Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred C57BLHuntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Probability Theory: The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Caplan Syndrome: A condition characterized by the presence of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS associated with a specific form of pneumoconiosis, often in coal miners and asbestos workers.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Skin DiseasesPatient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.QuinazolinesNeurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
  • Understanding the body's functions requires scientific discoveries from animal research, and because humans and animals share more than 250 common illnesses, testing on animals is extremely beneficial to humans. (brightkite.com)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages small business concerns to submit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications that propose innovative approaches to further develop, improve and facilitate the use of animal models and related biological materials to meet new biomedical challenges related to improvements in the health of humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • Why do many therapeutics show promise in preclinical animal models but then fail to elicit predicted effects when tested in humans? (nap.edu)
  • A solid knowledge of the dynamics of cerebral β-amyloidosis in mouse models provides a powerful tool to monitor preclinical Aβ targeting therapeutic strategies and eases the interpretation of diagnostic amyloid imaging in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • Evolution's Clinical Guidebook: Translating Ancient Genes into Precision Medicine demonstrates, through well-documented examples, how an understanding of the phylogenetic ancestry of humans allows us to make sense out of the flood of genetic data streaming from modern laboratories and how it can lead us to new ways to prevent, diagnose and treat diseases. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This approach could potentially be used to treat age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, for research intended to predict the safety or the effect of a substance in humans by testing it on another species or to model a human disease in an animal model, by definition there cannot be an alternative to a failed methodology. (all-creatures.org)
  • In one study regarding pharmaceuticals, 43% of toxic effects in humans were correctly predicted by tests in rodents, and 63% by tests when non-rodent animals were also included. (all-creatures.org)
  • 18 The finding of medial thinning and disruption of elastic laminae beneath plaques in humans and animal models 19,20 ⇓ supports the first hypothesis, although it is unknown whether these media changes actually take part in the remodeling response. (ahajournals.org)
  • It's time to refocus and adapt new methodologies for use in humans to understand disease biology in humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • Noteworthy publications such as the British Medical Journal and the Journal of the American Medical Association have published numerous studies concluding that, owing to our fundamentally different biological makeups, animal testing cannot reliably predict how humans will react to a particular product, nor can it adequately determine the effectiveness of treatments and cures designed for humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • We have found great mechanisms that can control asthma in an animal, and most of them have failed in humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • Before we can study any treatments or vaccines or even just the disease itself, we have to establish that we have an animal model that exhibits the same type of diseases as it occurs in humans. (wired.com)
  • An animal model is a proxy that scientists find-or create using gene editing-that experiences a particular disease the way humans do. (wired.com)
  • Without an animal model that closely replicates what goes on in humans, there's potential for harm in a fast-moving pandemic response like the one mobilizing now, warns Jay Rappaport, the director of Tulane National Primate Research Center. (wired.com)
  • These studies really need to be done first in a model that closely resembles what happens in humans," Rappaport says. (wired.com)
  • 2013) note that during their initial validation of this model, the results for 4 compounds were provided in the dog and a clear relationship between the effect of food in the dog and the effect of food in humans was observed. (controlledreleasesociety.org)
  • However, there are obvious limitations inherent in using animals for modelling genetically determined diseases in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locomotion is one of the primary behaviours of daily living in humans and animals, and healthy locomotor function is essential to well-being. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Extrapolation limitations mean that some of the biomedical findings from these studies are difficult to translate to humans. (idw-online.de)
  • Surprisingly, despite the massive difference in appearance, three quarters of their genetic structure is similar to humans, giving scientists the possibility to study the role of previously unknown genes in human diseases, including muscular dystrophy, cancer and many others. (timesofmalta.com)
  • The principle of drug development goes that if a therapy improves outcome in animals the next step is to test it in humans in a clinical trial, with the hope that important improvements in outcome will be seen. (bmj.com)
  • This Kat explores the reasoning behind the use of animal models, the acknowledged limitations of animal data for predicting treatment effects in humans and the approach taken by the EPO in assessing whether such data can be used to demonstrate a medical use invention. (blogspot.com)
  • Testing a drug on a non-human animal is cheaper, easier and safer than experimenting on humans. (blogspot.com)
  • Animal models may, for example, be misleading with regards to how the condition operates in humans. (blogspot.com)
  • Don't despair: Editors do understand that pinning down mechanisms in humans is far trickier than it is in cell cultures or in experimental animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • We want to battle the perception … that [researchers] have to do as much in humans as they would in a mouse model, especially if the finding is important for a clinical application," says Ushma Neill, executive editor of The Journal of Clinical Investigation . (sciencemag.org)
  • Alcohol's effects on the brain: Neuroimaging results in humans and animal models. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Over the course of the disease, chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae with a infiltration of macrophages, T-cells, polymorphs, etc.) leads to erosions of normal articular tissue. (brightkite.com)
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death and long-term disability from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, and is characterized by acute and chronic intestinal inflammation that may lead to systemic sepsis and multi-system organ failure. (biologists.org)
