Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Linoleoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.99.25.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Butyrivibrio: A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.TriglyceridesLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Arachidonic AcidsBody Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rats, Inbred BUFChromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.beta-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Staphylococcus saprophyticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.PicratesWeight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Erucic Acids: cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Calendula: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (1/1169)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux. (2/1169)

The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (3/1169)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (4/1169)

In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (5/1169)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals.  (+info)

Uptake of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by cultured cells. (6/1169)

Oxidized free fatty acids have profound effects on cultured cells. However, little is known about whether these effects depend on their uptake and metabolism by cells or primarily involve their interaction with cell-surface components. We determined the uptake and metabolism of unoxidized (linoleic or oleic acid) and oxidized linoleic acid (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-HPODE) by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. We show that 13-HPODE is poorly taken up by cells. The levels of uptake were dependent on the cell type but were independent of the expression of CD36. 13-HPODE was also poorly used by microsomal lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase that is involved in the formation of phosphatidylcholine. Based on these results, we suggest that most of the biological effects of 13-HPODE and other oxidized free fatty acids on cells might involve a direct interaction with cell-surface components. Alternatively, very small amounts of oxidized free fatty acids that enter the cell may have effects, analogous to those of hormones or prostanoids.  (+info)

Regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression and mucus secretion by IL-4 in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/1169)

Our laboratory has recently shown that mucus differentiation of cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells is accompanied by the increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). We used differentiated NHTBE cells to investigate the regulation of 15-LO expression and mucus secretion by inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 dramatically enhanced the expression of 15-LO, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma had no effect. These cytokines did not increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, with the exception of a modest induction by IL-1beta. The IL-4-induced 15-LO expression was concentration dependent, and mRNA and protein expression increased within 3 and 6 h, respectively, after IL-4 treatment. In metabolism studies with intact cells, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were the major metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. No prostaglandins were detected. IL-4 treatment dramatically increased the formation of 13-HODE and 15-HETE compared with that in untreated NHTBE cells, and several additional 15-LO metabolites were observed. Pretreatment of NHTBE cells with IFN-gamma or dexamethasone did not inhibit the IL-4-induced expression of 15-LO except at high concentrations (100 ng/ml of IFN-gamma and 10 microM dexamethasone). IL-4 treatment inhibited mucus secretion and attenuated the expression of the mucin genes MUC5AC and MUC5B at 12-24 h after treatment. Addition of 15-HETE precursor and 13-HODE precursor to the cultures did not alter mucin secretion or mucin gene expression. On the basis of the data presented, we conclude that the increase in 15-LO expression by IL-4 and attenuation of mucus secretion may be independent biological events.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. (8/1169)

Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, CLA feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake.  (+info)

