The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.

Direct interaction of lignin and lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. (1/871)

Binding properties of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium against a synthetic lignin (dehydrogenated polymerizate, DHP) were studied with a resonant mirror biosensor. Among several ligninolytic enzymes, only LiP specifically binds to DHP. Kinetic analysis revealed that the binding was reversible, and that the dissociation equilibrium constant was 330 microM. The LiP-DHP interaction was controlled by the ionization group with a pKa of 5.3, strongly suggesting that a specific amino acid residue plays a role in lignin binding. A one-electron transfer from DHP to oxidized intermediates LiP compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) was characterized by using a stopped-flow technique, showing that binding interactions of DHP with LiPI and LiPII led to saturation kinetics. The dissociation equilibrium constants for LiPI-DHP and LiPII-DHP interactions were calculated to be 350 and 250 microM, and the first-order rate constants for electron transfer from DHP to LiPI and to LiPII were calculated to be 46 and 16 s-1, respectively. These kinetic and spectral studies strongly suggest that LiP is capable of oxidizing lignin directly at the protein surface by a long-range electron transfer process. A close look at the crystal structure suggested that LiP possesses His-239 as a possible lignin-binding site on the surface, which is linked to Asp-238. This Asp residue is hydrogen-bonded to the proximal His-176. This His-Asp...proximal-His motif would be a possible electron transfer route to oxidize polymeric lignin.  (+info)

Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (2/871)

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

Regiochemical control of monolignol radical coupling: a new paradigm for lignin and lignan biosynthesis. (3/871)

BACKGROUND: Although the lignins and lignans, both monolignol-derived coupling products, account for nearly 30% of the organic carbon circulating in the biosphere, the biosynthetic mechanism of their formation has been poorly understood. The prevailing view has been that lignins and lignans are produced by random free-radical polymerization and coupling, respectively. This view is challenged, mechanistically, by the recent discovery of dirigent proteins that precisely determine both the regiochemical and stereoselective outcome of monolignol radical coupling. RESULTS: To understand further the regulation and control of monolignol coupling, leading to both lignan and lignin formation, we sought to clone the first genes encoding dirigent proteins from several species. The encoding genes, described here, have no sequence homology with any other protein of known function. When expressed in a heterologous system, the recombinant protein was able to confer strict regiochemical and stereochemical control on monolignol free-radical coupling. The expression in plants of dirigent proteins and proposed dirigent protein arrays in developing xylem and in other lignified tissues indicates roles for these proteins in both lignan formation and lignification. CONCLUSIONS: The first understanding of regiochemical and stereochemical control of monolignol coupling in lignan biosynthesis has been established via the participation of a new class of dirigent proteins. Immunological studies have also implicated the involvement of potential corresponding arrays of dirigent protein sites in controlling lignin biopolymer assembly.  (+info)

Lignocellulose degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: purification and characterization of the main alpha-galactosidase. (4/871)

The main alpha-galactosidase was purified to homogeneity, in 30% yield, from a solid culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on 1 part wheat bran/2 parts thermomechanical softwood pulp. It is a glycosylated tetramer of 50 kDa peptide chains, which gives the N-terminal sequence ADNGLAITPQMG(?W)NT(?W)NHFG(?W)DIS(?W)DTI. It is remarkably stable, with crude extracts losing no activity over 3 h at 80 degrees C, and the purified enzyme retaining its activity over several months at 4 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis at 25 degrees C of various substrates by this retaining enzyme were measured, absolute parameters being obtained by active-site titration with 2',4',6'-trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. The variation of kcat/Km for 1-naphthyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with pH is bell-shaped, with pK1=1.91 and pK2=5.54. The alphaD(V/K) value for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 1.031+/-0.007 at the optimal pH of 3.75 and 1.114+/-0.006 at pH7.00, indicating masking of the intrinsic effect at optimal pH. There is no alpha-2H effect on binding galactose [alphaD(Ki)=0.994+/-0.013]. The enzyme hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside approximately 510 times slower than the galactoside, but has no detectable activity on the alpha-D-glucopyranoside or alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides with poor leaving groups is Michaelian, but that of substrates with good leaving groups exhibits pronounced apparent substrate inhibition, with Kis values similar to Km values. We attribute this to the binding of the second substrate molecule to a beta-galactopyranosyl-enzyme intermediate, forming an E.betaGal. alphaGalX complex which turns over slowly, if at all. 1-Fluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, unlike alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, is a Michaelian substrate, indicating that the effect of 1-fluorine substitution is greater on the first than on the second step of the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

Aromatic ring cleavage of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. (5/871)

The novel cleavage products, 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-formyloxypropane (II) and 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropane-2,3-cyclic carbonate (III) were identified as products of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-dimethoxylphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxypheny l)propane (I), by a Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (1-HBT). An isotopic experiment with a 13C-labeled lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-[U-ring-13C] dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane (I-13C) indicated that the formyl and carbonate carbons of products II and III were derived from the beta-phenoxy group of beta-O-4 lignin model dimer I as aromatic ring cleavage fragments. These results show that the laccase-1-HBT couple could catalyze the aromatic ring cleavage of non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer in addition to the beta-ether cleavage, Calpha-Cbeta cleavage, and Calpha-oxidation.  (+info)

Description of a versatile peroxidase involved in the natural degradation of lignin that has both manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase substrate interaction sites. (6/871)

Two major peroxidases are secreted by the fungus Pleurotus eryngii in lignocellulose cultures. One is similar to Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese-dependent peroxidase. The second protein (PS1), although catalyzing the oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn3+ by H2O2, differs from the above enzymes by its manganese-independent activity enabling it to oxidize substituted phenols and synthetic dyes, as well as the lignin peroxidase (LiP) substrate veratryl alcohol. This is by a mechanism similar to that reported for LiP, as evidenced by p-dimethoxybenzene oxidation yielding benzoquinone. The apparent kinetic constants showed high activity on Mn2+, but methoxyhydroquinone was the natural substrate with the highest enzyme affinity (this and other phenolic substrates are not efficiently oxidized by the P. chrysosporium peroxidases). A three-dimensional model was built using crystal models from four fungal peroxidase as templates. The model suggests high structural affinity of this versatile peroxidase with LiP but shows a putative Mn2+ binding site near the internal heme propionate, involving Glu36, Glu40, and Asp181. A specific substrate interaction site for Mn2+ is supported by kinetic data showing noncompetitive inhibition with other peroxidase substrates. Moreover, residues reported as involved in LiP interaction with veratryl alcohol and other aromatic substrates are present in peroxidase PS1 such as His82 at the heme-channel opening, which is remarkably similar to that of P. chrysosporium LiP, and Trp170 at the protein surface. These residues could be involved in two different hypothetical long range electron transfer pathways from substrate (His82-Ala83-Asn84-His47-heme and Trp170-Leu171-heme) similar to those postulated for LiP.  (+info)

Comparison of fungal laccases and redox mediators in oxidation of a nonphenolic lignin model compound. (7/871)

