A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.99.25.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (1/1169)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux. (2/1169)

The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (3/1169)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (4/1169)

In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (5/1169)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals.  (+info)

Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells. (6/1169)

Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids.  (+info)

Regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression and mucus secretion by IL-4 in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/1169)

Our laboratory has recently shown that mucus differentiation of cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells is accompanied by the increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). We used differentiated NHTBE cells to investigate the regulation of 15-LO expression and mucus secretion by inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 dramatically enhanced the expression of 15-LO, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma had no effect. These cytokines did not increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, with the exception of a modest induction by IL-1beta. The IL-4-induced 15-LO expression was concentration dependent, and mRNA and protein expression increased within 3 and 6 h, respectively, after IL-4 treatment. In metabolism studies with intact cells, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were the major metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. No prostaglandins were detected. IL-4 treatment dramatically increased the formation of 13-HODE and 15-HETE compared with that in untreated NHTBE cells, and several additional 15-LO metabolites were observed. Pretreatment of NHTBE cells with IFN-gamma or dexamethasone did not inhibit the IL-4-induced expression of 15-LO except at high concentrations (100 ng/ml of IFN-gamma and 10 microM dexamethasone). IL-4 treatment inhibited mucus secretion and attenuated the expression of the mucin genes MUC5AC and MUC5B at 12-24 h after treatment. Addition of 15-HETE precursor and 13-HODE precursor to the cultures did not alter mucin secretion or mucin gene expression. On the basis of the data presented, we conclude that the increase in 15-LO expression by IL-4 and attenuation of mucus secretion may be independent biological events.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. (8/1169)

Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, CLA feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake.  (+info)

A study published by the Harvard School of Public Health has determined that the risk of coronary heart disease, (CHD), is lowered if saturated fats are replaced with polyunsaturated fats.. The research consisted of a systematic review and analysis of available studies to summarize the evidence regarding the link between dietary linoleic acid intake and CHD risk in generally healthy people. Thirteen published and unpublished cohort studies were identified with a total of 310,602 individuals and 12,479 total CHD events including 5,882 CHD deaths.. The analysis revealed that dietary linoleic acid intake is inversely associated with CHD risk in a dose-response manner - meaning, higher intake of linoleic acid resulted in a lower risk of CHD. Comparing the highest to the lowest level of consumption, dietary linoleic acid was associated with a 15% lower risk of CHD events and a 21% lower risk of CHD deaths. These results were independent of common coronary heart disease risk factors such as smoking ...
Human PCSK9 is known to enhance the degradation of membrane-bound receptors such as the hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), ApoER2, and very low-density lipoprotein receptor. Because the LDLR is suspected to be involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, we also tested whether PCSK9 can affect the levels of CD81, a major HCV receptor. Interestingly, stable expression of PCSK9 or a more active membrane-bound form of the protein (PCSK9-ACE2) resulted in a marked reduction in CD81 and LDLR expression. Therefore, we analyzed the antiviral effect of PCSK9 in vitro using the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus. The results clearly demonstrated that cells expressing PCSK9 or PCSK9-ACE2, but not the ACE2 control protein, were resistant to HCV infection. Furthermore, addition of purified soluble PCSK9 to cell culture supernatant impeded HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, HuH7 cells expressing PCSK9-ACE2 were also resistant to infection by HCV pseudoparticles. In addition, we ...
The majority of evidence suggests that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid (LA), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as reflected by current dietary recommendations. However, concern has been expressed that a high intake of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid contribute …
Arachidonic acid is arguably the most important PUFA associated with membrane phospholipids. Upon release, AA can be enzymatically metabolized to a myriad of bioactive derivatives, eicosanoids, known to contribute to a variety of chronic diseases, but are also known to be involved in tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation [1-4, 22]. The relative abundance of AA in membrane phospholipids positively influences eicosanoid production [23]. It is well known that dietary PUFA can affect tissue AA levels; however, what is uncertain and controversial is whether modifying current intakes of dietary LA will result in concomitant changes in tissue AA content, i.e., increasing LA intake results in an increase in tissue AA content and decreasing LA has the opposite effect [8]. The goal of this paper was to ascertain the relationship between dietary LA and tissue AA content (phospholipid pools of plasma/serum and erythrocytes) in adults consuming a Western-style background diet. It was not ...
What exactly is Linoleic Acid? Getting back together a substantial area of the lipids (obviously occurring particles) within the body that is human fatty acids are an essential energy source. Significantly more than 60 essential fatty acids happen present in blood plasma and cells. Nevertheless, only a small percentage are,fraction that is small relevant. A body that is large of regarding efas, total content that is fat and peoples health implies that major sets of efas may be related to a diverse number of health impacts. In the event the diet does not have an amount that is adequate of efas, you may possibly experience deficiency signs, dry and flaky epidermis, dry eyes, exorbitant thirst, and stiff and painful bones. One vital fatty acid is linoleic acid, which can be with this article. What exactly is linoleic acid? And exactly why could it be essential? Whats Linoleic Acid: Characteristics & Characteristics Two for the primary efas needed for a healthy eating plan are linoleic fatty acid ...
The SDHS had several important strengths. The combination of randomization, provision of a specific study oil (safflower) delivering n-6 LA but not n-3 PUFAs, and detailed longitudinal diet assessments allowed for estimation of the specific effects of LA. Although several observational studies have reported associations between LA and risk of coronary heart disease,77 78 79 the food frequency questionnaires used may have limited ability to distinguish the respective intakes of n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid.80 81 Discrimination among PUFA species is limited in observational studies, owing to the wide variability in n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid contents of apparently similar food items (table 1); the lack of vegetable oil and PUFA labeling requirements on packaged foods; and the lack of consumer appreciation for the specific vegetable oils used when dining away from home, which accounts for a large share of total PUFA consumption.82 Therefore, provision of a study oil containing a large ...
The SDHS had several important strengths. The combination of randomization, provision of a specific study oil (safflower) delivering n-6 LA but not n-3 PUFAs, and detailed longitudinal diet assessments allowed for estimation of the specific effects of LA. Although several observational studies have reported associations between LA and risk of coronary heart disease,77 78 79 the food frequency questionnaires used may have limited ability to distinguish the respective intakes of n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid.80 81 Discrimination among PUFA species is limited in observational studies, owing to the wide variability in n-6 LA and n-3 α linolenic acid contents of apparently similar food items (table 1); the lack of vegetable oil and PUFA labeling requirements on packaged foods; and the lack of consumer appreciation for the specific vegetable oils used when dining away from home, which accounts for a large share of total PUFA consumption.82 Therefore, provision of a study oil containing a large ...
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Fatty acid C18:2 (linoleic acid) was inversely associated with unchanged/increased GC dose (unfavourable outcome). Fatty acid C18:2 belongs to the omega-6 family and is known to have proinflammatory properties. However, the omega-3 fatty acids (anti-inflammatory) should be considered when looking at the omega-6 intake since the ratio between these two must be well balanced. The omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio did not show any association with unchanged/increased GC dose. Though, a review has gathered evidence on health benefits of conjugated linoleic acids26 that may be linked with the inverse association between dietary linoleic acid and unchanged/increased GC dose.. An inverse association was found between beta-carotene and unchanged/increased GC dose. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant and patients with SLE have been found to have lower dietary beta-carotene intake compared with controls.27 Increased antioxidant intake could be beneficial due to the damage of free oxygen radicals that play a ...
Effects of palmitic and linoleic acids on the expression of UPR-associated genes in mRNA level. The tumor cells were treated with TG, PA(250 μM), LA (250 μM)
Cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa (marijuana) exert biological effects via cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. We recently demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors regulate progression of experimental liver fibrosis. We therefore investigated the impact of cannabis smoking on fibrosis progression rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Two hundred seventy consecutive untreated patients with CHC of known duration undergoing liver biopsy were studied. Demographic, epidemiological, metabolic, and virological data were recorded, and detailed histories of cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco use over the span of hepatitis C virus infection were obtained. Fibrosis stage, steatosis, and activity grades were scored according to Metavir system. Patients were categorized as noncannabis users (52.2%), occasional users (14.8%), or daily users (33.0%), and the relationship between cannabis use and fibrosis progression rate (FPR) or fibrosis stage was assessed. On multivariate analysis, six factors ...
According to data from these studies which were never published, that did not correspond to a reduction in the risk of heart disease, coronary events, or death. I would say this conclusion is not quite definitive. For one thing, the Minnesota study had a non-representative population of residents of mental hospitals and a nursing home. They had a lot of comorbidity. Also the high linoleic acid diets they were fed are considerably more extreme than the diets people would have in real life. For one thing, olive and canola oil are not so high in in linoleic acid; and most people would continue to consume substantial animal at even if they did try to substitute some amount of vegetable oil. Other problems are that the available data from the study dont allow direct testing of the association between LDL levels and outcomes; and that autopsy data to assess atherosclerosis is available for only a small number of participants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity ...
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, becoming increasingly common at younger ages. Recent evidence suggests that the unbalanced consumption of different fats, such as a high linoleic acid (LA) to alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) ratio diet, is a risk factor for obesity. Here, the authors examine the effects of transgenerational consumption of a high LA/LNA ratio diet using mice. Mice fed this diet gained weight, a trend that transgressed subsequent generations. The high-fat diet changed the lipid composition in the plasma, adipose tissue and mothers milk, increasing LA and arachidonic acid (ARA) while decreasing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). While the atypical lipid profile and weight reverted to normal when mice were switched to a standard diet, an incomplete reversion in the epididymal fat pad was observed. Furthermore, the offspring of the mice were heavier at weaning, an effect that persisted despite receiving a ...
Why is there linoleic acid throughout the liver? The liver likes linoleic acid! In an utterly artificial model, the cholesterol fed hamster (youd better believe it!) on moderate fat diets (45% of calories from fat) show an upregulation of the LDL receptor as the proportion of fat from linoleic acid rises. Dietary saturated fat down regulates the receptor. It seems that this holds true across species and it certainly seems to work in humans, diets high in omega 6 PUFA were the classical cholesterol lowering approach pre statins. You can see why the liver should ignore an LDL particle full of saturated fat. This is Krauss large fluffy non atherogenic lipid, used for delivering calories and cholesterol to wherever they are needed. It came from the liver, why should it go back? But why is the liver so keen to uptake LDL particles when the diet is high in linoleic acid? My guess is that linoleic acid loaded anything is a novel phenomenon and in pre agriculture times linoleic acid was probably very ...
When linoleic acid is added to the diet of the rat there is an average increase in incorporation of radiocarbon into liver cholesterol of 259 per cent. By contrast, the addition of coconut oil to the diet does not increase the incorporation of radiocarbon into liver cholesterol. The addition of linoleic acid to a stock diet is associated with an increased fecal excretion of Liberman-Burchard chromogens, 3-β-hydroxy sterols and bile acids.. ...
