenylcoumarins. Richmond, George ... The fatty acid methyl esters derived from C. inophyllum seed oil meets the major biodiesel requirements in the United States ( ... Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India ...
... oleic acid was 29.9% (12.4% in the stipe), followed by palmitic acid at 10.5% (12.6% in the stipe). Linoleic acid-a member of ... The mushrooms are edible, and are high in the essential fatty acid linoleic acid. The species was first described ... The cap contained a higher lipid content than the stipe-18.4% of the dry weight, compared to 12.4%. In the cap, linoleic acid ... 1973). "The fatty acid composition of Basidiomycetes". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 11 (3): 435-42. doi:10.1080/0028825x. ...
Splitting and flaking of nails may be due to a lack of linoleic acid. Iron-deficiency anemia can lead to a pale color along ... Essential fatty acids play a large role in healthy skin as well as nails. ... and several fungicidal agents such as salicylic acid, miconazole branded Monistat, natamycin; and sodium hypochlorite which is ...
... palmitic acid (4.01%) and linoleic acid (4.01%). In 2017, a case report documented E. scabrosa as the cause of cutaneous fungal ...
... consisting of oleic and linoleic acids, they allow crustaceans and hexapods to identify the presence of dead conspecifics. ... The combination of these acids is referred to as "copulins". One of the acids, acetic acid, was found in all of the sampled ... A class of aliphatic acids (volatile fatty acids as a kind of carboxylic acid) was found in female rhesus monkeys that produced ... Richard P. Michael; Bonsall, R.W.; Kutner, M. (1975). "Volatile fatty acids, "copulins", in human vaginal secretions". ...
... of uronic acid, and 3.82-451% of protein. It also produces crude enzyme when its mixed with linoleic acid which is widely used ...
Docosahexaenoic acid ester of hydroxy-linoleic acid (DHAHLA) exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. ... "Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties". Diabetes. 65 ... Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most bioactive members able to activate G-protein coupled ... fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids) are formed in adipose tissue, improve glucose tolerance and also reduce adipose ...
"Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". ... "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of ... Unrefined avocado oil from the 'Hass' cultivar has a characteristic flavor, is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has a ...
"MYRISTIC ACID". ChemicalLand21.com. AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Myristic acid എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ...
... mainly oleic acid (57% of total fat), and the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (30% of total fat).[30] ... The ratio of oleic to linoleic acids are inverted between wind- and animal-dispersed seeds.[31][32] Further differentiation ... Their fat content consists principally of monounsaturated fatty acids, ... coincides with the development of a husk around the fruit and a drastic change in the relative concentrations of fatty acids. ...
Space-filling model of methyl linoleate, or linoleic acid methyl ester, a common methyl ester produced from soybean or canola ... Any free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified ( ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses ...
... linoleic acid and oleic acid), as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids.[10] ... fatty acid binding. • lipid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of ... GPR120 has also been shown to mediate the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega 3 fatty acids.[7] Lack of ... Hirasawa A, Tsumaya K, Awaji T, Katsuma S, Adachi T, Yamada M, Sugimoto Y, Miyazaki S, Tsujimoto G (2005). "Free fatty acids ...
... palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, dihydroxystearic acid, triricinolein 68,2%, diricinolein 28%, ... isoricinoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, jeung stearic acid ricinine, cytochrome C, Lipase sarta sababaraha enzym.[1] ... Siki jarak ngandung minyak ricinic 40- 50 % anu ngandung glyceride tina ricinoleic acid, ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... 2002). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance". Journal of Lipid Research. ... One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X (Jan 22, 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and ... Folic acid supplements have no effect on the risk of developing prostate cancer.[39] ... Thompson AK, Shaw DI, Minihane AM, Williams CM (Dec 2008). "Trans-fatty acids and cancer: the evidence reviewed". Nutrition ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to 83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid (up to 21%) and ... Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along ... α-Linolenic acid. 0 to 1.5%. [101] Phenolic composition[edit]. Olive oil contains phenolics, such as esters of tyrosol, ... U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8 g per 100 g ...
... linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[20]. Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such ... of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[19] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, ... products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method". Journal of Agricultural and Food ... Hemp oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids.[16] ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point. Total mono[23]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total poly[23]. linolenic acid. (ω-3). Linoleic ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[41]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. 227 °C (440 °F)[31] ... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ...