Several fungal laccases have been compared for the oxidation of a nonphenolic lignin dimer, 1-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propan-1,3-diol (I), and a phenolic lignin model compound, phenol red, in the presence of the redox mediators 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (1-HBT) or violuric acid. The oxidation rates of dimer I by the laccases were in the following order: Trametes villosa laccase (TvL) > Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase (PcL) > Botrytis cinerea laccase (BcL) > Myceliophthora thermophila laccase (MtL) in the presence of either 1-HBT or violuric acid. The order is the same if the laccases are used at the same molar concentration or added to the same activity (with ABTS [2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] as a substrate). During the oxidation of dimer I, both 1-HBT and violuric acid were to some extent consumed. Their consumption rates also follow the above order of laccases, i.e., TvL > PcL > BcL > MtL. Violuric acid allowed TvL and PcL to oxidize dimer I much faster than 1-HBT, while BcL and violuric acid oxidized dimer I more slowly than BcL and 1-HBT. The oxidation rate of dimer I is dependent upon both kcat and the stability of the laccase. Both 1-HBT and violuric acid inactivated the laccases, violuric acid to a greater extent than 1-HBT. The presence of dimer I or phenol red in the reaction mixture slowed down this inactivation. The inactivation is mainly due to the reaction of the redox mediator free radical with the laccases. We did not find any relationship between the carbohydrate content of the laccases and their inactivation. When the redox potential of the laccases is in the range of 750 to 800 mV, i.e., above that of the redox mediator, it does not affect kcat and the oxidation rate of dimer I.  (+info)

Characterization of the meta-cleavage compound hydrolase gene involved in degradation of the lignin-related biphenyl structure by Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. (8/871)

Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 has the ability to transform a lignin-related biphenyl compound, 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-5, 5'-dicarboxybiphenyl (DDVA), to 5-carboxyvanillic acid (5CVA) via 2, 2',3-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-5,5'-dicarboxybiphenyl (OH-DDVA). In the 4.9-kb HindIII fragment containing the OH-DDVA meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (ligZ), we found a novel hydrolase gene (ligY) responsible for the conversion of the meta-cleavage compound of OH-DDVA to 5CVA. Incorporation of 18O from H218O into 5CVA indicated there was a hydrolytic conversion of the OH-DDVA meta-cleavage compound to 5CVA. LigY exhibited hydrolase activity only toward the meta-cleavage compound of OH-DDVA, suggesting its restricted substrate specificity.  (+info)

Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresource to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure. Advancement in application of biorefinery to production of biofuels, chemicals, and biomaterials necessitates a fundamental understanding of the relationship of lignin structure and biomass recalcitrance. In this mini-review, we focus on recent investigations on the influence of lignin chemical properties
This new route to syringyl monolignols may explain enigmatic results obtained through enzymologic studies and the generation of transgenic plants in which the expression of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes was either up- or down-regulated. First, the long-accepted pathway for syringyl monomer biosynthesis, in which sinapic acid is activated to its corresponding CoA ester by 4-(hydroxy)cinnamoyl CoA ligase (4CL), has recently been called into question because 4CL in Arabidopsis and other plants has no activity toward sinapic acid, suggesting that a 4CL-independent pathway to syringyl lignin monomers must exist (21-24). If syringyl lignin monomers are instead synthesized from coniferaldehyde and/or coniferyl alcohol, a sinapoyl CoA ligase activity is not necessary. Second, an alternative pathway to guaiacyl subunits has recently been elucidated in which p-coumaroyl CoA is hydroxylated and subsequently methylated to give feruloyl CoA (25, 26). The importance of this route of lignin monomer ...
The term Lignin characterization (or Lignin analysis) refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties. Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping. The most common technical lignins include lignosulphonates (isolated from sulfite pulping), kraft lignins (isolated from kraft pulping black liquor), organosolv lignins (isolated from organosolv pulping), soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. Lignins can be characterized by determination of their purity, molecular structure and thermal properties. For certain applications, other properties such as electrical properties or color may be relevant to determine. The dry ...
One new trend in lignin research is to steer biosynthetic pathways toward the biosynthesis of molecules that, upon incorporation into the lignin polymer, will improve lignin degradation. This idea stems from the growing list of newly discovered lignin monomers, from the observation that lignin is able to readily copolymerize alternative units that derive from incomplete monolignol biosynthesis in plants with pathway perturbations, and from examples in which plants with altered lignin structures are shown to be viable and more easily processed (Pilate et al., 2002; Huntley et al., 2003; Ralph et al., 2006; Leplé et al., 2007). This concept of copolymerizing alternative lignin monomers into the polymer has already been demonstrated in a biomimetic system by polymerizing coniferyl ferulate together with normal monolignols into maize primary cell walls (Grabber et al., 2008). The resulting lignin, now strongly enriched in easily breakable ester bonds in the lignin backbone, degrades at lower ...
Bioreactor landfills have become a feasible alternative to the typical â dry tombâ landfill. By recirculating leachate and/or adding additional liquid wastes, bioreactor landfills operate to rapidly degrade and transform organic wastes. The reactions within a bioreactor landfill create elevated temperatures. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of elevated temperature on the degradation of lignocellulose compounds. In order to observe the effects of temperature on lignin, small bioreactors were created in the laboratory. Several experiments were performed by the authors. Solubility of lignin based on temperature and time of thermal exposure were conducted. In addition, degradation studies were conducted based on biological treatment of lignin as well as a combination of biological and thermal treatment. Samples were collected at specified intervals to determine the amount of water soluble lignin (WSL), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lignin monomers, and/or methane present. Lignin ...
The conventional method for lignin quantitation in the pulp industry is the Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin test, which is standardized according to TAPPI[37] or NREL[38] procedure. The cellulose is first decrystallized and partially depolymerized into oligomers by keeping the sample in 72% sulfuric acid at 30 °C for 1 h. Then, the acid is diluted to 4% by adding water, and the depolymerization is completed by either boiling (100 °C) for 4 h or pressure cooking at 2 bar (124 °C) for 1 h. The acid is washed out and the sample dried. The residue that remains is termed Klason lignin. A part of the lignin, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) dissolves in the acid. ASL is quantified by the intensity of its UV absorption peak at 280 nm. The method is suited for wood lignins, but not equally well for varied lignins from different sources. The carbohydrate composition may be also analyzed from the Klason liquors, although there may be sugar breakdown products (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). A ...
The conventional method for lignin quantitation in the pulp industry is the Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin test, which is standardized according to SCAN or NREL procedure. The cellulose is first decrystallized and partially depolymerized into oligomers by keeping the sample in 72% sulfuric acid at 30 C for 1 h. Then, the acid is diluted to 4% by adding water, and the depolymerization is completed by either boiling (100 C) for 4 h or pressure cooking at 2 bar (124 C) for 1 h. The acid is washed out and the sample dried. The residue that remains is termed Klason lignin. A part of the lignin, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) dissolves in the acid. ASL is quantified by the intensity of its UV absorption peak at 280 nm. The method is suited for wood lignins, but not equally well for varied lignins from different sources. The carbohydrate composition may be also analyzed from the Klason liquors, although there may be sugar breakdown products (furan and hydroxymethylfuran). A solution of hydrochloric ...
Lignin is a polymer of monolignols and a major cell wall component in all vascular plants. It plays an important role in water/nutrient transport, imparting cell wall rigidity and impeding microorganism invasion. It has been thought for more than 30 years that the biosynthesis of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monolignols from coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, respectively, in angiosperms is mediated by a single type of enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). In contrast to this traditional model, on page 1567 of this issue, Li et al. discovered a novel aspen (Populus tremuloides) gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) and demonstrated that SAD is sinapaldehyde-specific for syringyl monolignol biosynthesis while CAD is in fact coniferaldehyde-specific for guaiacyl monolignol biosynthesis. The protein immunolocalization and lignin histochemistry verified that, in aspen stem vascular cells, SAD is spatiotemporally linked to S-lignin formation while CAD is associated with G-lignin ...
The current analytical methods to quantify lignin in forages are not satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, the acetyl bromide lignin (ABL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in forages; however, it suffers from the lack of an ideal standard with which the optical density readings of samples are compared to. A lignin, extracted from the plant with a solution of acidic dioxane, was employed to build a calibration curve for this method. This procedure was then compared with other methods (acid detergent lignin - ADL, Klason lignin - KL and potassium permanganate lignin - PerL) to determine lignin content on different fractions (stem, leaf and whole plant) of eight oat cultivars (Avena byzantina L.). There was no agreement among the four methods. In general, ABL and KL methods yielded the highest values while ADL method yielded the lowest, particularly for the young plants. Lignin concentration was higher in the stem fraction as compared to leaf. It was detected influence of ...
Sugarcane is a subtropical crop that produces large amounts of biomass annually. It is a key agricultural crop in many countries for the production of sugar and other products. Residual bagasse following sucrose extraction is currently underutilized and it has potential as a carbohydrate source for the production of biofuels. As with all lignocellulosic crops, lignin acts as a barrier to accessing the polysaccharides, and as such, is the focus of transgenic efforts. In this study, we used RNAi to individually reduce the expression of three key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in sugarcane. Furthermore, these genes, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase ( CCoAOMT), ferulate 5-hydroxylase ( F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase ( COMT), impact lignin content and/or composition. ...
Several analytical methods have been developed to measure the lignin content corresponding to different plant species and different regions. The sulphuric acid method is commonly used for objective determinations of lignin content using near-infrared spectroscopy. Lignin is a complex polymer of lignin units. The types and ratios of lignin units vary among taxonomic classes of plants. To compare the lignin content as determined by different methods of chemical analysis, fallen leaves of different species were analysed using both the acid detergent and acetyl bromide procedures. Near-infrared reflectance spectra were obtained for each sample of dried ground leaves, and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to compare the amounts of lignin determined using acid detergent and acetyl bromide. In monocotyledonous herbaceous plants, the lignin content determined by acetyl bromide was more than twice that determined by acid detergent. Despite the difference in the values, ...
Lignin, as highly cross-linked and three-dimensional organic polymer, is the second most abundant in nature following cellulose.1 Due to its complex and rigid structure, lignin is hard to decompose.2 Over 50-60 million tons of lignin are produced annually in the world, most of which come from the black liquor of the paper industry.3 Lignin waste is usually burned resulting in low heat and power energy generation efficiency. Therefore, new approaches for lignin utilization,4 for example production of high value-added products from lignin, are required.5 Microbes are known to naturally decompose lignin.6 Among them, white rot fungi is known as the most efficient microbe for lignin degradation that produces three peroxidases7 and laccase enzymes.8 The copper-containing laccase (p-diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) is able to catalyze the one-electron oxidation of phenolic substrates9 that supply electrons to the laccase molecule for the four electron reduction of oxygen to water.10 This ...
