A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (1/1169)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux. (2/1169)

The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (3/1169)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (4/1169)

In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (5/1169)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals.  (+info)

Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells. (6/1169)

Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids.  (+info)

Regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression and mucus secretion by IL-4 in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/1169)

Our laboratory has recently shown that mucus differentiation of cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells is accompanied by the increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). We used differentiated NHTBE cells to investigate the regulation of 15-LO expression and mucus secretion by inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 dramatically enhanced the expression of 15-LO, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma had no effect. These cytokines did not increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, with the exception of a modest induction by IL-1beta. The IL-4-induced 15-LO expression was concentration dependent, and mRNA and protein expression increased within 3 and 6 h, respectively, after IL-4 treatment. In metabolism studies with intact cells, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were the major metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. No prostaglandins were detected. IL-4 treatment dramatically increased the formation of 13-HODE and 15-HETE compared with that in untreated NHTBE cells, and several additional 15-LO metabolites were observed. Pretreatment of NHTBE cells with IFN-gamma or dexamethasone did not inhibit the IL-4-induced expression of 15-LO except at high concentrations (100 ng/ml of IFN-gamma and 10 microM dexamethasone). IL-4 treatment inhibited mucus secretion and attenuated the expression of the mucin genes MUC5AC and MUC5B at 12-24 h after treatment. Addition of 15-HETE precursor and 13-HODE precursor to the cultures did not alter mucin secretion or mucin gene expression. On the basis of the data presented, we conclude that the increase in 15-LO expression by IL-4 and attenuation of mucus secretion may be independent biological events.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. (8/1169)

Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, CLA feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake.  (+info)

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

1. Scurvy: A disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet, leading to bleeding gums, weakened immune system, and poor wound healing.
2. Rickets: A disease that affects children and is caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, leading to soft and weak bones.
3. Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin, which can be caused by a lack of iron, folate, or vitamin B12.
4. Beriberi: A condition that affects the heart and nervous system and is caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine), leading to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart failure.
5. Goiter: An enlarged thyroid gland that can be caused by a lack of iodine in the diet, leading to hypothyroidism and other complications.
6. Pellagra: A disease caused by a lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet, leading to diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
7. Kwashiorkor: A condition that occurs in children who are malnourished due to a lack of protein in their diet, leading to edema, skin lesions, and diarrhea.
8. Marasmus: A severe form of malnutrition that can be caused by a lack of calories, protein, or other essential nutrients, leading to weight loss, wasting, and weakened immune system.

Deficiency diseases can be prevented by consuming a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. In some cases, deficiency diseases may also be treated with supplements or other medical interventions.

It is important to note that deficiency diseases can have far-reaching consequences for individuals, families, and communities. Malnutrition can lead to reduced productivity, increased healthcare costs, and a lower quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize nutrition and take steps to prevent deficiency diseases.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

The consumption of linoleic acid is vital to proper health, as it is an essential fatty acid. Linoleic acid (LA: C18H32O2; 18:2 ... Reduction of the carboxylic acid group of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol. Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical ... Linoleic acid". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Linoleic acid MS Spectrum Fatty Acids: Methylene-Interrupted Double ... It is a fatty acid sometimes denoted 18:2 (n-6) or 18:2 cis-9,12. A linoleate is a salt or ester of this acid. Linoleic acid is ...
... is both a trans fatty acid and a cis fatty acid. The cis bond causes a lower melting point and, ... Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of isomers of linoleic acid. In principle, 28 isomers are possible. CLA is found ... "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content of Milk from Cows Offered Diets Rich in Linoleic and Linolenic Acid". Journal of Dairy ... "Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Human Gut Bacteria: Different Routes for Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid". Journal of ...
Di-deuterated linoleic acid is recognized by cells as identical to the natural linoleic acid. But when taken up, it is ... It is an isotopologue of linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 PUFA. The deuterated compound, while identical to natural linoleic ... "9-cis, 12-cis-11,11-D2-Linoleic acid ethyl ester". PubChem. Hill S, Lamberson CR, Xu L, To R, Tsui HS, Shmanai VV, et al. ( ... Di-deuterated ethyl linoleate (also known as RT001, di-deuterated linoleic acid ethyl ester, 11,11-d2-ethyl linoleate, or ethyl ...
In the arachidonic acid cascade, dietary linoleic acid (18:2 ω-6) is desaturated and elongated to form arachidonic acid (and ... alpha-Linolenic acid (18:3 ω-3) contributes to this by displacing linoleic acid (18:2 ω-6) from the elongase and desaturase ... However, the effect is not as strong; the desaturase has a higher affinity for α-linolenic acid than it has for linoleic acid. ... The reverse is also true - high dietary linoleic acid decreases the body's conversion of α-linolenic acid to EPA. ...
J. W. McCutcheon (1942). "Linoleic Acid". Org. Synth. 22: 75. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.022.0075. Meija, Juris; Alessandro D'Ulivo ( ... Acid conditions in the Marsh test promote the fast escape of the arsine gas (AsH3), while under hyperalkaline solution, the ... On some remarkable changes produced in iron and steel by the action of hydrogen and acids" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal ... dissolution of zinc in strong acids (HCl) and aluminium in strong bases (NaOH). The mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement was ...