"Conjugated linolenic acid is slowly absorbed in rat intestine, but quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid". J Nutr 136 ... Kohno H, Yasui Y, Suzuki R, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K, Tanaka T (2004). "Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from ... Kobori M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Akimoto Y, Yukizaki C, Yoshida M (2008). "α-Eleostearic Acid and Its Dihydroxy Derivative Are ... "On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 97 (1): 1-9. Consultado o 2007-01-17 ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the EUROASPIRE study results mirrored those of total PUFA; intake of linoleic acid ... Saturated fat profile of common foods; Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat[10] Food. Lauric acid. Myristic acid. ... polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. ... Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid[68][69] and palmitic acid[69] and dietary myristic[70] and palmitic[70 ...
n-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid, Dodecoic acid, Laurostearic acid, Vulvic acid, 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid, Duodecylic acid, ... 6.0 6.1 6.2 Dodecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... 2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171 ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Functional interaction of the carboxylic acid group of agonists and the arginine residue of the seventh transmembrane domain ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... fatty acids, including linoleic acid.[8] Silymarin is a complex mixture of polyphenolic molecules, including seven closely ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Corey speculated that the cardiotoxicity may be associated with an organic acid anhydride formed when rofecoxib is exposed to ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
... oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is ... The assumed benefits of linoleic acid in the case of heart disease are less obvious: in one study where high-linoleic safflower ... One human study compared high-linoleic safflower oil with conjugated linoleic acid, showing that body fat decreased and ... Oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably linoleic acid, are considered to have some health benefits. ...
The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, ... Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are ... hexanoic acid (fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild ... Nonvolatile chlorogenic acids[edit]. Chlorogenic acids belong to a group of compounds known as phenolic acids, which are ...
fatty acids. Smoke point Total[27]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[27]. α-Linolenic. acid. (ω-3). Linoleic. acid. (ω-6). ω-6:3. ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[54]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. 199:1 ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. ...
... linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) and singly allylic sites (oleic acid) ... Compounds containing the C=C−CH2−C=C linkages, e.g. linoleic acid derivatives, are prone to autoxidation, which can lead to ...
The illustration below shows the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid. While it is the nutritional aspects of polyunsaturated fats ... Omega-3 fatty acids have a double bond three carbons away from the methyl carbon, whereas omega-6 fatty acids have a double ... "Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid". Mayo Clinic. 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.. ... High levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), however, the most abundant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in erythrocyte (red ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Polymorphism in the CysLTR2 gene resulting in a single amino acid substitution, M201V (i.e. amino acid methionine changed for ... CysLTR2 encodes a protein composed of 347 amino acids and shows only modest similarity to the CysLTR1 gene in that its protein ... shares only 31% amino acid identity with the CysLTR1 protein.[9][10][11] ...
... linoleic acid, linolenic acid, phytosterols, tocopherol, and vitamin D.[5] Okara contains some antinutritional factors: trypsin ... The ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids is similar to tofu and soymilk.[5] Nevertheless, it remains a challenge ... It can eliminate the bean's odor, increase the amount of edible fiber, free amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamin B12, ...
"Ferrous ion-induced decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxyl radical, Linoleic acid alkoxyl ... Alkoxyl radical formation is essential for the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxide into the peroxyl radical by ferrous ... abstract = "We studied the mechanism of formation of oxygen radicals during ferrous ion-induced decomposition of linoleic acid ... Alkoxyl radical formation is essential for the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxide into the peroxyl radical by ferrous ...
Linoleic acid is one of two essential fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest for good health, because the body ... These are derivatives of lineolic acid. Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC ... 9E,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid. InChI Identifier. InChI=1S/C18H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h6- ... Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid. Description. Constituent of most vegetable oils and animal fats. The Fe salt is the major ...
Conjugated linoleic acid Omega-6 fatty acid: Negative health effects Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acid interactions ... Reduction of the carboxylic acid group of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol. Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical ... Coronaric acid. These linoleic acid products are implicated in human physiology and pathology. Linoleic acid is a component of ... Linoleic acid". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Linoleic acid MS Spectrum Fatty Acids: Methylene-Interrupted Double ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of at least 28[1] isomers of linoleic acid found mostly in the meat and dairy ... Conjugated linoleic acid is both a trans fatty acid and a cis fatty acid. The cis bond causes a lower melting point and, ... "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content of Milk from Cows Offered Diets Rich in Linoleic and Linolenic Acid". Journal of Dairy ... Conjugated fatty acids. References[edit]. *^ Banni S (June 2002). "Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism". Current Opinion in ...
Although more than 60 fatty acids have been found in blood plasma and tissues, only a fraction of them is relevant from the ... They are either saturated or unsaturated carbosylic acids containing carbon chains between 2 and 36 carbon atoms in length. ... Fatty acids represent a substantial part of lipids in human body and are important sources of energy. ... Characteristics of linoleic acid. Two main fatty acids essential in the diet are linoleic (or omega-6) fatty acid and alpha- ...
Linoleic acid is a naturally occurring unstaurated fatty acid.. (Z,Z)-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID, 9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID, 9, ... 12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (9Z,12Z)-, 9,12OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (Z,Z), and LINOLEIC ACID ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid., antistatic, cleansing ...