The antiradical and antimicrobial activity of lignin and lignin-based films are both of great interest for applications such as food packaging additives. The polyphenolic structure of lignin in addition to the presence of O-containing functional groups is potentially responsible for these activities. This study used DPPH assays to discuss the antiradical activity of HPMC/lignin and HPMC/lignin/chitosan films. The scavenging activity (SA) of both binary (HPMC/lignin) and ternary (HPMC/lignin/chitosan) systems was affected by the percentage of the added lignin: the 5% addition showed the highest activity and the 30% addition had the lowest. Both scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity are dependent on the biomass source showing the following trend: organosolv of softwood | kraft of softwood | organosolv of grass. Testing the antimicrobial activities of lignins and lignin-containing films showed high antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at 35 °C and at low
TY - GEN. T1 - Lignin recovery from alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis of oil palm fiber. AU - Hassan, Nur Syakilla. AU - Badri, Khairiah. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - In the present work, two types of treatment namely alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis have been conducted for lignin extraction from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. Lignin has been retrieved from two sequential methods, which was the klason lignin from residue and lignin from precipitation of the filtrate. Alkaline hydrolysis was performed using 10% NaOH solution at room condition. This has extracted 13.0 % lignin. On the other hand, glycerolysis was carried out using 70% glycerol catalyzed with 5% of 1 M NaOH at 60-70 °C. This has successfully extracted 16.0% lignin. The SEM micrographs exhibited some physical changes on the surface where the impurities and waxes have been removed, exposing the,lumen. Besides that, FTIR analysis was conducted on untreated EFB, treated EFB and extracted lignin. Delignification ...
Read Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase modulates methyl metabolism and lignin monomer methylation in maize, Journal of Experimental Botany on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Lignin decomposition involves a series of enzymes that oxidize phenolic] and non-phenolic lignin units. The first step in lignin decomposition produces aromatic radicals by oxidizing the lignin polymer. Laccases and lignin peroxidases (e.g. lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase) are extracellular enzymes involved in this first step. Laccases directly oxidize phenolic lignin units using molecular oxygen. However, phenolic lignin units comprise less than 10% of the lignin polymer, with non-phenolic units making up to 90% of the polymer. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) degrades non-phenolic lignin units by first being oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), then oxidizing aromatic nuclei of soluble lignin units. LiP can be recycled through oxidation by H2O2. The oxidized aromatic radical species are further involved in non-enzymatic radical reactions resulting in polymer cleavages[1][8]. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) oxidizes Mn2+ to Mn3+, Mn2+ being a commonly available element in soils and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimised recovery of lignin-derived phenols in a Scottish fjord by the CuO oxidation method. AU - Loh, Pei Sun. AU - Miller, Axel E. J.. AU - Reeves, Alison D.. AU - Harvey, S. Martyn. AU - Overnell, Julian. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Lignin is found only in vascular plant tissues, hence monitoring of lignin in aquatic environments is important in the determination of the sources and fate of terrestrial organic matter (OM). Concentrations of lignin-derived phenols provide an estimate of the amount of terrestrial OM in a system. Other lignin parameters such as the ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C/V) phenols provide information on vegetation sources; and the ratios of vanillic acid to vanillin, (Ad/Al)v, and syringic acid to syringaldehyde, (Ad/Al)s, indicate the degradation stage of lignin materials. Concentrations of lignin-derived phenols were determined for the surface and subsurface sediments of a Scottish sea loch, Loch Creran, using a CuO ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimised recovery of lignin-derived phenols in a Scottish fjord by the CuO oxidation method.. AU - Loh, Pei Sun. AU - Miller, Axel. AU - Reeves, Alison. AU - Harvey, S Martyn. AU - Overnell, Julian. N1 - Description Published October 2008 PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Lignin is found only in vascular plant tissues, hence monitoring of lignin in aquatic environments is important in the determination of the sources and fate of terrestrial organic matter (OM). Concentrations of lignin-derived phenols provide an estimate of the amount of terrestrial OM in a system. Other lignin parameters such as the ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C/V) phenols provide information on vegetation sources; and the ratios of vanillic acid to vanillin, (Ad/Al)v, and syringic acid to syringaldehyde, (Ad/Al)s, indicate the degradation stage of lignin materials. Concentrations of lignin-derived phenols were determined for the surface and subsurface sediments of a Scottish sea ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Effect of transition metal catalyst on lignin oxidation during alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment. AU - Li,Zhenglun. AU - Hodge,David. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Biomass lignocellulose can be used as feedstock for bioethanol production, and a pretreatment is necessary for achieving high ethanol yield and economical feasibility. As a method to increase enzyme digestibility of biomass by selective delignification, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment has been proposed and studied. The lignin recalcitrance in lignocellulose biomass can be removed by H 2O 2 oxidation and the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of the polysaccharides can be greatly improved. However, a big issue with AHP pretreatment is the high cost of hydrogen peroxide during the pretreatment, and the selectivity of the oxidant need to be improved, i.e. to achieve highest pretreatment efficiency with low level of H 2O 2 loading. In 1890s, Fenton discovered that iron ion can catalyze the oxidation of ...
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers. Lignin was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. P. de Candolle, who described it as a fibrous, tasteless material, insoluble in water and alcohol but soluble in weak alkaline solutions, and which can be precipitated from solution using acid. He named the substance lignine, which is derived from the Latin word lignum, meaning wood. It is one of the most abundant organic polymers on Earth, exceeded only by cellulose. Lignin constitutes 30% of non-fossil organic carbon and 20-35% of the dry mass of wood. The Carboniferous Period (geology) is in part defined by the evolution of lignin. The composition of lignin varies from species to species. An ...
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is added in sunscreens due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. However, upon irradiation of UV light, reactive oxygen species particularly hydroxyl radical which can damage human skin will be generated. In this study, lignin/TiO2 composites were employed to quench the hydroxyl radicals generated by the TiO2. The lignin was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) via kraft and soda pulping processes. The kraft lignin composite was labelled as KL/TiO2 whereas the soda lignin composite was labelled as SL/TiO2. The lignins and the composites were characterized by FTIR, UV spectroscopy, 13C NMR, SEM, EDX, and XRD. The relative hydroxyl radical production of composites and TiO2 were compared through photo-oxidation of coumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin as a test medium. The effect of types and amounts of lignin used were studied. The KL/TiO2 composite showed the least radical production due to higher phenolic hydroxyl content of kraft lignin. The activity of the
Lignocellulosic biofuels are promising as sustainable alternative fuels, but lignin inhibits access of enzymes to cellulose, and by-products of lignin degradation can be toxic to cells. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in the anaerobic litter deconstruction carried out by tropical soil bacteria make these organisms useful templates for improving biofuel production. The facultative anaerobe Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated from Cloud Forest soils in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico, based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolate was tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, where bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes likely play an important role in decomposition. We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to examine the observed increased growth of SCF1 grown on media amended with lignin compared to unamended growth. Proteomics ...
Disruptions in the lignin biosynthetic pathway have been shown to reduce disease resistance in a number of crops. Recently, genetically modified alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties have been marketed with reduced lignin and improved forage quality traits, including increased digestibility by ruminants at later stages of plant maturity. The objective of this study was to compare foliar disease resistance in three reference alfalfa varieties, 54R02, DKA43-22RR, WL355.RR, and the reduced lignin variety, 54HVX41, to evaluate the effect of the reduced lignin trait on foliar disease resistance. Alfalfa plants in research plots at three locations in Minnesota were evaluated for percent defoliation caused by foliar pathogens at four maturity stages; early bud, bud, early flower, and flowering; with natural inoculum. Spring black stem and leaf spot, Leptosphaerulina leaf spot, and common leaf spot were observed from June through September in all locations on all varieties. Summer black stem and leaf spot ...
