A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/970)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Development of the temporal lobe in infants and children: analysis by MR-based volumetry. (2/970)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent advances in data-processing techniques have allowed more accurate MR-based volumetric measurement than was possible in the past. The purpose of this study was to use this technique to evaluate the development of the temporal lobes in childhood. METHODS: The study group consisted of 42 subjects aged 3 weeks to 14 years (mean age, 5 years), all with normal findings on a routine MR study and none with a history of epilepsy. MR images were acquired on a 1.0-T system using a T1-weighted 3D ultrafast gradient-echo sequence. The volumes of the hippocampal formations and temporal lobes were measured by using a workstation, and the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes was calculated. Myelination in the limbic system and related structures was also evaluated. RESULTS: The volume of the hippocampal formations increased sharply until the age of 2 years, and continued to increase slowly thereafter. However, the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes showed a negative correlation with age. The hippocampal formations on the right side were larger than those on the left in 38 cases (91%), and the anterior temporal lobes on the right were larger than those on the left in 32 cases (76%). This right-left asymmetry of the hippocampal formations and anterior temporal lobes was observed from early infancy, and these differences were statistically significant. A longitudinal fasciculus of high signal intensity was seen in the white matter beneath the subiculum by about 3 months of age. CONCLUSION: MR-based volumetry established developmental characteristics of the temporal lobe, such as a hippocampal growth spurt, a growth difference between the hippocampal formation and the rest of the temporal lobe, and right-left asymmetry. Knowledge of these characteristics may aid in the understanding of hippocampal and temporal lobe abnormalities in children.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR-mRNA) by maternal deprivation in immature rat hypothalamus and limbic regions. (3/970)

Maternal deprivation (MDep) of neonatal rats significantly influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study hypothesized that GR-mRNA modulation constituted an early, critical mechanism for the acute effects of MDep on neuroendocrine stress-responses. GR-mRNA hybridization signal in hippocampal CA1, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and frontal cortex was significantly reduced immediately following 24 h MDep. In amygdala, cingulate cortex, PVN and CA1, apparent gender-dependent MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression were observed, without significant differences in absolute levels. Thus, rapid, region-specific MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression in HPA-regulating areas are shown, consistent with involvement of GR-expression in mechanisms of MDep influence on HPA tone.  (+info)

Involvement of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas of the rodent prefrontal cortex in behavioral flexibility for place and response learning. (4/970)

The present experiments investigated the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in behavioral flexibility using a place-response learning paradigm. All rats received a bilateral cannula implant aimed at the prelimbic-infralimbic areas. To examine the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in shifting strategies, rats were tested on a place and a response discrimination in a cross-maze. Some rats were tested on the place version first followed by the response version. The procedure for the other rats was reversed. Infusions of 2% tetracaine into the prelimbic-infralimbic areas did not impair acquisition of the place or response discriminations. Prelimbic-infralimbic inactivation did impair learning when rats were switched from one discrimination to the other (cross-modal shift). To investigate the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in intramodal shifts (reversal learning), one group of rats was tested on a place reversal and another group tested on a response reversal. Prelimbic-infralimbic inactivation did not impair place or response intramodal shifts. Some rats that completed testing on a particular version in the cross-modal and intramodal experiments were tested on the same version in a new room for 3 d. The transfer tests revealed that rats use a spatial strategy on the place version and an egocentric response strategy on the response version. Overall, these results suggest that the prelimbic-infralimbic areas are important for behavioral flexibility involving cross-modal but not intramodal shifts.  (+info)

The connectional organization of the cortico-thalamic system of the cat. (5/970)

Data on connections between the areas of the cerebral cortex and nuclei of the thalamus are too complicated to analyse with naked intuition. Indeed, the complexity of connection data is one of the major challenges facing neuroanatomy. Recently, systematic methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the connectivity in the cerebral cortex. These approaches have shed light on the gross organization of the cortical network, have made it possible to test systematically theories of cortical organization, and have guided new electrophysiological studies. This paper extends the approach to investigate the organization of the entire cortico-thalamic network. An extensive collation of connection tracing studies revealed approximately 1500 extrinsic connections between the cortical areas and thalamic nuclei of the cat cerebral hemisphere. Around 850 connections linked 53 cortical areas with each other, and around 650 connections linked the cortical areas with 42 thalamic nuclei. Non-metric multidimensional scaling, optimal set analysis and non-parametric cluster analysis were used to study global connectivity and the 'place' of individual structures within the overall scheme. Thalamic nuclei and cortical areas were in intimate connectional association. Connectivity defined four major thalamo-cortical systems. These included three broadly hierarchical sensory or sensory/motor systems (visual and auditory systems and a single system containing both somatosensory and motor structures). The highest stations of these sensory/motor systems were associated with a fourth processing system composed of prefrontal, cingulate, insular and parahippocampal cortex and associated thalamic nuclei (the 'fronto-limbic system'). The association between fronto-limbic and somato-motor systems was particularly close.  (+info)

A serologic marker of paraneoplastic limbic and brain-stem encephalitis in patients with testicular cancer. (6/970)