... oleic acid; 5-11% linoleic acid; 7.5-10% palmitic acid; 1.5-3% stearic acid - the ratios are similar to that found in wild ... Another analysis of several cultivars found : 82-84% unsaturated acids of which 68-77% oleic acid; and 7-14% polyunsaturated ... Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan (2016), "Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid ... "Fatty acid composition of Camellia oleifera oil", Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 6 (11): 9-12, doi: ...
... (isoleukotoxin) is a mono-unsaturated, epoxide derivative of the di-saturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (i.e. 9( ... This same CYP epoxygenases concurrently attack linoleic acid at the carbon 9,10 rather than 12,13 double bond of linoleic acid ... metabolize linoleic acid to (+)12S,13R-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecaenoic acid and (-)12R,13S-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecaenoic acid, i.e. the ... Coronaric and vernolic acids also form non-enzymatically when linoleic acid is exposed to oxygen and/or UV radiation as a ...
... is an omega-6 trans fatty acid (TFA) and is a geometric isomer of linoleic acid. It is found in partially ... Park, Yeonhwa "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): Good or bad trans fat?" Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2009, vol. 22, ... The TFA vaccenic acid, which is of animal origin, poses less of a health risk. Linolelaidic acid at chemexper.com Linoelaidic ... acid at pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Kass, J. P; Burr, G. O (1939). "The Elaidinization of Linoleic Acid". Journal of the American ...
This enzyme converts linoleic acid; the absence of expression allows systemic linoleic acid accumulation. Recent findings ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid for T. gondii, which it scavenges from host cells. IFN-γ induces the activation of indole ... T. gondii infection has been demonstrated to increase the levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brains of infected mice and ... showed that this excess of linoleic acid is essential for T. gondii sexual reproduction. Infected epithelial cells eventually ...
... one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently ... Conjugated linoleic acid Suetsumuhana Tsheringma "Tropicos". Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. 2016. Retrieved 16 June ... "Appendix B. Fatty Acid Composition of Dietary Fats and Oils". The Fats of Life. 2019. pp. 219-221. doi:10.36019/9780813549194- ... Coşge, Belgin; Gürbüz, Bilal; Kiralan, Mustafa (2007). "Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Safflower (Carthamus ...
Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams: Sheep milk is extremely high in fat and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and has a high ... "What is Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)?". modernfit. 2014-11-27. Retrieved 2016-07-09. Sinanoglou, Vassilia (2015). "Assessment ... of lactation stage and breed effect on sheep milk fatty acid profile and lipid quality indices". Journal of Dairy Science and ...
The polyunsaturated fatty acid, 18:2 ω6c (linoleic acid), is found in soil fungi, whereas the monounsaturated fatty acid, 16:1 ... cis-7-Palmitoleic acid) - Fungi & Gram-positive bacteria Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) • 18:2 ω6c, (Linoleic acid) - Fungi ... Saturated fatty acids (SAFA) • 15:0 (Pentadecanoic acid) - Bacteria • Other straight chain (e.g. 16:0, Palmitic acid) - ... Tuberculostearic acid) - Actinomycetota Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) • 16:1 ω5c (11-Hexadecenoic acid) - Arbuscular ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. The systematic name of this enzyme class is linoleate, hydrogen-donor: ... In enzymology, a Delta12-fatty acid dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction linoleate ... "Biosynthesis of an Acetylenic Fatty Acid in Microsomal Preparations from Developing Seeds of Crepis Alpina.". In Williams JP, ... Other names in common use include crepenynate synthase and linoleate Delta12-fatty acid acetylenase (desaturase). Banas A, ...
mostly linoleic acid) and protein (35 wt. %), it can be used to produce animal feedstuff and as a biofuel feedstock on coastal ... trans-ferulic acid, exert anti-obesity effects by suppressing adipogenic-related factors". Pharmaceutical Biology. 56 (1): 183- ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Hamberg M, Su C, Oliw E (1998). "Manganese lipoxygenase. Discovery of a ... Oliw EH, Su C, Skogstrom T, Benthin G (1998). "Analysis of novel hydroperoxides and other metabolites of oleic, linoleic, and ... linolenic acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion trap MSn". Lipids. 33 (9): 843-52. doi:10.1007/s11745-998- ...
This enzyme is also called linoleic acid isomerase. This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Kepler CR, Tove SB ( ... 1967). "Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. 3. Purification and properties of a linoleate delta-12-cis, delta-11-trans ...
... ω-3 fatty acid: α-linolenic acid or ALA (18:3n-3) ω-6 fatty acid: linoleic acid or LA (18:2n-6) These two fatty acids cannot be ... Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an ... ω-6 fatty acids: gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (18:3n-6) dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid or DGLA (20:3n-6) arachidonic acid or AA (20 ... examples include docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and gamma-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). Whitney Ellie; ...
Linoleic acid is the other essential fatty acid, but it, and the other n−6 fatty acids, compete with n−3s for positions in cell ... "of or relating to oleic acid" because saturating linoleic acid's omega-6 double bond produces oleic acid. Seed oils are the ... fatty acid. It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an 18:3 (n−6) fatty acid (i.e., a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid ... For the acid C18H32O2 I suggest the name "linolic acid"; for the acid C18H30O2 [I suggest] the name "linolenic acid".) ...