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It also treats mainly skin diseases. Kid social media influencers are promoting junk food and sugar-filled beverages in their YouTube videos, and they are garnering more than a billion views,…, We know that music, particularly musical training can improve the functioning of the brain. Niger seeds are nutritionally important because of its high linoleic acid content. Photo Credit: Shutterstock. Kid Influencers Promoting Junk Food On YouTube, Study Finds, Study Shows How Musical Training Improves Cognitive Function, Study Reveals Why Some People Show Severe COVID Symptoms, 8 Incredible Benefits & Uses of Pomegranate Seed Oil, https://books.google.com/books?id=1LF3CgAAQBAJ, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pca.729/abstract, http://www.ajol.info/index.php/bcse/article/view/122944, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02540459, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejlt.200300895/full, http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/59677, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007
What are the benefits of linoleic acid, a common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)? Besides turmeric, what are other sources of omega-6 fatty acid?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral Administration of Alpha Linoleic Acid Rescues Aβ-Induced Glia-Mediated Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction in C57BL/6N Mice. AU - Ali, W.. AU - Ikram, M.. AU - Park, H.Y.. AU - Jo, M.G.. AU - Ullah, R.. AU - Ahmad, S.. AU - Bin Abid, N.. AU - Kim, M.O.. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. KW - activation. KW - alzheimers disease. KW - disease. KW - health. KW - induction. KW - inhibition. KW - innate. KW - long-chain omega-3-fatty-acids. KW - neurodegeneration. KW - neuroinflammation. KW - neuronal apoptosis. KW - omega-3 fatty acids. KW - oxidative stress. KW - pathway. KW - NEURONAL APOPTOSIS. KW - ACTIVATION. KW - LONG-CHAIN OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS. KW - INNATE. KW - INDUCTION. KW - INHIBITION. KW - PATHWAY. KW - HEALTH. KW - Alzheimers disease. KW - OXIDATIVE STRESS. KW - DISEASE. U2 - 10.3390/cells9030667. DO - 10.3390/cells9030667. M3 - Article. C2 - 32182943. VL - 9. JO - Cells. JF - Cells. SN - 2073-4409. IS - 3. M1 - 667. ER - ...
Linoleic Acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid with 18 carbons and two double bonds, which is commonly notated as C18:2n-6 or simply 18:2n-6. Its melting point is -5C and its boiling point is 228C.[1] ...
Participants who meet inclusion criteria will start placebo treatment by taking olive oil for 2 months. This period will include screening activities including 3 monthly MRIs. Those with 2 enhancing lesions on three placebo run-in period MRIs will continue in the study and receive omega-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) for 6 months. Brain MRIs will be repeated after 4,5, and 6 months after treatment ...
Compared to men, women generally had higher C18 trans levels, and between the ages of 10-29 years, they had DHA and lower EPA levels. Among the major FA classes, saturated (41% of total) and trans (∼0.85%) fats did not vary appreciably by age, whereas monounsaturated fats tended to rise slightly. Of the two major n-6 polyunsaturates, arachidonic and linoleic acids, the former was unchanged across decades (16.4% abundance) whereas the latter decreased by about 2 percentage points (13.0-11.1%). The overall median Omega-3 Index was 4.5%, and across the decades it increased by about 1.5 percentage points. The Omega-3 Index and linoleic acid stabilized after age 70 ...
The incorporation of 1-14C-linoleic acid, 1-14C-α-linolenic acid and 1-14C-arachidonic acid into rat liver lipids was measured and the per cent distribution of
By Hank Schultz Fruit d Or has announced approval by Health Canada for the omega-3 and omega-6 content of its multifunctional cranberry seed oil ingredient. The approved claim wording includes for the maintenance of good health. ...
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Statie de lucru pentru anestezie. Modurile PCV si SIMV+PS asigura flexibilitate in ventilatie atat pentru adulti cat si pentru copii. Optional functii de monitorizare O2, CO2 si gaz anestezic. Debitmetrul asigura concentratia de minimum 25% de oxigen in amestecul O2 /N2O. Sistemul de absorbtie poate fi sterilizat la temperatura si presiune ridicata. Grad de utilizare imbunatatit cu oxigen auxiliar, aspiratie, sursa de putere auxiliara, brat monitor, pompa de infuzie, etc.. Specificatii tehnice. Specificatii fizice si de mediu. Dimensiuni: 712 mm x 1400 mm x 780 mm. Greutate: 115 kg (incluzând troliul şi 2 vaporizatoare, fără cilindri de gaz).. Temp. de operare: 10°C la 40°C.. Umiditatea de operare: ≤ 80% (fărăr condens).. Temp. de depozitare: - 20°C la 55°C.. Umiditate de depozitare: ≤ 93%(fărăr condens).. Specificatii electrice. Alimentare: 110 - 240 V; 50 - 60 Hz.. Acumulator: 24V, minim 90 min.. Consum: ≤ 70W.. Specificatii pneumatice. Alimentarea cu gaz: O2, N2O, Aer: 0.28 ...
Ten Holstein cows between 8 and 12 weeks in lactation were used to investigate the effect of feeding full-fat soybean, full-fat sunflower, and a Ca-soap source (Profat) on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk. Cows were fed the experimental fat sources in the dosage of 500 g crude fat daily. The results indicated that milk CLA content increased in relation to the linoleic acid concentration of experimental fat supplements, namely full-fat sunflower increased the most and Profat increased the least the CLA concentration in milk. The strength of the correlation was r=0.62 between the linoleic acid concentration in feed and the CLA content in milk. The strength of correlation increased to r=0.69 when both linoleic acid and linolenic acid concentration of feed were used in the calculation. Considering milk production and the daily production of CLA in milk, the following equation described the relationship between the linoleic acid content of fat supplements and CLA concentration in ...
Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Abdominal Fat Deposition in Yellow-feather Broiler Chickens and Its Possible Mechanism - Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA);Yellow-feather Broiler Chicken;Adipose Tissue;Somatropic Axis;Adiponectin;
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to decrease body fat content in pigs. It is possible that feeding pigs diets rich in CLA may increase carcass lipid CLA to levels that could provide health benefits when included as a part of a healthy diet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA supplementation has any effect on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue in pigs. Thirty-five female cross bred (Large White X Landrace) pigs (initial weight 57·2 kg and initial P2 back fat 11·5 mm) were used in the present study. Pigs were housed individually and randomly allocated to one of six dietary treatments (0·00, 1·25, 2·50, 5·00, 7·50 and 10·00 g CLA55 (55 g CLA isomers/100 g total fatty acids; Natural Lipids Ltd, Hovdebygda, Norway)/kg ...
CLA 3000 Conjugated Linoleic Acid - The Non-GMO weight management support supplement which works great for the summer, toning, burning body fat, and increasing overall health. Along with a calorie-controlled diet & routine exercise regimen, CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is an omega-6 fatty acid supplement developed to help reduce body fat while retaining lean muscle mass without any added stimulants. CLA 3000 is a high potency, premium grade conjugated linoleic acid formula derived from safflower seed oil. This product is trusted by thousands of people all over the world and is Made in the USA!. ...
Most studies of CLAs have used a mixture of isomers wherein the isomers c9,t11-CLA (rumenic acid) and t10,c12-CLA were the most abundant.[6] More recent studies using individual isomers indicate that the two isomers have very different health effects.[7][8] Conjugated linoleic acid is both a trans fatty acid and a cis fatty acid. The cis bond causes a lower melting point and, ostensibly, also the observed beneficial health effects. Unlike other trans fatty acids, it may have beneficial effects on human health.[9] CLA is conjugated, and in the United States, trans linkages in a conjugated system are not counted as trans fats for the purposes of nutritional regulations and labeling.[citation needed] CLA and some trans isomers of oleic acid are produced by microorganisms in the rumens of ruminants. Non-ruminants, including humans, produce certain isomers of CLA from trans isomers of oleic acid, such as vaccenic acid, which is converted to CLA by delta-9-desaturase.[10][11] In healthy humans, CLA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat content and lipogenic gene expression in the mammary gland of sows without altering litter performance. AU - Sandri, E. C.. AU - Harvatine, K. J.. AU - Oliveira, D. E.. PY - 2020/3/28. Y1 - 2020/3/28. N2 - Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases milk fat synthesis in lactating sows and involves, at least in part, the down-regulation of lipogenic genes. The objective was to evaluate the effect of CLA on milk composition and lipogenic gene expression. Twenty multiparous sows were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments for 18 d (from day 7 to day 25 of lactation): (1) control (no CLA added) and (2) 1 % of CLA mixed into the ration. CLA treatment decreased milk fat and protein content by 20 % (P = 0·004) and 11 % (P = 0·0001), respectively. However, piglet weight did not differ between treatments (P = 0·60). Dietary CLA increased the concentration of SFA in milk fat by 16 % (P , 0·0001) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation. T2 - Autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines. AU - Brown, J. Mark. AU - Boysen, Maria Sandberg. AU - Chung, Soonkyu. AU - Fabiyi, Olowatoyin. AU - Morrison, Ron F.. AU - Mandrup, Susanne. AU - McIntosh, Michael K.. PY - 2004/6/18. Y1 - 2004/6/18. N2 - Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and many of its downstream targets were diminished by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, whereas leptin gene expression was increased. Prior to changes in gene ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary supplement that has been shown to improve obesity. However, some authors have associated high doses of CLA supplementation with liver impairment and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess whether the consumption of low doses of CLA maintained the beneficial effects on the main metabolic disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) but prevented the occurrence of non-desirable outcomes associated with its consumption. Male Wistar rats, fed standard or cafeteria (CAF) diet for 12 weeks, were supplemented with three different low doses of CLA in the last three weeks. Both biochemical and H1 NMR-based metabolomics profiles were analysed in serum and liver. The consumption of 100 mg/kg CLA, but not doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, ameliorated the increase in body weight gain as well as the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, diglyceride, and total phospholipid induced by a CAF diet. In turn, CLA reverted the
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 137, Issue 5, 2007, pages 1188-1193. Steck, S. E., Chalecki, A. M., Miller, P., Conway, J., Austin, G. L., Hardin, J. W., ... Thuillier, P. (2007). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(5), 1188-1193.. © The Journal of Nutrition, 2007, American Society for Nutrition. ...
BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been established as a natural peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-y) ligand. Recent studies have explored the possible health benefits associated with CLA for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in relation to the insulin sensitising properties of PPAR-y activation. However, synthetic PPAR-y ligands such as rosiglitazone are claimed to exert detrimental cardiovascular complications. Thus, with the alarming side effects possibly generated from rosiglitazone, this study will test the hypothesis that natural PPAR-y ligand CLA does not exert cytotoxic effects on monocytic cell viability. METHOD: Cell culture techniques employed THP-I monocytic cells. THP-I monocytes were treated with CLA (20µM and 100µM), once with a bolus dose and with a repeated dose which was administered at every passage (3/4 days) over a 14 day duration. Caspase glo 3/7 and MTS assays were preformed daily to assess cell viability and apoptosis. ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is produced in the rumen by isomerization of linoleic acid and has been shown to be anticarcinogenic. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding dietary CLA to pre-ruminant lambs or linoleic acid-rich safflower oil to weaned ruminating lambs. Fat content, CLA content and fatty acid (FA) composition of diaphragm, leg, rib, subcutaneous (SC) adipose and liver tissues were determined. The triacylglycerol (TAG) fractions of the total lipid (TL) from the diaphragm, rib and SC adipose tissues were analyzed for FA composition and FA positional distribution. The phospholipid (PL) fractions of the TL were analyzed for FA composition. The positional (PL) fractions of the TL were analyzed for FA composition. The positional distribution of FAs of liver PL was determined. Tissue fat content was affected by diet only in SC adipose tissue. Dietary supplementation with safflower oil increased the fat content of the subcutaneous adipose tissue whereas CLA ...