  • Further, NEC is characterized by a complex combination of pathological events, including intestinal inflammation and systemic sepsis, which distinguishes it from other intestinal inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (biologists.org)
  • a finding that further distinguishes NEC from other intestinal inflammation diseases that may predominantly affect the colon, such as infection. (biologists.org)
  • To validate the functionality of the BBB model, we probed its disruption by neuro-inflammation mediators and ischemic conditions and measured the protective function of antioxidant and ROCK-inhibitor treatments. (nature.com)
  • Conventional medical treatment The Conventional treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis treats the disease condition with the purpose of reducing inflammation and /or suppresses immunity. (askdrshah.com)
  • Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, Figure 1 ) is isolated from the rhizome (turmeric) of the herb Curcuma longa L. and has been widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for the treatment of many diseases including inflammation, dyspesia, respiratory disorders, arthritis and others [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the cGvHD model, abatacept significantly decreased liver transaminase levels and markedly improved colon inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies are needed to assess the common mechanisms by which immune responses and inflammation may contribute to cardiovascular disease and COPD. (nih.gov)
  • These years of work have generated a group of model animals that display many features of the β-hemoglobinopathies and provided enormous insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Substantive differences in the expression of human and mouse globins during development have also come to light, revealing the limitations of the mouse model, but also providing opportunities to further explore the mechanisms of globin gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, knockout and transgenic mouse models for atherosclerosis have been instrumental in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in atherogenesis, and in evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing atherosclerotic drugs [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After completing his medical training in London he spent 2 years at Harvard Medical School to acquire skills in allergic disease mechanisms. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The primary focus of the workshop was to examine mechanisms for increasing the efficiency of translational neuroscience research through discussions about how and when to use animal models most effectively and then best approaches for the interpretation of the data collected. (nap.edu)
  • Here, we propose a complementary approach to discover genes and mechanisms that might contribute to human disorders: the analysis of evolutionary mutant models in which adaptive phenotypes mimic maladaptive human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • 11-14 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ However, no simple, reliable model featuring a consistent response suitable for studies on remodeling mechanisms has been reported. (ahajournals.org)
  • The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research. (dovepress.com)
  • Researchers have routinely relied upon 2D cell culture and animal models to study the mechanisms underlying human diseases, such as cancer. (corning.com)
  • They have, however, been used to understand the molecular mechanisms of diseases in other organ systems, suggesting that they may be useful alternatives for asthma research. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • This will improve understanding of the biochemical mechanisms leading to structural changes in the airways of patients with severe asthma, whilst minimising animal use and improving the welfare of those still required. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • At the Society for Neuroscience 2012 annual meeting, held 13-17 October in New Orleans, Louisiana, several presentations raised questions about current animal models and their relationships to disease mechanisms. (alzforum.org)
  • This new model system demonstrates the potential for enabling an increased understanding of molecular mechanisms in human rabies, which could lead to improved control methods. (stemcell.com)
  • Appreciate how different characteristics are inherited leading to a fuller understanding of the mechanisms underlying all biological processes in health and disease. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Using a human lung tissue model, they were able to show that the immune mechanisms triggered by viral pathogens prevent the tissue from mounting an effective response against a simultaneously occurring bacterial infection. (idw-online.de)
  • The new experimental approach allows researchers to create a three-dimensional tissue structure model, which makes it possible to simulate and study human pathogens and their disease mechanisms. (idw-online.de)
  • Furthermore, animal models can also be used to model isolated aspects of a complex, multi-factorial human disease, so that the underlying mechanisms of action can be determined. (blogspot.com)
  • Translational research can be impeded by cumbersome regulatory requirements, difficulties obtaining samples, and challenges pinpointing the mechanisms underlying disease processes and therapeutic effects in human beings, whose genetics, environments, and behaviors cannot be tightly controlled. (sciencemag.org)
  • The general consensus was that the mechanisms behind the association of cardiovascular disease and COPD need to be further investigated at the epidemiological, patho-biological, and clinical levels. (nih.gov)
  • It will highlight the various strengths and weaknesses of experimental approaches that have been used, and discuss potential directions for the development of such models for the future. (biologists.org)
  • The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. (hindawi.com)
  • He has utilized many approaches to study this disease including epidemiology, genetics, pathology, microbiology and immunology, pharmacology and experimental medicine. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Stem cell-based transplantation approaches hold great potential for treating a wide range of eye diseases, but progress has been limited by concerns about cost, safety, and effectiveness. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have developed a broad programme of work to develop alternative approaches to replace the use of animals and provide a better understanding of human asthma. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • These models offer new tools to better analyse existing data and inform future experimental approaches with reduced reliance on animal models. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • So we think that this is a new paradigm that is complementary with more traditional approaches which could be effective in many paediatric cancers that have very low mutational rates or even adult cancers where we have found the actual driver event that we know causes the disease but we've yet to identify a drug that we can pair with it. (ecancer.org)
