Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Mamillary Bodies: A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Saudi ArabiaCopyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/970)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Development of the temporal lobe in infants and children: analysis by MR-based volumetry. (2/970)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent advances in data-processing techniques have allowed more accurate MR-based volumetric measurement than was possible in the past. The purpose of this study was to use this technique to evaluate the development of the temporal lobes in childhood. METHODS: The study group consisted of 42 subjects aged 3 weeks to 14 years (mean age, 5 years), all with normal findings on a routine MR study and none with a history of epilepsy. MR images were acquired on a 1.0-T system using a T1-weighted 3D ultrafast gradient-echo sequence. The volumes of the hippocampal formations and temporal lobes were measured by using a workstation, and the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes was calculated. Myelination in the limbic system and related structures was also evaluated. RESULTS: The volume of the hippocampal formations increased sharply until the age of 2 years, and continued to increase slowly thereafter. However, the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes showed a negative correlation with age. The hippocampal formations on the right side were larger than those on the left in 38 cases (91%), and the anterior temporal lobes on the right were larger than those on the left in 32 cases (76%). This right-left asymmetry of the hippocampal formations and anterior temporal lobes was observed from early infancy, and these differences were statistically significant. A longitudinal fasciculus of high signal intensity was seen in the white matter beneath the subiculum by about 3 months of age. CONCLUSION: MR-based volumetry established developmental characteristics of the temporal lobe, such as a hippocampal growth spurt, a growth difference between the hippocampal formation and the rest of the temporal lobe, and right-left asymmetry. Knowledge of these characteristics may aid in the understanding of hippocampal and temporal lobe abnormalities in children.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR-mRNA) by maternal deprivation in immature rat hypothalamus and limbic regions. (3/970)

Maternal deprivation (MDep) of neonatal rats significantly influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study hypothesized that GR-mRNA modulation constituted an early, critical mechanism for the acute effects of MDep on neuroendocrine stress-responses. GR-mRNA hybridization signal in hippocampal CA1, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and frontal cortex was significantly reduced immediately following 24 h MDep. In amygdala, cingulate cortex, PVN and CA1, apparent gender-dependent MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression were observed, without significant differences in absolute levels. Thus, rapid, region-specific MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression in HPA-regulating areas are shown, consistent with involvement of GR-expression in mechanisms of MDep influence on HPA tone.  (+info)

Involvement of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas of the rodent prefrontal cortex in behavioral flexibility for place and response learning. (4/970)

The present experiments investigated the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in behavioral flexibility using a place-response learning paradigm. All rats received a bilateral cannula implant aimed at the prelimbic-infralimbic areas. To examine the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in shifting strategies, rats were tested on a place and a response discrimination in a cross-maze. Some rats were tested on the place version first followed by the response version. The procedure for the other rats was reversed. Infusions of 2% tetracaine into the prelimbic-infralimbic areas did not impair acquisition of the place or response discriminations. Prelimbic-infralimbic inactivation did impair learning when rats were switched from one discrimination to the other (cross-modal shift). To investigate the role of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas in intramodal shifts (reversal learning), one group of rats was tested on a place reversal and another group tested on a response reversal. Prelimbic-infralimbic inactivation did not impair place or response intramodal shifts. Some rats that completed testing on a particular version in the cross-modal and intramodal experiments were tested on the same version in a new room for 3 d. The transfer tests revealed that rats use a spatial strategy on the place version and an egocentric response strategy on the response version. Overall, these results suggest that the prelimbic-infralimbic areas are important for behavioral flexibility involving cross-modal but not intramodal shifts.  (+info)

The connectional organization of the cortico-thalamic system of the cat. (5/970)

Data on connections between the areas of the cerebral cortex and nuclei of the thalamus are too complicated to analyse with naked intuition. Indeed, the complexity of connection data is one of the major challenges facing neuroanatomy. Recently, systematic methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the connectivity in the cerebral cortex. These approaches have shed light on the gross organization of the cortical network, have made it possible to test systematically theories of cortical organization, and have guided new electrophysiological studies. This paper extends the approach to investigate the organization of the entire cortico-thalamic network. An extensive collation of connection tracing studies revealed approximately 1500 extrinsic connections between the cortical areas and thalamic nuclei of the cat cerebral hemisphere. Around 850 connections linked 53 cortical areas with each other, and around 650 connections linked the cortical areas with 42 thalamic nuclei. Non-metric multidimensional scaling, optimal set analysis and non-parametric cluster analysis were used to study global connectivity and the 'place' of individual structures within the overall scheme. Thalamic nuclei and cortical areas were in intimate connectional association. Connectivity defined four major thalamo-cortical systems. These included three broadly hierarchical sensory or sensory/motor systems (visual and auditory systems and a single system containing both somatosensory and motor structures). The highest stations of these sensory/motor systems were associated with a fourth processing system composed of prefrontal, cingulate, insular and parahippocampal cortex and associated thalamic nuclei (the 'fronto-limbic system'). The association between fronto-limbic and somato-motor systems was particularly close.  (+info)