  • abstract = "Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. (unab.cl)
  • Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. (bmj.com)
  • In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is an omega-6 fatty acid that was discovered in the early 80's and that continues to be researched by scientists due to its many health properties. (nutriglow.com)
  • Moreover, in the presence of BAPTA-AM, expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes, CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94, was induced by linoleic acid, but not palmitic acid.The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact.These results confirm that ER stress contributes to fatty acid-induced liver cell apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • H4IIE liver cells were treated with palmitic acid, linoleic acid, or both with or without the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA-AM after which the expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels, and calcium flux were measured. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptosis was not observed when cells were co-treated with linoleic acid (125 μM) and palmitic acid (250 μM). (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytoplasm during cell apoptosis was specifically detected only when linoleic acid (125 μM), but not palmitic acid (250 μM), was added to the cells. (nih.gov)
  • Linoleic acid produces the prostaglandins that are contained in every cell of your body and are essential for good health. (nutriglow.com)
  • The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact. (nih.gov)
  • Also, conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger , but it's not clear if this leads to reduced food intake. (webmd.com)
  • Some early research has found that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • However, other research has found that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Also, some research has found that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer. (webmd.com)
  • We report associations of linoleic acid intake of individuals with their blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • With several models to control for possible confounders (dietary or other), linear regression analyses showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship of linoleic acid intake (percent kilocalories) to systolic and diastolic blood pressure for all of the participants. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dietary linoleic acid intake may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-6 Data from several epidemiological studies and intervention trials indicate that higher intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFAs) are related to higher BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 In Western countries, the intake of linoleic acid has dramatically increased during the last several decades, mainly from vegetable products (particularly vegetable oils), substituted for animal fats high in SFA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissue measurements of linoleic acid may only partially reflect dietary linoleic acid intake. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we posited that excessive dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), the precursor of AA, would induce endocannabinoid hyperactivity and promote obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing LA from 1 en% to 8 en% elevated AA-phospholipids (PL) in liver and erythrocytes, tripled 2-AG + 1-AG and AEA associated with increased food intake, feed efficiency, and adiposity in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary LA of 8 en% increases ( a ) food intake in high-fat diets, ( b ) feed efficiency in medium-fat diets, ( c ) reduces plasma adiponectin (µg/ml/g fat tissue), and increases ( d ) plasma leptin (ng/ml). (nih.gov)
  • Reducing their linoleic acid intake to 1 percent (in line with our ancestral diet), and replacing those calories with calories from other fats, made these same animals skinny again, like throwing a switch. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The conjugated linoleic acid weight loss therapy revealed that a person's calorie intake is lowered, burning out of calories drastically increased (that is the body now comfortably converts food into energy), the breakdown of fat is highly stimulated and there is inhibition of the production of fat which all amount to one possessing a lesser amount of fat! (simstat.com)
  • The intake of enriched cheese significantly increased the plasma concentrations of CLA, VA, the n -3 fatty acids ALA and EPA, and more remarkably decreased that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. (cambridge.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our study provides additional evidence that LA intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, especially when replacing saturated fatty acids, trans fats, or carbohydrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given the modest correlations between n-6 PUFA biomarkers and intake ( 16 ), however, the extent to which these associations can be ascribed to the intake of specific fatty acids is debatable. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The aim of this investigation was to conduct the first prospective cohort study investigating if a high dietary intake of linoleic acid increases the risk of developing incident ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Each case was matched with four controls and the risk of disease calculated by quartile of intake of linoleic acid adjusted for gender, age, smoking, total energy intake and centre. (bmj.com)
  • The highest quartile of intake of linoleic acid was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23 to 5.07, p = 0.01) with a significant trend across quartiles (OR = 1.32 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.66, p = 0.02 for trend). (bmj.com)
  • An estimated 30% of cases could be attributed to having dietary intakes higher than the lowest quartile of linoleic acid intake. (bmj.com)
  • Several such investigations have reported a positive association with an increased total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. (bmj.com)
  • 1 This caused a more than two-fold increase in the intake of linoleic acid, the main omega-6 polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oils, which now makes up around 8% to 10% of total energy intake in the Western world. (bmj.com)
  • Butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid has a beneficial effect on serum fatty acid composition in growing pigs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fatty acids represent a substantial part of lipids in human body and are important sources of energy. (news-medical.net)
  • However, Vanden Heuvel cautions that while having a diet that is high in dairy and meat products, and thereby CLA, might have a health benefit, one must also be aware of other lipids present in these products, such as trans fatty acids. (rxpgnews.com)
  • It has been known for decades that linoleic acid, as a percentage of total fatty acids in lipids, is reduced in patients with CAD, and this has been used as an argument to suggest that low intakes of linoleic acid may cause heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid along with the blood pressure drug ramipril seems to reduce blood pressure more than ramipril alone in people with uncontrolled high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid by mouth daily might help decrease body fat in adults. (webmd.com)
  • Also, taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to prevent weight gain in previously obese people who lost some weight. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve well-being in people with birch allergies. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve airway sensitivity and ability to exercise in people with asthma. (webmd.com)
  • Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve endurance, power, or fatigue in men taking part in aerobic exercise . (webmd.com)
  • Some early research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid daily might cause small improvements in the ability to recall words in older men, but not women. (webmd.com)
  • Our research, connected with DOHaD, made an attempt to evaluate the impact of the diet modification of mothers through the addition of conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) on the lipid profile, fatty acid profile and the oxidative stress in the hearts of offspring with breast cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous;surfactant - cleansing agentsurfactant-cleansing agent is included as a function for the soap form of linoleic acid. (ewg.org)
  • this means that an oil high in linoleic acid becomes rancid easily, and thus it may be stored for a shorter time. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. (mdpi.com)
  • Global Linoleic Acid market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Linoleic Acid. (decisiondatabases.com)
  • Indeed, most scientific and medical societies, namely those operating in the cardiovascular area, recommend intakes of long chain omega 3 fatty acids of ≥500 mg/day 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between intakes of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and type 2 diabetes risk in three prospective cohort studies of U.S. men and women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Simultaneously, 3-d food duplicates (FD) were collected to determine analytically individual fatty acid intakes, including those of total CLA and RA. (nih.gov)
  • To compound the complexity of this relationship, the family of n-6 PUFA are, in general, synonymously identified to dietary LA, while seemingly ignoring other members who can contribute to tissue AA, i.e., dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-6) and AA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reducing AA-PL by adding 1 en% long-chain ω-3 fats to 8 en% LA diets resulted in metabolic patterns resembling 1 en% LA diets. (nih.gov)
  • There were 70-80 % sequence similarities between the GDH-synthesized RNAs and the mRNAs encoding arachins, fatty acid desaturases, glutamate synthase, and nitrate reductase, which similarities induced permutation of the metabolic pathways at the mRNA level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is the major dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet and is a metabolic precursor to AA, linked biochemically via two desaturases and an elongase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deficiency of linoleic acid in the diet results in increased metabolic activity, failure in growth and even death. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although more than 60 fatty acids have been found in blood plasma and tissues, only a fraction of them is relevant from the biological perspective. (news-medical.net)
  • Both of them are polyunsaturated fatty acid, which means that they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms that are found in saturated fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • By Penn State, Fatty acids commonly found in dairy products have successfully treated diabetes in mice, according to a researcher at Penn State. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The compounds are predominantly found in dairy products such as milk, cheese and meat, and are formed by bacteria in ruminants that take linoleic acids fatty acids from plants and convert them into conjugated linoleic acids, or CLA," says Jack Vanden Heuvel, professor of molecular toxicology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and co-director of Penn State's Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The latter is an omega 6 fatty acid which is easily found in our common diets. (simstat.com)
  • You chemists out there will understand that perfectly, but for those of you who are experts in some other field, suffice it to say that those conjugated double bonds give it properties very different from regular linoleic acid (the kind found in flax oil or borage oil). (ripie6.com)
  • Determine, under different quantities, how much of Folic acid nutrient can be found in Oil, sunflower, linoleic (less than 60 percent) . (traditionaloven.com)
  • A recent study found that higher levels of circulating Linoleic Acid (LA) were significantly associated with lower risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke. (heartuk.org.uk)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of 18 carbon, diunsaturated FA found in meat and milk derived from ruminants and are also sold as a nutraceutical for weight loss. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CLA or Conjugated Linoleic Acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in meat, full fat milk and cheese. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • To a much lesser extent, diglycerides (or diacylglycerols ) , monoglycerides (monoa c ylglycerols ), and free fatty acids are also found. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid is found in a plethora of weight loss supplements, either on its own or co-formulated with other ingredients, such as caffeine or guarana. (verywellfit.com)
  • This fatty acid is a natural substance found in meat and dairy products. (cnn.com)
  • The present work aimed to investigate the effect of adding flaxseed or sunflower oils to growing sheep diets on conjugated linoleic acid content in meat. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid it is located in small amounts, mainly in pet products, including meat as well as dairy products. (otisgraham.com)
  • As a consequence, the beneficial effects of minor amounts of CLA may be relatively enhanced in lean meat compared to fatty meat sub-products which contain a substantial amount of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as in cold cuts and cow viscera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This increases the enzymes that process fatty acids and also increases the tissues' sensitivity to insulin. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Some experimental studies on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and insulin regulation suggested that CLA could be associated with risk of diabetes, but epidemiologic studies are lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Linoleic acid produces excessive whole body insulin sensitivity. (blogspot.com)
  • One of the core ideas which came out of the Protons thread was that palmitic acid is a generator of physiological insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • The complementary fatty acid is palmitoleate and this generates less insulin resistance for when insulin action is desirable. (blogspot.com)
  • From the Protons point of view the question is: How can linoleic acid acid, which results in pathological insulin sensitivity whole body, eventually result in insulin resistance, also whole body? (blogspot.com)
  • Linoleic acid is allowing increased insulin action and so causing fat accumulation with a suppression of both FFA release and adipocyte lipid turnover. (blogspot.com)
  • Pathological insulin sensitivity: Is anyone thinking linoleic acid? (blogspot.com)
  • Both adipocytes and the rest of the body become progressively more insulin sensitive mediated through linoleic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • Dietary trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Early Glomerular Enlargement and Elevated Renal Cyclooxygenase-2 Levels in Young Obese fa/fa Zucker Rats - J Nutr. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Rats were fed semipurified diets containing 10% fat with a constant polyunsaturated/monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1. (go.jp)