  • We are currently testing these approaches in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. (stanford.edu)
  • To circumvent this limitation, several approaches have been carried out, including the design and synthesis of novel curcumin analogues [ 4 - 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic approaches that show promise in cell systems or animal models often come off the rails in human studies, and ethical and safety concerns can bog down the process interminably. (sciencemag.org)
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a meeting of investigators on September 21-22, 2006, in Bethesda, Maryland, to evaluate evidence for a pathogenetic link between COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to clarify this relationship and to translate this understanding into better approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • CrispR/Cas9 approaches) in vivo to improve disease phenotypes in relevant animal models. (upenn.edu)
  • A group of the world's leading neural stem cell scientists gathered recently at UCSF to discuss their work and its implications for the treatment of devastating nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and spinal cord injury. (ucsf.edu)
  • In vitro models of BBB are simpler, however they have limited functionality and relevance to disease processes. (nature.com)
  • 3D tissue-engineered constructs, or TECS, have been developed as in vitro models for discovering underlying molecular pathways. (corning.com)
  • For example, the use of animal models or human-fetal-tissue-based in vitro models in biomedical research raises ethical issues and frequently these models do not completely recapitulate human physiology and pathology. (nih.gov)
  • The antioxidative properties of a novel curcumin analogue (2 E ,6 E )-2,6-bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (MCH) were assessed by several in vitro models, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PC12 cell protection from H 2 O 2 damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the BBB has been extensively studied in animal models ( 19 - 21 ), in vitro models based on primary human BMECs ( 22 , 23 ), and immortalized human brain EC lines ( 2 , 24 , 25 ), these models lack key attributes of the human BBB. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, animal models of β-hemoglobinopathies have demonstrated the feasibility of gene therapy for these conditions, now showing success in human clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe the development of animal models to investigate globin switching and the β-hemoglobinopathies, a field that has paralleled the emergence of modern molecular biology and clinical genetics. (nih.gov)
  • On March 28 and 29, 2012, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened the workshop "Improving Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders" to discuss potential opportunities for maximizing the translation of new therapies from animal models to clinical practice. (nap.edu)
  • Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders: Workshop Summary also identifies methods to facilitate development of corresponding animal and clinical endpoints, indentifies methods that would maximize bidirectional translation between basic and clinical research and determines the next steps that will be critical for improvement of the development and testing of animal models of disorders of the nervous system. (nap.edu)
  • During thousands of years of clinical validation and practice, the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been widely recognized in the prevention and treatment for various diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is well known that many valuable safety information of TCM comes directly from clinical use, which can be perceived as more important reference for TCM safety evaluation, to some extent, even than that from animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ultimate goal of drug safety evaluation is to reduce the safety risk of clinical medication, rather than experimental animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • So in order to predict the clinical toxicity of drugs more accurately, can we evaluate with morbid animal model? (frontiersin.org)
  • This book addresses the current understanding of the diagnosis and management of biliary disease across all ages, with emphasis on how the latest advances in clinical science may be integrated into current and future therapies. (springer.com)
  • In China, the national case definition is based on clinical compatibility with appropriate animal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Usually, these models intend to mimic TLE, and therefore rodents must display a similar "clinical history" as the human counterpart, including an initial precipitant injury afflicting the hippocampus and/or the temporal lobe (eg, status epilepticus [SE]), a latent period between the injury and the occurrence of spontaneous seizures, chronic manifestation of spontaneous seizures (usually partial and tonic-clonic seizures), and histopathological changes deemed characteristic of TLE. (dovepress.com)
  • 2003 ) Morning Surge in Blood Pressure as a Predictor of Silent and Clinical Cerebrovascular Disease in Elderly Hypertensives: A Prospective Study . (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The one-week turnaround time for sample analysis is significant because it fits 'a relevant clinical window for future comparative oncology trials to model human PMed advancements,' said William Hendricks, Ph.D., a TGen staff scientist and an author of the study. (controlledreleasesociety.org)
  • He describes how new epigenetic insights are opening treatments for patients beyond radiotherapy, and anticipates how mouse models may lead to clinical trials. (ecancer.org)
  • So we identified a drug and we tested it in one animal model and we'd like to expand that to more mouse models to be able to have solid evidence that this might be an effective target that we can bring into clinical trials. (ecancer.org)
  • Dinesh Khanna, James R. Seibold, Athol Wells, Oliver Distler, Yannick Allanore, Chris Denton and Daniel E. Furst, " Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Lessons from Clinical Trials, Outcome Measures, and Future Study Design", Current Rheumatology Reviews (2010) 6: 138. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Following acute infection the clinical disease is similar in their respective hosts. (ersjournals.com)
  • In order to influence this faulty immune response, the researchers used a drug which is already undergoing clinical testing for use in other inflammatory diseases and cancer. (idw-online.de)
  • The reality is that there are huge amounts of animal data (too many drugs), from experiments that are not designed with sufficient rigour or adequately reported, and important improvements in outcomes are usually not seen in clinical trials (too few medicines). (bmj.com)
  • It may be that fewer drugs "work" in animals if the experiments are performed properly, but if this means that fewer (and better tested) medicines are taken to clinical trial, the process will be more efficient and the chances of success will be higher. (bmj.com)
  • Translating preclinical results for gene-based therapies from rodent models to larger-brained models of HD is an important step along the path toward clinical testing. (medindia.net)