BACKGROUND: In patients with cancer, symptoms of limbic and brain-stem dysfunction may result from a paraneoplastic disorder. Paraneoplastic limbic or brain-stem encephalitis occurs more frequently with testicular cancer than with most other cancers. We sought antineuronal antibodies that might be used in a diagnostic test for this syndrome. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques were used to detect serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Serologic screening of a complementary DNA library and Northern blotting were used to clone the target antigen and determine which tissues expressed it. RESULTS: Of 13 patients with testicular cancer and paraneoplastic limbic or brain-stem encephalitis (or both), 10 had antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid against a 40-kd neuronal protein. These antibodies were used to clone a gene that we call Ma2, which codes for a protein (Ma2) that was recognized by serum from the 10 patients, but not by serum from 344 control subjects. Ma2 was selectively expressed by normal brain tissue and by the testicular tumors of the patients. Ma2 shares homology with Ma1, a "brain-testis-cancer" gene related to other paraneoplastic syndromes and tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The serum of patients with subacute limbic and brain-stem dysfunction and testicular cancer contains antibodies against a protein found in normal brain and in testicular tumors. Detection of these antibodies supports the paraneoplastic origin of the neurologic disorder and could be of diagnostic importance.  (+info)

Febrile seizures in the developing brain result in persistent modification of neuronal excitability in limbic circuits. (7/970)

Febrile (fever-induced) seizures affect 3-5% of infants and young children. Despite the high incidence of febrile seizures, their contribution to the development of epilepsy later in life has remained controversial. Combining a new rat model of complex febrile seizures and patch clamp techniques, we determined that hyperthermia-induced seizures in the immature rat cause a selective presynaptic increase in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus that lasts into adulthood. The long-lasting nature of these potent alterations in synaptic communication after febrile seizures does not support the prevalent view of the 'benign' nature of early-life febrile convulsions.  (+info)

Functional implications of the subunit composition of neuronal CaM kinase II. (8/970)

The assembly of 6-12 subunits of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM kinase II) into holoenzymes is an important structural feature of the enzyme and its postulated role as a molecular detector of Ca(2+) oscillations. Using single cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we show that alpha- and beta-CaM kinase II mRNAs are simultaneously present in the majority of hippocampal neurons examined and that co-assembly of their protein products into heteromers is therefore possible. The subunit composition of CaM kinase II holoenzymes was analyzed by immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies. Rat forebrain CaM kinase II consists of heteromers composed of alpha and beta subunits at a ratio of 2:1 and homomers composed of only alpha subunits. We examined the functional effect of the heteromeric assembly by analyzing the calmodulin dependence of autophosphorylation. Recombinant homomers of alpha- or beta-CaM kinase II, as well as of alternatively spliced beta isoforms, have distinct calmodulin dependences for autophosphorylation based on differences in their calmodulin affinities. Half-maximal autophosphorylation of alpha is achieved at 130 nM calmodulin, while that for beta occurs at 15 nM calmodulin. In CaM kinase II isolated from rat forebrain, however, the calmodulin dependence for autophosphorylation of the beta subunits is shifted toward that of alpha homomers. This suggests that Thr(287) in beta subunits is phosphorylated by alpha subunits present in the same holoenzyme. Once autophosphorylated, beta-CaM kinase II traps calmodulin by reducing the rate of calmodulin dissociation.  (+info)

The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the brain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus, and other nearby areas. It's associated with emotional responses, instinctual behaviors, motivation, long-term memory formation, and olfaction (smell). The limbic system is also involved in the modulation of visceral functions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual drive.

The structures within the limbic system communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and the cortex, to regulate various physiological and psychological processes. Dysfunctions in the limbic system can lead to a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of memory impairment.

The mamillary bodies are a pair of small, round structures located in the hypothalamus region of the brain. They play a crucial role in the limbic system, which is involved in emotions, memory, and learning. Specifically, the mamillary bodies are part of the circuit that forms the Papez circuit, a neural network responsible for memory and cognitive functions.

The mamillary bodies receive inputs from several brain regions, including the hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, and cingulate gyrus. They then project this information to the thalamus, which in turn sends it to the cerebral cortex for further processing.

Damage to the mamillary bodies can result in memory impairment, as seen in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, a condition often associated with chronic alcohol abuse.

Ageusia is a medical term that refers to the complete loss of taste. It can affect a person's ability to detect sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory flavors. Ageusia can be caused by various factors such as damage to the nerves responsible for transmitting taste signals to the brain, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation therapy, and some medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and upper respiratory infections. In some cases, ageusia may be temporary, while in others, it can be permanent. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing a loss of taste, as it could be a sign of an underlying health issue.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The fornix, in the context of brain anatomy, is a bundle of nerve fibers that arises from the hippocampus, a major component of the limbic system associated with memory and spatial navigation. The fornix plays a crucial role in conveying information between different parts of the brain.

The fornix has two primary divisions: the precommissural fornix and the postcommissural fornix. The precommissural fornix contains fibers that originate from the hippocampus and the subiculum, while the postcommissural fornix consists of fibers that originate from the septal nuclei and other structures in the limbic system.

The two divisions of the fornix join together to form a structure called the body of the fornix, which then curves around the thalamus and continues as the crura (plural of crus) of the fornix. The crura split into two columns that pass through the interventricular foramen and terminate in the hypothalamus, specifically at the mammillary bodies.

The fornix is an essential structure for memory function, particularly episodic memory (memory of specific events or episodes). Damage to the fornix can result in various cognitive impairments, including memory loss and difficulties with spatial navigation.

The diencephalon is a term used in anatomy to refer to the part of the brain that lies between the cerebrum and the midbrain. It includes several important structures, such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus.

The thalamus is a major relay station for sensory information, receiving input from all senses except smell and sending it to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. It also produces hormones that regulate mood, growth, and development.