A serologic marker of paraneoplastic limbic and brain-stem encephalitis in patients with testicular cancer. (6/970)

BACKGROUND: In patients with cancer, symptoms of limbic and brain-stem dysfunction may result from a paraneoplastic disorder. Paraneoplastic limbic or brain-stem encephalitis occurs more frequently with testicular cancer than with most other cancers. We sought antineuronal antibodies that might be used in a diagnostic test for this syndrome. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques were used to detect serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Serologic screening of a complementary DNA library and Northern blotting were used to clone the target antigen and determine which tissues expressed it. RESULTS: Of 13 patients with testicular cancer and paraneoplastic limbic or brain-stem encephalitis (or both), 10 had antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid against a 40-kd neuronal protein. These antibodies were used to clone a gene that we call Ma2, which codes for a protein (Ma2) that was recognized by serum from the 10 patients, but not by serum from 344 control subjects. Ma2 was selectively expressed by normal brain tissue and by the testicular tumors of the patients. Ma2 shares homology with Ma1, a "brain-testis-cancer" gene related to other paraneoplastic syndromes and tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The serum of patients with subacute limbic and brain-stem dysfunction and testicular cancer contains antibodies against a protein found in normal brain and in testicular tumors. Detection of these antibodies supports the paraneoplastic origin of the neurologic disorder and could be of diagnostic importance.  (+info)

Febrile seizures in the developing brain result in persistent modification of neuronal excitability in limbic circuits. (7/970)

Febrile (fever-induced) seizures affect 3-5% of infants and young children. Despite the high incidence of febrile seizures, their contribution to the development of epilepsy later in life has remained controversial. Combining a new rat model of complex febrile seizures and patch clamp techniques, we determined that hyperthermia-induced seizures in the immature rat cause a selective presynaptic increase in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus that lasts into adulthood. The long-lasting nature of these potent alterations in synaptic communication after febrile seizures does not support the prevalent view of the 'benign' nature of early-life febrile convulsions.  (+info)

Functional implications of the subunit composition of neuronal CaM kinase II. (8/970)

The assembly of 6-12 subunits of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM kinase II) into holoenzymes is an important structural feature of the enzyme and its postulated role as a molecular detector of Ca(2+) oscillations. Using single cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we show that alpha- and beta-CaM kinase II mRNAs are simultaneously present in the majority of hippocampal neurons examined and that co-assembly of their protein products into heteromers is therefore possible. The subunit composition of CaM kinase II holoenzymes was analyzed by immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies. Rat forebrain CaM kinase II consists of heteromers composed of alpha and beta subunits at a ratio of 2:1 and homomers composed of only alpha subunits. We examined the functional effect of the heteromeric assembly by analyzing the calmodulin dependence of autophosphorylation. Recombinant homomers of alpha- or beta-CaM kinase II, as well as of alternatively spliced beta isoforms, have distinct calmodulin dependences for autophosphorylation based on differences in their calmodulin affinities. Half-maximal autophosphorylation of alpha is achieved at 130 nM calmodulin, while that for beta occurs at 15 nM calmodulin. In CaM kinase II isolated from rat forebrain, however, the calmodulin dependence for autophosphorylation of the beta subunits is shifted toward that of alpha homomers. This suggests that Thr(287) in beta subunits is phosphorylated by alpha subunits present in the same holoenzyme. Once autophosphorylated, beta-CaM kinase II traps calmodulin by reducing the rate of calmodulin dissociation.  (+info)