  • Early researchers looked to the globin genes as an excellent model in which to examine gene regulation - bountifully expressed and displaying a remarkably consistent pattern of developmental activation and silencing. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel with the growth of research into expression of the globin genes, mutations within the β-globin gene were identified as the cause of the β-hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. (nih.gov)
  • These lines of enquiry stimulated the development of transgenic mouse models, first carrying individual human globin genes and then substantial human genomic fragments incorporating the multigenic human β-globin locus and regulatory elements. (nih.gov)
  • 2) Animal models of human diseases and their limitations - orthology and paralogy of genes and compensated pathogenic deviations in molecules. (umich.edu)
  • The field has really exploded in terms of sequencing technology, specifically in cancer, and our ability to identify genes that are involved in the disease process with the motivation that we can pair these with drugs. (ecancer.org)
  • Viral vectors have been applied successfully to generate disease-related animal models and to functionally characterize target genes in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The funds will help Baumbach continue to search for disease-causing genes responsible for infantile (either X-linked or type 1) spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) . (mda.org)
  • Baumbach's new research focuses on finding additional disease genes and biological pathways responsible for causing X-linked SMA and the ILMD group of disorders, and on identifying potential genetic modifiers of the causal genes. (mda.org)
  • Beggs has now started screening for congenital myopathy-causing mutations in zebrafish and has discovered mutations in several genes that may be related to human neuromuscular diseases. (mda.org)
  • Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. (brightkite.com)
  • The Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM), Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP), supports Resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models and related biological materials to the biomedical community. (nih.gov)
  • DCM-supported Resources and the research community will benefit from development and commercialization of technologies that support the husbandry, characterization, improvement and use of animal models and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • DCM/ORIP-funded Resources aid these efforts by developing, characterizing, preserving and distributing high quality animals and biological materials that are used by researchers in all disciplines of biomedical research. (nih.gov)
  • Extensively revised and expanded on the basis of recent research findings with enlarged coverage of health effects of vitamin-like factors, it is ideally suited for students and an important reference for anyone interested in nutrition, food science, animal science or endocrinology. (worldcat.org)
  • The current volume summarises recent advances in animal research that are important for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. (springer.com)
  • Stephen is Chair of Main Panel A (Medicine, Health and Life Sciences) of the UK Research Excellence Framework 2014, Chairs the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), the British Lung Foundation Research Committee, the Hazardous Substances Advisory Committee (HSAC), and from 2014, will join the Science and Innovation Strategy Board of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In two related studies published Sept. 15 in Stem Cell Reports , the journal of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR), scientists in Japan overcame a part of these concerns by demonstrating the successful transplantation of stem cell-derived retinal cells generated from immunologically matched donor animals without the need for harmful immunosuppressants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Advances in the research of animal model of pressure ulcer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In my on-going criticism of the Three Rs and their adherents in this column, I have pointed out compelling scientific evidence of where the refinement, reduction and replacement of animals in research are a flawed methodology. (all-creatures.org)
  • As I have described many times in my writings on NAVS website (see Animals in Scientific Research), there are ways animals are used in science that work from a scientific perspective (there may be justifiable ethical reasons to object to these areas) and in those areas, the Three Rs and the development of alternatives make sense. (all-creatures.org)
  • Therefore, we should not use products we cannot be confident about without animal testing, and not pursue lines of research that involve animal testing, independent of whatever results such research may yield. (all-creatures.org)
  • Studying animals, though controversial, is highly convenient for infectious disease research. (wired.com)
  • Rodent social behavior is an increasingly important readout parameter in animal research in light of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. (noldus.com)
  • In translational research, animal models are used to understand the mechanism by which disease symptoms manifest. (noldus.com)
  • We also fund research on applying the 3Rs to asthma models through our research funding schemes. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • The use of human tissue for asthma research could reduce reliance on animal models. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • The use of non-mammalian models ( C. elegans, Drosophila , Dictyostelium discoideum and zebrafish) in respiratory disease research is almost non-existent. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Professor Davies' work builds on previous NC3Rs-funded research to develop a tissue engineered model of the asthmatic airway . (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Three articles in the latest issue of the Journal of Huntington's Disease discuss the potential benefits of using large animal models in HD research and the implications for the development of gene therapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We felt there was a real need and opportunity to move research forward by bringing everyone together to discuss the current status and bottlenecks, to overcome technical limitations and foster collaborations, [and] to do our part to promote progress," said Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD, director of the Broad Center and one of four UCSF scientists who presented their work. (ucsf.edu)
  • In his own talk, Kriegstein described his lab's research on the benefits and risks of using animal models, particularly rodents, to study brain development and disease. (ucsf.edu)
  • This finding could play an important role in the production of specific nerve cell types to combat a specific disease, said Alvarez-Buylla, a professor of neurological surgery and a principal investigator at UCSF's Brain Tumor Research Center. (ucsf.edu)