The epithalamus contains the pineal gland, which produces melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles. The subthalamus is involved in motor control and coordination.

Overall, the diencephalon plays a critical role in integrating sensory information, regulating autonomic functions, and modulating behavior and emotion.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

The anterior thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei in the thalamus, which is a part of the brain. The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei, specifically, are involved in various functions such as memory, navigation, and arousal. They receive inputs from the hippocampus and other limbic structures and project to the cingulate gyrus and other areas of the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The Septum Pellucidum is a thin, delicate, and almost transparent partition in the brain that separates the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. It consists of two laminae (plates) that fuse together during fetal development, forming a single structure. The Septum Pellucidum is an essential component of the brain's ventricular system and plays a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the brain. Any abnormalities or damage to the Septum Pellucidum can lead to neurological disorders or cognitive impairments.

The thalamus is a large, paired structure in the brain that serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. It is located in the dorsal part of the diencephalon and is made up of two symmetrical halves, each connected to the corresponding cerebral hemisphere.

The thalamus receives inputs from almost all senses, except for the olfactory system, and processes them before sending them to specific areas in the cortex. It also plays a role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Additionally, the thalamus is involved in motor control by relaying information between the cerebellum and the motor cortex.

The thalamus is divided into several nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Some of these nuclei are involved in sensory processing, while others are involved in motor function or regulation of emotions and cognition. Overall, the thalamus plays a critical role in integrating information from various brain regions and modulating cognitive and emotional processes.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The pons is a part of the brainstem that lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. Its name comes from the Latin word "ponte" which means "bridge," as it serves to connect these two regions of the brainstem. The pons contains several important structures, including nerve fibers that carry signals between the cerebellum (the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements) and the rest of the nervous system. It also contains nuclei (clusters of neurons) that help regulate various functions such as respiration, sleep, and facial movements.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Fos, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They can be activated or overexpressed due to genetic alterations, leading to the formation of cancerous cells. The c-Fos protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein involved in signal transduction pathways and forms a heterodimer with c-Jun to create the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex. This complex binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby regulating the expression of target genes that contribute to various cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of c-Fos can result in uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation, contributing to tumor development and progression.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

