Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Fatty Acids, Essential
Fatty Acid Desaturases
Fatty Acids, Omega-6
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Trans Fatty Acids
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases
High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (1/1169)Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability. (+info)
Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux. (2/1169)The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells. (+info)
Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (3/1169)Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100. (+info)
Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (4/1169)In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies. (+info)
Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (5/1169)Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals. (+info)
Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells. (6/1169)Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids. (+info)
Regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression and mucus secretion by IL-4 in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/1169)Our laboratory has recently shown that mucus differentiation of cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells is accompanied by the increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). We used differentiated NHTBE cells to investigate the regulation of 15-LO expression and mucus secretion by inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 dramatically enhanced the expression of 15-LO, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma had no effect. These cytokines did not increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, with the exception of a modest induction by IL-1beta. The IL-4-induced 15-LO expression was concentration dependent, and mRNA and protein expression increased within 3 and 6 h, respectively, after IL-4 treatment. In metabolism studies with intact cells, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were the major metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. No prostaglandins were detected. IL-4 treatment dramatically increased the formation of 13-HODE and 15-HETE compared with that in untreated NHTBE cells, and several additional 15-LO metabolites were observed. Pretreatment of NHTBE cells with IFN-gamma or dexamethasone did not inhibit the IL-4-induced expression of 15-LO except at high concentrations (100 ng/ml of IFN-gamma and 10 microM dexamethasone). IL-4 treatment inhibited mucus secretion and attenuated the expression of the mucin genes MUC5AC and MUC5B at 12-24 h after treatment. Addition of 15-HETE precursor and 13-HODE precursor to the cultures did not alter mucin secretion or mucin gene expression. On the basis of the data presented, we conclude that the increase in 15-LO expression by IL-4 and attenuation of mucus secretion may be independent biological events. (+info)
Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. (8/1169)Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, CLA feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake. (+info)
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
1. Scurvy: A disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet, leading to bleeding gums, weakened immune system, and poor wound healing.
2. Rickets: A disease that affects children and is caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, leading to soft and weak bones.
3. Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin, which can be caused by a lack of iron, folate, or vitamin B12.
4. Beriberi: A condition that affects the heart and nervous system and is caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine), leading to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart failure.
5. Goiter: An enlarged thyroid gland that can be caused by a lack of iodine in the diet, leading to hypothyroidism and other complications.
6. Pellagra: A disease caused by a lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet, leading to diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
7. Kwashiorkor: A condition that occurs in children who are malnourished due to a lack of protein in their diet, leading to edema, skin lesions, and diarrhea.
8. Marasmus: A severe form of malnutrition that can be caused by a lack of calories, protein, or other essential nutrients, leading to weight loss, wasting, and weakened immune system.
Deficiency diseases can be prevented by consuming a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. In some cases, deficiency diseases may also be treated with supplements or other medical interventions.
It is important to note that deficiency diseases can have far-reaching consequences for individuals, families, and communities. Malnutrition can lead to reduced productivity, increased healthcare costs, and a lower quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize nutrition and take steps to prevent deficiency diseases.
There are several different types of weight gain, including:
1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:
1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.
Causes of weight gain:
1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.
Treatment options for obesity:
1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.