... linoleic acid, and myristic acid. Other compounds include β-sitosterol, scopoletin, and p-coumaric acid. The alkaloid atropine ... vanillic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid. From the flowers, diosgenin, β-sitosterol, and lanosterol have been isolated ... The compounds present in the roots have been less studied, but they include betaine, choline, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol [ ... Other detected compounds include flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol; hexadecanoic acid, ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Brodowsky ID, Hamberg M, Oliw EH (1992). "A linoleic acid (8R)- ... Biosynthesis of (8R)-hydroxylinoleic acid and (7S,8S)-dihydroxylinoleic acid from (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid". J. Biol. Chem ... Hamberg M, Zhang LY, Brodowsky ID, Oliw EH (1994). "Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus Gaeumannomyces ... Oliw EH, Su C, Skogstrom T, Benthin G (1998). "Analysis of novel hydroperoxides and other metabolites of oleic, linoleic, and ...
Conjugated fatty acids include isomers of linoleic acid. Conjugated analogues linoleic acids are the most investigated ... Most unsaturated fatty acids that are doubly unsaturated do not feature conjugation, e.g., linoleic acid and linoelaidic acid. ... On top of the research on conjugated linoleic acid on body weight regulation, isomers of conjugated linoleic acid have been ... is a conjugated trans fatty acid. Studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acids, an isomer of conjugated fatty acids, ...
... see epoxygenase subsection on linoleic acid). coronaric acid, C9-C10 epoxide of linoleic acid. Metzger, J. O.; Bornscheuer, U ... It is the R,R-cis epoxide derived from the C12-C13 alkene of linoleic acid. Vernolic acid was first definitively characterized ... In a variety of mammalian species, vernolic acid is made by the metabolism of linoleic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase ... Vernolic acid (leukotoxin) is a long chain fatty acid that is monounsaturated and contains an epoxide. ...
... chicken fat is noted for being high in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. Linoleic acid levels are between 17.9% and 22.8%. ... Biofuel does not result in toxic products like carbon dioxide and instead yields organic acids. Schmaltz, rendered fat that may ... saturated/Unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors". Lipids in Health and ...
"Linoleic acid 10-hydroperoxide as an intermediate during formation of 1-octen-3-ol from linoleic acid in Lentinus decadetes". ... Octenol is formed during oxidative breakdown of linoleic acid. It is also a wine fault, defined as a cork taint, occurring in ... 1-octen-3-ol is generated from the peroxidation of linoleic acid, catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, followed by cleavage of the ...
"Suppression of Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy by Conjugated Linoleic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. American Society for ... 2009). "Bioavailability of alpha-linolenic acid from flaxseed diets as a function of the age of the subject". European Journal ...
Linoleic acid, has been identified in the mycelial extracts. It is an aliphatic compound that is antibacterial and nematocidal ...
The diepoxide of linoleic acid can form tetrahydrofuran diols, sEH metabolizes the biologically active epoxyalcohol metabolites ... Moghaddam M, Motoba K, Borhan B, Pinot F, Hammock BD (August 1996). "Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid ... There are epoxides of other lipids besides arachidonic acid such as the omega three docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... eicosatrienoic acid) to trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) and hepoxilin B3 (10-hydroxy-11S, ...
... "convert oleic acid (18:1n-9) into linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3)". Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic ... synthesized from α-linolenic acid); arachidonic acid and adrenic acid (synthesized from linoleic acid). This is a multi-stage ... Δ9 desaturase produces oleic acid (C18H34O2; 18:1-n9) by desaturating stearic acid (SA: C18H36O2; 18:0), a saturated fatty acid ... Linoleic acid (LA: C18H32O2; 18:2-n6) → Δ6-desaturation → γ-linolenic acid (GLA: C18H30O2; 18:3-n6) → Δ6-specific elongase ( ...
Examples of such fatty acids are conjugated linoleic acids. The reaction is carried out via Diels-Alder addition, whereby a ... Dimer acid usually contains predominantly a dimer of oleic acid. It is also called C36 dimer acid. Trimer acid is a ... Dimer acids, or dimerized fatty acids, are dicarboxylic acids prepared by dimerizing unsaturated fatty acids obtained from tall ... Dimer fatty acids are produced from different fatty acids by heating. Necessary are a fatty acid with conjugated double bonds ...
... is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid (table). Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The saturated fat ... Avocado leaves contain a toxic fatty acid derivative, persin, which in sufficient quantity can cause colic in horses and ... palmitic acid). Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has a multitude of uses for salads or cooking and in ... DV in pantothenic acid) and vitamin K (20% DV), with moderate contents (10-19% DV) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium. ...
The oil's fatty acid composition is dominated by linoleic acid (64.5%) and oleic acid (17.1%). "Squashes, Gourds and Pumpkins ...
The majority of this total was oleic acid (1.95%), followed by linoleic acid (1.68%) and palmitic acid (1.69%). Other red- ... 121-2. ISBN 978-0-472-03126-9. León-Guzmán MF, Silva I, López MG (1997). "Proximate chemical composition, free amino acid ... The free fatty acid content of dried fruit bodies was 4.5%, slightly more than the common button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), ... contents, and free fatty acid contents of some wild edible mushrooms from Querétaro, México". Journal of Agricultural and Food ...