The limbic system is where the subcortical structures meet the cerebral cortex. The limbic system operates by influencing the ... "Chapter 9 - Limbic System". Retrieved 9 January 2015.: Rajmohan V, Mohandas E (2007). "The limbic system". Indian Journal of ... Another integrative part of the limbic system, the amygdala, which is the deepest part of the limbic system, is involved in ... Rolls, Edmund T. (January 2015). "Limbic systems for emotion and for memory, but no single limbic system". Cortex. 62: 119-157 ...
... (LAMP) 64- to 68-kDa heavily glycosylated protein found in neurons, specifically it ... Pimenta, A. F.; Fischer, I.; Levitt, P. (1996-05-08). "cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human limbic-system- ... Innos, Jürgen; Koido, Kati; Philips, Mari-Anne; Vasar, Eero (2013-03-26). "Limbic system associated membrane protein as a ... is distributed in cortical and subcortical regions of the limbic system. LAMP protein is expressed on the surface of somata and ...
The limbic lobe is an arc-shaped cortical region of the limbic system, on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere of the ... Nieuwenhuys, R; Voogd, J; van Huijzen, C (2008). "The greater limbic system". The human central nervous system (fourth ed.). ... Limbic lobe highlighted in green on coronal T1 MRI images Limbic lobe highlighted in green on sagittal T1 MRI images Limbic ... Limbic lobe (shown in red) of left cerebral hemisphere. Limbic lobe (shown in orange) of left cerebral hemisphere. Limbic lobe ...
... is a psychological concept associated with the limbic system. The limbic system includes the structures of the ... It is said that male and female limbic systems are different. The use of the limbic system also differs in the sense that women ... "Limbic System Therapy". In this therapy, the patients participate in physical experiences that contradict the limbic imprint. ... Limbic System, Visuocognitive System : Remembering Ans Hey. Montrouge, France: John Libbey Eurotext. p. 163. ISBN 9782742008254 ...
... is the idea that the capacity for sharing deep emotional states arises from the limbic system of the brain. ... Limbic revision is the therapeutic alteration of personality residing in the human limbic system of the brain. Dr. Allan Schore ... Shore looks at the contribution of the limbic system to the preservation of the species, its role in forming social bonds with ... In the latter book, Goleman considers the "open loop nature of the brain's limbic system" which depends on external sources to ...
"The Limbic System". webspace.ship.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-25. "Cortisol , Hormone Health Network". www.hormone.org. Retrieved ... The sympathetic nervous system is one of two divisions under the autonomic nervous system, it functions involuntarily and one ... which is where cognitive thinking experience and the amygdala being part of the limbic system is responsible for involuntary ... Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2015, Koloa, Hawaii) Hawaii International ...
... and the limbic system, of which the hippocampus is a part, is one of the oldest systems in the brain, it is likely that the ... Rajmohan, V.; Mohandas, E. (April-June 2007). "The limbic system". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 49 (2): 132-139. doi:10.4103/ ... ISBN 978-1-4615-3824-0. Albrecht, J.; Wiesmann, M. (August 2006). "Das olfaktorische System des Menschen". Der Nervenarzt. 77 ( ... archicortex was one of the first types of tissue to develop in primitive nervous systems. Archicortical precursor cells are ...
The term limbic system was introduced in 1952 by Paul MacLean to describe the set of structures that line the deep edge of the ... "Chapter 9: Limbic System". www.dartmouth.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2016-12-16. Andersen P, ... The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term ... Roxo MR, Franceschini PR, Zubaran C, Kleber FD, Sander JW (2011). "The limbic system conception and its historical evolution". ...
Nieuwenhuys, R; Voogd, J; van Huijzen, C (2008). "The greater limbic system". The human central nervous system (fourth ed.). ... Martin, JH (2003). "Lymbic system and cerebral circuits for emotions, learning, and memory". Neuroanatomy: text and atlas ( ... the hippocampal formation was thought to be part of the olfactory system. In 1937 Papez theorized that a circuit including the ... the current view is that the hippocampal formation is not an integral part of the olfactory system. In 1900, the Russian ...
Brain Anatomy & Limbic System. (2000). Retrieved November 11, 2014, from http://www.brightfocus.org/alzheimers/about/ ... doi:10.1016/0025-5564(70)90147-1. Hopfield, J.J. (1982). "Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective ... although there is evidence depicting long-term memory is stored in various parts of the nervous system. Long-term memory is ... to the ability to hold information for a prolonged time and is possibly the most complex component of the human memory system. ...
Cerebral cortex, Limbic system). ... suggest that it is part of a larger semantic system that is ...
Wright A. "Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne JH (ed.). Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University ... "Revealing the ventral amygdalofugal pathway of the human limbic system using high spatial resolution diffusion tensor ... " "the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and its connections with the nigral dopamine system have been reported to modulate ...
... activation of the limbic system; drugs; retinal ischemia; and processes linked to rapid eye-movement sleep or phenomena ... University of Virginia Health System - Division of Perceptual Studies Links to 290 online NDE Scientific Papers (Articles with ...
Limbic system mediLexicon: Definition: 'Juxtallocortex'. http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=46602 Mesulam, 2000 ... Limbic Seizures in Children. John Libbey Eurotext, 2001, p. 13 Almut Schuez, Robert Miller. Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversity ... Reep R. Relationship between prefrontal and limbic cortex: a comparative anatomical review. Brain Behav Evol. 1984;25(1):5-80 ... while the paralimbic cortex is the cortical areas that lie close to the subcortical limbic structures or over them. There was ...
Her alternative rock and electropop EP, Limbic System, was released on June 24, 2016, containing seven songs. "Limbic System" ... The remix EP, Limbic System: Reimagined, was released on June 9, 2017, and features music remixed by Jon Santana, Sleeping Lion ... Since then, she has released a second, Limbic System, and third EP, A Weekend in Maine. Angela Kristine Miller was born on ... "Zealyn Releases Limbic System: Reimagined". WithGuitars. June 9, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2019. ZEALYN (May 16, 2019). "Hi, it's ...
Wright A. "Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne JH (ed.). Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University ... The endocannabinoid system and the orexin system mediate many of the same cognitive and physical effects, and a significant ... overlap and systemic cross-talk between the endocannabinoid system and orexin system within the central nervous system. Through ... CB1 is present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons in the ...
Endocrine system, Limbic system, Neuroendocrinology, Human female endocrine system). ... As part of the limbic system, it has connections to other limbic structures including the amygdala and septum, and is also ... "Emotion and the limbic system". utdallas.edu. Lucien T. "Tres" Thompson, The University of Texas at Dallas. Retrieved 7 ... The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms ...