  • When someone puts these chemicals into their body, either by smoking, injecting, inhaling, or eating them, they tap into the brain's communication system and tamper with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. (
  • Perhaps the fifth point is one of the most important ones as it suggests that the Hippocampus as part of the Limbic System could be playing a central role in decision making on the basis of received sensory information/perception. (
  • The autonomic is visceral, not on command, like control of heart , respiration, digestive, urinary systems, sexual arousal, etc central is brain and spinal cord--then there is peripheral like nerves control movements of the limbs. (
  • The limbic system links together a bunch of brain structures that control our emotional responses, such as feeling pleasure when we eat chocolate. (
  • Each of these two systems has a distinct anatomical location and communicates with its target organs through other neurons located in ganglia. (
  • Signals between cells in the limbic system-sometimes called the "reward system"-reinforce us for eating, having sex, and other activities needed for human survival. (
  • The limbic system was originally defined by Paul Broca as a series of cortical structures surrounding the limit between the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem: the border, or limbus, of the brain. (
  • one consequence of which is a disruption in the cortical regulation of subcortical dopamine systems. (
  • Recapitulation in the Service of Education: Although concepts had evolved in the second half of this century which effectively overthrew the idea of relatively isolated hemispheric districts (i. e. striatal, cortical, and limbic), parsing the hemisphere into these three districts was an important preliminary step achieved by our forebears in their efforts to understand the large scale structure of the higher mammalian cerebral hemisphere. (
  • The hole is surrounded by a ring of cortical and noncortical areas that combine to make up the limbic system. (
  • The limbic system is a subcortical collection of structures important for emotion and motivation, and receives information from both cortical and mid/hindbrain structures. (
  • Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories. (
  • Further studies began to associate these areas with emotional and motivational processes and linked them to subcortical components that were grouped into the limbic system. (
  • After all, the main emotional processing gets done in the limbic and above mentioned areas of the brain, which are in a very specific area of each brain, not somewhere totally random. (
  • The limbic system links together a bunch of brain structures that control our emotional responses, such as feeling pleasure when we eat chocolate. (
  • The fear response arises out of the emotional system which impacts directly on the motor system. (
  • The limbic system is the part of the brain involved in emotional and behavioural responses, especially when it comes to behaviours for survival, feeding, caring for young, and fight and flight responses. (
  • This 3D illustration of the limbic system places the focus on the amygdalae, two small pea-shaped structures on either side of the limbic system, that play a crucial role in the processing of emotional memory and experiences, including fear and anxiety. (
  • The limbic system is known for being important to emotional responses, and having the body respond accordingly by hormone release, changing breathing levels and heart rate, in order for a person to feel the emotion (Rajmohan and Mohandas, 2007). (
  • The limbic system is the portion of the brain that controls emotional response. (
  • The term limbic system designates the entire neuronal circuitry and forebrain structures that control emotional behavior, motivational drives and the processing of present and past sensory experiences. (
  • Since that time, the limbic system of the brain has been implicated as the seat of emotion, addiction , mood, and lots of other mental and emotional processes. (
  • Lizard brain" refers to the oldest part of the brain, the brain stem, responsible for primitive survival instincts such as aggression and fear ("flight or fight"), whereas the limbic system is responsible for, among other things, our emotional bonding to other creatures--other humans such as family members and friends, and non-human pets. (
  • The limbic system inside your brain helps to govern emotional behaviors and reactions to memories. (
  • The Limbic System could be called the conscience because it processes the emotional aspects of behavior. (
  • Another of its functions is the participation in the creation of the emotional memory , in the acquisition, maintenance and elimination of phobias and to facilitate us the survival, it also regulates the behaviors to feed and the appetite, and the olfactory system of the human body. (
  • This system is responsible for emotional responses and memory, as well as taking outside information and integrating it into our understanding of the world. (
  • A link between the limbic system and orexin neurons might be important for increasing vigilance during emotional stimuli. (
  • The dorsal diencephalic conduction system is a pathway that transmits information from the cognitive-emotional forebrain to the regulatory midbrain areas ( Sutherland, 1982 ). (
  • But because we don't fully understand our emotional system, we don't know exactly how to regulate it in school, beyond defining too much or too little emotion as misbehavior. (
  • Following is a basic introduction to the role our emotional system plays in learning, and the potential classroom applications of this research. (
  • Studies show that our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life, and is quite resistant to change. (