  • Human isogenic disease models have been likened to 'patients in a test-tube', since they incorporate the latest research into human genetic diseases and do so without the difficulties and limitations involved in using non-human models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram of a typical rAAV vector (source: https://www.horizondiscovery.com/gene-editing/raav) Factors leading to the recent commercialization of isogenic human cancer cell disease models for the pharmaceutical industry and research laboratories are twofold. (wikipedia.org)
  • This in-depth understanding can be provided by developing animal and in vitro research models of the human immune system, with well-controlled experimental parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Many biological research studies have focused their efforts on trying to identify and interpret the underlying genetic cause of both rare and common diseases alike. (timesofmalta.com)
  • The ultimate aim of genetic research remains that of elucidating the best treatment options based on the person's genetic make-up and predicting disease outcome in susceptible individuals. (timesofmalta.com)
  • The NC3Rs have developed two practical tools, The Experimental Design Assistant to guide researchers through the design of animal experiments and the ARRIVE guidelines to improve the reporting of research using animals. (bmj.com)
  • Together with Professor Macleod she has established a multicentre international research collaboration facilitating the pooling and analysis of data from a range of disease models across the basic sciences. (bmj.com)
  • The use of non-human animals to research the pathology and treatment of human disease has obvious advantages. (blogspot.com)
  • HORSHAM, PA (April 3, 2000) -- CP461, a second generation selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND) compound, under development by Cell Pathways, Inc. (Nasdaq: CLPA), significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity of Taxol (paclitaxel) in a classic mouse model of human breast cancer, according to a presentation by company scientists this week at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). (eurekalert.org)
  • The inability to propagate the causative agent, ovine herpesvirus 2, in vitro has seriously hindered research efforts in the development of effective programs for control of the disease in clinically susceptible hosts. (usda.gov)
  • We certainly do acknowledge that there are limitations in doing research with human beings. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report a systematic analysis of research practices and reporting bias in neurological disease models from 93 published articles. (embopress.org)
  • We find heterogeneity in current research practices and a reporting bias toward certain diseases. (embopress.org)
  • The relevance to human biology of NHP models in Huntington's disease hold great potential value for preclinical research and development, but we need to fully consider the substantial issues of cost, long-term housing of affected animals, access of the models to HD investigators, and ethical concerns with modeling in these species," says Dr Howland. (medindia.net)
  • The power in our research approach is that we can often apply learnings from one disease to progress in others to bring urgently-needed answers to our families. (mda.org)
  • Alan Beggs, a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and director of the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research at Children's Hospital Boston, has been awarded an MDA grant totaling $396,990 over three years. (mda.org)
  • A limitation in FA research is the absence of a live model that displays key features of the disease. (fanconi.org)
  • Research in the Davidson Laboratory is focused on inherited genetic diseases that cause central nervous system dysfunction. (upenn.edu)
  • Our research on childhood onset neurodegenerative diseases is focused on experiments to better understand the biochemistry and cell biology of proteins deficient in these disorders, and to develop small molecule or gene therapy based strategies for therapy. (upenn.edu)
  • These results point to us having to be much more cautious in extrapolating from the lab to the wild, but laboratory mouse models will continue to be hugely important in biological and biomedical research. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • namely the reduction, refinement and replacement of animals used in scientific research. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Animals within Resources are characterized in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. (hindawi.com)
  • If the type and mode of action of mutations favored by natural selection in wild populations are similar to those that contribute to human diseases, then studies in evolutionary mutant models have the potential to identify novel genetic factors and gene-by-environment interactions that affect human health and underlie human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Evolutionary mutant models have the potential to reveal novel insight into the genetic basis of an array of different types of human diseases, from simple to complex. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. (dovepress.com)
  • 3) Evolutionary nature of the pathogenic genetic variation, responsible for Mendelian and for complex diseases - mutation rates and pressures, effects of de novo mutations and of pre-existing mutant alleles. (umich.edu)
  • If successful, these types of therapies will provide new options for patients suffering from muscular dystrophy and other genetic diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • They can be used to model any disease with a genetic foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can allow for the real-time visualization of gene expression in a living organism in health and disease, or after drugs, genetic manipulation, environmental influence or insult. (brainscape.com)
  • In our 2nd conference, SMi will be looking once again to bring together the leading experts from the pharmaceutical industry to determine the progress made in realising the potential for more efficacious drug discovery and development for the treatment Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). (smi-online.co.uk)
  • To overcome the difficulty of organising and accessing the large amounts of information on the various models, a large consortium of researchers set up a searchable database - the MUGEN Mouse Database (MMdb) (Aidinis et al. (brightkite.com)
  • For example, optimal husbandry, including caging and other equipment, is required to maintain animals as healthy stocks that can be distributed to researchers. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers are currently developing animal models of age-related macular degeneration to determine how they respond to transplantation of iPSC-derived cells from matched donors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers advocate developing empirically-derived prognostic models to predict pressure ulcer risk. (bioportfolio.com)
  • With the ability to knock in or knock out any gene in a mouse-which can't sue us-researchers have over-relied on animal data. (all-creatures.org)
  • Researchers at the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute, in collaboration with the Joint Genome Institute, are reporting the first whole-genome sequence of a mutant population of Kitaake, a model variety of rice. (lbl.gov)