"New component of the limbic system; Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of ... The limbic system is a group of unique brain areas that work together in many interrelated processes involved in emotion, ... Current thinking indicates that the limbic system shares anatomy with a component of the neostriatum already credited with the ... A special membrane protein associated with the limbic system is said to concentrate in related structures and to travel towards ...
Gloor, P. (1997). The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509272-4. v t e (Cerebrum, All stub ...
Limbic System - Muzyka w Interia.pl". Muzyka.interia.pl. 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2015-07-26. "iTunes - Music - Limbic System by ... are comparing Rootwater's music to System of a Down's music, which is probably caused by a similar use of native "folkish" ...
It is part of the limbic system. The amygdala projects to various structures in the brain including the hypothalamus, the ... The cingulate gyrus plays a key role in the limbic system's emotion formation and processing. The cingulate cortex is separated ... These waves are responsible for the synchronization of different brain regions, especially the limbic system. In rats, theta ... Komisaruk, B. R. (1970). "Synchrony between limbic system theta activity and rhythmical behavior in rats". Journal of ...
Structure and function of the limbic system. Elsevier. pp. 228-229. ISBN 9780080861524. Buckingham, RL; Radulovacki, M (1975 ... Adey, W. Ross (1967-01-01). "Hippocampal states and functional relations with corticosubcortical systems in attention and ...
1967 "The limbic system and behavioural reinforcement." Progress in Brain Research. 27 144-64. "The central nervous system and ... ISBN 978-0-309-06644-0.; also published as PDF Olds, James human nervous system :: Reward and punishment - Britannica Online ...
The fornix is part of the limbic system. While its exact function and importance in the physiology of the brain are still not ... This supports the idea that damage to any part of the extended hippocampal memory system causes similar memory deficits. Other ...
... and limbic systems. This system communicates its evaluation of the visceral state to the rest of the central nervous system. ... Edelman calls this system the limbic-brain stem system. The thalamus is the gateway to the neocortex for all senses except ... He likes to contrast the differences between redundancy in an engineered system and degeneracy in a biological system. He ... one the limbic-brain stem system which is primarily dedicated to "appetitive, consumatory, and defensive behavior"; The other ...
In some cases, the limbic system is affected, too. Most patients have upper motor neuron issues and autonomic disturbances. ... ISBN 978-0-12-417127-5. The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system ... Syndromes affecting the nervous system, Rare syndromes). ...
Brown S, Martinez MJ, Parsons LM (September 2004). "Passive music listening spontaneously engages limbic and paralimbic systems ... It is also sometimes grouped with limbic structures deep in the brain into a limbic lobe.[citation needed] As a paralimbic ... It has a role in regulating the immune system. The insula has been identified as playing a role in the experience of bodily ... The insular cortex, in particular its most anterior portion, is considered a limbic-related cortex. The insula has increasingly ...
The limbic system includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. The neocortex includes the cortex and the cerebrum. It ... Computational models of a well simulated nervous system enable learning the nervous system and apply it to real life problem ... system) levels. Computational modeling refers to models that are developed using computing tools. The nervous system consists ... Each of the three brains is connected by nerves to the other two, but each seems to operate as its own brain system with ...
Although the disease is known as "limbic" encephalitis, it is seldom limited to the limbic system and post-mortem studies ... Limbic encephalitis is broadly grouped into two types: paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and non-paraneoplastic limbic ... Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain. Limbic encephalitis is ... Limbic encephalitis associated with cancer or tumors is called paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.[citation needed] The ...
The limbic system is where the subcortical structures meet the cerebral cortex. The limbic system operates by influencing the ... "Chapter 9 - Limbic System". Retrieved 9 January 2015.: Rajmohan V, Mohandas E (2007). "The limbic system". Indian Journal of ... Another integrative part of the limbic system, the amygdala, which is the deepest part of the limbic system, is involved in ... Rolls, Edmund T. (January 2015). "Limbic systems for emotion and for memory, but no single limbic system". Cortex. 62: 119-157 ...
The limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus and amygdala, is involved in the formation of long-term ... The limbic system of the brain is a group of structures which govern emotions and behavior. ... The limbic system of the brain is a group of structures which govern emotions and behavior. The limbic system, and in ...
The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional, or motivational salience, ... The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, ... In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors and how these ... In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits ...
Limbic System. A group of evolutionarily older brain limbic system structures that encircle the top of the brain stem.. The ... There is no consensus on the structures that are considered a part of the limbic system, but some that are often included are ... limbic structures play complex roles in emotions, instincts, and appetitive behaviors. ...
Protein target information for Limbic system-associated membrane protein (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this ...
Hanson GR Differential responses by neurotensin systems in extrapyramidal and limbic structures to ibogaine and cocaine Brain ... "Differential responses by neurotensin systems in extrapyramidal and limbic structures to ibogaine and cocaine". ... "Differential responses by neurotensin systems in extrapyramidal and limbic structures to ibogaine and cocaine" Brain Res. 1999 ... These data suggest that NT may contribute to an interaction between ibogaine and the DA system and may participate in the ...
Study Limbic System flashcards from Katie Whyte's st Andrews university class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or ... the primary limbic cortex. thesis a higher level of processing emotion and is combined with the top down functions of the ... Determines tonic limbic activity and dynamic mood state. • Also processes descending pain paths from PAG to DRN to spinal cord ... also as a side note remember that the insulation is also considered to be part of the limbic cortex ...
Limbic CEO featured speaker at NAF convening. Limbic NewsBy admin. January 21, 2019. ... President of Limbic Systems and co-chair of the DC Executive Advisory… ...
Do people with IBD have limbic system impairment?. Can DNRS work for ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease?. How much does DNRS ... Dynamic Neural Retraining System: Can DNRS Work for IBD?. Alyssa Luck · May 5, 2022. · Leave a Comment ... The Dynamic Neural Retraining System, or DNRS, is one of those programs that appears to toe the line between "this is totally ... Summary: The Dynamic Neural Retraining System was created by Annie Hopper to heal herself from severe multiple chemical ...