This invention relates to a process for production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Lignocellulosic material treated with dicarboxylic acid, preferably with oxalic acid, separating hemicellulosic fraction to ferment pentose sugar. The lignin is dissolve in alkali, preferably with NaOH, separating cellulose fraction for further enzymatic treatment with one or more than one cellulytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose. Enzyme hydrolyasate further subjected to fermentation in presence of ethanol producing yeast, preferably Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermented broth further subjected to distillation followed by dehydration to yield ethanol.
Current set contains data on the molecular composition of lignin derived phenols and organic carbon content in bottom sediments and subsea permafrost rocks from five sediment cores obtained in the Buor-Khaya Bay (Laptev Sea). The substantially irregular distribution of lignin concentration and lignin-based molecular proxies revealed in the investigated samples reflect drastic environmental and depositional changes in the study area of the Laptev Sea. The increased OC content (2-5%) at some horizons and the highest concentrations (up to 23%) are related to the presence of vegetable residues such as wood and moss. Riverine flux and coastal thermoabrasion are considerable in lignin supply. Vanillyl and syringyl phenols dominate the lignin pool. Gymnosperm wood accounts for a significant fraction of the lignin. Concentration of lignin in sediments varies in five orders of magnitude. Strong share of lignin consists of biochemically unaltered compounds. Distribution of specific lignin phenols and related
Nonspecific (nonproductive) binding (adsorption) of cellulase by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) is a relatively new process, but demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel production from woody biomass especially softwoods in terms of yields and energy efficiencies. This study demonstrated the role of lignin sulfonation in enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses - lignosulfonate from SPORL can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses, contrary to the conventional belief that lignin inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. The study found that lignosulfonate from SPORL pretreatment and from a commercial source inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulosic substrates at low concentrations due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. Surprisingly, the
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Different conventional lignin determination methods have been applied to hemicellulose-rich extracts from spruce and birch obtained by pressurised hot-water extraction and subsequent membrane ultrafiltration. Mass balances of the overall processes were calculated in respect to dry solids content and lignin content. The different lignin determination methods were evaluated according to the lignin mass balances obtained by the applied methods. The amount of lignin in the raw extracts and filtrates varied significantly depending on the used method. Nevertheless, ...
OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Variation in genomic sequences coding for COMT, CCoAOMT1, and CCoAOMT2 was analyzed in relation to stover cell wall digestibility for a panel of 40 European forage maize inbred lines, and re-analyzed for a panel of 34 lines from a published French study. Different methodologies for association analysis were performed and compared. Across association methodologies, a total number of 25, 12, 1, 6 COMT polymorphic sites were significantly associated with DNDF, OMD, NDF, and WSC, respectively. Association analysis for CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 identified substantially fewer polymorphic sites (3 and 2, respectively) associated with the investigated traits. Our re-analysis on the 34 lines from a published French dataset identified 14 polymorphic sites significantly
MOESM1 of Oxidation of a non-phenolic lignin model compound by two Irpex lacteus manganese peroxidases: evidence for implication of carboxylate and radicals
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes. AU - Li,Muyang. AU - Foster,Cliff. AU - Kelkar,Shantanu. AU - Pu,Yunqiao. AU - Holmes,Daniel. AU - Ragauskas,Arthur. AU - Saffron,Christopher M.. AU - Hodge,David B.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Background: For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of phydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analytical Py-GC/MS of Genetically Modified Poplar for the Increased Production of Bio-aromatics. AU - SriBala, Gorugantu. AU - Toraman, Hilal Ezgi. AU - Symoens, Steffen. AU - Déjardin, Annabelle. AU - Pilate, Gilles. AU - Boerjan, Wout. AU - Ronsse, Frederik. AU - Van Geem, Kevin M.. AU - Marin, Guy B.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to steer bio-oil composition towards the production of speciality chemicals such as guaiacols, syringols, phenols, and vanillin through well-defined biomass feedstocks. Our previous work demonstrated the effects of lignin biosynthesis gene modification on the pyrolysis vapour compositions obtained from wood derived from greenhouse-grown poplars. In this study, field-grown poplars downregulated in the genes encoding CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD), CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (COMT) and CAFFEOYL-CoA O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (CCoAOMT), and their corresponding wild type were pyrolysed in a Py-GC/MS. This work ...
Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is nowadays an important raw material due to its cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content. These materials can be used to obtain high value-added products. The annual production of these materials is of approximately 200 million tonnes. The main lignin producer is the paper industry. For 2010 this industry produced 50 millions of tonnes of lignin represented as black liquor that is obtained in pulping paper. Only the 5% was used to produce adhesives, dispersants, surfactants, antioxidants and rubbers, while the remaining 95% was used to produce energy in cogeneration systems. Lignin is an organic polymer which alike the cellulose has an important production in the vegetable world. Some high value-added compounds that can be derived from lignin correspond to the binders and cosmetic, among others. These compounds have important uses in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Lignin is commonly used to produce bioenergy in cogeneration system. However, ...
The forest is alarge and important natural resourcein Sweden, and approximately 70% of the countrys land area is woodland. Wood is an excellent raw material for the replacement of oil-based products because it is renewable, biodegradable and carbon neutral. Furthermore, the forest industry is searching for new processes and methods to utilise by-product streams in a so-called integrated biorefinery. A key to the success of producing new products from wood could be pure and homogenous raw materials. Because wood contains a large variety of components with different characteristics and sizes, cross-flow filtration (CFF) will be a key separation technique to obtain homogenous and pure raw materials in the biorefinery concept.. Different wood material components have been studied in this thesis. The first part of this work focuses on kraft lignin. Kraft lignin is interesting because approximately 3.5-4 million metric tonnes are produced in Sweden annually (~7million tonnes of kraft pulp/year in ...
Lignin is like any other polymer in that the molecular weight (MW) can have a dramatic impact on its suitability for a given application. Furthermore, polymer purity can be an equally important factor if the desired materials properties are to be achieved. Two large and growing markets have been identified for lignin use, where both MW and purity can play an important role: (1) high-performance carbon fibers for automotive applications and (2) rigid polyurethane foams for spray insulation for buildings. In both cases, we hypothesize that todayâ s commercial lignins have too broad a molecular weight (MW) distribution and are too low in purity to give acceptable performance. Preliminary results with lignins of controlled MW and high purity are encouraging. For example, very clean, high-MW lignins isolated via ALPHA were converted into carbon fibers almost 40% stronger than any previously reported from lignin. For rigid polyurethane foams, preliminary data suggest that very clean lignins of low ...
Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is crucial to plant growth and development but is a major impediment to efficient biomass utilization in various processes. Valorizing lignin is increasingly realized as being essential. However, rapid condensation of lignin during acidic extraction leads to the formation of recalcitrant condensed units that, along with similar units and structural heterogeneity in native lignin, drastically limits product yield and selectivity. Catechyl lignin (C-lignin), which is essentially a benzodioxane homopolymer without condensed units, might represent an ideal lignin for valorization, as it circumvents these issues. We discovered that C-lignin is highly acid-resistant. Hydrogenolysis of C-lignin resulted in the cleavage of all benzodioxane structures to produce catechyl-type monomers in near-quantitative yield with a selectivity of 90% to a single monomer. ...
An accurate assessment of forage quality is required to allow prediction of animal performance. One of the most commonly used methods of forage evaluation is to measure lignin content, with more heavily lignified materials being considered less digestible. Two measures of lignin, acid detergent lignin (ADL) and acetyl bromide lignin (ABL), were assessed with regard to their ability to predict forage digestibility. Big bluestem forage samples were collected from three ungrazed, annually burned pastures at 38, 58, and 97 days postburn. These times were selected to represent a broad range of forage quality. Cell wall material was treated chemically by: 1) partial delignification (chlorite), 2) isolation o f - cellulose, or 3) NaOH extraction. Control and treated cell-w all material was analyzed for ABL and ADL and 24 and 72 hr in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD). ABL increased with advancing maturity for intact fibers, whereas ADL was highest in the most mature forage but lowest for the ...