Cultured human keratinocytes (HK) grown in serum-free medium become deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from linoleic acid (LA) and this renders HK less responsive to lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP). We have previously shown that linoleic acid supplementation (LA-SUP) reverses this condition. Since the growth medium also lacks the anti
How much of 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) is present in Pasta mix, classic cheeseburger macaroni, unprepared in details, quantity how high or low 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) nutrient content it has.
Obesity and related diseases are becoming more prevalent. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) might be a useful coadjutant treatment helping to decrease fat mass. However, the precise impact of CLA is unclear because the decreased body fat mass is followed by an increase in insulin resistance. This study aimed to evaluate some of the consequences of a high dose of CLA in rats fed a normal low fat or a high fat diet for 30 days. Male Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups (each n = 10): Control group receiving 7% fat (soybean oil); CLA group receiving 4% soybean oil and 3% CLA mixture; animal fat (AF) group, receiving 45% fat (lard); and animal fat plus CLA (AF+CLA) group, receiving 42% lard and 3% CLA mixture. The CLA mixture contained 39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.50 mole% t10,c12-CLA. After 30 days, both CLA groups (CLA and AF+CLA groups) developed insulin resistance, with an increase in glucose in the fasting state and in an insulin tolerance test. The CLA group had increased liver weight and ...
Find patient medical information for POMEGRANATE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that Find patient medical information for CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid were strongly correlated. However, the analysis is likely to be correct statistically because we verified that the relationship of ...
Rationale: Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can protect against the atherosclerosis development in several animal models. Studies in transgenic mice have shown that mechanisms might involve beneficial effects on lipoprotein metabolism and insulin sensitivity and in addition activation of anti-inflammatory pathways. A very limited amount of human studies have not shown similar beneficial effect of cis9,trans11-CLA on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects, yet cis9,trans11-CLA did improve the lipoprotein profile in healthy subjects. The effect of cis9,trans11-CLA supplementation on alternative early biomarkers of atherosclerosis, like aortic pulse wave velocity, and alternative biomarkers identified through platelet proteomics, has not been assessed before, and may add valuable insights into the mechanism of this functional fatty acid in humans.. Objective: To assess the effect of increased intake of cis9 trans11-CLA on development of atherosclerosis, as assessed with aortic pulse ...
Conjugated linoleic acids are slightly modified essential fatty acids. This characteristic offers a series of health benefits to the body, especially when
Soybean Oil and Inflammation. Despite the well-established beneficial effect of soybean oil on blood cholesterol levels and that it may lower the risk of heart disease, concern has been raised that the high linoleic acid content of soybean oil promotes inflammation.19-21 Linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid, is a metabolic precursor to arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is converted to eicosanoids, bioactive oxidized lipid molecules (oxylipins), which are implicated in inflammatory pathways.22 Initially, it was thought that omega-6 PUFA (i.e., linoleic acid) derived oxylipins were pro-inflammatory and, in contrast, omega-3 PUFA derived oxylipins were anti-inflammatory. This led to the assertation that a high dietary ratio of omega-6 PUFA to omega-3 PUFA promotes inflammation.19 However, the interaction between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA and their lipid mediator derivatives in the development of inflammation is complex and still not completely understood.22 Authoritative organizations ...
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In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 - 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA) n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the
The nutritional supplement CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a slightly altered form of the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. Over 200 studies have shown that CLA may play a very important role not only in weight loss, but in helping to fight cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). In promoting weight less double-blind studies show an increase in lean muscle mass and a decrease in percentage body fat compared to placebo group. The subjects taking CLA also reported less fatigue, dizziness and nausea than those on the placebo. Researchers believe that CLA helps block fat cells that are in the body from filling up with fat by interfering with a fat-storing enzyme known as lipoprotein lipase as well as by increasing the sensitivity of cells to the hormone insulin. CLA is also believed to help burn fat by revving up muscle metabolism and helping increase lean muscle mass. The more muscle you have, the more calories your body uses in order to function, thereby speeding up the
Conjugated Linoleic Acid, mostly known as CLA is an essential fatty acid that the human body needs to function correctly, but unfortunately, it cant produce it on its own. That is why finding the best way to supplement is essential for every one of us. Some people prefer to take it from foods and include in their diet certain types of meat like beef or pork, dairy products obtained from whole fat milk, eggs or mushrooms. But in most cases, this is not enough to ensure the body gets the necessary daily amount of CLA the body requires to keep its functions at optimum levels.. Medical studies reveal more and more benefits of including CLA in the daily diet. Not only it is an excellent ally in the fight with excessive weight, and it can help melt away that stubborn belly fat, but it also brings associated health improvements like controlling the blood sugar level, reducing the insulin resistance or regulating the blood pressure.. A simple pill will not change the game entirely overnight. It ...
Bioactive components in milk like trans fatty acids, bioactive lipids, conjugated linoleic acid, PUFA, poly unsaturated fatty acids, butyrates are explained in this article.
Product Features Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is thought to play a role in reducing body fat, increasing lean muscle
CLA 1250 Mg 90 Count 80% Conjugated Linoleic Acid, DureLife CLA 1,250 Is A Weight Management Diet Supplement Fat Burner And A Non-GMO Natural Weightloss Supplement By Boosting The Metabolism
A Comparison among Analytical Methods to Assess Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) Content and Repeatability of Ruminant Faeces
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring free fatty acid. CLA occurs naturally in foods such as cheese, milk, lamb and beef as well as many p
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring free fatty acid. CLA occurs naturally in foods such as cheese, milk, lamb and beef as well as many p
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) & Weight Loss - The long-term effects of conventional weight-management programs are unsatisfactory, and alternative therapies, including dietary supplements, are repeatedly used by obese persons in society. Although the use of dietary supplements is widespread, the documentation on their efficacy and safety is not convincing.
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Pure Encapsulations CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid - 180 softgels) promotes healthy body composition when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.
Information about Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), including dosage recommendations, uses, potential side effects, and deficiency signs
Learn more about Conjugated Linoleic Acid at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Supplement Forms/Alternate Names CLA Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
Learn more about Conjugated Linoleic Acid at St. Marks Hospital Supplement Forms/Alternate Names CLA Uses Principal Proposed Uses Improving...
The efficacy and safety of a cosmeceutical cream containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for improving the appearance of facial photodamage skin was investigated in a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, split-face study of 25 women. Assessments of changes in periorbital skin showed statistically significant differences favoring use of the CLA-containing cream. No skin irritation was noted throughout the study.
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These findings indicate dietary CLA may positively benefit BMD in postmenopausal women. More studies are warranted examining the relationship between dietary CLA and BMD.
The report focuses on United States major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Conjugated Linoleic Acid industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered ...
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As with other products on the market, its important to read Conjugated Linoleic Acid reviews to understand if its effective or not.
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2018, Chiang Mai University. All rights reserved. Five selected Thai plant extracts, including Lotus seeds, Black Sesame seeds, White Kwao Krua tubers, rice bran and Asiatic Pennywort leaves were extracted by different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol and water). The mixture of the rice bran extract and the White Kwao Krua extract at 1:1 weight ratio, the water and chloroform fractions of the decolorized Asiatic Pennywort extract and the rice bran extract loaded in β-cyclodextrin were prepared. The samples were investigated for 5α-reductase inhibition in DU-145 prostate carcinoma and melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. The rice bran extract not loaded and loaded in β-cyclodextrin exhibited the high linoleic acid contents of 21.13±1.22 and 21.47±0.91% w/w, respectively. The highest inhibitory effect of 5α-reductase type 1 was observed in 0.5 mg/mL of the rice bran extract at 87.43±7.15% of the control, which was higher than the standard dutasteride of about 1.60 times, followed ...
Five selected Thai plant extracts, including Lotus seeds, Black Sesame seeds, White Kwao Krua tubers, rice bran and Asiatic Pennywort leaves were extracted by different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol and water). The mixture of the rice bran extract and the White Kwao Krua extract at 1:1 weight ratio, the water and chloroform fractions of the decolorized Asiatic Pennywort extract and the rice bran extract loaded in b-cyclodextrin were prepared. The samples were investigated for 5a-reductase inhibition in DU-145 prostate carcinoma and melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. The rice bran extract not loaded and loaded in b-cyclodextrin exhibited the high linoleic acid contents of 21.13±1.22 and 21.47±0.91% w/w, respectively. The highest inhibitory effect of 5a-reductase type 1 was observed in 0.5 mg/mL of the rice bran extract at 87.43±7.15% of the control, which was higher than the standard dutasteride of about 1.60 times, followed respectively by the mixture of the rice bran extract and the ...
Capric acid,[1] n-Capric acid, n-Decanoic acid, Decylic acid, n-Decylic acid, C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ... Decanoic acid (capric acid, C10:0) is a saturated fatty acid. Its formula is CH3(CH2)8COOH. Salts and esters of decanoic acid ... Two other acids are named after goats: caproic (a C6:0 fatty acid) and caprylic (a C8:0 fatty acid). Along with decanoic acid, ... Nonanoic acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, also with antiseizure activity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d n-Decanoic acid in ...
... is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ... Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is ...
fatty acids. Smoke point Total[27]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[27]. α-Linolenic. acid. (ω-3). Linoleic. acid. (ω-6). ω-6:3. ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[54]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. 199:1 ...
acid. (ω-9). Total[8]. α-Linolenic. acid. (ω-3). Linoleic. acid. (ω-6). ω-6:3. ratio ... fatty acids. Monounsaturated. fatty acids. Polyunsaturated. fatty acids. Smoke point Total[8]. Oleic. ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[35]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. 199:1 ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point Total mono[7]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total poly[7]. linolenic acid. (ω-3). Linoleic acid ... including omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA, 54%) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 3%), and omega-3 fatty acids such ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[27]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. Sunflower (, 70% oleic)[28]. 9.9. 83.7. 82.6. 3.8. 0.2. 3.6 ...
... oleic acid; 5-11% linoleic acid; 7.5-10% palmitic acid; 1.5-3% stearic acid - the ratios are similar to that found in wild ... Another analysis of several cultivars found : 82-84% unsaturated acids of which 68-77% oleic acid; and 7-14% polyunsaturated ... Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan (2016), "Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid ... "Fatty acid composition of Camellia oleifera oil", Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 6 (11): 9-12, doi: ...
This enzyme converts linoleic acid; the absence of expression allows systemic linoleic acid accumulation. Recent findings ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid for T. gondii, which it scavenges from host cells. IFN-γ induces the activation of indole ... T. gondii infection has been demonstrated to increase the levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brains of infected mice and ... showed that this excess of linoleic acid is essential for T. gondii sexual reproduction. Infected epithelial cells eventually ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Carboxyalkanoyl and mercaptoalkanoyl amino acids". Biochemistry. 16 (25): 5484-91. doi:10.1021/bi00644a014. PMID 200262.. ... "Synthesis of captopril starting from an optically active .BETA.-hydroxy acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30 (9): 3139-3146. doi ... 2S)-1-[(2S)-2-methyl-3-sulfanylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... caffeic acid,[10] curcumin,[10] hyperforin[4][5][6] and St John's wort.[4][5][6] ...