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The small, almond-shaped structure in your limbic system which is. on alert when you are depressed or anxious. ... Click here for more about my Award Winning Limbic Performance System Online Programme:. http://stevenealeinternational.com/ ...
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TABLE 19-2Major Limbic System Connections.. View Table,,Download (.pdf). TABLE 19-2 Major Limbic System Connections. Structure ... THE LIMBIC LOBE AND LIMBIC SYSTEM. ++. The limbic lobe was so named because this cortical complex forms a limbus (border) ... TABLE 19-1Components of the Limbic System and Neocortex.. View Table,,Download (.pdf). TABLE 19-1 Components of the Limbic ... More recent authorities revised the concept of the limbic lobe and refer to the limbic system, which includes the functionally ...
What is a major function of the limbic system? Explain. What is a major function of the limbic system? Explain your answer. ...
Limbic System Therapy. As Recommended by EiR Members:. DNRS 2.0 OUT NOW!. Improved in every way through Research & Patient ...
Limbic System Therapy. As Recommended by EiR Members:. DNRS 2.0 OUT NOW!. Improved in every way through Research & Patient ...
Dive into the research topics of Sweets for my sweet: modulation of the limbic system drives salience for sweet foods after ... title = "Sweets for my sweet: modulation of the limbic system drives salience for sweet foods after deep brain stimulation in ... Sweets for my sweet: modulation of the limbic system drives salience for sweet foods after deep brain stimulation in ... Sweets for my sweet: modulation of the limbic system drives salience for sweet foods after deep brain stimulation in ...
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of limbic system pathology in Huntington disease. *Bergh, Sofia (Research student) ... We hypothesize that this causes early pathology in the limbic system and the development of non-motor features of HD. Similar ... overall aims of the project are therefore to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathology in the limbic system ...
Limbic encephalitis in humans is regarded as a regional autoimmune encephalitis that predominantly affects the limbic system. ... In the case we describe, VSBV-1 in the central nervous system of the zoo worker was in a limbic distribution. In a rat model, ... Moreover, for patients with signs of limbic encephalitis without underlying autoimmunopathology (seronegative limbic ... Modoni A, Masciullo M, Spinelli P, Marra C, Tartaglione T, Andreetta F, et al. Successful treatment of acute autoimmune limbic ...
Limbic System and Second Language Acquisition: Reconsidering the Role of Emotion. January 2014 ... Henceforth, as to the present writers, investigating the function of learners limbic system in SLA will contribute to our ... is generally based on the limbic system, the present paper insists that SLA in a ... [Show full abstract] natural setting ... in the declarative system, while males tend to rule-compute them in the procedural system in real time. Recall that no ...
Limbic system: The temporal lobe is an important component of the limbic system, which is responsible for learning, emotions ( ... Due to the presence of the limbic system, the temporal lobe contributes to a variety of autonomic states and physiological ... Brain and Nervous System: Whats Causing My Loss of Smell and Taste?. If you plug your nose, nothing tastes the same. Taste and ... Brain and Nervous System: Conditions That Can Cause Hallucinations. What medical conditions are known to cause auditory or ...
Limbic system. This system is the center for emotional thinking and contains the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala and ...
2019) The cingulate cortex and limbic systems for emotion, action, and memory. Brain Structure and Function, 224 . pp. 3001- ... Cerebral cortex -- Physiology, Brain stimulation, Limbic system , Hippocampus (Brain), Emotions and cognition, Memory -- ... WRAP-cingulate-cortex-limbic-emotion-action-memory-Rolls-2019.pdf - Accepted Version Embargoed item. Restricted access to ... WRAP-The-cingulate cortex-limbic-emotion-action-Rolls-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. Available under ...
This essay explores the link between the limbic/hypothalamic systems within the complex conditions of hydrocephalus and ... What then are the capacities and activities of these central nervous system components - the limbic and hypothalamic systems - ... The ancient limbic and hypothalamic systems leave indelible tell-tale hints that should not be left behind in our quest for ... The limbic system consists of structures reminiscent of the old mammalian brain corresponding to that of the so-called higher ...
The limbic system consists of areas of the brain called the hippocampus and septal area. The limbic system controls emotions ... Because alcohol affects emotional centers in the limbic system, alcoholics can become anxious, depressed, and even suicidal. ... As alcohol affects this system, the person is subject to exaggerated states of emotion (anger, aggressiveness, withdrawal) and ...
Alterations in glucocorticoid inducible RNAs in the limbic system of learned helpless rats. / Lachman, Herbert M.; Papolos, ... Alterations in glucocorticoid inducible RNAs in the limbic system of learned helpless rats. Brain research. 1993 Apr 23;609(1-2 ... Alterations in glucocorticoid inducible RNAs in the limbic system of learned helpless rats. In: Brain research. 1993 ; Vol. 609 ... Dive into the research topics of Alterations in glucocorticoid inducible RNAs in the limbic system of learned helpless rats. ...
Limbic system infarction. Faris AA. Faris AA. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1967 Jan;26(1):174. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1967. ...
Role of the Limbic System[edit , edit source]. The limbic system is a collection of structures including the cerebrum, ... Kiddle Limbic system facts for kids Available from: https://kids.kiddle.co/Limbic_system (accessed 28.12.2020) ... The limbic system helps us process emotions such as fear, pleasure, and anger, and also helps control our drives (e.g. hunger ... The limbic system is dynamic, and can change in relation to input from a persons environment. Experience changes this region ...
Limbic and autonomic nervous systems research,. 1974. 4. Neuroreport.. 1990. 5. Neurotensin, a brain and gastrointestinal ... Role of insulin-like growth factors in the nervous system. 1993. 8. Society for neuroscience : seventh annual meeting, Anaheim ... Your Search: (SUBJECT=Nervous System Physiology) Sort Results: Publication dates (newest-oldest). Publication dates (oldest- ...
  • regulates many autonomic processes Mammillary bodies: part of the hypothalamus that receives signals from the hippocampus via the fornix and projects them to the thalamus Anterior nuclei of thalamus: receive input from the mammillary bodies and involved in memory processing The structures and interacting areas of the limbic system are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents), and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is no consensus on the structures that are considered a part of the limbic system, but some that are often included are the amygdala , hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate cortex, septal nuclei, mammillary bodies, fornix, and hypothalamus . (neurological.org.nz)
  • Hypothalamus and limbic system: Motivation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The limbic system allows for complex interactions between the cortex, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem. (medscape.com)