  • This new animal of mania permits researchers to better understand bipolar disorder and to screen for new treatments that if successful in the animal model can then be translated to the clinic. (innovations-report.com)
  • As part of these DFG-funded efforts, Charité-based researchers, led by Prof. Dr. Andreas Hocke and Prof. Dr. Stefan Hippenstiel, have developed a human lung tissue model capable of simulating crucial characteristics of pneumonia. (idw-online.de)
  • The most serious mistake translational researchers commonly make, journal editors observe, is a study design that doesn't allow them to explain the processes underlying a disease outcome or therapeutic effect. (sciencemag.org)
  • To evaluate alcohol's central nervous system effects, researchers distinguish "uncomplicated alcoholism" (i.e., alcohol use disorder [AUD]) from the various clinically diagnosable consequences of chronic alcohol consumption, including Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), hepatic encephalopathy (HE), central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), alcoholic cerebellar degeneration (ACD), alcohol-related dementia (ARD), and Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Researchers at OHSU will create the first large animal model of FA to test potential therapies for people with FA. (fanconi.org)
  • Diseases of this type include retinal degeneration and heterotopic ossification, which are modeled by blind cavefish and reptile osteoderms, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Several retinal degenerative diseases including dry AMD are characterized by progressive RPE atrophy, leading to cone photoreceptor degeneration and loss of central, high-acuity vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • Jucker M, Walker LC (2018) Propagation and spread of pathogenic protein assemblies in neurodegenerative diseases. (hih-tuebingen.de)
  • Rasmussen J, Krasemann S, Altmeppen H, Schwarz P, Schelle J, Aguzzi A, Glatzel M, Jucker M (2018) Infectious prions do not induce Aβ deposition in an in vivo seeding model. (hih-tuebingen.de)
  • This indicates a strong need for highly predictive in vitro and in vivo models. (springer.com)
  • In vivo animal models are highly relevant, however they are hampered by complex, multi-cellular interactions that are difficult to decouple. (nature.com)
  • We report the development of an alternative experimental ex vivo technique for quantifying heart size and function that resembles the Langendorff heart preparations that have been widely used in mammalian models. (biologists.org)
  • In animals, vagal nerve stimulation inhibits the increase in plasma TNF-α induced by endotoxemia in vivo (for review, see Tracey KJ. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • A two-dimensional cell culture model cannot precisely capture complex in vivo tumor behavior. (corning.com)
  • We have also awarded a David Sainbury fellowship to Dr Amanda Tatler (University of Nottingham) to integrate primary human tissue studies with mouse lung slice models and state of the art in vivo imaging. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Lack of appropriate ex-vivo models for studying rabies infection in human neurons has contributed to this knowledge gap. (stemcell.com)
  • Non-human species which is studied as an in vivo model to understand aspects of human disease. (brainscape.com)
  • Safety and efficacy of ex-vivo donor lung adenoviral IL-10 gene therapy in a large animal lung transplant survival model. (upenn.edu)
  • In particular, we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), thoracic aneurysms, and occlusive atherosclerotic diseases, as well as models of heart failure. (hindawi.com)
  • The apoE −/− mouse is extensively used to study the development of atherosclerotic lesions, 15,16 ⇓ and arterial remodeling has been reported at several sites of the arterial tree in this model. (ahajournals.org)
  • The process of saphenous vein intimal hyperplasia begins just days after surgical revascularization, setting the stage for graft atherosclerotic disease and its sequalae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clopidogrel improves outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic disease, and is effective at reducing intimal hyperplasia in animal models of thrombosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The question then arises as to whether current revascularization strategies for these straightforward cases using DES can be applied to treat complex atherosclerotic disease as well as inhibit neointimal hyperplastic response and if so, how their effectiveness could be quantified. (plos.org)
  • FTZ could reduce restenosis via reducing NF-κB activity and inflammatory factor expression within the atherosclerotic lesion in a rabbit restenosis model. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive study of these models has yielded vital evidence for the concept that autoimmunity to joint-specific antigens can lead to arthritis.The. (brightkite.com)
  • This review seeks to examine the pros and cons of animal models that have been developed in the study of NEC over the past 30 years. (biologists.org)
  • As such, the development of reliable and reproducible animal models for the study of NEC remains a crucial component in our attempt to determine its underlying causes. (biologists.org)
  • This review seeks to examine the animal models that have been developed in the study of NEC over the past 30 years, and will highlight the various strengths and weaknesses of each experimental approach while discussing potential directions for the development of models for the future. (biologists.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to examine alterations in the spinal and joint endocannabinoid system during pain development in an animal model of OA. (mdpi.com)
  • The presented study provides missing information about the MIA-induced OA model and encourages the development of a therapy focused on the molecular role of ECS. (mdpi.com)
  • We examined the dose-response information on the risk of heart disease and stroke in the large Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who have been followed up for 53 years, from 1950 to 2003. (bmj.com)
  • However, the study of BBB pathology is difficult in the absence of models that are simple and relevant. (nature.com)
  • To identify probable areas where West Point cadets as well as active duty service members stationed at West Point and their families might contract Lyme disease, this study used Geographic Information System mapping methods and remote sensing data to replicate an established spatial model to identify the likely habitat of a key host animal-the white-tailed deer. (health.mil)
  • This study used an established spatial analysis method to determine likely high-risk areas for contracting Lyme disease from ticks ( Ixodes scapularis ) near West Point, NY. (health.mil)
  • In this follow-up study, we investigate whether running could impact other pathological aspects of the disease, such as insoluble Aβ levels, the neuroinflammatory response and non-cognitive behavioral impairments. (nature.com)