... is high in linoleic acid. Although not generally higher than safflower oil, it can be as high as 74.5%. Other ... Poppyseed oil has relatively little oleic acid. Peanut oil and rapeseed oil have far more oleic acid and are less expensive, ... Guerbet M (1966). "[Experimental study of an intravascularly injectable solution of fatty acid esters of iodized poppyseed oil ... Abe S, Otsuki M (November 2002). "Styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma". Current ...
mostly linoleic acid) and protein (35 wt. %), it can be used to produce animal feedstuff and as a biofuel feedstock on coastal ... trans-ferulic acid, exert anti-obesity effects by suppressing adipogenic-related factors". Pharmaceutical Biology. 56 (1): 183- ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Hamberg M, Su C, Oliw E (1998). "Manganese lipoxygenase. Discovery of a ... Oliw EH, Su C, Skogstrom T, Benthin G (1998). "Analysis of novel hydroperoxides and other metabolites of oleic, linoleic, and ... linolenic acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion trap MSn". Lipids. 33 (9): 843-52. doi:10.1007/s11745-998- ...
This enzyme is also called linoleic acid isomerase. This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Kepler CR, Tove SB ( ... 1967). "Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. 3. Purification and properties of a linoleate delta-12-cis, delta-11-trans ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Brodowsky ID, Hamberg M, Oliw EH (1992). "A linoleic acid (8R)- ... Biosynthesis of (8R)-hydroxylinoleic acid and (7S,8S)-dihydroxylinoleic acid from (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid". J. Biol. Chem ... Hamberg M, Zhang LY, Brodowsky ID, Oliw EH (1994). "Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus Gaeumannomyces ... Oliw EH, Su C, Skogstrom T, Benthin G (1998). "Analysis of novel hydroperoxides and other metabolites of oleic, linoleic, and ...
... s contain essential linoleic acids as well. They also have greater vitamin content by weight compared to beef, B12 not ...
Apple seed oil, high in linoleic acid. Argan oil, from the seeds of the Argania spinosa, is a food oil from Morocco developed ... Egusi seed oil, from the seeds of Cucumeropsis mannii naudin, is particularly rich in linoleic acid. Pumpkin seed oil, a ... Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids. The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor. Papaya seed ... Nearly equal content of oleic and linoleic acids. Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in Brazil ...
... one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently ... Food portal Conjugated linoleic acid Suetsumuhana Tsheringma "Tropicos". Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. 2016. ... "Appendix B. Fatty Acid Composition of Dietary Fats and Oils", The Fats of Life, Rutgers University Press, pp. 219-221, 2019-12- ... Cosge, B., Gürbüz, B., & Kiralan, M. (2007). "Oil content and fatty acid composition of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L ...
... chicken fat is noted for being high in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. Linoleic acid levels are between 17.9% and 22.8%. ...
Octenol is formed during oxidative breakdown of linoleic acid.[4] It is also a wine fault, defined as a cork taint, occurring ...
Stymne, Sten (1980). The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants. ISBN 9157607044. OCLC 63571586. The ... "The biosynthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids in plants". The following year, Stymne was appointed associate Professor of ... Later in his career, Stymne focused on studying the biochemical processes involved in the biosynthesis of exotic fatty acids, ... previously identified only in animals and responsible for transferring fatty acids between phospholipids and diacylglycerol ...
"Suppression of Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy by Conjugated Linoleic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. American Society for ... 2009). "Bioavailability of alpha-linolenic acid from flaxseed diets as a function of the age of the subject". European Journal ...
Linoleic acid, has been identified in the mycelial extracts. It is an aliphatic compound that is antibacterial and nematocidal ...
The diepoxide of linoleic acid can form tetrahydrofuran diols, sEH metabolizes the biologically active epoxyalcohol metabolites ... Moghaddam M, Motoba K, Borhan B, Pinot F, Hammock BD (August 1996). "Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid ... There are epoxides of other lipids besides arachidonic acid such as the omega three docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... eicosatrienoic acid) to trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) and hepoxilin B3 (10-hydroxy-11S, ...
... is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid (table). Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The saturated fat ... Avocado leaves contain a toxic fatty acid derivative, persin, which in sufficient quantity can cause colic in horses and ... palmitic acid). Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has a multitude of uses for salads or cooking and in ... DV in pantothenic acid) and vitamin K (20% DV), with moderate contents (10-19% DV) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium. ...
TAZ interacts with an immature cardiolipin by adding the fatty acid linoleic acid, which catalyzes the remodeling of the ... These acyl groups include oleic acid and linoleic acid. Due to this composition, cardiolipin exhibits a conical structure, ... methylglutaconic acid, 3‐methylglutaric acid, and 2‐ethyl-hydracrylic acid. While 3-MGA is largely excreted in BTHS patients, ... As a result, linoleic acid is not added to cardiolipin, which disrupts normal mitochondrial shape and function, including ...
They contained linoleic acid (40%) and oleic acid (30%). As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can ... The oil content and methyl esters of fatty acids of the seed were also examined. ...
... is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid. Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The saturated fat content ... palmitic acid). Stradley, Linda (2004). "All About Avocados: History of the Hass Avocado". What'sCookingAmerica.net. Newberg, ...
Xie J, Teng L, Yang Z, Zhou C, Liu Y, Yung BC, Lee RJ (2013). "A polyethylenimine-linoleic acid conjugate for antisense ... Sha L, Chen Z, Chen Z, Zhang A, Yang Z (2016). "Polylactic Acid Based Nanocomposites: Promising Safe and Biodegradable ...
"Linoleic and linolenic acid as precursors of the cucumber flavor". Lipids. 6 (5): 351-352. doi:10.1007/BF02531828.. ... Isotopic labeling has indicated that nonadienal is formed from alpha-linolenic acid. Such reactions are typically catalyzed by ...
"MYRISTIC ACID". ChemicalLand21.com. AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Myristic acid എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ...
... mainly oleic acid (57% of total fat), and the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (30% of total fat).[30] ... The ratio of oleic to linoleic acids are inverted between wind- and animal-dispersed seeds.[31][32] Further differentiation ... Their fat content consists principally of monounsaturated fatty acids, ... coincides with the development of a husk around the fruit and a drastic change in the relative concentrations of fatty acids. ...
Space-filling model of methyl linoleate, or linoleic acid methyl ester, a common methyl ester produced from soybean or canola ... Any free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified ( ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses ...
... linoleic acid and oleic acid), as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids.[10] ... fatty acid binding. • lipid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of ... GPR120 has also been shown to mediate the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega 3 fatty acids.[7] Lack of ... Hirasawa A, Tsumaya K, Awaji T, Katsuma S, Adachi T, Yamada M, Sugimoto Y, Miyazaki S, Tsujimoto G (2005). "Free fatty acids ...
... palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, dihydroxystearic acid, triricinolein 68,2%, diricinolein 28%, ... isoricinoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, jeung stearic acid ricinine, cytochrome C, Lipase sarta sababaraha enzym.[1] ... Siki jarak ngandung minyak ricinic 40- 50 % anu ngandung glyceride tina ricinoleic acid, ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... 2002). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance". Journal of Lipid Research. ... One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... The risk of bleeding increases with the concurrent medications clopidogrel, cefoperazone, valproic acid, cefotetan, ... Chemically ketorolac functions as a carboxylic acid derivative serving non-selectively to block the prostaglandin synthesis by ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X (Jan 22, 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and ... Folic acid supplements have no effect on the risk of developing prostate cancer.[39] ... Thompson AK, Shaw DI, Minihane AM, Williams CM (Dec 2008). "Trans-fatty acids and cancer: the evidence reviewed". Nutrition ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to 83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid (up to 21%) and ... Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along ... α-Linolenic acid. 0 to 1.5%. [101] Phenolic composition[edit]. Olive oil contains phenolics, such as esters of tyrosol, ... U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8 g per 100 g ...
... linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[20]. Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such ... of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[19] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, ... products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method". Journal of Agricultural and Food ... Hemp oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids.[16] ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point. Total mono[23]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total poly[23]. linolenic acid. (ω-3). Linoleic ... "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28 ... Sunflower (, 60% linoleic)[41]. 10.1. 45.4. 45.3. 40.1. 0.2. 39.8. 227 °C (440 °F)[31] ... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ...
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Tridecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Tridecanoic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-17. ... "MSDS of n-Tridecanoic acid". http://www.fishersci.ca. Fisher Scientific. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.. External link in ,website=. ( ...
"Conjugated linolenic acid is slowly absorbed in rat intestine, but quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid". J Nutr 136 ... Kohno H, Yasui Y, Suzuki R, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K, Tanaka T (2004). "Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from ... Kobori M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Akimoto Y, Yukizaki C, Yoshida M (2008). "α-Eleostearic Acid and Its Dihydroxy Derivative Are ... "On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 97 (1): 1-9. Consultado o 2007-01-17 ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the EUROASPIRE study results mirrored those of total PUFA; intake of linoleic acid ... Saturated fat profile of common foods; Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat[10] Food. Lauric acid. Myristic acid. ... polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. ... Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid[68][69] and palmitic acid[69] and dietary myristic[70] and palmitic[70 ...
n-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid, Dodecoic acid, Laurostearic acid, Vulvic acid, 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid, Duodecylic acid, ... 6.0 6.1 6.2 Dodecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database ... Dihomo-linoleic (20:2). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3). *Arachidonic (20:4) ... 2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171 ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Functional interaction of the carboxylic acid group of agonists and the arginine residue of the seventh transmembrane domain ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... fatty acids, including linoleic acid.[8] Silymarin is a complex mixture of polyphenolic molecules, including seven closely ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Corey speculated that the cardiotoxicity may be associated with an organic acid anhydride formed when rofecoxib is exposed to ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
... oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is ... The assumed benefits of linoleic acid in the case of heart disease are less obvious: in one study where high-linoleic safflower ... One human study compared high-linoleic safflower oil with conjugated linoleic acid, showing that body fat decreased and ... Oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably linoleic acid, are considered to have some health benefits. ...
The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, ... Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are ... hexanoic acid (fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild ... Nonvolatile chlorogenic acids[edit]. Chlorogenic acids belong to a group of compounds known as phenolic acids, which are ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. ...
... linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) and singly allylic sites (oleic acid) ... Compounds containing the C=C−CH2−C=C linkages, e.g. linoleic acid derivatives, are prone to autoxidation, which can lead to ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of at least 28[1] isomers of linoleic acid found mostly in the meat and dairy ... Conjugated linoleic acid is both a trans fatty acid and a cis fatty acid. The cis bond causes a lower melting point and, ... "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content of Milk from Cows Offered Diets Rich in Linoleic and Linolenic Acid". Journal of Dairy ... Conjugated fatty acids. References[edit]. *^ Banni S (June 2002). "Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism". Current Opinion in ...
Although more than 60 fatty acids have been found in blood plasma and tissues, only a fraction of them is relevant from the ... They are either saturated or unsaturated carbosylic acids containing carbon chains between 2 and 36 carbon atoms in length. ... Fatty acids represent a substantial part of lipids in human body and are important sources of energy. ... Characteristics of linoleic acid. Two main fatty acids essential in the diet are linoleic (or omega-6) fatty acid and alpha- ...
Linoleic acid is a naturally occurring unstaurated fatty acid.. (Z,Z)-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID, 9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID, 9, ... 12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (9Z,12Z)-, 9,12OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (Z,Z), and LINOLEIC ACID ... cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid., antistatic, cleansing ...
Conjugated linoleic acid Omega-6 fatty acid: Negative health effects Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acid interactions ... Reduction of the carboxylic acid group of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol. Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical ... Coronaric acid. These linoleic acid products are implicated in human physiology and pathology. Linoleic acid is a component of ... Linoleic acid". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Linoleic acid MS Spectrum Fatty Acids: Methylene-Interrupted Double ...