The former is derived from linoleic acid, and produced by mature white truffle T. borchii. Thiophene derivatives appear to be ... Metabolites of nonsulfur amino acid constituents (simple and branched-chain hydrocarbons) such as ethylene (produced by mycelia ... Fatty acid-derived volatiles (C8-alcohols and aldehydes with a characteristic fungal odor, such as 1-octen-3-ol and 2-octenal ...
The seeds have a high linoleic acid content and can be used to feed cattle and chickens. They can also be found in African ...
... unsaturated fatty acids composed of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. It can be used as an emollient. The value of ... The oil extracted from the pulp contains 25.6% saturated fatty acids and 74.4% ...
Meat from grass-fed cattle has higher levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the omega-3 fatty acids, ALA, EPA, and DHA. ... coli becomes acid resistant. If humans ingest this acid-resistant E. coli via grain-feed beef, a large number of them may ... "Influence of Diet on Total and Acid Resistant E. coli and Colonic pH" (PDF). 2000 Nebraska Beef Report: 39-41. Archived from ... In 2021, food management system expert Sylvain Charlebois remarked on the industry's use of palm oil, given as palmitic acid ...
Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Zoledronic acid (a bisphosphonate) and denosumab (a RANK-ligand-inhibitor) appear to be effective agents, but are associated ... Evidence does not support a role for omega-3 fatty acids in preventing prostate cancer. Vitamin supplements appear to have no ... September 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". International ...
Stymne, Sten (1980). The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants. ISBN 9157607044. OCLC 63571586. The ... "The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants". The following year, Stymne was appointed associate Professor of ... Later in his career, Stymne focused on studying the biochemical processes involved in the biosynthesis of exotic fatty acids, ... previously identified only in animals and responsible for transferring fatty acids between phospholipids and diacylglycerol ...
... linoleic acid, 10-16% oleic acid, 5-8% stearic acid, and 9-12% palmitic acid. The oil yield is about 400 L/hectare. In addition ... Oleic and linoleic acids isolated from C. colocynthis petroleum ether extracts show larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. ... Rahuman, A. Abdul; Venkatesan, P.; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha (2008). "Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids ... the seeds contain a high amount of arginine, tryptophan, and the sulfur-containing amino acids.[citation needed] It resembles ...
... the omega-6 linoleic acid), and it has about 12% saturated fats. Mustard oil has high levels of erucic acid. Erucic acid may ... monounsaturated fatty acids (42% erucic acid and 12% oleic acid); it has about 21% polyunsaturated fats (6% the omega-3 alpha- ... In High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils. Elsevier. p. 560. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (June 2003) Erucic acid in ... Varieties of mustard seed also exist that are low in erucic acid. Oil makes up about 30% of mustard seeds. It can be produced ...
Two fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, are considered essential fatty acids (EFAs) in humans and other ... Both are 18 carbon fatty acids unlike mead acid, which has 20 carbons. Linoleic is an ω-6 fatty acid whereas linolenic is ω-3 ... When physiological levels of arachidonic acid are low, other unsaturated fatty acids including mead and linoleic acid are ... Mead acid, also referred to as eicosatrienoic acid, is chemically a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and three methylene- ...
Conjugated linoleic acids This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Clas. If an internal link led you ...
... due to the high linoleic acid content, which restores the inflamed skin barrier and balances out the oleic acid that's ... The high linoleic acid content of Kalahari melon seed oil also gives it a lightweight, non-greasy texture. The Kalahari melon ... Physical properties of Kalahari melon oil The oil is naturally high in linoleic acid, an omega 6, polyunsaturated essential ... Fatty acids present in Kalahari melon oil Phytosterols are present in the oil, including β-sitosterol (485.49 mg/100 g), ...
... to 8 different epoxide isomers which are termed epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs and linoleic acid, which possess two double ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), i.e. 19-hydroxyhydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and/or 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid, take ... 13-epoxides isomers termed coronaric acids or isoleukotoxins. They metabolize the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, ... They metabolize the omega-6 fatty acids arachidonic acid, which possess four double bonds, ...
Docosahexaenoic acid ester of hydroxy-linoleic acid (DHAHLA) exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. ... "Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties". Diabetes. 65 ... Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most bioactive members able to activate G-protein coupled ... fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids) are formed in adipose tissue, improve glucose tolerance and also reduce adipose ...
Hamberg M, Zhang LY, Brodowsky ID, Oliw EH (February 1994). "Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus ... Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (EC, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional ... "Identification of PpoA from Aspergillus nidulans as a fusion protein of a fatty acid heme dioxygenase/peroxidase and a ...
... lauric acid, oleanolic acid, rosmarinic acid, myristic acid, rutin, linoleic acid, ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and ... Phytochemicals include betulinic acid, D-camphor, D-fenchone, cyanidin, delphinidin, hyperoside, manganese, ...
... of fatty acids are composed of oleic acid (18:1) and 50% of linoleic acid (18:2). Pea seeds are also a rich source of minerals ... "Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates". Amino Acids. 50 (12): 1685- ... Pea proteins also contain branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which helps to promote muscle ... phytic acid, saponins, polyphenols, minerals, and oxalates. They also contain several classes of protein: globulin, albumin, ...