  • Given these inherent limitations, we used the NOD/Lt- Prkdc scid IL2rg tm1WJL (NSG) mouse ( 14 ) to study the effects of CVB infection in transplanted human islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Historically, optically transparent zebrafish embryos have been mainly used to study heart development and congenital heart disease. (biologists.org)
  • The potential utility of zebrafish for study of adult-onset heart diseases is relatively underexplored. (biologists.org)
  • Objective- In the present study, we (1) evaluated the apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE −/− ) mouse aortic root as a model for expansive remodeling in atherosclerosis and (2) examined whether remodeling at this site was due to dilation of the vessel wall beneath or flanking the plaque. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dr. Akhtar also cited a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in February 2013, which revealed that, as the title of the study purports, "Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases. (all-creatures.org)
  • It's an initial study, a few animals. (wired.com)
  • A study in Biofabrication used bioprinting to create a cervical cancer model from HeLa cells encapsulated in a hydrogel mixture. (corning.com)
  • Mono-culture models of cell migration have been successfully used to study aggressive proliferation and migration. (corning.com)
  • Caco-2 based cell models have been the gold standard in vitro method to study intestinal drug permeability, despite the absence of many important features with major influence in the drug absorption mechanism. (controlledreleasesociety.org)
  • Thus, the triple co-culture model presented in the herein work is a good and reliable alternative to the in vitro methods already existents for the study of drugs permeability. (controlledreleasesociety.org)
  • The emerging field of brain organoids, which are three-dimensional self-assembled multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells, offers a promising complementary cellular model for the study of the human brain. (ca.gov)
  • Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. (scielo.br)
  • Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. (asm.org)
  • This study was undertaken to develop an animal model, which would explore the association between viral infection and pulmonary fibrosis. (ersjournals.com)
  • Animal welfare is at the heart of our mission, and it is a growing, dynamic field of study. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • There will be opportunities to study welfare and behaviour across a range of species, including farm, companion, laboratory and zoo animals. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The study of human diseases continues to be a priority in today's day and age. (timesofmalta.com)
  • The latter has been instrumental in the study of bone physiology, fracture repair and in identifying drugs to treat human bone diseases. (timesofmalta.com)
  • Zebrafish represent a versatile model possessing many other advantages that can be used to study a wide range of human diseases and might also help in finding a cure for such diseases. (timesofmalta.com)
  • These hPSC-derived BMECs serve as a robust human in vitro BBB model that can be used to study brain disease and inform therapeutic development. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is no suitable preclinical model to study potential strategies for preventing or delaying squamous cell carcinoma in FA. (fanconi.org)
  • Adoption of the model presented in this study could usefully inform avian cholera surveillance strategies, making them significantly simpler and more effective. (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of the present study was to quantify the relationship between climate factors and outbreaks of avian cholera in subtropical areas of China, Guangxi, in order to provide information for veterinary professionals and relevant industries operating in this area that may enable better disease control and prevention, and in particular to inform and improve the forecasting of avian cholera outbreaks and likely fluctuations in incidence. (scielo.br)
  • In a seminal study of 1999, Schwartz and colleagues demonstrated that the same autoimmune T cells that can cause an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a common model for multiple sclerosis) can also be harnessed to protect injured CNS tissue from secondary degeneration following a traumatic insult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only does a rodent's small brain often preclude the use of advanced neuroimaging techniques, it is also not clear how intracerebral application of trophic factors, transplant therapies, and gene therapies in small animals might translate to the much larger human brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This module will provide a comprehensive overview of genetics from molecules to populations, and how genetics can be applied to increase our understanding of diseases and in the design of new therapies to treat them. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can theoretically generate unlimited quantities of any cell lineage in vitro, including BMECs, for disease modeling, drug screening, and cell-based therapies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Favorable results could have implications for improving early disease detection and paving the way toward potential therapies. (mda.org)
  • The female mouse genital tract is susceptible to infection with both Chlamydia muridarum ( 9 ) and C. trachomatis ( 10 ), which has resulted in the establishment of two murine models: the C. trachomatis mouse model and the C. muridarum mouse model. (asm.org)
  • Along with others we have proposed strategies to address many of these problems, including for instance multicentre preclinical animal studies . (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of hiPSC-derived neurons in the modeling and treatment of neurological diseases related to dopaminergic and cholinergic system dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the limited access to neuronal samples from postmortem organs and the restricted possibilities for directly examining live human neurons, the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism of these diseases is restricted. (hindawi.com)
  • Systemic injection of sodium iodate has considerable effects on RPE, photoreceptors, and inner nuclear layer neurons, and provides a model to assay reconstitution and maturation of RPE cell transplants. (arvojournals.org)
  • As an alternative to animal models, cerebellar neurons differentiated from pluripotent stem cells have been used. (stemcell.com)
  • Treatment options that are high in efficacy and low in side effects are still lacking for many diseases and, in some cases are nonexistent. (nap.edu)
  • Now, complex aspects of cancer like metastasis can be modeled and studied, and the efficacy and toxicity of drugs can be tested more realistically and rapidly. (corning.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the efficacy of abatacept in preclinical mouse models of digestive involvement, pulmonary fibrosis, and related pulmonary hypertension (PH), mimicking internal organ involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The book brings together the current knowledge and future perspectives of the complex physiology and pathophysiology of gut-liver interactions in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Thus, a better understanding of the immune system and its interactions with other physiological systems is key in addressing diseases. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: We estimated country-specific influenza-associated respiratory excess mortality rates (EMR) for 33 countries using time series log-linear regression models with vital death records and influenza surveillance data. (cdc.gov)