... : Best Option to Lose Body Fat. Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) refers to trans-fats found in meats ... Conjugated Linoleic Acids have the chemical name of trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid. CLA has a chemical formula of ... Side-Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. Some of the possible side-effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid are nausea, heartburn, ... Conjugated Linoleic Acids are used by bodybuilders and athletes as a weight-loss agent. CLA reduces body fat mass via favorable ...
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Control of Growth of a Tumor Cell by Linoleic Acid. Robert W. Holley, Julia H. Baldwin, and Josephine A. Kiernan ... Addition of linoleic acid to such quiescent cells leads to reinitiation of DNA synthesis and growth. ... The growth factor(s) provided by the serum lipid fraction can be replaced by unsaturated fatty acids. If XS 63·5 cells are ...
TRI-K Industries Inc. , Download Data Sheet Amino acid based, eco-friendly preservative ...
There is increasing evidence that individual isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may have unique biological or ... Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and mammary cancer prevention Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(1):52-8. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC431_6. ... There is increasing evidence that individual isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may have unique biological or ... 11-CLA in interfering with elongation and desaturation of linoleic and linolenic acids. In summary, our study showed that, at ...
There has been a lot of research aiming at establishing the key benefits of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Preliminary ... This is the main reason why conjugated linoleic acid is mainly used for weight loss. The muscle growth will make it easier ... This acid enhances the immune system; this is a positive benefit of this acid. It is a better way to guarantee healthy life. In ... There has been a lot of research aiming at establishing the key benefits of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Preliminary ...
... user ratings and products that contain CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA). ... Learn more about CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, ... Cis-Linoleic Acid, CLA, CLA-Free Fatty Acid, CLA-Triacylglycerol, LA, Linoleic Acid, Trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid. ... Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a type of fat. Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in ...
Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on fatty acid and glycerol kinetics. Lipids. 2001 Aug;36(8):767-72. ... Eftekhari MH, Aliasghari F, Beigi MA, Hasanzadeh J. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Obese Women (CLA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, ...
17 adults consumed 23 g/d of linoleic acid or oleic acid for 4 weeks; SBP/DBP of the linoleic acid group was reduced by 2.5/2.1 ... Relation of Dietary Linoleic Acid to BP. All 4680 Participants Consistently, dietary linoleic acid was inversely related to SBP ... For PFA, 80% to 90% comes from linoleic acid in many countries.7 In Western countries, the intake of linoleic acid has ... Tissue measurements of linoleic acid may only partially reflect dietary linoleic acid intake. Inconsistent findings from ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid, are potent cancer preventative agents in ... Isomer-Specific Antidiabetic Properties of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. J.W. Ryder, C.P. Portocarrero, X.M. Song, L. Cui, M. Yu, T ... Isomer-Specific Antidiabetic Properties of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. J.W. Ryder, C.P. Portocarrero, X.M. Song, L. Cui, M. Yu, T ... Dietary fatty acids sources affect conjugated linoleic acid concentration in milk from lactating dairy cows. J Nutr 128:881-885 ...
... Company, Merck Millipore, BASF, Cayman Chemical - published on ... Linoleic Acid Market: Growth Analysis & Forecast till 2026 Linoleic Acid Market Forecast: The Linoleic Acid Market is ... Global "Linoleic Acid Market 2020-2025" Research Report categorizes the global Linoleic Acid market by key players, product ... Global "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Market 2020-2025" Research Report categorizes the global Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) ...
Conjugated Linoleic Acid) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Obesity, Athletic Performance: ... Butter naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid alters tissue fatty acids and improves the plasma ... Butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid has a beneficial effect on serum fatty acid ... Vaccenic acid is a dietary precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and may have health benefits beyond those associated ...
... is the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor ... docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; LA,linoleic acid. ... Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity.. Alvheim AR1, Malde MK, Osei-Hyiaman D, Lin ... Dietary sources of linoleic acid (LA) and increasing prevalence rates of male obesity in the United States during the 20th ...
The nutritional supplement CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a unique form of the essential fatty linoleic acid that is showing ...
... fatty acids from plants and convert them into conjugated linoleic acids, or CLA," says Jack Vanden Heuvel, professor of ... Conjugated linoleic acids in dairy products targets diabetes. Aug 4, 2006, 19:59, Reviewed by: Dr. Sanjukta Acharya. ... The compounds, known as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), have also shown promising results in human trials, signaling a new way ... and their biological purpose is to sense fatty acids and fatty acid metabolites within the cell, says Vanden Heuvel.. When the ...
Interference light micrograph of liquid crystals of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (cis, cis- 9, 12-octadecadienoic ... Linoleic acid. Interference light micrograph of liquid crystals of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (cis, cis- 9, 12- ... Linoleic acid is one of the most important essential fatty acids and is required for good health. As the human body cannot make ... octadecadienoic acid) in aqueous ammonia solution. Linoleic acid (lower frame) is comprised of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and ...
Conjugated linoleic acid bodybuilding ability has fascinated lots of the supplement users. Blood cholesterol balancing, immune ... It goes, without a doubt, to say that Conjugated linoleic acid is one of the most popular health supplements sold in the health ... This is why conjugated linoleic acid should be handy to everyone. Below are four (4) benefits that would make everybody desire ... Despite its vast benefits, one aspect of this product that fascinates more is conjugated linoleic acid bodybuilding ability. ...
Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid that is found mostly in plant oils. In the context of China-US trade ... Part I Linoleic Acid Industry Overview. Chapter One Linoleic Acid Industry Overview. 1.1 Linoleic Acid Definition. 1.2 Linoleic ... Linoleic Acid Global Market Review and Outlook. Linoleic Acid report is in-depth investigation for Global market. Linoleic Acid ... 1.6.2 Linoleic Acid Global Export Market Analysis. 1.6.3 Linoleic Acid Global Main Region Market Analysis. 1.6.4 Linoleic Acid ...
... Author(s). Sijben, J.W.C.; Groot, H. de ... The effects of linoleic (LA)- and linolenic acid (LNA)-enriched diets on humoral and in vivo cellular immune responses to ... We concluded that dietary linoleic acid enrichment of the diet has an antigen-dependent divergent effect on the antibody ...
It is necessary to eliminate linoleic acid and allergenic arachins from peanuts for good health reasons. Virginia-type peanuts ... Fatty Acid Desaturases / genetics. Fatty Acids / metabolism. Glutamate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Linoleic Acid / metabolism* ... 1), oleic acid, and linoleic acid, etc. (Table 2) percentage compositions of one treated peanut from the other. Statistical ... 0/Allergens; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Minerals; 0/Plant Proteins; 0/RNA, Messenger; 1398-00-1/Arachin; 2197-37-7/Linoleic Acid; EC 1.14 ...
Conjugated linoleic acids or CLAs are a naturally occurring fatty acid found in meats, meat products and dairy products whi ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid. What Are Conjugated Linoleic Acids?. Conjugated linoleic acids or CLAs are a naturally occurring ... Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci. 1999 Oct;82(10):2146-56.. 2. Bhattacharya ... Dietary conjugated linoleic acid increases endurance capacity of mice during treadmill exercise. J Med Food. 2010 Oct;13(5): ...
36 acid: conjugated linoleic acid share few. Always found at the 6th conjugated linoleic acid vs linoleic acid atom from the ... Leptitox Vs conjugated conjugated linoleic acid vs linoleic acid acid: linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty.... ... The main difference between linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid is that the linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated ... specifically linoleic and linolenic acids. Conjugated linoleic acids: The uses of Conjugated linoleic acids are acting as anti- ...
Conjugated linoleic acid has been found lately to ... acid belongs to the linoleic acid isomers which is a fatty acid ... Weight loss with Conjugated Linoleic Acid!. *In Conjugated Linoleic Acid. Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid with a ... Conjugated linoleic acid is basically a member of the Linoleic fatty acid group. The latter is an omega 6 fatty acid which is ... If the animal was grass-fed, the conjugated linoleic acid in it will be higher than a diet of grains. ...
Conjugated linoleic acid is a preferential substrate for fatty acid nitration. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44071-44082. doi: 10.1074/ ... The most prevalent endogenous NO2-FA, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA), is detected as both the free acid, complex ... Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in ... Previous in vitro studies revealed that 2 synthetic NO2-FA, nitro-linoleic acid, and nitro-arachidonic acid (at high ...
Review of the effects of trans fatty acids, oleic acid, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acid on ... and conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com. .. * Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreases adipocyte size and favorably ... Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in SCID mice - Anticancer Res. 1998 ... Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-c9t11 Prevents Collagen-Induced Arthritis, Whereas Conjugated Linoleic Acid-t10c12 Increases ...