Other names: Ethyl linoleate; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, ethyl ester; Ethyl cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoate; Ethyl ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid), a natural fatty acid that has become very popular as a weight loss supplement. ... Let me explain exactly what Conjugated Linoleic Acid is.... Linoleic acid is the most common Omega-6 fatty acid, found in large ... In the image below, you see regular linoleic acid on the top, with the two most important forms of conjugated linoleic acid (5 ... The linoleic acid in the oils is turned into conjugated linoleic acid via a chemical process (13). ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is found in grass-fed beef, can help reduce the risk of certain cancer types, support ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is found in grass-fed beef, can help reduce the risk of certain cancer types, support ... This potent nutrient is called conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA, and the best possible sources of CLA are grass-fed beef and ... The net result is "acid indigestion." Animals with this condition are plagued with diarrhea, go off their feed, pant, salivate ...
Brands A-Z EVLution Nutrition CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) Categories Supplements Weight Loss CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) ... EVLution Nutrition, CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) 3 Results (showing 1 - 3) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
... : Best Option to Lose Body Fat. Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) refers to trans-fats found in meats ... Conjugated Linoleic Acids have the chemical name of trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid. CLA has a chemical formula of ... Side-Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. Some of the possible side-effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid are nausea, heartburn, ... Conjugated Linoleic Acids are used by bodybuilders and athletes as a weight-loss agent. CLA reduces body fat mass via favorable ...
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Control of Growth of a Tumor Cell by Linoleic Acid. Robert W. Holley, Julia H. Baldwin, and Josephine A. Kiernan ... Addition of linoleic acid to such quiescent cells leads to reinitiation of DNA synthesis and growth. ... The growth factor(s) provided by the serum lipid fraction can be replaced by unsaturated fatty acids. If XS 63·5 cells are ...
... user ratings and products that contain Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) ... Learn more about Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, ... Cis-Linoleic Acid, CLA, CLA-Free Fatty Acid, CLA-Triacylglycerol, LA, Linoleic Acid, Trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid. ... Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a type of fat. Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in ...
A high intake of linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid found in red meat and in many oils and some margarines, ... Linoleic Acid Linked To Ulcerative Colitis. By Deborah Mitchell G+ Jul 23 2009 - 9:27pm ... An effort to significantly reduce or eliminate foods that contain linoleic acid from the diet may have a positive impact on the ... Oils such as safflower, hemp, sunflower, corn, wheat germ, cottonseed, soybean, walnut, and sesame are high in linoleic acid. ...
Dietary Supplement: oil rich in cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid An oil rich in cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid ( ... Dietary Supplement: oil rich in cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid An oil rich in cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid ( ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Atherosclerosis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Dietary Supplement: oil rich in cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid Dietary Supplement: placebo Phase 3 ...
TRI-K Industries Inc. , Download Data Sheet Amino acid based, eco-friendly preservative ...
Read user ratings and reviews for CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID on WebMD including side effects and interactions, treatment ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID. ...
Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on fatty acid and glycerol kinetics. Lipids. 2001 Aug;36(8):767-72. ... Eftekhari MH, Aliasghari F, Beigi MA, Hasanzadeh J. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Obese Women (CLA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements may help with slimming by increasing the ratio of muscle to fat. However, not every ... Make sure the Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) supplement you take passed our tests and is right for you!. Isnt your health ... ConsumerLab.com Answers -- for CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) Supplements Review (for Slimming) ...
Pro and prebiotics may be used to balance the potentially negative effects of a form of conjugated linoleic acid, according to ... Related tags: Linoleic acid, Conjugated linoleic acid, Bacteria, Obesity, Fatty acid, Fatty liver ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a class of linoleic acid isomers occurring naturally in dairy products and some meat. T10c12- ... "The use of fatty acid mixtures with equal proportions of conjugated linoleic acid isomers, or the use of probiotics and ...
17 adults consumed 23 g/d of linoleic acid or oleic acid for 4 weeks; SBP/DBP of the linoleic acid group was reduced by 2.5/2.1 ... Relation of Dietary Linoleic Acid to BP. All 4680 Participants Consistently, dietary linoleic acid was inversely related to SBP ... For PFA, 80% to 90% comes from linoleic acid in many countries.7 In Western countries, the intake of linoleic acid has ... Tissue measurements of linoleic acid may only partially reflect dietary linoleic acid intake. Inconsistent findings from ...
CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is a naturally occurring form of the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. CLA helps block fat ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid Blend, CLA Tonalin, 1000 mg Natural Factors Conjugated Linoleic Acid Blend, CLA Tonalin, 1000 mg ...
CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid found naturally in milk and meat and produced from safflower and ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid, are potent cancer preventative agents in ... Isomer-Specific Antidiabetic Properties of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. J.W. Ryder, C.P. Portocarrero, X.M. Song, L. Cui, M. Yu, T ... Isomer-Specific Antidiabetic Properties of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. J.W. Ryder, C.P. Portocarrero, X.M. Song, L. Cui, M. Yu, T ... Dietary fatty acids sources affect conjugated linoleic acid concentration in milk from lactating dairy cows. J Nutr 128:881-885 ...