... human and rodent AlOX15 enzymes act on linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ... The human enzyme is particularly active on linoleic acid, preferring it over arachidonic acid. It is less active on PUFA that ... By metabolizing the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into 17-HpDHA, 17-HDHA, ... By metabolizing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into lipoxins and resolvins, ...
... linoleic acid and oleic acid), as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Hirasawa A, Tsumaya K, Awaji T, Katsuma S, Adachi T, Yamada M, Sugimoto Y, Miyazaki S, Tsujimoto G (2005). "Free fatty acids ... GPR120 has also been shown to mediate the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega 3 fatty acids. Lack of ... "Taste preference for fatty acids is mediated by GPR40 and GPR120". J Neurosci. 30 (25): 8376-82. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0496- ...
... omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA), 18% omega-9 fatty acids (oleic acid), and 6% omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid); the seeds ... Linseed oil is an edible oil in demand as a dietary supplement, as a source of α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. In ... Flax seed oil contains 53% 18:3 omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA) and 13% 18:2 omega-6 fatty acids. A meta-analysis showed that ... p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic acid glucoside-are present in commercial breads containing flax seed. After crushing the ...
... oils with more monounsaturated oleic acid and less polyunsaturated linoleic acid for enhanced stability. The oxidative ... The smoke point of fats and oils decreases when they are at least partially split into free fatty acids and glycerol; the ... 2013). "Total polar compounds and acid values of repeatedly used frying oils measured by standard and rapid methods" (PDF). J ... The differing stabilities correlate with lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are more prone to oxidation. EVOO ...
... mainly as linoleic acid (table). Within soybean oil or the lipid portion of the seed is contained four phytosterols: ... Soybeans contain phytic acid, which may act as a chelating agent and inhibit mineral absorption, especially for diets already ... The genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.[citation needed] The genus Glycine is divided into two subgenera, ... Spring grasses are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, whereas soy is predominantly omega-6. The soybean hulls, which mainly consist ...
Additionally, seeds are rich in zinc, iron, methionine, tryptophan, B-vitamins and linoleic acid (essential fatty acid). Seeds ...
Bumblebee mating plugs, in addition to providing a physical barrier to further copulations, contain linoleic acid, which ... Baer, B.; Morgan, E. D.; Schmid-Hempel, P. (2001). "A nonspecific fatty acid within the bumblebee mating plug prevents females ...
These compounds, named colneleic acid (from linoleic acid) and colnelenicacid (from linolenic acid), could be also produced in ... Etheroleic acid has systematic name 12-[1′E-hexenyloxy]-9Z,11Z-dodecadienoic acid. Etherolenic acid has systematic name (9Z,11E ... Fatty acid hydroperoxides generated by plant lipoxygenases from linoleic and linolenic acids are known to serve as substrates ... "The enzymic conversion of linoleic acid into 9-(nona-1′,3′-dienoxy)non-8-enoic acid, a novel unsaturated ether derivative ...
... [Abstract CYP Eicosanoid Pathway ... CYP Eicosanoid Pathway Mediates Colon Cancer-promoting Effects of Dietary Linoleic Acid. ... Synopsis CYP Eicosanoid Pathway Mediates Colon Cancer-promoting Effects of Dietary Linoleic Acid] Zhang J, Yang J, Duval C, ... Mediates Colon Cancer-promoting Effects of Dietary Linoleic Acid] [ ...
... Perspectives on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Current Status and ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Mammary Lipid Metabolism Lance H. Baumgard, Ph.D. Department of Animal Sciences University ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Fasting Glucose and is Inversely Correlated with Serum Leptin in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes ... Panel Discussion: Mechanisms of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Health and Disease Josep Bassaganya-Riera, DVM, Ph.D. Veterinary ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid CLA Supplements Helpful For Obesity ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplements Helpful For Obesity ... Dietary CLA refers to a group of isomers of derivatives of linoleic acid. CLA is produced naturally in the gut of grass-eating ... which isomerize linoleic acid into CLA. The major dietary source of CLA are meats, such as beef and lamb, and dairy products, ...
... *Authors: *Oi-Lan Lui ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of naturally occurring positional and geometrical conjugated dienoic isomers ... Lui O, Mak N and Leung K: Conjugated linoleic acid induces monocytic differentiation of murine myeloid leukemia cells. Int J ... Lui, O., Mak, N., Leung, K.Conjugated linoleic acid induces monocytic differentiation of murine myeloid leukemia cells. ...
... are conjugated isomers of linoleic acid, which may promote health with regard to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, bone ... The c9,t11 isomer of CLA, rumenic acid (RA), is the major isomer present in the diet. However, dietary int … ... Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are conjugated isomers of linoleic acid, which may promote health with regard to cancer, heart ... Estimation of conjugated linoleic acid intake by written dietary assessment methodologies underestimates actual intake ...
Return to Article Details Calcium and linoleic acid supplements in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Download Download PDF ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid and some researchers have shown ... Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic acid in mice by micronucleus test * LBD Carvalho-Silva ... Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, antimutagenicity, cyclophosphamide. Abstract. ...
For example, linoleic acid diols, including leukotoxindiol, can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying patients with pre- ... Patent Detail: Linoleic Acid Diol and Glucuronide Conjugate Levels as Diagnostic Markers of Disorders of Abnormal Regulation of ... Linoleic Acid Diol and Glucuronide Conjugate Levels as Diagnostic Markers of Disorders of Abnormal Regulation of Cytochrome ... The invention provides methods of using dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids as markers for identifying patients with a disorder ...