  • The hippocampus is involved with various processes relating to cognition and is one of the best understood and heavily involved limbic interacting structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus and amygdala, is involved in the formation of long-term memory, and is closely associated with the olfactory structures (having to do with the sense of smell). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The hippocampus, within the limbic system, plays crucial roles in navigation and spatial problem solving, and in memory. (mhmedical.com)
  • The hippocampus serves as a primary output structure of the limbic system. (medscape.com)
  • The limbic system is involved in lower order emotional processing of input from sensory systems and consists of the amygdala, mammillary bodies, stria medullaris, central gray and dorsal and ventral nuclei of Gudden. (wikipedia.org)
  • This neural network, dubbed the "limbic system" is centered around the amygdala, a small almond shaped structure located deep within the temporal lobe. (frontiersin.org)
  • More recent authorities revised the concept of the limbic lobe and refer to the limbic system , which includes the functionally interrelated limbic lobe (parahippocampal, cingulate, and subcallosal gyri), the amygdala, and the hippocampal formation and associated structures (see Table 19-1 ). (mhmedical.com)
  • The most fundamental mappings include the amygdala and limbic system. (medscape.com)
  • The function of the early fetal amygdala and limbic system was to map our survival interactions with our maternal environment. (medscape.com)
  • The limbic system was originally defined by Paul D. MacLean as a series of cortical structures surrounding the boundary between the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic lobe was so named because this cortical complex forms a limbus (border) between the diencephalon and the more lateral neocortex of the telencephalic hemispheres ( Fig 19-1 ). (mhmedical.com)
  • Given the developmental shifts in neuro-architecture in the fetus and infant with MM, we offer the limbic system with its cortical, and brain stem interconnections, and particularly its close association with the hypothalamic region, as an area wherein many of the phenotypic commonalities may arise. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 1 ] In the theater of consciousness, limbic cortical order reaches a point in maturation where we have the first coalescence of the persona of self in our brain, which I call the "Authentic Being. (medscape.com)
  • The baby continues to map his experience, in this case his limbic experience, into memory , all the while building higher and higher levels of cortical order. (medscape.com)
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) modulates cortical and limbic brain activity as measured by [H215O]-PET in healthy humans. (researchgate.net)
  • The limbic system is a grouping of cortical and subcortical structures involved in memory formation and emotional responses. (medscape.com)
  • The limbic system, also known as the paleomammalian cortex, is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the medial temporal lobe of the cerebrum primarily in the forebrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "limbic" comes from the Latin word for the border, limbus, and these structures were known together as the limbic lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the set of anatomical structures considered part of the limbic system is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system is where the subcortical structures meet the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system of the brain is a group of structures which govern emotions and behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As the scientific community accepted emotions such as fear, anxiety, reward, and attraction as a result of neural wiring in humans, other species including rodents were gradually accepted as possessing similar circuits and, therefore, similar emotions (see Figure 1 for comparison of human and rodent limbic system structures). (frontiersin.org)
  • A group of evolutionarily older brain limbic system structures that encircle the top of the brain stem. (neurological.org.nz)
  • The limbic structures play complex roles in emotions, instincts, and appetitive behaviors. (neurological.org.nz)
  • The data support the hypothesis that the increased vulnerability exhibited by LH rats is correlated with alterations in GC-mediated gene expression in limbic structures. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The limbic system is a complex network of structures located in the brain that is responsible for a wide range of functions, including regulating emotions, memory, and even our sex drive. (nhnscr.org)
  • Innovative materials and combinations of materials have potential to provide cost-effective engineered materials systems that provide significant weight savings for automotive structures, thus leading to higher vehicle fuel economy. (cbinsights.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system consists of the extensions of neural structures beyond the central nervous system and includes somatic and autonomic divisions. (medscape.com)
  • The medial temporal lobe structures are considered by some to be part of the so-called limbic lobe. (medscape.com)
  • The limbic system is not defined by strict anatomic boundaries but incorporates several important structures. (medscape.com)
  • This limbic lobe consists of a ring of cortex outside the corpus callosum, largely made up of the subcallosal and cingulate gyri as well as the parahippocampal gyrus ( Fig 19-2 ). (mhmedical.com)
  • The temporal lobe is an important component of the limbic system, which is responsible for learning, emotions (love, envy, etc.) and memory. (medicinenet.com)
  • Due to the presence of the limbic system, the temporal lobe contributes to a variety of autonomic states and physiological processes, such as sexual arousal, anxiety levels, and hunger. (medicinenet.com)
  • One such region is the limbic lobe, which is a part of the limbic system. (nhnscr.org)
  • Then there's the limbic system, which is known as the paleomammalian brain. (wineanorak.com)
  • Our findings indicate that the elevated cortisol levels in the MDD group may injure the white matter integrity in the frontal-subcortical and frontal-limbic circuits. (cambridge.org)
  • The hypothesis that the frontal/limbic systems were affected by solvent exposure was only partially substantiated by the PCE cohort results, but more strongly supported by the evaluation of the styrene cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • From a neuroscience perspective, affective empathy is formed gradually during the individual development process: experiencing own emotion-forming the corresponding Mirror Neuron System (MNS)-understanding the emotions of others through the mirror mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • This contains the limbic system, which processes emotions like joy and fear. (psychcentral.com)
  • Schematic illustration of the location of the limbic system between the diencephalon and the neocortical hemispheres. (mhmedical.com)
  • The limbic system is also tightly connected to the prefrontal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system is often incorrectly classified as a cerebral structure,[citation needed] but simply interacts heavily with the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system receives input from many parts of the cortex and contains multimodal association areas where various aspects of sensory experience come together to form a single experience. (mhmedical.com)