  • Gama-linolenic acid is subsequently converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, which is in turn converted to arachidonic acid. (news-medical.net)
  • Arachidonic acid can form prostaglandins and thromboxanes - hormone-like lipids that promote blood clotting, induce inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. (news-medical.net)
  • In infants, delta-6-desaturase is too immature to provide the desired metabolism of linoleic acid, which is a reason why human milk contains gamma-linoleic acid, dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. (news-medical.net)
  • The backbone of both endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) is the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). (nih.gov)
  • The result for the other omega-6 fatty acid they specifically looked for in the data from the cohort studies, arachidonic acid (AA), was also something of a surprise. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Linoleic acid: The uses of Linoleic acid are biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA), the production of quick-drying oils, which are used to produce oil paints and varnishes, production of linoleyl alcohol, surfactants, and beauty products. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • In terms of cardioprotection, omega 3 fatty acids reduce platelet aggregability by both lowering the amount of substrate available to cyclooxygenase (COX), namely arachidonic acid, and by directly inhibiting COX itself. (frontiersin.org)
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important for growth and neural development. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the association between intake of n-6 PUFAs, including LA and arachidonic acid (AA), and type 2 diabetes risk in three large prospective cohort studies of American men and women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (via arachidonic acid) and cell membranes (From Stedman, 26th ed). (hmdb.ca)
  • 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4 n -6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • cDNA cloning and characterization of human Delta5-desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • The proportional content of arachidonic acid in the phospholipids of the pancreas was significantly decreased in diabetic mice, an effect which was completely prevented by supplementation with safflower or evening primrose oil but not hydrogenated coconut oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the liver triglycerides of the diabetic mice, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were all proportionally decreased, effects which were also prevented by safflower or evening primrose oil but not hydrogenated coconut oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In vitro human platelet prostaglandin synthesis has been studied from added radioactive arachidonic acid (i) as function of substrate concentration, (ii) as function of platelet concentration and (iii) as function of pH. (springer.com)
  • Platelets, as in platelet rich plasma when labelled with arachidonic acid, washed and treated with thrombin, released radioactivity mainly from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. (springer.com)
  • The released radioactivity was mostly accounted for by the formation of the previously identified oxygenation products of arachidonic acid. (springer.com)
  • Platelet utilization of arachidonic acid was also studied in presence of linoleic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids, the two essential fatty acids known for antithrombotic effect. (springer.com)
  • At its high concentrations linoleic acid decreased platelet cyclo-oxygenase activity as seen by a decreased formation of endoperoxides from arachidonic acid. (springer.com)
  • Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was found to be a mutually competitive substrate with arachidonic acid for the platelet prostaglandin synthetase thus causing reduced utilization of arachidonic acid as shown by measuring the various oxygenation products of arachidonic acid. (springer.com)
  • The a-linolenic and arachidonic acids were contained at the 1 % level in the diet at the expense of linoleic acid in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups, respectively. (go.jp)
  • The concentration of serum triglyceride, phospholipid and liver triglyceride were significantly lower in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups than in the linoleic acid group. (go.jp)
  • Hepatic phospholipids were significantly higher in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups as compared to the linoleic acid group. (go.jp)
  • in contrast, they were significantly higher in the arachidonic acid group. (go.jp)
  • Dietary arachidonic acid, but not α-linolenic acid, resulted in a marked reduction of linoleic acid and increased arachidonic and n -6 docosapenta-enoic acids in heart cardiolipin. (go.jp)
  • Platelet thromboxane (TX) A 2 production tended to be lower in the α-linolenic acid group as compared to the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups. (go.jp)
  • There was no difference in TXA2 production between the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups. (go.jp)
  • The ratios of TXA 2 and PGI 2 in the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups were comparable, whereas they were significantly higher than that in the α-linolenic acid group. (go.jp)
  • The results demonstrate that dietary arachidonic acid enriches the arachidonic acid content in tissue phospholipids more effectively than linoleic acid, whereas the effect on the production of TXA 2 and PGI 2 was comparable under these experimental conditions. (go.jp)
  • Dietary linoleic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is metabolised to arachidonic acid, a component of colonocyte membranes. (bmj.com)
  • Metabolites of arachidonic acid have pro-inflammatory properties and are increased in the mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Linoleic acid undergoes metabolic conversion to a further n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid, which is a component of colonic cell membranes. (bmj.com)
  • Arachidonic acid can be released from this phospholipid membrane and metabolised to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids including prostaglandin E 2 , leukotriene B 4 and thromboxane A 2 . (bmj.com)
  • Arachidonic Acid (AA) levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes. (heartuk.org.uk)
  • The essential essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid play a significant role in pancreatic cancer development and progression. (bioinf.org)
  • Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases: the main element metabolic enzymes for arachidonic acidity and linoleic acidity Cyclooxygenases Cyclooxygenase (COX) which includes two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2 may be the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting part of prostaglandin synthesis, changing arachidonic acidity into prostaglandin H2, which is normally then additional metabolized to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGF2, PGD2 and various other eicosanoids [5,6]. (bioinf.org)
  • We examined the effect of dietary supplementation of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to rats fed a diet low in linoleic acid on in vitro and in vivo production of prostacyclin. (monash.edu)
  • The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum ( p = 0.39 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed ( p = 0.72) . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) is a potent bioactive molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, interconvertible with LINOLENIC ACID and arachidonic acid and needed for cell membranes and the synthesis of PROSTAGLANDINS . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies focusing on fatty acid biomarkers showed that proportions of LA in blood or adipose tissue were independently associated with lower risk for type 2 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When the investigators looked at levels of linoleic acid in the body, such as in adipose tissue, it was found that those with the highest levels were 35% less likely to develop diabetes. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • The cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers in adipose tissue and 48 other fatty acids were assessed by using gas chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • The mean (±SD) percentage of total fatty acids of CLA for the cis-9, trans-11 isomer in adipose tissue was 0.57 ± 0.18% in adults without diabetes and 0.53 ± 0.17% in adults with diabetes (P = 0.0078). (nih.gov)
  • Additional adjustment for other fatty acids in adipose tissue including trans-9 16:1, which is a fatty acid that was previously associated with diabetes, did not modify the results. (nih.gov)
  • The younger the rats were when they switched to F3666, the less "normal" adipose tissue they would have had available and the more rapidly they would end up with adipose tissue (and plasma) high in linoleic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • The CLA group had increased liver weight and percentage of saturated fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) due its beneficial effects on body composition and inflammatory processes becomes an interesting candidate, since the promotion and impairment of obesity is closely linked to a low-grade inflammation state of adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A systematic review of studies measuring the changes in linoleic acid concentration in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the USA revealed an approximate 2.5-fold increase in linoleic acid increasing from 9.1% to 21.5% from 1959 to 2008. (bmj.com)
  • 2 Importantly, the concentration of linoleic acid in adipose tissue is a reliable marker of intake as the half-life of linoleic acid is approximately 2 years in adipose tissue. (bmj.com)
  • The authors of the study also noted that the increase in adipose tissue linoleic paralleled the increase in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and asthma. (bmj.com)
  • The amount of linoleic acid in adipose tissue, but also in platelets, is additionally positively associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas long-chain omega-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) levels in platelets are inversely related to CAD. (bmj.com)
  • 4 However, total fatty acid concentrations, as opposed to percentages, are independent of changes in other fatty acids and hence are more reliable markers of linoleic acid intake (although likely less reliable compared with adipose tissue). (bmj.com)
  • In healthy humans, CLA and the related conjugated linole n ic acid (CLNA) isomers are bioconverted from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid , respectively, mainly by Bifidobacterium bacteria strains inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy humans, CLA and the related conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers are bioconverted from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, mainly by Bifidobacterium bacteria strains inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most studies of CLAs have used a mixture of isomers wherein the isomers c9,t11-CLA (rumenic acid) and t10,c12-CLA were the most abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) refers to trans-fats found in meats and dairy products. (isteroids.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid, are potent cancer preventative agents in animal models of chemical-induced carcinogenesis ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids or CLAs are a naturally occurring fatty acids found in meats, meat products and dairy products which have been investigated heavily since the late 1980s for a variety of modern day health issues including cancer and obesity, after it was identified by a Dr Michael Pariza. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • CLAs can be considered a trans fatty acid, however, due to its structure, it is not counted as a trans fat in terms of nutritional regulations. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • CLAs can also be consumed as a free fatty acid or as a triglyceride. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) also alter lipid metabolism and body fat. (nih.gov)
  • Studies in animals and in vitro suggest that conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), a group of fatty acids found mainly in dairy products and in the meat of ruminants, have protective effects against mammary carcinogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Preventive role of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) ha s been reported in many other cancers. (scirp.org)
  • Determine, under different quantities, how much of 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) nutrient can be found in Pasta mix, classic cheeseburger macaroni, unprepared . (traditionaloven.com)
  • Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 - 1.0 per cent of total fats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid has a beneficial effect on serum fatty acid composition in growing pigs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Linoleic acid keeps the skin impermeable to water, but to exert other effects the compound must undergo specific metabolism. (news-medical.net)
  • The metabolism of LA to AA begins with the conversion of LA into gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA), effected by Δ6desaturase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid has shown to induce insulin and fatty liver due to its ability to alter adipose deposition and its influence over various mechanisms during lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular modeling of metabolism for allergen-free low linoleic acid peanuts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Linoleic acid is found to be associated with isovaleric acidemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • Fatty Acid Metabolism in Carriers of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele: Is It Contributing to Higher Risk of Cognitive Decline and Coronary Heart Disease? (mdpi.com)
  • Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. (wikipathways.org)
  • Metabolism of stearidonic acid in human subjects: comparison with the metabolism of other n-3 fatty acids. (wikipathways.org)
  • Comparison of the metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid and its delta 6 desaturation product, stearidonic acid, in cultured NIH-3T3 cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Metabolism of gammalinolenic acid in human neutrophils. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transition to F3666, which provides approximately 18% of calories in the form of linoleic acid, generates a metabolism much more dependent on linoleic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) incorporation in intra-muscular fat and on the lipid metabolism of twelve Holstein steers. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cultures of ruminal bacteria known to metabolize unsaturated fatty acids were grown in medium containing 50 microg ml(-1) of geometric and positional isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or 18 : 1 fatty acids and 37.4 % deuterium oxide to investigate the mechanisms responsible for fatty acid metabolism. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The deuterium enrichment in the intermediates formed during incubations with 9,11 geometric isomers of CLA was about half that of the products from trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 18 : 1 isomers, suggesting that the reduction of 9,11 geometric isomers CLA by ruminal bacteria occurs via different mechanisms compared with the metabolism of other unsaturated fatty acids. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil supplementation on the growth performance and lipid metabolism in geese and the fatty acid concentrations in their liver and muscle tissues. (scielo.org.za)
  • It isn't fairly yet comprehended how CLA functions, yet it is assumed that it counteracts linoleic acid's negative results, and also it additionally might control protein and also fat metabolism. (otisgraham.com)
  • Importantly, the increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid can reduce omega-3 in the body as it competes with the alpha-linolenic acid for metabolism to longer chain polyunsaturated fats. (bmj.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The objective was to reduce saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increase conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2), α-linolenic (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 C18:3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6) contents in milk from confined dairy cows in order to promote a healthier option. (scirp.org)
  • fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous;surfactant - cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid. (ewg.org)
  • The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • Linoleic Acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid with 18 carbons and two double bonds, which is commonly notated as C18:2n-6 or simply 18:2n-6. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Two main fatty acids essential in the diet are linoleic (or omega-6) fatty acid and alpha-linolenic (or omega-3) acid. (news-medical.net)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid Omega-6 fatty acid: Negative health effects Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acid interactions Eicosanoids Essential nutrients Linolein The Merck Index, 11th Edition, 5382 William M. Haynes (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is rich in omega-6 fatty acid which is required by humans for normal body functioning. (openpr.com)
  • A study published in a major journal shows a cardioprotective role for linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, further complicating the message about the role of fats in the diet. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Linoleic acid is an essential omega-6 fatty acid that regulates cellular activity. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • The latter is an omega 6 fatty acid which is easily found in our common diets. (simstat.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39 740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Linoleic acid is a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, also known as an omega-6 fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. (hmdb.ca)
  • The findings from this study support potential benefits of the main dietary omega-6 fatty acid, i.e.linoleic acid, for CVD prevention. (heartuk.org.uk)
  • Also, conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger , but it's not clear if this leads to reduced food intake. (webmd.com)