... [2005] Salamon, R ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - dairy products - human health. 2. CLA in dairy products and different foods@eng ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - dairy products - human health. 2. CLA in dairy products and different foods@eng ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - dairy products - human health. 2. CLA in dairy products and different foods ...
Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants por: Piergiacomi, V.A., et al. Publicado: (2006) ... Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants por: Piergiacomi, Viviana Angélica, et al. Publicado: ( ... Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on non enzymatic lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different rat tissues The ... Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on non enzymatic lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different rat tissues. ...
... conjugated linoleic acid) has been used for weight loss, helping the body shed fat and build muscle, and improve endurance and ... ALLMAX, CLA80 Femme, Premium Grade Conjugated Linoleic Acid, 1,000 mg, 60 Softgels. ...
Isomerized linoleic acid Isomerized Linoleic Acid Tento derivát mastných kyselín je známy svojimi anticelulitídnymi ...
Bai NJ, George T, Krishnamurthy S. Linoleic acid hemolysis of erythrocytes. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 1980 ...
Be the first to review "CLA Softgel (conjugated linoleic acid)" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ... CLA also known as conjugated linoleic acid is a rising star in the weight loss and sports nutrition industries. This potent ...
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... motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3a-k) or via a spacer (compounds 7a-k) are reported. In ... The oxidation of linoleic acid sodium salt was monitored at 234 nm. The assays were repeated at least in triplicate and the ... acrylic acid), 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid methyl ether), 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid dimethyl ether ... cinnamic acid (3-benzo[1,3]-dioxol-5-yl-acrylic acid), 4-chlorocinnamic acid, 2-fluorocinnamic acid, 4-(trifluoromethyl) ...
Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Establishment and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits David Kritchevsky, ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Atherosclerosis. Posted on December 25, 2010 by admin ... Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Establishment and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits ... Objective: To determine effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on establishment and progression of experimentally-induced ...
... and well help you find out which oils contain linoleic acid in remarkable quantities. ... How to Use Linoleic Acid in Skin Care. What Is Linoleic Acid?. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that occurs naturally ... Pros & Cons of Linoleic Acid in Skin Care. Whether linoleic acid skin care is for you or not depends on the pros and cons of ... How to Use Linoleic Acid in Skin Care. Linoleic acid skincare products come in all forms, from cleansers to serums to ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid Derived from Safflower Oil Provides Support for Overall Weight Management Programs* Suitable for ... California Gold Nutrition CLA, Conjugated Linoleic Acid 1,000 mg *Featuring Clarinol® Conjugated Linoleic Acid Derived from ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally-occurring polyunsaturated fatty acid that is most commonly found in beef and ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). Derived from Safflower Oil (Clarinol®). 1000 mg. †. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary fatty acid which causes extensive remodeling and mast cell recruitment in the mouse ... Direct effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on P815 mast cells in vitro.. Krishnan, Siddharth; Russell, Joshua; Bodziak ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid) from UNI KEY Health Systems ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid) from UNI KEY Health Systems ...
CLA Pro is ideal for supplementing the diet to help balance your conjugated linoleic acid intake. ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.. It is often used along with a nutrition plan designed ... Each daily intake brings 3000 mg safflower oil with 80% conjugated linoleic acid, i.e. 2400 mg CLA.. The softgels are easy to ... CLA Pro is ideal for supplementing the diet to help balance your conjugated linoleic acid intake. ...
Weight loss supplement - conjugated linoleic acid - shows nasty side effects A supplement some people turn to in hopes of ...
OR conjugated linoleic acid. OR copper [tw]. OR docosahexaenoic acid [tw] OR dha [tw]. OR epigallocatechin gallate OR EGCG. OR ... OR fatty acids [majr] OR fatty acids [ti] OR amino acids [majr] OR amino acids [ti] OR s-adenosylmethionine [majr] OR s- ... OR (alpha-lipoic acid AND therapeutic use [sh:noexp]). OR abscisic acid insulin. OR acai [tw]. OR ba wei di huang wan. OR bear- ... OR arachidonic acid [tw]. OR ascorbic acid [tw] OR vitamin c [tw]. OR biotin [tw]. OR boron [tw]. OR bromelain [tw] OR ...
... omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death ... Associations between of omega-3 fatty acids and mortality are not clear. Here the authors report that, based on a pooled ... No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating ... The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis ...
Antioxidant that reduces free radicals to help diminish the visible signs of aging Linoleic Acid: Antioxidant that reduces free ... Thioctic Acid: Antioxidant that reduces free radicals to help diminish the visible signs of aging Sodium Hyaluronate ( ... Hyaluronic Acid): Retains moisture and improves skin feel by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness Tocopheryl Acetate ( ... restore and repair skin that contains hyaluronic acid and vitamins. Buy a facial moisturizer. Niacinamide Strengthens the ...
Effects Of Conjugated Linoleic Acid On Milk Composition and Baby Pig Growth In Lactating Sows. R.J. Harrell, O. Phillips, R.D. ... Conjugated linoleic acid is a growth factor for rats as shown by enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. J. Nutr. ... Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse. Am. J. Physiol. 275:R667-R672. ... Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase lean tissue and decrease fat deposition in growing pigs. J. Nutr. 129:2037-2042.. ...