  • WRAP-The-cingulate cortex-limbic-emotion-action-Rolls-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • and because the posterior cingulate cortex has outputs to the hippocampal system, it is involved in memory. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • These apparently multiple different functions of the cingulate cortex are related to the place of this proisocortical limbic region in brain connectivity. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Temperament patterns among this group, differing from other cohorts, may be reflective of altered integrity within this intricate neural system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Across cell types, these genes affect neuronal morphogenesis and neuronal communication, while neural progenitor cells show strong enrichment for development of the limbic system. (springer.com)
  • Limbic encephalitis is commonly regarded as an autoimmune-mediated disease. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 There have been several case reports and two studies 3 , 4 that included patients whose diagnosis of immunotherapy-responsive limbic encephalitis was delayed because of a suspected diagnosis of CJD. (bmj.com)
  • The small, almond-shaped structure in your limbic system which is on alert when you are depressed or anxious. (limbicperformancesystem.com)
  • Further studies began to associate these areas with emotional and motivational processes and linked them to subcortical components that were then grouped into the limbic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional, or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression, and defense. (frontiersin.org)
  • The limbic system links external cues possessing emotional, social, or motivational relevance to a specified set of contextual and species-specific appropriate behavioral outputs. (frontiersin.org)
  • These responses are heavily modulated by dopaminergic projections from the limbic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in this review we focus primarily on chemosensation in the rodent and how it relates to innate limbic responses to social conspecific cues such as mating, maternal care, and territorial behaviors as well as non-social defensive responses to predator cues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas many of the responses by NT systems to ibogaine resembled those which occur after cocaine, there were also some important differences. (erowid.org)
  • The limbic system subserves basic survival functions that include feeding behavior, "fight-or-flight" responses, aggression, and the expressions of emotion and of the autonomic, behavioral, and endocrine aspects of the sexual response. (mhmedical.com)
  • The various components of the limbic system influence a diversity of functions that are integral to the cognitive aspects of autonomic, affective, and sexual behavior [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The limbic system also interacts with the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Above: In this informational module in augmented reality, a user wearing special glasses interacts with a holographic limbic system to learn how the brain can reinforce healthy behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Did you know if you are being chased by an animal or you are thrown into another situation of survival, you'll use your limbic system to deal with the danger? (funderstanding.com)
  • This essay explores the link between the limbic/hypothalamic systems within the complex conditions of hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This suggests the animal has evolved distinct networks for each reflex - a primitive arrangement, much less complex than our own interconnected nervous systems. (newscientist.com)
  • The limbic system operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • TABLE 19-1 Components of the Limbic System and Neocortex. (mhmedical.com)
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. (medscape.com)
  • In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. (frontiersin.org)
  • When the nervous system is constantly in overdrive with PTSD, it can shrink your window of tolerance - that is, the amount of stress you can handle before it becomes unmanageable. (psychcentral.com)
  • He took as his guide the way that the brain has developed through evolution, and divided up into three systems that have been bolted on to each other over time - as mammals developed from reptiles, and then as we humans finally showed up to the party, only fairly recently. (wineanorak.com)
  • Memory is part of the limbic system, and this plays a big role in tasting wine. (wineanorak.com)
  • DBS of the limbic proportion of the STN was associated with body weight gain and an increased functional connectivity within the salience network and at the same time with a decreased activity within the reward-related network in the context of sweet food images. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The functional connections within the limbic system are best summarized by the Papez circuit. (medscape.com)
  • Deeper parts of the cerebrum contain white matter, which is the collection of myelinated nerve fibers that connect different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord. (medicinenet.com)
  • Once the threat has passed, your parasympathetic nervous system comes back online. (psychcentral.com)
  • The breakthrough in imaging the nervous system of a hydra - a tiny, transparent creature related to jellyfish - as it twitches and moves has provided insights into how such simple animals control their behaviour. (newscientist.com)
  • Instead of a brain, hydra have the most basic nervous system in nature, a nerve net in which neurons spread throughout its body. (newscientist.com)
  • This circuit may be an ancestor of our gut nervous system, the pair suggest. (newscientist.com)
  • You have to ask: is this an animal that's going to join the fruit fly, worm and mouse as a model organism to look at in the quest to better understand the nervous system? (newscientist.com)
  • The BSE epidemic came under control after a massive slaughter of cattle and after changes in the rendering procedures, which drastically reduced contamination of meat by nervous system tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cohort comparisons were conducted and extensive test batteries to assess central nervous system (CNS) effects were performed. (cdc.gov)
  • In recent years, multiple additional limbic fiber connectivity has been revealed using difusion-weighted imaging MRI techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall aims of the project are therefore to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathology in the limbic system in HD and if restoration of these changes can lead to a therapeutic benefit. (lu.se)
  • This essay is submitted with the suggestion that in our ongoing quest to understand the learning and behavioral characteristics in youth with MM, focus might reasonably be placed on cellular and neurobiological mechanisms specifically related to the limbic and hypothalamic systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overall aim of the PhD project is to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of limbic system pathology of Huntington's disease. (lu.se)
  • We have mapped our maternal attachment, responsiveness, and provision experience through the limbic system, since early in fetal life. (medscape.com)
  • We hypothesize that this causes early pathology in the limbic system and the development of non-motor features of HD. (lu.se)
  • The morphogenesis of the limbic system is progressive and ongoing throughout fetal/newborn development. (medscape.com)
  • Some of the disorders associated with the limbic system and its interacting components are epilepsy and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schematic illustration of the concentric main components of the limbic system. (mhmedical.com)
  • These will be considered along with other clinically relevant phenotypic findings among children with MM that have clear links to the limbic and hypothalamic systems. (biomedcentral.com)