This topic has 18 study abstracts on Gamma-Linoleic Acid (GLA) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment ... Substances : DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid), EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid), Essential Fatty Acids, Gamma-Linoleic Acid (GLA) ... Substances : Gamma-Linoleic Acid (GLA) , Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs). Diseases : Demyelinating Diseases, Multiple ... Substances : Acetyl-l-carnitine, Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Gamma-Linoleic Acid (GLA) , Vitamin E ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Obesity, Athletic Performance: ... Butter naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid alters tissue fatty acids and improves the plasma ... Butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid has a beneficial effect on serum fatty acid ... Vaccenic acid is a dietary precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and may have health benefits beyond those associated ...
... is the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor ... docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; LA,linoleic acid. ... Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity.. Alvheim AR1, Malde MK, Osei-Hyiaman D, Lin ... Dietary sources of linoleic acid (LA) and increasing prevalence rates of male obesity in the United States during the 20th ...
... Ho Hieu Minh,1 ... Polycaprolactone/polyurethane (PCL/PU) fibrous scaffold was loaded with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by electrospinning ...
The nutritional supplement CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a unique form of the essential fatty linoleic acid that is showing ...
... more precise an omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid. It is found in high concentrations in flaxseed oil. ... An essential fatty acid and, more precise an omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid. It is found in high concentrations in ...
... has found that Big Ags reliance on soybeans for cheap oil and animal feed has caused us to consume way too much linoleic acid. ... Linoleic Acid: Omega-6 Overload. Why is this a problem? Soybean oil is very high in linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty ... Nothing is inherently wrong with linoleic acid; it is, after all, an essential fatty acid. But its problematic in excess, as ... this means were getting a much higher amount of linoleic acid. A diet that has a high omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio is ...
  • Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions. (foodb.ca)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lineolic acids and derivatives. (foodb.ca)
  • These are derivatives of lineolic acid. (foodb.ca)
  • We studied the mechanism of formation of oxygen radicals during ferrous ion-induced decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide using the spin trapping and chemiluminescence methods. (elsevier.com)
  • The Fe salt is the major component of metallic drier compositions used to line food cans Linoleic acid is one of two essential fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest for good health, because the body requires them for various biological processes, but cannot synthesize them from other food components. (foodb.ca)
  • Alkoxyl radical formation is essential for the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxide into the peroxyl radical by ferrous ion. (elsevier.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids ( CLA ) are a family of at least 28 [1] isomers of linoleic acid found mostly in the meat and dairy products derived from ruminants . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most studies of CLAs have used a mixture of isomers wherein the isomers c9,t11-CLA (rumenic acid) and t10,c12-CLA were the most abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] CLA and some trans isomers of oleic acid are produced by microorganisms in the rumens of ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-ruminants, including humans, produce certain isomers of CLA from trans isomers of oleic acid, such as vaccenic acid , which is converted to CLA by delta-9-desaturase . (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy humans, CLA and the related conjugated linole n ic acid (CLNA) isomers are bioconverted from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid , respectively, mainly by Bifidobacterium bacteria strains inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) refers to a heterogeneous group of constitutional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. (news-medical.net)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers rel. (europa.eu)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a class of linoleic acid isomers occurring naturally in dairy products and some meat. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "The use of fatty acid mixtures with equal proportions of conjugated linoleic acid isomers, or the use of probiotics and prebiotics to balance the potentially negative effects of t10c12-CLA on the microbiota composition may be alternatives for individuals seeking anti-obesity dietary solutions," ​ the researchers concluded. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have a number of beneficial health effects, as shown in biomedical studies with animal models. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid, are potent cancer preventative agents in animal models of chemical-induced carcinogenesis ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both are omega-6 fatty acids with the former being the shortest-chained polyunsaturated branch and the latter consisting of 28 unsaturated linoleic acid isomers. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of different isomers, or chemical forms, of linoleic acid. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • The term CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the omega 6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid, which are mostly found in the meat of ruminants and dairy products. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers in adipose tissue and 48 other fatty acids were assessed by using gas chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term which refers to a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Isomers of linoleic acid in which two or more of the double bonds are conjugated (i.e. alternating with single bonds) rather than separated by a methylene bridge. (oup.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid along with the blood pressure drug ramipril seems to reduce blood pressure more than ramipril alone in people with uncontrolled high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid by mouth daily might help decrease body fat in adults. (webmd.com)
  • Also, taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to prevent weight gain in previously obese people who lost some weight. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve well-being in people with birch allergies. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve airway sensitivity and ability to exercise in people with asthma. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve endurance, power, or fatigue in men taking part in aerobic exercise . (webmd.com)