Structural Changes to Aspen Wood Lignin during Autohydrolysis Pretreatment. Peng Wang,a Yingjuan Fu,a,* Zhiyong Shao,a Fengshan Zhang,b and Menghua Qin a,b,c,*. Aspen wood was subjected to autohydrolysis as a pre-treatment to characterize the structural changes occurring in lignin fractions during the pre-treatment process. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was isolated from both the native aspen wood and hydrolyzed wood chips, and its structural features were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), quantitative 13C, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (2D HSQC), and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, gel permeation chromatography/multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), and thermal analysis. The lignin remaining in the hydrolyzed wood chips revealed more phenolic OH groups, fewer aliphatic OH groups, higher syringyl/guaiacyl ratios (S/G), higher molecular weights, and narrower polydispersities than the native lignin of aspen wood. The inter-unit ...
Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM) in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07) and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10) indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350), were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin
cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: NADP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of p-hydroxycinnamaldehydes to their corresponding alcohols, leading to the biosynthesis of lignin in plants
Figure 2. A, The observed NADP+ in the binding pocket of SbCCR1. NADP+ and all interacting residues are represented as stick models. The backbone of SbCCR1 is represented as a ribbon diagram, and dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds or ionic interactions. All residues that contribute to NADP+ binding are labeled according to their single-letter abbreviations and numbered according to sequence positions. The catalytic triad, composed of Ser-149, Tyr-183, and Lys-187, is in close proximity to the nicotinamide ring and serves to promote hydride transfer to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates. B, Coniferaldehyde docked into the putative phenylpropanoid-binding region of SbCCR1. The backbone of SbCCR1 is represented by a ribbon diagram, with protruding side chains that contribute to coniferaldehyde binding modeled as sticks. Coniferaldehyde, which is the product of the reaction with the preferred substrate feruloyl-CoA, is shown in gray. Kinetics experiments with T154A and Y310F mutants revealed that ...
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) are two process options for production of ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates that are superior to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The principal benefits of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis together with the fermentation, instead of in a separate step after the hydrolysis as SHF does, are the reduced end-product inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis, and the reduced investment costs. The principal drawbacks, on the other hand, are the need to find favorable conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) for both the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation and the difficulty to recycle the fermenting organism and the enzymes. In order to enhance the efficiency of the lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion, optimization of the hydrolysis (also called saccharification) process step to achieve an optimal conversion of crystalline domains of cellulose is crucial. Towards this ...
Lignin model surfaces were prepared from aqueous alkaline solutions by spin-coating on silica wafers. Films of thicknesses between 20 and 140 nm were easily made by variations in the spinning rate or in the lignin concentration. The roughnesses of the lignin surfaces were relatively low, approximately 1.1 nm (rms) on an area of 25 μm2, as determined by atomic force microscopy imaging. The stability of the lignin films in aqueous solutions was found to be excellent. No changes in the thickness of model surfaces immersed in slightly alkaline solutions (pH 9.2) could be detected even after 5 h soaking. A 10 percent reduction in the thickness of the lignin film was observed after 5 h of exposure to a solution containing 0. M NaCl. This novel preparation method opens great possibilities for further fundamental studies, where interactions between lignin and other substances are of interest to investigate.. ...
Peroxidases have been shown to be involved in the polymerization of lignin precursors, but it remains unclear whether laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) participate in constitutive lignification. We addressed this issue by studying laccase T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified two genes, LAC4 and LAC17, which are strongly expressed in stems. LAC17 was mainly expressed in the interfascicular fibers, whereas LAC4 was expressed in vascular bundles and interfascicular fibers. We produced two double mutants by crossing the LAC17 (lac17) mutant with two LAC4 mutants (lac4-1 and lac4-2). The single and double mutants grew normally in greenhouse conditions. The single mutants had moderately low lignin levels, whereas the stems of lac4-1 lac17 and lac4-2 lac17 mutants had lignin contents that were 20 and 40% lower than those of the control, respectively. These lower lignin levels resulted in higher saccharification yields. Thioacidolysis revealed that disrupting LAC17 principally affected ...
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The woody cell wall is the most developed biological composite material existing today. Its components, phenols and carbohydrates, in combination with phenoloxidase were already used in the antique to produce lacquerwork. To allow the use at an industrial scale of these processes today, there must be a cheap phenol, as for example technical lignins produced in the paper industry that can be transformed into active radicals by using the enzyme laccase. This study used activated lignins that had a high density of phenoxy radicals. They were used because they proved to be more active than non-activated lignin and could even react with nucleophiles as cellulose and starch. The chemical properties leading towards this reaction allows for innovative use of lignin in biotechnology. The thesis analysed the reaction of activated lignin, water-soluble lignin and water insoluble indulin with maize starch to allow an improvement of the water solubility. Furthermore, the influence of an addition of mediators ...
Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving
Lignocellulosic substrates are increasingly gaining attention as raw materials for biofuels and chemicals although numerous challenges on fermentability confront their usage as production platforms [1, 2]. Lignocellulosic substrates are primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin [3]. To disintegrate and make lignocellulosic biomass structurally accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis before fermentation, it is first subjected to a pre-treatment process [4, 5].. Also, the concept of chemical and fuel production in an integrated biorefinery is driving the interest in pulping process streams which are often rich in derivatives of lignin and hemicellulose [6, 7].. Pulping is a well-established technology for biomass disintegration and fractionation to make wood pulps [8]. Chemical pulping is a widespread process, the four classical methods principally used in chemical pulping are the kraft, sulfite, soda, and neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping (NSSC) processes [9]. Pulping involves ...
Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale ...
PDF version. Investigators. John Ralph, Xuejun Pan, and Sara Patterson, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Objective. To delineate a set of approaches for successfully altering lignin structure, in a way that allows plant cell wall breakdown to produce biofuels in more energy-efficient manner, by providing alternative plant-compatible monomers to the lignification process.. Background. Over the past decade it has become apparent that the metabolic malleability of lignification, the process of polymerization of phenolic monomers to produce lignin polymers, provides enormous potential for engineering the resistant polymer to be more amenable to processing. Massive compositional changes can be realized by perturbing single genes in the monolignol pathway, particularly the hydroxylases. More strikingly, monomer substitution in the process of lignification, particularly in cases where a plants ability to biosynthesize the usual complement of monolignols is compromised, has been observed. These ...
The areca nut contains the tannins arecatannin and gallic acid; a fixed oil gum; a little terpineol; lignin; various saline ...
ISBN 978-0-471-41782-8. Lebo, Stuart E. Jr.; Gargulak, Jerry D.; McNally, Timothy J. (2001). "Lignin". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia ...
The groups R1 and R2 can be a wide variety of groups found in the structure of lignin. Sulfonation occurs on the side chains, ... Lignosulfonates, or sulfonated lignin are water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers: they are byproducts from the ... The following structures do not specify the structure since lignin and its derivatives are complex mixtures: the purpose is to ... The methyl groups come from methyl ethers present in the lignin. Oxidation of dimethyl sulfide with nitrogen dioxide produces ...
Lignin is the third component at around 27% in coniferous wood vs. 23% in deciduous trees. Lignin confers the hydrophobic ... Hardwood lignin is primarily derived from sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol. Softwood lignin is mainly derived from ... A major focus of the paper industry is the separation of the lignin from the cellulose, from which paper is made. In chemical ... These cells then go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Where ...
Lignin in fiber adsorbs bile acids, but the unconjugated form of the bile acids are adsorbed more than the conjugated form. In ... Lignin, a major dietary insoluble fiber source, may alter the rate and metabolism of soluble fibers. Other types of insoluble ... In the late 20th century, only lignin and some polysaccharides were known to satisfy this definition, but in the early 21st ... Examples are wheat bran, cellulose, and lignin. Coarsely ground insoluble fiber triggers the secretion of mucus in the large ...
It is found in all plants because it is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lignin, one of the principal components of ... Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John; Baucher, Marie (2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 54: 519-546. doi: ... all of which are significant building blocks in lignin. The transformation to ferulic acid is catalyzed by the enzyme caffeate ...
... (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid, functioning as an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis ... Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John; Baucher, Marie (2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 54: 519-546. doi: ...
Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John; Baucher, Marie (2003). "Lignin Biosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519-46. doi:10.1146/ ... lignins, are generated via catalysis by caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase. Organic methoxides are often produced by methylation ...
Lignans are typically dimers of lignols and lignin is a polymer. Lignans are soluble and thus susceptible to biodegradation, ... Monolignols, also called lignols, are the source materials for biosynthesis of both lignans and lignin. The starting material ... The glucose is then removed and the monolignols are polymerised into lignin. The phenylpropenes are derived from the ... W. Boerjan; J. Ralph; M. Baucher (June 2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519-549. doi:10.1146/ ...
This phytochemical is one of the monolignols, which are precursor to lignin or lignans. It is also a biosynthetic precursor to ... "Lignin Biosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54: 519-46. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938. PMID 14503002.. ...
"desipramine". Aryl methyl ethers are pervasive in lignin and many derived compounds. The demethylation of these materials has ... W. Boerjan; J. Ralph; M. Baucher (June 2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519-549. doi:10.1146/ ...
Energy crops: The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. Non-food energy crops ... Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial ... Gluconic acid Isosaccharinic acid, a degradation product of cellulose Lignin Zeoform Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; Chanzy ... 0110". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Crawford, R.L. (1981). Lignin biodegradation and ...
Jan Suszkiw (January 2011). "Lignin + Nootkatone = Dead Ticks". USDA. Norris, Edmund J., Aaron D. Gross, Michael J. Kimber, ...
Monocots and dicots, for example, tend to have very different lignin patterns: lignin found in monocots typically has a higher ... By reducing lignin content, the cellulose is more easily accessible to the chemical and biological reagents used to break it ... Lignin is troublesome for biofuel production because it is the main contributor to plant biomass recalcitrance due to its ... Zhou J, Lee C, Zhong R, Ye ZH (January 2009). "MYB58 and MYB63 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic ...
doi:10.1007/s10086-007-0892-x. Sarkanen, Simo; Lewis, Norman (1998). Lignin and lignan biosynthesis. Columbus, OH: American ...
In the biopulping process, the fungal enzyme lignin peroxidase selectively digests lignin to leave remaining cellulose fibres. ... stronger fibers and their lower lignin content. Lignin, present in virtually all plant materials, contributes to the ... Much of the lignin remains adhering to the fibres. Strength is impaired because the fibres may be cut. There are a number of ... This process gives a high yield of fibre from the timber (around 95 percent) and as the lignin has not been removed, the fibres ...
... using 13C NMR revealed that the lignin polymers contained more Guaiacyl lignin units than Syringyl units compared to the ... It could be due to this factor that the degradation of lignin is far less pronounced in bark tissue than it is in wood. It has ... Wood bark contains lignin; when it is pyrolyzed (subjected to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen), it yields a liquid ... Analysis of the lignin in bark wall during decay by the white-rot fungi Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushroom) ...
ISBN 978-1-78262-295-6. "Functional Materials from Lignin". blackwells.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-05-25. Loh, Xian Jun; Young, David ... Royal Society of Chemistry Functional Materials from Lignin; Editor: Xian Jun Loh; Publisher: World Scientific Biodegradable ...
Martone, P.; Estevez, J.; Lu, F.; Ruel, K.; Denny, M.; Somerville, C.; Ralph, J. (2009). "Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed ... The genuculae sometimes contain lignin. Genucila have probably evolved at least three times, evidenced by the three different ...
Lignins are polymers of monolignols, a family of alcohols whose common feature is a benzene ring with a allyl alcohol side ... The ability to produce lignin led to the evolution of the first trees. But bacteria and fungi did not immediately evolve the ... One theory suggested that about 360 million years ago, some plants evolved the ability to produce lignin, a complex polymer ... Hatcher, Patrick G.; Faulon, Jean Loup; Wenzel, Kurt A.; Cody, George D. (November 1992). "A structural model for lignin- ...
... lignin, cellulose, palm oil waste, coconut waste, peanut oil waste, canola oil waste, dried sewerage effluent and so on. ... ". "Bioasphalt with lignin in Zeeland". www.wur.nl. 28 November 2014. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved ... is running a pilot in the Dutch province of Zeeland with bioasphalt in which the binder of bitumen was substituted by lignin. ...
The autofluorescence of polyphenols can also be used, especially for localisation of lignin and suberin. Where fluorescence of ... Popa, V; Dumitru, M; Volf, I; Anghel, N (2008). "Lignin and polyphenols as allelochemicals". Industrial Crops and Products. 27 ...
... occurs widely, and closely related compounds give rise to lignin. All such compounds are biosynthesized starting ... Wengenmayer, Herta; Ebel, Jurgen; Grisebach, Hans (1976). "Enzymic Synthesis of Lignin Precursors. Purification and Properties ...
Wyrambik D, Grisebach H (1979). "Enzymic synthesis of lignin precursors. Further studies on cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase from ...
... and the electron dismantles a C-C or C-O bond to release one phenylpropane from the lignin. As the size of a lignin molecule ... This breakdown of lignin includes an oxidative mechanism, and requires the presence of dissolved oxygen to take place by ... This electron moves onto a C-C or C-O bond to break one phenylpropane molecule from the lignin, breaking it down by removing ... LiP disrupts C-C bonds and C-O bonds within Lignin's three-dimensional structure, causing it to break down. LiP consists of ten ...
Amos, D. (1964). "Preparation of Mescaline from Eucalypt Lignin". Australian Journal of Pharmacy. 49: 529. Kindler, Karl; ...
"Stora Enso launch renewable lignin tree product to replace oil-based glue". Environment Times. 18 April 2018. Archived from the ... LEPITREB (5 March 2018). "Stora Enso launches lignin-based phenol". Bioplastics News. Archived from the original on 15 December ... Pettersson, Jerry (13 February 2018). "Stora Enso lanserar lignin som ersätter fossilmaterial". Packnews.se (in Swedish). ... industrial-scale supply of lignin under the name Lineo as an alternative to phenol-based adhesives, prototypes of biodegradable ...
It is made from lignin pitch. The material has a dark colour and is soluble in water. Goulac water was used to make Gallagher ...
"Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
The composition consists of three elements-hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. It is the last of these three, lignin, that ... 2012). Imaging Lignin Degradation: Bio-prospecting for New Enzymes for Use in Biofuel Production. (Project Summary) University ... This research will explore the use of radiofluorination with the fluorine-18 isotope to search for places in nature that lignin ... The radioactive fluorine will be attached to lignin-degradation products in order to search for enzymes in nature that ...
Lignin-degrading enzymes.. Pollegioni L1, Tonin F, Rosini E.. Author information. 1. Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze ... The resistance of lignin to breakdown is the main bottleneck in this process, although a variety of white-rot fungi, as well as ... Accordingly, lignin appears to be a potentially valuable renewable aromatic chemical, thus representing a main pillar in future ... For this, lignocellulose, which is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, represents the most promising feedstock. ...
The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been studied for more than a century but has undergone major revisions over the past decade ... Lignin biosynthesis Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2003;54:519-46. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938. ... The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been studied for more than a century but has undergone major revisions over the past decade ... In vitro enzymatic assays and detailed analyses of mutants and transgenic plants altered in the expression of lignin ...
"Lignin and its Properties: Glossary of Lignin Nomenclature". Dialogue/Newsletters Volume 9, Number 1. Lignin Institute. July ... The conventional method for lignin quantitation in the pulp industry is the Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin test, which ... Lignin constitutes 30% of non-fossil organic carbon and 20 to 35% of the dry mass of wood. Lignin is present in red algae, ... Lignin is present in all vascular plants, but not in bryophytes, supporting the idea that the original function of lignin was ...
... could be attributable to preferential degradation of syringyl lignin over guaiacyl lignin. Syringyl lignin is known to be more ... Consequently, lignin remains a major component of the degraded plant cell wall (5). The remaining lignin is demethylated on ... This work demonstrates lignin degradation in wood-feeding beetles; previous evidence of lignin degradation by termites was ... Hydroxylation can occur on intact lignin or side-chain-oxidized lignin. The diastereomeric pair of the enantiomers 1-(3,4- ...
"When it grows in forests, it decays the wood and leaves behind the lignin," she said. "Were very interested in what puts ... The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the ... "Part of that is the machinery to break down wood became simpler since brown rot fungi are not breaking down lignin." ... The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, ...
PRNewswire/ -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the Global Kraft Lignin Market: Analysis, Trends and ... Lignin is one of the major carbon sources therefore the commercial applications of Kraft lignin have been increasing over the ... Lignin, a complex polymer, originates naturally in plant tissues. The Global Kraft Lignin is expected to be primarily driven by ... Growth Matrix Analysis of Kraft Lignin Market. 3.5. Competitive landscape in the Kraft Lignin market, 2013 - 2014. 4. Global ...
The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at ... soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. Lignins can be characterized ... Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping ... Aldaeus, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Elisabeth (December 2011). "COST Action FP0901 Round Robins of lignin samples Part 1: Lignin content ...