  • Some early research has found that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • However, other research has found that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Also, some research has found that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • We report associations of linoleic acid intake of individuals with their blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • With several models to control for possible confounders (dietary or other), linear regression analyses showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship of linoleic acid intake (percent kilocalories) to systolic and diastolic blood pressure for all of the participants. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dietary linoleic acid intake may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-6 Data from several epidemiological studies and intervention trials indicate that higher intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFAs) are related to higher BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 In Western countries, the intake of linoleic acid has dramatically increased during the last several decades, mainly from vegetable products (particularly vegetable oils), substituted for animal fats high in SFA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissue measurements of linoleic acid may only partially reflect dietary linoleic acid intake. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increasing intake of linoleic acid as essential nutritional component by consumers will lead to growing product demand. (openpr.com)
  • Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor of AA, would induce endocannabinoid hyperactivity and promote obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing LA from 1 en% to 8 en% elevated AA-phospholipids (PL) in liver and erythrocytes, tripled 2-AG + 1-AG and AEA associated with increased food intake, feed efficiency, and adiposity in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary LA of 8 en% increases ( a ) food intake in high-fat diets, ( b ) feed efficiency in medium-fat diets, ( c ) reduces plasma adiponectin (µg/ml/g fat tissue), and increases ( d ) plasma leptin (ng/ml). (nih.gov)
  • The conjugated linoleic acid weight loss therapy revealed that a person's calorie intake is lowered, burning out of calories drastically increased (that is the body now comfortably converts food into energy), the breakdown of fat is highly stimulated and there is inhibition of the production of fat which all amount to one possessing a lesser amount of fat! (simstat.com)
  • The intake of enriched cheese significantly increased the plasma concentrations of CLA, VA, the n -3 fatty acids ALA and EPA, and more remarkably decreased that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. (cambridge.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our study provides additional evidence that LA intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, especially when replacing saturated fatty acids, trans fats, or carbohydrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given the modest correlations between n-6 PUFA biomarkers and intake ( 16 ), however, the extent to which these associations can be ascribed to the intake of specific fatty acids is debatable. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The aim of this investigation was to conduct the first prospective cohort study investigating if a high dietary intake of linoleic acid increases the risk of developing incident ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Each case was matched with four controls and the risk of disease calculated by quartile of intake of linoleic acid adjusted for gender, age, smoking, total energy intake and centre. (bmj.com)
  • The highest quartile of intake of linoleic acid was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23 to 5.07, p = 0.01) with a significant trend across quartiles (OR = 1.32 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.66, p = 0.02 for trend). (bmj.com)
  • An estimated 30% of cases could be attributed to having dietary intakes higher than the lowest quartile of linoleic acid intake. (bmj.com)
  • Several such investigations have reported a positive association with an increased total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. (bmj.com)
  • 1 This caused a more than two-fold increase in the intake of linoleic acid, the main omega-6 polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oils, which now makes up around 8% to 10% of total energy intake in the Western world. (bmj.com)
  • However, a study from 2006-2008, have found that conjugated linoleic acid along with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, have anti-obesity effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - 'engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (qualitycounts.com)
  • Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). (mdpi.com)
  • Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • The addition of 1 en% EPA/DHA reduces the endocannabinoid precursor pool and tissue concentrations of 2-AG and AEA. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, children with AO have higher plasmatic concentrations of free palmitoleic and DHGL fatty acids, which correlate with cardiometabolic risk factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, WCG has around 56% linoleic acid (of total fatty acids), contributing to increased unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in meat. (mdpi.com)
  • 0.01), shear force ( p = 0.04), linoleic fatty acid concentrations ( p = 0.03), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p = 0.04) had a quadratic increase due to WCG inclusion in the diets. (mdpi.com)
  • 2 3 4 5 The concentrations correlate with the degree of histological inflammation 2 and medications containing 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibit their formation. (bmj.com)
  • The supplementation of CLA to the geese led to significant increases in saturated fatty acid concentrations and significant reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations in liver and muscle tissues. (scielo.org.za)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum concentrations of ß- hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and fatty acid (FA) profile of milk with emphasis in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a population of early lactation Holstein cows. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a clear reduction in fat accumulation was achieved by CLA2, accompanied by a reduction in leptin, adiponectin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) plasma concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, linoleic acid concentrations in both serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipid fatty acids are in fact higher in patients with CAD compared with those without CADcoronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
  • Adding conjugated linoleic acid to fatty foods does not seem to promote weight loss. (webmd.com)
  • However, adding conjugated linoleic acid to milk might help decrease body fat in obese adults. (webmd.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid and safflower oil improve body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This study was conducted to compare fatty acid composition and content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different regions of sheep carcasses. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WCG inclusion as a linoleic acid source in diets for feedlot lambs on carcass characteristics, physicochemical composition, sensory attributes, and fatty acid profile of the meat. (mdpi.com)
  • Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemical composition of the TMR (44.27% DM) averaged 15.94% for crude protein (CP), 38.20% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 20.36% acid detergent fiber (ADF), 5.56% fat, 5.30% ash and 28.6% nonstructural carbohydrate (NSCH) with 1.81 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation (NEL). (scirp.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fatty acid composition of the liver and muscle tissues showed significant increases in the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers in the geese fed increasing levels of CLA. (scielo.org.za)
  • fatty acid composition. (scielo.org.za)
  • Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. (orgprints.org)
  • Supplementation with LA had minimal effect on fatty acid composition of plasma or aorta and caused no change in prostacyclin production with either method. (monash.edu)
  • Fatty acid composition is influenced by several factors. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Mice were fed diets containing 1 en% LA, 8 en% LA, and 8 en% LA + 1 en% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in medium-fat diets (35 en% fat) and high-fat diets (60 en%) for 14 weeks from weaning. (nih.gov)
  • Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro. (wikipathways.org)
  • Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both of them are polyunsaturated fatty acid, which means that they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms that are found in saturated fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • They can be either cis- or trans- fatty acids, and the double bonds are separated by a single C-C bond. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are poly-unsaturated fatty acids containing both cis- and trans- bonds as well as double bonds. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • The name conjugated means that the double bonds have a specific arrangement in the fatty acid molecule. (simstat.com)
  • It is a poly saturated fatty acid containing the CIS and TRANS double bonds. (simstat.com)
  • You chemists out there will understand that perfectly, but for those of you who are experts in some other field, suffice it to say that those conjugated double bonds give it properties very different from regular linoleic acid (the kind found in flax oil or borage oil). (ripie6.com)
  • This fatty acid is characterized by conjugated double bonds that are not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • An octadecadienoic acid in which the two double bonds are at positions 9 and 12 and have Z (cis) stereochemistry. (bioontology.org)
  • Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions. (hmdb.ca)
  • Isomers of linoleic acid in which two or more of the double bonds are conjugated (i.e. alternating with single bonds) rather than separated by a methylene bridge. (oup.com)
  • Global Linoleic Acid market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Linoleic Acid. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • [ citation needed ] CLA and some trans isomers of oleic acid are produced by microorganisms in the rumens of ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-ruminants, including humans, produce certain isomers of CLA from trans isomers of oleic acid, such as vaccenic acid , which is converted to CLA by delta-9-desaturase . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is similar to the mechanism found in ants and bees, which release oleic acid upon death. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm not convinced by the oleic acid idea but no one would argue against identifying elevated growth hormone as a stimulant for tumour growth. (blogspot.com)
  • Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in olive oils. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • In a Mediterranean-type diet , olive oil is the main source of fat: therefore, oleic acid , among monounsaturated fatty acids , and linoleic acid , among polyunsaturated fatty acids , are the most abundant fatty acids . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Italian, Spanish and Greek olive oils are high in oleic acid and low in palmitic and linoleic acids, while Tunisian olive oils are high in palmitic and linoleic acids but lower in oleic acid . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • the other high in palmitic and linoleic acids and low in oleic acid . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • It should be noted that oleic acid is formed first in the fruit, and data seem to indicate a competitive relationship between oleic acid and palmitic , palmitoleic , and linoleic acids. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • for the most part, the sn- 2 position is occupied by oleic acid . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • 6 7 8 However, only one used a prospective cohort design, 7 and just one, a retrospective case-control investigation, specifically investigated linoleic acid consumption. (bmj.com)
  • The cholesterol-lowering effect of linoleic acid is acknowledged by the American Heart Association and the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • There is nothing to over-ride the insulin sensitising effect of linoleic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • This new analysis is especially noteworthy not only because of its size but because the researchers relied upon levels of linoleic acid in the body as the primary metric, rather than the amount of linoleic acid the study participants reported eating. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. (mdpi.com)
  • These naturally occurring groups of dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid are incorporated into the fat in beef and milk of ruminants before the saturation process has been completed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetically diabetic mice (db/db) and their non-diabetic litter-mates were maintained for 15 weeks on diets supplemented with safflower oil or evening primrose (Oenothera bienis) oil, both essential fatty acid (EFA)-rich sources, or hydrogenated coconut oil (devoid of EFA). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the liver phospholipids of the diabetic mice, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid was proportionally increased, an effect reduced by supplementation with safflower oil but not evening primrose or hydrogenated coconut oils. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid and safflower oil. (healthy-sunshine.com)
  • Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts involves peroxisomal retroconversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • The consumption of linoleic acid is vital to proper health, as it is an essential fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), the issue remains controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the possible side-effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid are nausea, heartburn, indigestion, diarrhea, and loose stools. (isteroids.com)
  • Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for preventing breast cancer is mixed. (webmd.com)
  • Biological Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Health and Disease," Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2006, pp. 789-810. (scirp.org)
  • It was reported that both isomers of conjugated linoleic acid are stimulants for mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that individual isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may have unique biological or biochemical effects. (nih.gov)
  • Reducing AA-PL by adding 1 en% long-chain ω-3 fats to 8 en% LA diets resulted in metabolic patterns resembling 1 en% LA diets. (nih.gov)
  • There were 70-80 % sequence similarities between the GDH-synthesized RNAs and the mRNAs encoding arachins, fatty acid desaturases, glutamate synthase, and nitrate reductase, which similarities induced permutation of the metabolic pathways at the mRNA level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alpha-lipoic acid is often confused with alpha-linolenic acid -- an omega-3 fatty acid -- because they sound similar and both use the abbreviation ALA. In addition, these fatty acids help to burn fats by increasing the metabolic rate of the body and also enhance the muscle growth. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is the major dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet and is a metabolic precursor to AA, linked biochemically via two desaturases and an elongase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deficiency of linoleic acid in the diet results in increased metabolic activity, failure in growth and even death. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • This increases the enzymes that process fatty acids and also increases the tissues' sensitivity to insulin. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Some experimental studies on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and insulin regulation suggested that CLA could be associated with risk of diabetes, but epidemiologic studies are lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Linoleic acid produces excessive whole body insulin sensitivity. (blogspot.com)
  • One of the core ideas which came out of the Protons thread was that palmitic acid is a generator of physiological insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • The complementary fatty acid is palmitoleate and this generates less insulin resistance for when insulin action is desirable. (blogspot.com)
  • The oxidation of linoleic acid, by the Protons hypothesis, produces even less insulin resistance than palmitoleate and so undermines the ability of a given cell to refuse caloric ingress in excess of its needs. (blogspot.com)
  • From the Protons point of view the question is: How can linoleic acid acid, which results in pathological insulin sensitivity whole body, eventually result in insulin resistance, also whole body? (blogspot.com)
  • Linoleic acid is allowing increased insulin action and so causing fat accumulation with a suppression of both FFA release and adipocyte lipid turnover. (blogspot.com)
  • Pathological insulin sensitivity: Is anyone thinking linoleic acid? (blogspot.com)
  • Both adipocytes and the rest of the body become progressively more insulin sensitive mediated through linoleic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), reported as an insulin sensitizer, on plasma adiponectin, plasma insulin, and blood pressure in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. (researchmap.jp)
  • The growth factor(s) provided by the serum lipid fraction can be replaced by unsaturated fatty acids. (pnas.org)
  • The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, t10c12-CLA, is inversely associated with changes in body weight and serum leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • Background and Purpose - The role of serum fatty acids as a risk factor for stroke and stroke subtypes is largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unlike other trans fatty acids, it may have beneficial effects on human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Vanden Heuvel cautions that while having a diet that is high in dairy and meat products, and thereby CLA, might have a health benefit, one must also be aware of other lipids present in these products, such as trans fatty acids. (rxpgnews.com)