  • Some early research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid daily might cause small improvements in the ability to recall words in older men, but not women. (webmd.com)
  • Given that many foods, especially fast foods, are fried in such oils, it can be easy for individuals to consume high levels of linoleic acid. (emaxhealth.com)
  • When the investigators looked at levels of linoleic acid in the body, such as in adipose tissue, it was found that those with the highest levels were 35% less likely to develop diabetes. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • This new analysis is especially noteworthy not only because of its size but because the researchers relied upon levels of linoleic acid in the body as the primary metric, rather than the amount of linoleic acid the study participants reported eating. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. (mdpi.com)
  • Gama-linolenic acid is subsequently converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, which is in turn converted to arachidonic acid. (news-medical.net)
  • Arachidonic acid can form prostaglandins and thromboxanes - hormone-like lipids that promote blood clotting, induce inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. (news-medical.net)
  • In infants, delta-6-desaturase is too immature to provide the desired metabolism of linoleic acid, which is a reason why human milk contains gamma-linoleic acid, dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. (news-medical.net)
  • The backbone of both endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) is the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). (nih.gov)
  • The result for the other omega-6 fatty acid they specifically looked for in the data from the cohort studies, arachidonic acid (AA), was also something of a surprise. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In terms of cardioprotection, omega 3 fatty acids reduce platelet aggregability by both lowering the amount of substrate available to cyclooxygenase (COX), namely arachidonic acid, and by directly inhibiting COX itself. (frontiersin.org)
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important for growth and neural development. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the association between intake of n-6 PUFAs, including LA and arachidonic acid (AA), and type 2 diabetes risk in three large prospective cohort studies of American men and women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (via arachidonic acid) and cell membranes (From Stedman, 26th ed). (hmdb.ca)
  • 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4 n -6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • cDNA cloning and characterization of human Delta5-desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • The proportional content of arachidonic acid in the phospholipids of the pancreas was significantly decreased in diabetic mice, an effect which was completely prevented by supplementation with safflower or evening primrose oil but not hydrogenated coconut oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the liver triglycerides of the diabetic mice, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were all proportionally decreased, effects which were also prevented by safflower or evening primrose oil but not hydrogenated coconut oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, other research has found that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Findings from observational and interventional studies on the relationship of dietary linoleic acid, the main dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid, with blood pressure have been inconsistent. (ahajournals.org)
  • With several models to control for possible confounders (dietary or other), linear regression analyses showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship of linoleic acid intake (percent kilocalories) to systolic and diastolic blood pressure for all of the participants. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dietary linoleic acid intake may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissue measurements of linoleic acid may only partially reflect dietary linoleic acid intake. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor of AA, would induce endocannabinoid hyperactivity and promote obesity. (nih.gov)
  • LA was isolated as an independent variable to reflect the dietary increase in LA from 1 percent of energy (en%) to 8 en% occurring in the United States during the 20th century. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary LA at 1 en% is indicated by white bars, 8 en% LA by dark gray bars, and 8 en% LA + 1 en% EPA/DHA by light gray bars. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary LA (8 en%) elevates ( a ) liver LA in phospholipids (PL) (µg/mg) and ( b ) liver PL-AA (µg/mg). (nih.gov)
  • Compared to 8 en% LA, diets of 1 en% dietary LA allows endogenous accretion of ( c ) liver PL-EPA (µg/mg), levels equal to consuming 1 en% EPA/DHA directly. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing dietary LA from 1 en% to 8 en% elevates ( d ) liver 1-AG + 2-AG (ng/mg) (by over fourfold), ( e ) brain 1-AG + 2-AG (ng/mg), and ( f ) liver AEA (ng/ml). (nih.gov)
  • Dietary LA of 8 en% increases ( a ) food intake in high-fat diets, ( b ) feed efficiency in medium-fat diets, ( c ) reduces plasma adiponectin (µg/ml/g fat tissue), and increases ( d ) plasma leptin (ng/ml). (nih.gov)
  • As mentioned earlier, you can get conjugated linoleic acid from natural dietary sources. (simstat.com)
  • We concluded that dietary linoleic acid enrichment of the diet has an antigen-dependent divergent effect on the antibody response. (wur.nl)
  • This research examined how conjugated dietary fatty acids infuence stromal cells to inhibit blood vessel growth in rat mammary tumors. (aicr.org)
  • Dietary trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Early Glomerular Enlargement and Elevated Renal Cyclooxygenase-2 Levels in Young Obese fa/fa Zucker Rats - J Nutr. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. (bmj.com)
  • Interventions Replacement of dietary saturated fats (from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings) with omega 6 linoleic acid (from safflower oil and safflower oil polyunsaturated margarine). (bmj.com)
  • In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • These findings could have important implications for worldwide dietary advice to substitute omega 6 linoleic acid, or polyunsaturated fats in general, for saturated fats. (bmj.com)
  • Advice to substitute vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) has been a cornerstone of worldwide dietary guidelines for the past half century. (bmj.com)
  • The cholesterol-lowering effect of linoleic acid is acknowledged by the American Heart Association and the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • This new research indicates that dietary sources of linoleic acid, such as soybean oil, will not only lower risk of coronary heart disease but will protect against diabetes as well. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • To determine if dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) of different skeletal sites in postmenopausal women. (nih.gov)
  • Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2(n-6)), a major component of omega-6 fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:2(n-3)) a major component of omega-3 fatty acids are the two main dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs) in humans. (wikipathways.org)
  • Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition. (wikipathways.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding dietary CLA to pre-ruminant lambs or linoleic acid-rich safflower oil to weaned ruminating lambs. (uleth.ca)
  • CLA conjugated linoleic acid dietary supplement promotes the thinning of your figure , if you also associate with sports exercises, you will see the difference very quickly with refined curves and harmonious body. (conua.com)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and Safflower oil (SAF) are being used as dietary supplements because clinical studies show that they reduce body weight and promote fat loss. (weightlosstriumph.com)
  • Butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid has a beneficial effect on serum fatty acid composition in growing pigs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The objective was to reduce saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increase conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2), α-linolenic (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 C18:3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6) contents in milk from confined dairy cows in order to promote a healthier option. (scirp.org)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) refers to trans-fats found in meats and dairy products. (isteroids.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids or CLAs are a naturally occurring fatty acids found in meats, meat products and dairy products which have been investigated heavily since the late 1980s for a variety of modern day health issues including cancer and obesity, after it was identified by a Dr Michael Pariza. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • CLAs can be considered a trans fatty acid, however, due to its structure, it is not counted as a trans fat in terms of nutritional regulations. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • CLAs can also be consumed as a free fatty acid or as a triglyceride. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Studies in animals and in vitro suggest that conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), a group of fatty acids found mainly in dairy products and in the meat of ruminants, have protective effects against mammary carcinogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Scientists are still unsure how CLA works, but have noted that the fatty acid regulates the production of fat or adipose tissue in the body. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Recent studies focusing on fatty acid biomarkers showed that proportions of LA in blood or adipose tissue were independently associated with lower risk for type 2 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mean (±SD) percentage of total fatty acids of CLA for the cis-9, trans-11 isomer in adipose tissue was 0.57 ± 0.18% in adults without diabetes and 0.53 ± 0.17% in adults with diabetes (P = 0.0078). (nih.gov)
  • Additional adjustment for other fatty acids in adipose tissue including trans-9 16:1, which is a fatty acid that was previously associated with diabetes, did not modify the results. (nih.gov)
  • Also, conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger , but it's not clear if this leads to reduced food intake. (webmd.com)
  • Some early research has found that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Also, some research has found that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • A high intake of linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid found in red meat and in many oils and some margarines, may be associated with nearly 33 percent of cases of ulcerative colitis. (emaxhealth.com)
  • After a four-year follow-up period, the investigators found that the participants who had the highest intake of foods rich in linoleic acid had 2.5 times higher risk for developing ulcerative colitis than participants who ate the least amount of such foods. (emaxhealth.com)
  • We report associations of linoleic acid intake of individuals with their blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-6 Data from several epidemiological studies and intervention trials indicate that higher intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFAs) are related to higher BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 In Western countries, the intake of linoleic acid has dramatically increased during the last several decades, mainly from vegetable products (particularly vegetable oils), substituted for animal fats high in SFA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increasing LA from 1 en% to 8 en% elevated AA-phospholipids (PL) in liver and erythrocytes, tripled 2-AG + 1-AG and AEA associated with increased food intake, feed efficiency, and adiposity in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Reducing their linoleic acid intake to 1 percent (in line with our ancestral diet), and replacing those calories with calories from other fats, made these same animals skinny again, like throwing a switch. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The intake of enriched cheese significantly increased the plasma concentrations of CLA, VA, the n -3 fatty acids ALA and EPA, and more remarkably decreased that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. (cambridge.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our study provides additional evidence that LA intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, especially when replacing saturated fatty acids, trans fats, or carbohydrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given the modest correlations between n-6 PUFA biomarkers and intake ( 16 ), however, the extent to which these associations can be ascribed to the intake of specific fatty acids is debatable. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1999). Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The effect of cis9,trans11-CLA supplementation on alternative early biomarkers of atherosclerosis, like aortic pulse wave velocity, and alternative biomarkers identified through platelet proteomics, has not been assessed before, and may add valuable insights into the mechanism of this functional fatty acid in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E supplementation reduces inflammation in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation improve strength and lean-tissue mass during heavy during resistance training. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We have previously shown that linoleic acid supplementation (LA-SUP) reverses this condition. (cdc.gov)
  • fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous;surfactant - cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid. (ewg.org)
  • The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c 9, t 11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t 10, c 12-CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). (isciii.es)
  • Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a novel enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (wikipathways.org)
  • The same rat Delta6-desaturase not only acts on 18- but also on 24-carbon fatty acids in very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. (wikipathways.org)