  • Our emotional system is located principally in our brain, endocrine, and immune systems (which now are viewed as an integrated biochemical system), but it affects all other organs, such as our heart, lungs, and skin. (
  • Peptide molecules are the messengers of our emotional system. (
  • The emotional brain, called the limbic brain , is involved with bonding, passion and motivation. (
  • The authors focus on brain research to support the idea of the nonclassical auditory pathways being involved in connecting the auditory system with the emotional system of the brain. (
  • Lucker and Doman [ 1 ] and Lucker [ 2 ] discussed the fact that auditory hypersensitivity in children with ASD is more of an emotional based problem than a specific auditory system problem. (
  • The limbic system operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. (
  • Although I learned awhile back that the autonomic nervous system was the primary problem in adrenal fatigue, MCS, CFS etc from Dr. Charles, Gant, and I completely agreed with Annie and Ashok that the limbic system was indeed a root issue, it was their techniques that I had a problem with. (
  • What part of the autonomic nervous system regulates the 'fight-or-flight' response? (
  • The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. (
  • It is closely integrated with the immune system (our defense against disease), the endocrine system (hormone regulation) and the autonomic nervous system (regulation of unconscious body processes like blood pressure and breathing and also regulates the functions of our internal organs such as the heart, stomach and intestines). (
  • Please see a medical professional about any health concerns you have.A Somatic nervous system B Autonomic nervous system C Limbic. (
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates these anxiety responses, regardless of where they came from. (
  • Just like a ship needs a sail, so does the brain need its limbic area to do certain functions. (
  • Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. (
  • All living creatures have some system for maintain vital body functions like breathing in place of brainstem. (
  • In summary, the limbic system is responsible for controlling various functions in the body. (
  • Our brain reward system is incredible in how it functions! (
  • Neurobiological research on the functions of the limbic system dating back to its XIX century pioneer Pierre-Paul Broca (1861), later expanded by James Papez (1937), Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun (1949), and Ross MacLean (1949, 1952) identified the "reticular" and "limbic" systems as regulating the energizing and expressive roles in the central nervous system. (
  • Despite its very small size of only a few cubic centimeters (which represents less than 1% of the brain mass), the hypothalamic complex has two-way communicating pathways with all levels of the limbic system and is the key structure for higher level coordination of autonomic and endocrine functions . (
  • It's functions can affect your life on a daily basis so it's important to understand how your body works and how making adjustments to your lifestyle can affect your limbic system. (
  • The limbic system also regulates biological functions in line with our mood, such as accelerated heart rate and sweating triggered by feeling flustered. (
  • The limbic system is where our memories, instincts, and vital functions are controlled and processed. (
  • Many bodily functions such as digestive activity, respiration, hormone balance, heart rate, blood pressure, stress levels, pain reduction, and memory can be regulated through the connection between the limbic system and other parts of the brain and body. (
  • Limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) is a neuronal adhesive molecule, preferentially expressed in developing limbic system neuronal dendrites and somata. (
  • A spinal sympathetic nervous system that inhibits vagal influence on digestion and increases the metabolic rate to mobilize for "fight or flight. (
  • Solving an equation, feeling hungry, laughing - the neural processes needed for each of these activities occurs in different regions of the brain, that portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium. (
  • Neurons and glial cells are capable of synthesizing various bioactive steroids also called neurosteroids, which can regulate the nervous system activity via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • I will start by giving a very simplified functional subdivision of the human Central Nervous System. (
  • The system responsible for Adrenalin production, the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • What reflex is independent of the central nervous system (CNS)? (
  • What is the role of parasympathetic nervous system? (
  • Which part of the nervous system is control by 75% of the vagus nerve? (
  • It's part of the parasympathetic nervous system. (
  • What is the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system? (
  • What is the central nervous system? (
  • The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves that leave the spinal cord and innervate the rest of the body. (
  • Part of the involuntary nervous system that slows heart rate , increases intestinal & glandular activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles. (
  • What causes the immune system to attack the central nervous system? (
  • The limbic system influences both the peripheral nervous system and the endocrine system . (
  • The human central nervous system (fourth ed. (
  • They point to the occurrence of events in the central nervous system that have an effect on mood and behaviour, and what I should like to do is to think about some of the brain structures that may be involved. (
  • Part of the central nervous system, the brain is command central around which the body's intellect, senses, and nervous system all function. (