Conjugated linoleic acid
Di-deuterated linoleic acid ethyl ester
Essential fatty acid interactions
Tea seed oil
Phospholipid-derived fatty acids
Delta12-fatty acid dehydrogenase
Essential fatty acid
Linoleate diol synthase
Conjugated fatty acid
Saint Boniface Hospital
Epoxide hydrolase 2
Fatty acid desaturase
Buffalo gourd oil
Kalahari melon oil
Divinylether fatty acids
CYP Eicosanoid Pathway Mediates Colon Cancer-promoting Effects of Dietary Linoleic Acid
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Conference Presentations
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Conjugated linoleic acid induces monocytic differentiation of murine myeloid leukemia cells
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- Dietary CLA refers to a group of isomers of derivatives of linoleic acid. (mercola.com)
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of naturally occurring positional and geometrical conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2), of which the cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) isomers predominate. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are conjugated isomers of linoleic acid, which may promote health with regard to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, bone formation, growth modulation and immunity. (nih.gov)
- Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid and some researchers have shown biological activities including modulation of lipid metabolism, atherogenesis, diabetes, and immune functions. (ajol.info)
- Direct effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on P815 mast cells in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
- Simultaneously, 3-d food duplicates (FD) were collected to determine analytically individual fatty acid intakes, including those of total CLA and RA. (nih.gov)
- The polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, chemiluminescence and peroxidizability index of mitochondria obtained from rat liver, kidney, lung and heart, were studied after oral administration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (siu.edu.ar)
- Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants por: Piergiacomi, V.A., et al. (siu.edu.ar)
- You don't hear a lot about linoleic acid for skin, but this essential fatty acid certainly deserves a serious mention. (glowsly.com)
- Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that occurs naturally in all kinds of oils, including sunflower oil, safflower oil, and grape seed oil. (glowsly.com)
- It is a type of polyunsaturated omega 6 fatty acid. (glowsly.com)
- When it's in an oil, linoleic acid is bound to glycerin , which means that the skin doesn't process it the same way as it would when it's just the isolated fatty acid on its own. (glowsly.com)
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally-occurring polyunsaturated fatty acid that is most commonly found in beef and dairy, but our supplement uses a plant-based option from safflower oil. (californiagoldnutrition.com)
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary fatty acid which causes extensive remodeling and mast cell recruitment in the mouse mammary gland . (bvsalud.org)
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (first-iron-systems.com)
- CLA is a fatty acid called « essential » because the body cannot produce it. (first-iron-systems.com)
- Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. (nature.com)
- A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. (bvsalud.org)
- It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (bvsalud.org)
- Association of Polymorphism in Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Iranian Population. (cdc.gov)
- Fatty Acid Profile and Genetic Variants of Proteins Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism Could Be Considered as Disease Predictor. (cdc.gov)
- To evaluate the influence of food supplements with fatty acid omega 3 on the remission of a neurogenic inflammation denoted as centrally mediated chronic myalgia. (bvsalud.org)
- The anti-inflammatory potential of fatty acid omega 3 and also the effectiveness with pain remission was confirmed. (bvsalud.org)
- In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. (who.int)
- Inflammatory response to dietary linoleic acid depends on FADS1 genotype. (cdc.gov)
- There is considerable evidence for a pro- fatty acids in the diet as food additives or tective effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids as therapeutic substances, it is important in the prevention of heart disease [ 12-15 ], to determine the extent of any effects, and especially in a high-risk population [ 16,17 ]. (who.int)
- No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. (nature.com)
- The PUFAs in this family include the 18-carbon, plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA,) as well as the 20-22-carbon, long-chain (LC, mostly seafood-derived) eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. (nature.com)
- 24. Gibson RA, Muhlhausler B, Makrides M. Conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life. (bvsalud.org)
- Safflower oil, with around 75% linoleic acid, is very similar to sunflower oil. (glowsly.com)
- California Gold Nutrition CLA contains Clarinol® Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) derived from safflower oil in convenient softgels. (californiagoldnutrition.com)
- Each daily intake brings 3000 mg safflower oil with 80% conjugated linoleic acid, i.e. 2400 mg CLA. (first-iron-systems.com)
- Some previous data do not support the liter- process in the determination of morbidity ature suggesting adverse effects of omega-3 and mortality from coronary heart disease fatty acids on lipid peroxidation [ 2,21,35 ]. (who.int)
Conjugated linoleic ac1
- CLA Pro is ideal for supplementing the diet to help balance your conjugated linoleic acid intake. (first-iron-systems.com)
- Conjugated linoleic acid had no effect on arachidonic acid content, but decreased its proportion (g arachidonic acid/100 g total fatty acids) by >50% (P (tamu.edu)
- These data suggest that altering the composition of sow's milk to increase the supply of amino acids relative to energy concentration could improve the growth performance of the baby pig. (porkgateway.org)
- Archaeological evidence tel s us that amino acid requirements as man (Gilmour, 1961), and so entomophagy has been practiced since mankind first they actively accumulate these amino acids thus being a made an appearance on this planet. (who.int)
- Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c. (who.int)
- 1998. Interaction of blood lead and *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers. (cdc.gov)
- 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). (nature.com)
- Triacylglycerol-Lowering Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Not Influenced by Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Humans. (cdc.gov)
- with n-3 on the other hand, we get α-linolenic acid (ALA), metabolized into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 4 . (bvsalud.org)
- Lui O, Mak N and Leung K: Conjugated linoleic acid induces monocytic differentiation of murine myeloid leukemia cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- This study documented the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (tamu.edu)
- Conjugated linoleic acid was not cytotoxic during proliferation or differentiation. (tamu.edu)
- Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation but stimulates lipid filling of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (tamu.edu)
- Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids 2020 Jun 159 102155. (cdc.gov)
- We'll help you find out which oils contain linoleic acid in remarkable quantities, and then will make sure you know how to use it once you add it to your routine. (glowsly.com)
- Oils rich in linoleic acid are especially popular in skin care because they have all kinds of fantastic properties that make all skin types function better. (glowsly.com)
- Additionally, many people who use oils rich in linoleic acid report that it helps reduce their breakouts. (glowsly.com)
- Which Oils Contain Linoleic Acid? (glowsly.com)
- There are many plant oils that contain large amounts of linoleic acid, but I wanted to list the ones that show up the most frequently in skin care. (glowsly.com)
- Despite that, people with sensitive and acne-prone skin find that their skin tends to respond beautifully to oils high in linoleic acid, so I suspect that it still has an effect. (glowsly.com)
- In addition to that, all of the natural oils rich in linoleic acid contain other fabulous components that can help the skin, like anti-aging vitamins and phytosterols. (glowsly.com)
- Oils rich in linoleic acid normally have a much shorter shelf life than other oils, which is why you can't use any old oil found in the grocery store - they are often processed in some way in order to increase their oleic acid content and reduce their linoleic acid content. (glowsly.com)
- That is why you want to use either skincare products with high-linoleic acid ingredients, or the straight oils sold for the purposes of skincare preparation. (glowsly.com)
- Benzo(a)anthracene (PubChem CID: 5954) vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. (bvsalud.org)
- [ 15 ] Diets should be limited in saturated and trans-fats, while providing adequate amounts of essential fatty acids (linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid). (medscape.com)
- The c9,t11 isomer of CLA, rumenic acid (RA), is the major isomer present in the diet. (nih.gov)
- The human body cannot synthesize linoleic acid on its own, but it is an important part of our diet. (glowsly.com)
- Fifty-five mixed parity lactating sows (Landrace x Chester White) were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either a corn-soybean meal diet (control) or a diet with 1% CLA-60 (conjugated linoleic acid, ConLinCo Inc. Detroit Lakes, MN). (porkgateway.org)
- Sows were categorically blocked into three parity groups (parity 1, 2, and 3 and older) and then randomly assigned to receive either a standard corn-soybean meal diet (Control, n = 28) or the treatment diet (CLA, n = 27) that contained 1% CLA-60 (conjugated linoleic acid, ConLinCo Inc. Detroit Lakes, MN). (porkgateway.org)
- The FADS1 genotypes modify the effect of linoleic acid-enriched diet on adipose tissue inflammation via pro-inflammatory eicosanoid metabolism. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, research studies have suggested safer, more natural alternatives for the treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with these conditions, such as supplementing diet with essential fatty acids 1 . (bvsalud.org)
- CLA also known as conjugated linoleic acid is a rising star in the weight loss and sports nutrition industries. (revivgreen.com)
- Association Between Genetic Variants in FADS1-FADS2 and ELOVL2 and Obesity, Lipid Traits, and Fatty Acids in Tunisian Population. (cdc.gov)
- Linoleic acid is thought to have some anti-inflammatory properties, which might be why it helps to reduce acne which is an inflammatory condition. (glowsly.com)
- Hemp oil has between 50% and 60% linoleic acid, but it also contains a small amount of the powerfully anti-inflammatory gamma-linolenic acid. (glowsly.com)
- Effect of conjugated linoleic. (siu.edu.ar)
- Treatment with 10 mg/L CLA or 10 mg/L linoleic acid (cis-9,12) reduced the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA by 56 and 35%, respectively, suggesting that some portion of the effect of CLA on preadipocyte proliferation was nonspecific. (tamu.edu)
- 1976. The in vitro effect of zinc on the inhibition of human *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase by lead. (cdc.gov)
- As a consequence, the peroxidizability index -a parameter based on the maximal rate of oxidation of fatty acids- showed significant changes in liver and kidney mitochondria. (siu.edu.ar)
- Functions of essential fatty acids include regulation of blood clotting, blood pressure, heart rate, and immune responses . (medscape.com)
- Desaturases of fatty acids (FADS) and their physiological and clinical implication]. (cdc.gov)
- The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. (nature.com)
- values were low pointing to the fact that these fatty acids were not free but esterified acids. (who.int)
- As an oil component linoleic acid has emollient properties, meaning that it fills in the gaps between dead skin cells on the top levels of the skin, making the skin feel smoother, softer, and more supple. (glowsly.com)
- mature insect) the major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic acids. (who.int)
- Fatty acids were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples. (bvsalud.org)
- In this article, we'll explain exactly what linoleic acid is, and what it does to the skin. (glowsly.com)
- Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)