  • You chemists out there will understand that perfectly, but for those of you who are experts in some other field, suffice it to say that those conjugated double bonds give it properties very different from regular linoleic acid (the kind found in flax oil or borage oil). (ripie6.com)
  • An effort to significantly reduce or eliminate foods that contain linoleic acid from the diet may have a positive impact on the number of ulcerative colitis cases. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If you are steering away from red meat due to the negative press on saturated fats, you may be happy to hear that a very powerful fatty acid primarily found in beef and dairy products has been linked to long-term weight management and health. (mercola.com)
  • This potent nutrient is called conjugated linoleic acid , or CLA, and the best possible sources of CLA are grass-fed beef and raw dairy products that come from grass-fed cattle. (mercola.com)
  • Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in the diet. (webmd.com)
  • Much of our linoleic acid consumption comes from meat and dairy products from industrially raised animals that are fed soy and corn. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid found in plant and dairy products. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids are derived from the foods we get every day, primarily from meat and dairy products. (simstat.com)
  • As mentioned previously, Conjugated Linoleic Acids are primarily derived from meats such as beef and other ruminants such as lamb as well as in dairy products. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in foods derived from ruminant animals such as meat and dairy products. (scialert.net)
  • CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is a class of fatty acids produced by animals that is naturally found in the beef and dairy products. (dhgate.com)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acids have the chemical name of trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid. (isteroids.com)
  • While conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body weight, some research shows that taking a particular form of conjugated linoleic acid (the trans-10, cis -12 isomer) might increase risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease . (webmd.com)
  • The postulate advanced by many workers that dimorphecolic acid, 9-D-hydroxy- trans -10, trans -12-octadecadienoic acid, is biosynthesized via a lipoxygenase product was not proved. (springer.com)
  • Trans -10, cis -12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. (unl.edu)
  • A recent study has found that Big Ag's reliance on soybeans for cheap oil and animal feed has caused us to consume way too much linoleic acid, a type of omega-6 fat that is linked to obesity. (motherearthnews.com)
  • A diet that has a high omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio is linked to inflammation, but the evidence on obesity connects specifically to linoleic acid. (motherearthnews.com)
  • That study confirmed the role of linoleic acid in causing obesity. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - 'engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (qualitycounts.com)
  • Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). (mdpi.com)
  • Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CAS 121250-47-3) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on conjugated linoleic acid market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CAS 121250-47-3) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CAS 121250-47-3) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve levels of cholesterol or blood fats called triglycerides in people with mildly high cholesterol levels. (webmd.com)
  • Reducing AA-PL by adding 1 en% long-chain ω-3 fats to 8 en% LA diets resulted in metabolic patterns resembling 1 en% LA diets. (nih.gov)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • A study published in a major journal shows a cardioprotective role for linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, further complicating the message about the role of fats in the diet. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Taken together, the results of the study seem to indicate that these omega-6 fatty acids, which are found in vegetable oils and other sources, ought to be chalked into the column of 'good fats. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Linoleic acid occurs widely in vegetable oils and animal fats. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Specifically, we estimated type 2 diabetes risk when LA replaces other macronutrients, especially saturated fatty acids (SFAs), trans fats, and carbohydrates, in an isocaloric substitution model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • I would find it surprising if we would react adversely to a fatty acid (OA) that occurs a lot in animal fats (~50% content in tallow/lard and 25% in butter). (blogspot.com)
  • Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on bone in elderly patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Mice were fed diets containing 1 en% LA, 8 en% LA, and 8 en% LA + 1 en% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in medium-fat diets (35 en% fat) and high-fat diets (60 en%) for 14 weeks from weaning. (nih.gov)
  • Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro. (wikipathways.org)
  • CLA has a chemical formula of C18H32O2 and is considered to be a non-saturated fatty acid in biochemical taxonomy. (isteroids.com)
  • Linoleic acid (C18H32O2) is a doubly unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Linoleic acid (lower frame) is comprised of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), is an unsaturated fat and has the chemical formula C18H32O2. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Both of them are polyunsaturated fatty acid, which means that they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms that are found in saturated fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • The word conjugated has to do with the arrangement of the double bonds in the fatty acid molecule. (healthline.com)
  • CLA actually contains both cis (c) and trans (t) double bonds, and the numbers (like t10, c12, etc.) have to do with the placement of these bonds on the fatty acid chain. (healthline.com)
  • basically, CLA is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid, with both cis and trans double bonds. (healthline.com)
  • An octadecadienoic acid in which the two double bonds are at positions 9 and 12 and have Z (cis) stereochemistry. (bioontology.org)
  • This fatty acid is characterized by conjugated double bonds that are not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions. (hmdb.ca)
  • Instead, we focused on the protein-sparing and energy-producing effects of carbohydrates, and we intensively studied how amino acids and various proteins might affect nitrogen retention, anabolism, and catabolism. (ripie6.com)
  • Background and Purpose - The role of serum fatty acids as a risk factor for stroke and stroke subtypes is largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linoleic acid is the most common Omega-6 fatty acid, found in large amounts in vegetable oils but also in smaller amounts in various other foods. (healthline.com)