  • Dietary CLA refers to a group of isomers of derivatives of linoleic acid. (mercola.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of naturally occurring positional and geometrical conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2), of which the cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) isomers predominate. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are conjugated isomers of linoleic acid, which may promote health with regard to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, bone formation, growth modulation and immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid and some researchers have shown biological activities including modulation of lipid metabolism, atherogenesis, diabetes, and immune functions. (ajol.info)
  • Direct effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on P815 mast cells in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Simultaneously, 3-d food duplicates (FD) were collected to determine analytically individual fatty acid intakes, including those of total CLA and RA. (nih.gov)
  • The polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, chemiluminescence and peroxidizability index of mitochondria obtained from rat liver, kidney, lung and heart, were studied after oral administration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (siu.edu.ar)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants por: Piergiacomi, V.A., et al. (siu.edu.ar)
  • You don't hear a lot about linoleic acid for skin, but this essential fatty acid certainly deserves a serious mention. (glowsly.com)
  • Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that occurs naturally in all kinds of oils, including sunflower oil, safflower oil, and grape seed oil. (glowsly.com)
  • It is a type of polyunsaturated omega 6 fatty acid. (glowsly.com)
  • When it's in an oil, linoleic acid is bound to glycerin , which means that the skin doesn't process it the same way as it would when it's just the isolated fatty acid on its own. (glowsly.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally-occurring polyunsaturated fatty acid that is most commonly found in beef and dairy, but our supplement uses a plant-based option from safflower oil. (californiagoldnutrition.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary fatty acid which causes extensive remodeling and mast cell recruitment in the mouse mammary gland . (bvsalud.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (first-iron-systems.com)
  • CLA is a fatty acid called « essential » because the body cannot produce it. (first-iron-systems.com)
  • Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. (nature.com)
  • A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Association of Polymorphism in Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Iranian Population. (cdc.gov)
  • Fatty Acid Profile and Genetic Variants of Proteins Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism Could Be Considered as Disease Predictor. (cdc.gov)
  • To evaluate the influence of food supplements with fatty acid omega 3 on the remission of a neurogenic inflammation denoted as centrally mediated chronic myalgia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory potential of fatty acid omega 3 and also the effectiveness with pain remission was confirmed. (bvsalud.org)
  • In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. (who.int)
  • Inflammatory response to dietary linoleic acid depends on FADS1 genotype. (cdc.gov)
  • There is considerable evidence for a pro- fatty acids in the diet as food additives or tective effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids as therapeutic substances, it is important in the prevention of heart disease [ 12-15 ], to determine the extent of any effects, and especially in a high-risk population [ 16,17 ]. (who.int)
  • No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. (nature.com)
  • The PUFAs in this family include the 18-carbon, plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA,) as well as the 20-22-carbon, long-chain (LC, mostly seafood-derived) eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. (nature.com)
  • 24. Gibson RA, Muhlhausler B, Makrides M. Conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life. (bvsalud.org)
  • Safflower oil, with around 75% linoleic acid, is very similar to sunflower oil. (glowsly.com)
  • California Gold Nutrition CLA contains Clarinol® Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) derived from safflower oil in convenient softgels. (californiagoldnutrition.com)
  • Each daily intake brings 3000 mg safflower oil with 80% conjugated linoleic acid, i.e. 2400 mg CLA. (first-iron-systems.com)
  • Some previous data do not support the liter- process in the determination of morbidity ature suggesting adverse effects of omega-3 and mortality from coronary heart disease fatty acids on lipid peroxidation [ 2,21,35 ]. (who.int)
  • CLA Pro is ideal for supplementing the diet to help balance your conjugated linoleic acid intake. (first-iron-systems.com)
  • View of Calcium and linoleic acid supplements in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. (univalle.edu.co)
  • Linoleic acid supplements are also recommended. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid had no effect on arachidonic acid content, but decreased its proportion (g arachidonic acid/100 g total fatty acids) by >50% (P (tamu.edu)
  • CLA is produced naturally in the gut of grass-eating animals by the fermentative bacteria, which isomerize linoleic acid into CLA. (mercola.com)
  • Linoleic acid occurs naturally in human sebum, but not everyone's skin produces it the same way. (glowsly.com)
  • These data suggest that altering the composition of sow's milk to increase the supply of amino acids relative to energy concentration could improve the growth performance of the baby pig. (porkgateway.org)
  • Archaeological evidence tel s us that amino acid requirements as man (Gilmour, 1961), and so entomophagy has been practiced since mankind first they actively accumulate these amino acids thus being a made an appearance on this planet. (who.int)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c. (who.int)
  • 1998. Interaction of blood lead and *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers. (cdc.gov)
  • 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). (nature.com)
  • Triacylglycerol-Lowering Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Not Influenced by Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Humans. (cdc.gov)