  • trans Fatty acids (TFAs) may inhibit desaturation of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to AA and DHA, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Unsaturated fatty acids make up 75 to 85% of the total fatty acids . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • According to the rules laid down by the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC), its concentration must range from 55% to 83% of total fatty acids . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Saturated fatty acids make up 15 to 25% of the total fatty acids . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • It has been known for decades that linoleic acid, as a percentage of total fatty acids in lipids, is reduced in patients with CAD, and this has been used as an argument to suggest that low intakes of linoleic acid may cause heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • Dietary trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Early Glomerular Enlargement and Elevated Renal Cyclooxygenase-2 Levels in Young Obese fa/fa Zucker Rats - J Nutr. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Taken together, the results of the study seem to indicate that these omega-6 fatty acids, which are found in vegetable oils and other sources, ought to be chalked into the column of 'good fats. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Linoleic acid occurs widely in vegetable oils and animal fats. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Linoleic acid is the predominant n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet and we can obtain it from vegetable oils such as sunflower, safflower, soybean, corn, and canola oils as well as nuts and seeds. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • First step is conversion to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6 … , They are found in large amounts in vegetable oils, and in trace amounts in a number of other foods. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • Growth performance and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content on meat of growing lambs fed diets containing vegetable oils. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The presence of fatty acids that should be absent or present in amounts different than those found is a marker of adulteration with other vegetable oils. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • a colorless to straw-colored essential fatty acid with two unsaturated bonds, occurring in many vegetable oils, such as corn, soy, and safflower oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the major unsaturated fatty acid found in vegetable oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An organic diet increases the amount of beneficial CLA and trans-vaccenic acid in human breast milk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Butter naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid alters tissue fatty acids and improves the plasma lipoprotein profile in cholesterol-fed hamsters. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Pasture and dietary lipid supplementation have been reported to be reliable strategies in ruminant nutrition, in order to increase the content of α-linolenic acid (ALA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA), and decrease SFA in milk fat. (cambridge.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. (orgprints.org)
  • In contrast, conventional infant formula milks have only linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, which can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infants. (news-medical.net)
  • Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2(n-6)), a major component of omega-6 fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:2(n-3)) a major component of omega-3 fatty acids are the two main dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs) in humans. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2501mg Linoleic acid (Omega 6 EFA), 827.5mg Alpha-Linolenic acid (Omega 3 EFA), 535mg Monounsaturates (Omega 7 & 9 FAs), 74mg Gamma Linolenic acid (GLA) (Omega 6 FA). (highernature.co.uk)
  • palmitoleic , eptadecenoic, gadoleic and alpha-linolenic (Ln) acids are present in lower/trace amounts. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • On this regard, particular attention is paid to myristic , arachidic , behenic , lignoceric , gadoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, whose limits are set by IOOC. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Triglycerides containing three saturated fatty acids or three molecules of alpha-linolenic acid have not been reported. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Fatty acids represent a substantial part of lipids in human body and are important sources of energy. (news-medical.net)
  • This new research indicates that dietary sources of linoleic acid, such as soybean oil, will not only lower risk of coronary heart disease but will protect against diabetes as well. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • In rats, a diet deficient in linoleate (the salt form of the acid) has been shown to cause mild skin scaling, hair loss, and poor wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, dietary punicic acid-which is abundant in pomegranate seeds-is converted to the CLA rumenic acid upon absorption in rats, suggesting that non-animal sources can still effectively provide dietary CLA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats were fed semipurified diets containing 10% fat with a constant polyunsaturated/monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1. (go.jp)
  • Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (50% energy as fat, 1.5% linoleic acid) for two weeks. (monash.edu)
  • 4 Data from epidemiological studies are needed to examine the linoleic acid hypothesis generated from the experimental and clinical observations. (bmj.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids ( CLA ) are a family of at least 28 [1] isomers of linoleic acid found mostly in the meat and dairy products derived from ruminants . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) refers to a heterogeneous group of constitutional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. (news-medical.net)
  • The compounds are predominantly found in dairy products such as milk, cheese and meat, and are formed by bacteria in ruminants that take linoleic acids fatty acids from plants and convert them into conjugated linoleic acids, or CLA," says Jack Vanden Heuvel, professor of molecular toxicology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and co-director of Penn State's Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These naturally occurring fatty acids are mainly gained through the meat and dairy products obtained from ruminants. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • One of these is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a natural fatty acid found in meat and dairy products. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • The term CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the omega 6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid, which are mostly found in the meat of ruminants and dairy products. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite this, the best polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in lambs' meat is obtained using 76.7 g/kg DM of WCG. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n -3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • The present work aimed to investigate the effect of adding flaxseed or sunflower oils to growing sheep diets on conjugated linoleic acid content in meat. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The essential n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, is present in many sources including red meat, various cooking oils and certain margarines. (bmj.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of 18 carbon, diunsaturated FA found in meat and milk derived from ruminants and are also sold as a nutraceutical for weight loss. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CLA increased the proportion of saturatedfatty acids (FA) at expense of monounsaturated FA in meat and liver. (vuzv.cz)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid it is located in small amounts, mainly in pet products, including meat as well as dairy products. (otisgraham.com)
  • CLA or Conjugated Linoleic Acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in meat, full fat milk and cheese. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • As a consequence, the beneficial effects of minor amounts of CLA may be relatively enhanced in lean meat compared to fatty meat sub-products which contain a substantial amount of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as in cold cuts and cow viscera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Health authorities recognize that linoleic acid lowers blood cholesterol levels and as a result, risk of coronary heart disease. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although more than 60 fatty acids have been found in blood plasma and tissues, only a fraction of them is relevant from the biological perspective. (news-medical.net)
  • By Penn State, Fatty acids commonly found in dairy products have successfully treated diabetes in mice, according to a researcher at Penn State. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid found in plant and dairy products. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid that is found mostly in plant oils. (aarkstore.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a group of chemicals found in the fatty acid linoleic acid. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • A: Actually, CLA is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in a number of foods. (ripie6.com)
  • CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is a class of fatty acids produced by animals that is naturally found in the beef and dairy products. (dhgate.com)
  • Determine, under different quantities, how much of Folic acid nutrient can be found in Oil, sunflower, linoleic (less than 60 percent) . (traditionaloven.com)
  • Authentic linoleic acid inhibited N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid binding noncompetitively in a dose-dependent manner, exhibiting a 50% inhibitory concentration of approximately 24 ([mu]M. Using a variety of fatty acids and their derivatives, this inhibition was found to exhibit strict structural requirements, with both linoleic and linolenic acids being the most inhibitory. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A recent study found that higher levels of circulating Linoleic Acid (LA) were significantly associated with lower risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke. (heartuk.org.uk)
  • Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To a much lesser extent, diglycerides (or diacylglycerols ) , monoglycerides (monoa c ylglycerols ), and free fatty acids are also found. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid is found in a plethora of weight loss supplements, either on its own or co-formulated with other ingredients, such as caffeine or guarana. (verywellfit.com)
  • The omega-6 fat linoleic acid should not be confused with conjugated linoleic acid found in pastured animal foods. (bmj.com)
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid: A Review Gregory S. Kelly, ND Introduction Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12, octadecadienoic acid). (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • In this particular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). (hmdb.ca)
  • To compound the complexity of this relationship, the family of n-6 PUFA are, in general, synonymously identified to dietary LA, while seemingly ignoring other members who can contribute to tissue AA, i.e., dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-6) and AA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA) n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, most scientific and medical societies, namely those operating in the cardiovascular area, recommend intakes of long chain omega 3 fatty acids of ≥500 mg/day 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between intakes of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and type 2 diabetes risk in three prospective cohort studies of U.S. men and women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a novel enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (wikipathways.org)
  • The same rat Delta6-desaturase not only acts on 18- but also on 24-carbon fatty acids in very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids is a class of fatty acids consisting of 28 number of unsaturated linoleic acid isomers. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • First step is conversion to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6-desaturation. (news-medical.net)
  • Conjugated Linoleic and Linolenic Acid Production by Bacteria: Development of Functional Foods. (news-medical.net)
  • GLA is converted to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), the immediate precursor to AA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of linoleic (LA)- and linolenic acid (LNA)-enriched diets on humoral and in vivo cellular immune responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and Mycobacterium butyricum were studied in growing layer hens. (wur.nl)
  • 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n -3) concentration in the ST muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. (mdpi.com)
  • Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition. (wikipathways.org)
  • Content of α-linolenic acid resulted 20% higher (P P cis-9 C18:1) resulted higher (P α-linolenic). (scirp.org)
  • The objective of this research was to estimate changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, and fatty acids ( α -linolenic acid and linoleic acid) contents as well as antioxidant activity of P. oleracea at different growth stages. (springer.com)
  • The highest contents of total phenols (698.6 mg GAE 100 g −1 DW), flavonoids (46.9 mg QE 100 g −1 DW), α -linolenic acid (2.7 mg g −1 DW) and linoleic acid (0.8 mg g −1 DW) were determined in the leaves at flowering stage. (springer.com)
  • Overall, purslane leaves at flowering stage can be regarded as a valuable source of fatty acids (especially α -linolenic acid) and antioxidants in human diet. (springer.com)
  • Addition of linoleic acid to such quiescent cells leads to reinitiation of DNA synthesis and growth. (pnas.org)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids play a critical role in brain development and normal growth of humans. (artofphotographyshow.com)
  • Dr. Sears is certain fatty acids directly influence the body's growth-promoting hormones. (ripie6.com)
  • Fatty acids and early human growth. (nih.gov)
  • We and others have demonstrated that most breast cancer cell lines, as well as breast cancer tumors, have notably high expression of the enzymes of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (reviewed in [ 2 ]), and are dependent on FA for cell growth and survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Yet an additional interesting growth with Conjugated Linoleic Acid CLA capsules is that it may additionally help in reducing cholesterol degrees, and it offers effective antioxidant security. (otisgraham.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E supplementation reduces inflammation in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation improve strength and lean-tissue mass during heavy during resistance training. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • One dietary strategy is supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has been demonstrated to reduce body fat mass. (uncg.edu)
  • It is one of two essential fatty acids for humans, who must obtain it through their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nutritional supplement CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a unique form of the essential fatty linoleic acid that is showing tremendous promise in the promotion of good health. (iherb.com)
  • Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. (reciprocalnet.org)
  • Interference light micrograph of liquid crystals of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (cis, cis- 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid) in aqueous ammonia solution. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Linoleic acid is one of the most important essential fatty acids and is required for good health. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Nutritional geniuses like Dr. Barry Sears (author of The Zone) have shown us how fatty acids are not only essential for proper health but also how the proper use of such compounds may have numerous positive effects. (ripie6.com)
  • Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • One other essential fatty acid that is receiving much attention is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Linoleic acid is an essential omega-6 polyunsaturated fat. (thesoyfoodscouncil.com)
  • Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition because it cannot be synthesized by humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids. (wikipathways.org)
  • It belongs to one of the two families (Omega-3 and Omega-6) of essential fatty acids, which means that the human body cannot synthesize it from other food components. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • a doubly unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycerides, that is essential in nutrition in mammals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An unsaturated fatty acid, C 18 H 32 O 2 , that is considered essential to the human diet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An essential 18-carbon fatty acid with two unsaturated bonds which derived from plant oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Essential fatty acid dietary deficiency is rare. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lin´əlē´ik), n an unsaturated fatty acid essential to nutrition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a wide term which groups together a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of C 18:2 fatty acids having conjugated, or contiguous, double bounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in the diet. (webmd.com)
  • As mentioned previously, Conjugated Linoleic Acids are primarily derived from meats such as beef and other ruminants such as lamb as well as in dairy products. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Compared to 8 en% LA, diets of 1 en% dietary LA allows endogenous accretion of ( c ) liver PL-EPA (µg/mg), levels equal to consuming 1 en% EPA/DHA directly. (nih.gov)
  • Weaned rabbits were fed diets supplemented with a commercial preparation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at 5 and 10g/kg. (vuzv.cz)
  • The above observation suggests that 10,12-CLA might be more potent than 9,11-CLA in interfering with elongation and desaturation of linoleic and linolenic acids. (nih.gov)