  • Therefore, when a cow grazes on natural grass pastures, its body composition is affected accordingly: the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is slightly above two. (mercola.com)
  • CLA and Omega 3 fatty acids are therapeutic in experimental inflammatory bowel disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The data for this graph comes from an ambitious 2011 study called Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century , which was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid is a naturally occurring omega-6 fatty acid which is very important to human health. (simstat.com)
  • This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, as paradigmatic molecules that can be exploited both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, most scientific and medical societies, namely those operating in the cardiovascular area, recommend intakes of long chain omega 3 fatty acids of ≥500 mg/day 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. (bmj.com)
  • It is the primary omega-6 fat in the diet and the primary fatty acid in soybeans. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39 740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Linoleic acid is a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, also known as an omega-6 fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. (hmdb.ca)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid, commonly referred to as CLA is a naturally occurring Omega 6 fatty acid. (healthspan.co.uk)
  • There are two major classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): the omega-3 (n-3) and the omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, where the number corresponds to the position of the first double bond proximate to the methyl end of the fatty acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • The intermediary omega-3 and omega-6 series fatty acids play a significant role in health and disease by generating potent modulatory molecules for inflammatory responses, including eicosanoids (prostaglandins, and leukotrienes), and cytokines (interleukins) and affecting the gene expression of various bioactive molecules (Kapoor & Huang 2006, Sprecher 2002, Burdge 2006). (wikipathways.org)
  • In the comments to the last post I wondered whether omega six fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, might be a driver of ARDS, which is one of the most intractable ITU problems in response to major infection/trauma/inflammatory insults. (blogspot.com)
  • Furthermore, WCG has around 56% linoleic acid (of total fatty acids), contributing to increased unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in meat. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WCG inclusion as a linoleic acid source in diets for feedlot lambs on carcass characteristics, physicochemical composition, sensory attributes, and fatty acid profile of the meat. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite this, the best polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in lambs' meat is obtained using 76.7 g/kg DM of WCG. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n -3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Growth performance and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content on meat of growing lambs fed diets containing vegetable oils. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The present work aimed to investigate the effect of adding flaxseed or sunflower oils to growing sheep diets on conjugated linoleic acid content in meat. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It typically occurs in nature as a triglyceride (ester of glycerin) rather than as a free fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A naturally occurring free fatty acid, CLA may help your body burn fat stores to help generate energy. (naturalhealthyconcepts.com)
  • However I am interested in linoleic acid and free fatty acid release from adipocytes at the moment, so I'll leave the case against sugar for the time being. (blogspot.com)
  • In this particular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). (hmdb.ca)
  • If you are a Standard American on the Standard American Diet, or anyone else in the world poisoned by a cardiologist-promoted PUFA based diet, any weight loss through illness will release significant amounts of linoleic acid from your adipocytes. (blogspot.com)
  • With the Amino Z Supplement Builder , you can create your very own conjugated linoleic acid supplement mixed with the ingredients you choose at the dosage you want. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Rationale: Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can protect against the atherosclerosis development in several animal models. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid brings many benefits to human health, it works by reducing the effects of atherosclerosis, by contribution, it enhances bone growth. (conua.com)
  • Many bacteria from cheese starters and some probiotics are able to produce CLA from the linoleic acid present in milk, increasing the content of this compound. (scialert.net)
  • these two hydroxy metabolites are enzymatically oxidized to their keto metabolites, 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and 9-oxo-octadecdienoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipoxygenase (EC from the seed of Dimorphotheca sinuata oxidized linoleic acid to predominantly 13-L-hydroperoxy- cis -9, trans -11-octadecadienoic acid. (springer.com)
  • This acid from the pH 6.9 reaction was analyzed as 13-hydroxy- cis,trans -octadecadienoic. (springer.com)
  • Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts involves peroxisomal retroconversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • One of the core ideas which came out of the Protons thread was that palmitic acid is a generator of physiological insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • GLA is converted to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), the immediate precursor to AA. (wikipedia.org)
  • First step is conversion to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6-desaturation. (news-medical.net)
  • Conjugated Linoleic and Linolenic Acid Production by Bacteria: Development of Functional Foods. (news-medical.net)
  • Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) may have therapeutic value in atopic eczema. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Gamma linolenic acid-containing borage oil may have therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthama. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) for six weeks in synergy with rehabilitation therapy improved neuropathic symptoms and deficits in patients with radicular neuropathy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Antioxidant and gamma linolenic acid have a protective effect against nerve and vascular dysfunction in experimental diabetes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The effects of linoleic (LA)- and linolenic acid (LNA)-enriched diets on humoral and in vivo cellular immune responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and Mycobacterium butyricum were studied in growing layer hens. (wur.nl)
  • 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n -3) concentration in the ST muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. (mdpi.com)
  • Content of α-linolenic acid resulted 20% higher (P P cis-9 C18:1) resulted higher (P α-linolenic). (scirp.org)