  • with n-3 on the other hand, we get α-linolenic acid (ALA), metabolized into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Lui O, Mak N and Leung K: Conjugated linoleic acid induces monocytic differentiation of murine myeloid leukemia cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study documented the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (tamu.edu)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid was not cytotoxic during proliferation or differentiation. (tamu.edu)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation but stimulates lipid filling of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (tamu.edu)
  • Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids 2020 Jun 159 102155. (cdc.gov)
  • We'll help you find out which oils contain linoleic acid in remarkable quantities, and then will make sure you know how to use it once you add it to your routine. (glowsly.com)
  • Oils rich in linoleic acid are especially popular in skin care because they have all kinds of fantastic properties that make all skin types function better. (glowsly.com)
  • Additionally, many people who use oils rich in linoleic acid report that it helps reduce their breakouts. (glowsly.com)
  • Which Oils Contain Linoleic Acid? (glowsly.com)
  • There are many plant oils that contain large amounts of linoleic acid, but I wanted to list the ones that show up the most frequently in skin care. (glowsly.com)
  • Despite that, people with sensitive and acne-prone skin find that their skin tends to respond beautifully to oils high in linoleic acid, so I suspect that it still has an effect. (glowsly.com)
  • In addition to that, all of the natural oils rich in linoleic acid contain other fabulous components that can help the skin, like anti-aging vitamins and phytosterols. (glowsly.com)
  • Oils rich in linoleic acid normally have a much shorter shelf life than other oils, which is why you can't use any old oil found in the grocery store - they are often processed in some way in order to increase their oleic acid content and reduce their linoleic acid content. (glowsly.com)
  • That is why you want to use either skincare products with high-linoleic acid ingredients, or the straight oils sold for the purposes of skincare preparation. (glowsly.com)
  • Benzo(a)anthracene (PubChem CID: 5954) vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 15 ] Diets should be limited in saturated and trans-fats, while providing adequate amounts of essential fatty acids (linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid). (medscape.com)
  • The c9,t11 isomer of CLA, rumenic acid (RA), is the major isomer present in the diet. (nih.gov)
  • The human body cannot synthesize linoleic acid on its own, but it is an important part of our diet. (glowsly.com)
  • Fifty-five mixed parity lactating sows (Landrace x Chester White) were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either a corn-soybean meal diet (control) or a diet with 1% CLA-60 (conjugated linoleic acid, ConLinCo Inc. Detroit Lakes, MN). (porkgateway.org)
  • Sows were categorically blocked into three parity groups (parity 1, 2, and 3 and older) and then randomly assigned to receive either a standard corn-soybean meal diet (Control, n = 28) or the treatment diet (CLA, n = 27) that contained 1% CLA-60 (conjugated linoleic acid, ConLinCo Inc. Detroit Lakes, MN). (porkgateway.org)
  • The FADS1 genotypes modify the effect of linoleic acid-enriched diet on adipose tissue inflammation via pro-inflammatory eicosanoid metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, research studies have suggested safer, more natural alternatives for the treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with these conditions, such as supplementing diet with essential fatty acids 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • CLA also known as conjugated linoleic acid is a rising star in the weight loss and sports nutrition industries. (revivgreen.com)
  • Association Between Genetic Variants in FADS1-FADS2 and ELOVL2 and Obesity, Lipid Traits, and Fatty Acids in Tunisian Population. (cdc.gov)
  • Linoleic acid is thought to have some anti-inflammatory properties, which might be why it helps to reduce acne which is an inflammatory condition. (glowsly.com)
  • Hemp oil has between 50% and 60% linoleic acid, but it also contains a small amount of the powerfully anti-inflammatory gamma-linolenic acid. (glowsly.com)
  • Effect of conjugated linoleic. (siu.edu.ar)
  • Treatment with 10 mg/L CLA or 10 mg/L linoleic acid (cis-9,12) reduced the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA by 56 and 35%, respectively, suggesting that some portion of the effect of CLA on preadipocyte proliferation was nonspecific. (tamu.edu)
  • 1976. The in vitro effect of zinc on the inhibition of human *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase by lead. (cdc.gov)
  • As a consequence, the peroxidizability index -a parameter based on the maximal rate of oxidation of fatty acids- showed significant changes in liver and kidney mitochondria. (siu.edu.ar)
  • Functions of essential fatty acids include regulation of blood clotting, blood pressure, heart rate, and immune responses . (medscape.com)
  • Linoleic acid is important for natural skin functions and wound healing, and deficiencies in it can lead to all kinds of skin and hair issues. (glowsly.com)
  • Some studies show that linoleic acid makes the skin sturdier and more resilient to damage by restoring its barrier functions. (glowsly.com)
  • Desaturases of fatty acids (FADS) and their physiological and clinical implication]. (cdc.gov)
  • The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. (nature.com)
  • To determine effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on establishment and progression of experimentally-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. (am-coll-nutr.org)
  • Antagonistic effects of zinc and aluminum on lead inhibition of *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. (cdc.gov)
  • values were low pointing to the fact that these fatty acids were not free but esterified acids. (who.int)
  • As an oil component linoleic acid has emollient properties, meaning that it fills in the gaps between dead skin cells on the top levels of the skin, making the skin feel smoother, softer, and more supple. (glowsly.com)
  • mature insect) the major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic acids. (who.int)
  • Fatty acids were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - dairy products - human health. (fao.org)
  • Once consumed and processed by our body, linoleic acid comes to make up part of our sebum (the oil that human skin produces), but it can also reach our skin topically. (glowsly.com)
  • In this article, we'll explain exactly what linoleic acid is, and what it does to the skin. (glowsly.com)
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)