  • INTERPRETATION: These global influenza-associated respiratory mortality estimates are higher than previously reported, suggesting that previous estimates might have underestimated disease burden. (cdc.gov)
  • In most cases, the main problem is an immune or inflammatory response causing excessive organ damage," explains Prof. Dr. Andreas Hocke of Charité's Department of Internal Medicine - Infectiology and Respiratory Diseases Unit. (idw-online.de)
  • Such models remain in use to dissect the molecular events of globin gene regulation and to identify novel treatments based upon the reactivation of developmentally silenced γ-globin. (nih.gov)
  • Further understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive CD4 + T cells may lead to disease-specific treatments. (wiley.com)
  • Currently, many neurological diseases show dramatically increasing trends and, with the aging populations of developed countries, potential treatments are needed urgently. (hindawi.com)
  • We must know the limitations of the models if we're going to provide successful treatments," Kriegstein said. (ucsf.edu)
  • This practice reflects that of academic science, in which potential treatments are first tested and published using animal models before they are translated to the clinic. (blogspot.com)
  • At MDA, we take a big picture perspective across the full spectrum of neuromuscular diseases to uncover scientific and medical breakthroughs that accelerate treatments and cures. (mda.org)
  • COPD is the only major disease rising in mortality and prevalence in the USA. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Objective To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. (bmj.com)
  • Main outcome measures Mortality from stroke or heart disease as the underlying cause of death and dose-response relations with atomic bomb radiation. (bmj.com)
  • The effects of radiation on incidence of or mortality from circulatory disease have large implications for public health, especially if effects occur at doses under 1 Gy. (bmj.com)
  • Lyme disease (LD) is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the U.S., with over 36,429 confirmed and probable cases in 2016. (health.mil)
  • In 2016 we invested £400k in an infrastructure award to support the development of a process to provide fully ethically consented, post-mortem human normal and diseased lung tissue to the UK scientific community thereby reducing the need for animal tissue. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Strategies directed against the huntingtin gene in the brain are an important part of CHDI's therapeutic portfolio", says David Howland, PhD, Director of Model Systems at CHDI. (medindia.net)
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viruses have the potential to modify cellular function resulting in disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • We were able to analyze the ways in which viruses and bacteria interact with human alveoli during the first hours following infection, and we were able to show that these differ from those seen in animal models," says Dr. Johanna Berg, a researcher who is also the study's first author. (idw-online.de)
  • Although induced mutations in traditional laboratory animals have been valuable as models for human diseases, they have some important limitations. (nih.gov)
  • The highest-profile vaccine and treatment trials done on animals (including tests of the antiviral drug remdesivir) have been conducted only in Rhesus macaques, one of the most plentiful species of laboratory monkeys. (wired.com)
  • It's illegal to deliberately infect human volunteers ( though this may change if health authorities allow challenge trials ), but laboratory animals are easy to isolate and observe, and they can be subjected to invasive procedures and tissue sampling. (wired.com)
  • As is also imbedded in the European guidelines for the accommodation and care of laboratory animals (European Directive 2010/63/EU and the Commission Recommendation 2007/526/EC). (noldus.com)
  • Adopting an experimental approach that allows, as much as possible, the occurrence of ethological needs, i.e. self-rewarding behaviors of laboratory animals is certainly a challenge. (noldus.com)
  • All animals were treated in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals as adopted by INSERM, and approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of our University. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, the AAV-TGF-β1 fibrosis model showed several disease-like pathophenotypes monitored by micro-computed tomography imaging and lung function measurement. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the Fra-2 model, abatacept alleviated ILD, with a significant reduction in lung density on chest microcomputed tomography (CT), fibrosis histological score, and lung biochemical markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FEV1) in those without clinically significant lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • As the most frequently reported vector-borne disease among active component U.S. service members, with an incidence rate of 16 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2011, Lyme disease poses both a challenge to healthcare providers in the Military Health System and a threat to military readiness. (health.mil)
  • The incidence of animal exposures in this county is higher than in the United States ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To describe the spatial epidemiology and identify risk factors for disease incidence, we analyzed 8 years (1999-2006) of county-based human WNV disease surveillance data. (cdc.gov)
  • These results quantify urbanization as a risk factor for WNV disease incidence and are consistent with knowledge of vector species in this area. (cdc.gov)
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a devastating chronic metabolic disease whose incidence has been rising at alarming rates during the last decade [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In particular, this remains to be determined in southern China where the incidence of the disease is higher than other regions of the country, and where specific geographical features and distinct weather patterns prevail. (scielo.br)
  • Since most current APP mouse models overexpress the transgene throughout life, they might miss the effects of experimental drugs, she said. (alzforum.org)
  • The BSc Animal Biology, Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics builds on our international reputation in this field. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the infectious virus source, establishment of experimental animal models, and completion of sequencing the virus genome have positioned us to pursue the development of vaccines for control of the disease. (usda.gov)