  • Trace amines (e.g., phenethylamine and tyramine ) play a critical role in regulating neuronal activity in the dopaminergic pathways of the central nervous system . (
  • Each of these structures performs a specific function, and often also serves to receive, transmit and amplify communication within the limbic system, with other areas of the brain, and with other parts of the central nervous system. (
  • Coghill (1929) spent much of his life in the study of the development of the nervous system of the salamander, in conjunction with a study of the development of behavior. (
  • Concurrently, others studied comparative behavior effectively without a simultaneous study of the structure of the nervous system , but they did not overlook the possibility of relating behavior to the nervous system. (
  • A third group, frequently employing methods of intervention in the nervous system as a means of studying the relation of the nervous system to behavior or various units of behavior, was led by such outstanding men as Lashley, Sherrington, and Pavlov. (
  • Sherrington (1906) was concerned primarily with the problems of the organization of the nervous system in the regulation of reflex actions. (
  • Since the work on behavior and the nervous system is being done on various species, we are obliged to make explicit our views of the relationships of these organisms, including man, if we hope to extrapolate results from one species to another. (
  • Acupuncture has a profound effect on the nervous system and the brain. (
  • a nervous system restorative and. (
  • It also acts on the peripheral nervous system . (
  • They suggested that hypocretins function within the central nervous system as neurotransmitters. (
  • Aromatherapy nasal inhalers are a very easy tool to encourage your brain/ nervous system responses and to stimulate your neuro-transmitters. (
  • Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate. (
  • Central nervous system depressants or sedatives decrease the heart rate (apart from some particularly strange ones with equally strange effects, such as ketamine which can cause - amongst many other things - stimulant-like effects such as tachycardia ). (
  • Before that, [and] this is what we call like the perfect storm for a limbic system impairment … I was in a car accident where I had a minor whiplash injury. (
  • My assessment comes to you as both a health care professional and an individual who is working on several limbic system impairment conditions like chemical sensitivities, Adrenal Fatigue (also known as chronic fatigue or CFS) and migraines for more than 20 years. (
  • The lack of correlation found in the patients suggests that the tasks may be tapping independent dysfunctions in schizophrenia reflecting differential impairment in fronto-limbic brain systems. (
  • When not functioning properly due to injury or impairment, the limbic system becomes hypersensitive and begins to react to stimuli that it would usually disregard as not representing a danger to the body. (
  • Now, something that gets kind of confusing when you talk about the limbic system is that experts can't actually agree on what structures make up the entire limbic system. (
  • Long term stress has the potential to cause elevated levels of the adrenal hormones, the catecholamines adrenalin, noradrenaline and Cortisol and suppressor T cells, which may suppress the immune system and may increase the possibility of infections developing. (
  • This volume focuses on hormones of the limbic system. (
  • Sex hormones act in the limbic system and in the raphe nucleus, source of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is important for the regulation of arousal and mood. (
  • 1. This paper proposes that the neuropsychiatric symptoms of tardive dyskinesia, akathisia and pseudoparkinsonian tremor are modulated by a noradrenergic pathway that projects from the locus coeruleus to the limbic system. (
  • An important connecting pathway of the limbic system. (
  • An old vagal system that fosters digestion and that responds to threats by cardiac output reduction and immobilization. (
  • Over time, this state of hyper arousal can weaken the immune system, and affect systems associated in rest, digestion, detoxification, mood stability and can also affect motor and cognitive function. (
  • Many professionals relate these hypersensitivities in hearing to problems with the children's auditory systems. (
  • In these publications, the authors state that underlying auditory hypersensitivity (or oversensitivity to sounds) involves what are called the nonclassical auditory pathways and limbic system connections. (
  • The Dynamic Neural Retraining System™ workshops and DVD series reveal the science behind Limbic System impairments and prepare participants to critically engage with their condition. (
  • The Dynamic Neural Retraining System™ is a drug free, self-directed, neuroplasticity-based treatment that is taught from a platform of environmental awareness. (
  • Alita Hetland is a successful graduate of the Dynamic Neural Retraining System and no longer suffers from a limbic system disorder - an issue that plagued her for over 20 years. (
  • From then on, this knowledge guided my recovery and has since been the basis of recovery programs including the Gupta Program and Annie Hopper's Dynamic Neural Retraining System (DNRS) . (
  • When you breathe in essential oil vapours and odours the molecules are absorbed by the hairs inside your nostrils that have receptors, these then send a signal to your into the olfactory bulb in your limbic system. (
  • Molecules of glutathione are "conjugated", or joined, to toxins that have either passed through Phase 1 (cytochrome P450) system to prepare them for conjugation, or to substances which are already amenable to joining with glutathione. (