... characterization of lignin, and (v) techno-economic and life-cycle analysis of integrated processes to utilize lignin in an ... and biological methods for lignin depolymerization, (iii) chemo-catalytic and biological methods for upgrading lignin, (iv) ... However, lignins chemical composition makes it an attractive source for biological and catalytic conversion to fuels and ... employ lignin valorization technologies.Chapters will specifically focus on the production of fuels and chemicals from lignin ...
Buy lignin from the largest kraft lignin producer and a leader in sustainability. A renewable raw material for many ... What is lignin?. Lignin is a complex plant-derived polymer found in the cell walls of almost all dry-land plants. It binds ... Lignin applications. Lignin has numerous applications across a variety of industries, including automotive, construction, ... Sunila Mill, the home of lignin. Sunila Mill, Kotka, Finland is the mill where we manufacture our lignin. ...
"Lignin and its Properties: Glossary of Lignin Nomenclature". Dialogue/Newsletters Volume 9, Number 1. Lignin Institute. July ... The residue that remains is termed Klason lignin. A part of the lignin, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) dissolves in the acid. ASL is ... The conventional method for lignin quantitation in the pulp industry is the Klason lignin and acid-soluble lignin test, which ... NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Lignin *^ "Uses of lignin from sulfite pulping". Archived from the original on 2007-10-09 ...
Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by ... Lignin: Characterization of a Multifaceted Crop Component. Michael Frei Division of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops, ... Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon ... In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen ...
Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by ... Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon ... In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen ... In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. It contains more gross energy than ...
Lignin Valorization. Our group is pursuing strategies to depolymerize lignin in an integrated biorefinery context and ... Biological and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars and Lignin. Our research group, comprised of staff scientists, postdoctoral ... We recently published a study on using base-catalyzed depolymerization on several biorefinery-relevant lignins, which was ... subsequently upgrade lignin-derived aromatics into value-added chemicals to realize a more holistic, integrated approach to ...
Lignin Research Yields Additional Answers into Bacterias Role. April 3, 2020. NREL Senior Research Fellow Gregg Beckham. Photo ... But lignin has proven recalcitrant, and its use largely limited. "For more than a century, researchers have been trying to ... The new research examined the three best-performing bacteria able to convert a fraction of the lignin oligomers. Going into the ... Plants are protected by a complex cell wall made up of polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The first two ...
1969) Lignin and related compounds. I. A comparative study of catalysts for lignin hydrogenolysis. Can J Chem 47(5):723-727. ... Lignin is composed of three monomeric phenylpropanoid units connected by C-C and C-O bonds (9). Although lignin ... 2014) Lignin valorization: Improving lignin processing in the biorefinery. Science 344(6185):1246843. ... 1999) Batch microreactor studies of lignin and lignin model compound depolymerization by bases in alcohol solvents. Fuel 78(11 ...
Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The molecular weight ... distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 ... Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends ... Keywords: lignin; hot-water extraction; sugar maple; lignin adhesive blend; furfural; phenol-formaldehyde (PF) lignin; hot- ...
... Robert Harper , Finland HARPER at finfun.bitnet Thu May 3 09:12:00 EST 1990 *Previous ... Biodegradation of Lignin and Model Compounds Properties of Enzymes Involved in Lignin Degradation Cloning and Expression of ... INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY LIGNIN BIODEGRADATION AND PRACTICAL UTILIZATION COLLOQUIUM 27-30 ... Ligninase Genes Applied Aspects of Lignin Degradation/Utilization Application Information: Preference will be given to ICGEB ...
The antioxidant capacity of lignin from used green tea leaves was evaluated by ... Antioxidant Capacity of Lignin April 21/Tsukuba, Japan/Food Business Week -- According to a study from Tsukuba, Japan, ... Antioxidant Capacity of Lignin. April 21/Tsukuba, Japan/Food Business Week -- According to a study from Tsukuba, Japan, "The ... "Autoxidation of linoleic acid was reduced by 50% in the presence of tea leaf lignin. This effect was weaker than that of alpha- ...
European researchers proposed to use lignin, a structural component of many plants and algae, as an alternative raw material in ... Lignin is also expected to add value to composites by improving their flame retardancy. Importantly, lignin and lignin ... Lignin-based bioeconomy. SmartLi set out to develop valorisation routes for lignin sourcing it from pulp and paper industry by- ... Lignin is a natural polymer, but is available in modified forms as industrial side-streams. The industrial lignins cannot be ...
In addition, the lignin in the tracheid and fiber tracheid walls was originally rich in syringyl units, suggesting that changes ... Cell morphology, microfibril angle (MFA) of the S2 layer and lignin distribution in secondary walls of tracheary elements, and ... On the other hand, reaction wood showed decrease in the lignin concentration in the fiber tracheid walls compared to the ... Aiso H, Hiraiwa T, Ishiguri F, Iizuka K, Yokota S, Yoshizawa N (2013) Anatomy and lignin distribution of "compression-wood-like ...
... diffusible lipid radical as the proximal oxidant of lignin. Here we show that a non-phenolic b- O-4-linked lignin model dimer ... Lignin, Biodegradation, Decay fungi, Wood destroying fungi, Lipid peroxidation, Manganese peroxidase, Peroxyl radicals. Related ... Our results introduce a new hypothesis: that biogenic peroxyl radicals may be agents of lignin biodegradation.. Publication ... Peroxyl radicals are potential agents of lignin biodegradation. FEBS letters. No. 461 (1999).:p. 115-119 : ill.. Keywords. ...
Lignin, fibers, electrospinning, cellulose nanocrystals, composites. Related Search. *Interfacial Properties of Lignin-Based ... Lignin-based fibers were produced by electrospinning aqueous dispersions of lignin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cellulose ... A ternary lignin-PVA-water phase diagram was constructed as a tool to rationalize the effect of mixing ratios on the dispersion ... The thermal stability of the system was observed to increase owing to a strong interaction of the lignin-PVA matrix with the ...
Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is generated in enormous amounts during the pulp production. It is also a ... Lignin Activated carbon Carbon fibers Carbon catalyst Carbon electrodes This article is part of the Topical Collection "Lignin ... Fang W, Yang S, Wang X-L et al (2017) Manufacture and application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) and lignin-based carbon ... Ko FK, Goudarzi A, Lin L-T, et al (2016) Lignin-based composite carbon nanofibers. In: Lignin in polymer composites. Elsevier, ...
Materials Science »ORNL »Science TV »chemical process »green chemistry »high-value plastic »lignin molecules »lignin-based ... ORNL Develops Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Conversion Process 04.12.2012. Turning lignin, a plants structural "glue" and a ... lignin molecules , lignin-based plastics , material science , renewable resource , synthesis of thermoplastics ... the material can be transformed into a lignin-derived high-value plastic. While the lignin byproduct in raw form is worth just ...
What is lignin?. Lignin is a complex plant-derived polymer found in the cell walls of almost all dry-land plants. Lineo™ by ... with lignin. This new lignin-based glue significantly reduces the carbon footprint of plywood products all the way from ... This new lignin-based glue significantly reduces the carbon footprint of plywood products. Its a bio-based solution that helps ... We found the idea of using a lignin-based glue interesting and we welcome new innovations. We received proposals from some ...
Research Lignin Platform and so become part of a network of outstanding scientists a number of industrial sponsors that are ... joined in their interest and knowledge on lignin? Then please do not hesitate to contact us for further information. Contact ... Plant Cell walls, lignin biosynthesis, plant material, collections and populations of maize and miscanthus, a.o. ... Would you like to become a member of the Wageningen University & Research Lignin Platform and so become part of a network of ...
Wholesale Various High Quality Lignin Sulfonate Products from Global Lignin Sulfonate Suppliers and Lignin Sulfonate Factory, ... ammonium lignin sulfonate lignin binder lignin asphalt emulsifier lignin manufacturers lignin free lignin in us paper lignin ... na lignin sulfonate ca lignin sulfonate mg-2 ferrochrome lignin sulfonate 8075-74-9 ferrochrome lignin sulfonate lignin ... Tags: Calcium Lignin Sulfonate , Calcium Lignin Sulfonate/cls For Smelting , Buy Calcium Lignin Sulfonate/cls , View larger ...
The lignin-nylon composite is patent-pending and work is ongoing to refine the material and find other ways to process it. The ... Lignin, 3D printing materials, 3D printing with plants, Advanced Manufacturing, Biorefining, Byproducts, Composite Materials, ... The lignin-nylon material had tensile strength similar to nylon alone and lower viscosity, in fact, than conventional ABS or ... Using as much as 50 percent lignin by weight, a new composite material created at ORNL is well suited for use in 3D printing. ...
Lignin being one of the few large resources of naturally occurring aromatics has a big potential to be used for material ... The heterogeneity of lignin does however present some problems in terms of e.g. dispersity, solubility, diverse functionality, ... Technical lignins have functional groups that can be utilized as chemical handles for further modifications required for ... Lignins aromatic structures could be an alternative for non-renewable aromatics in e.g. thermoset applications. ...
... important for understanding lignin role in plant cell wall mechanics and for rationally improving lignin processing. The lignin ... lignin and lignin : lignin interactions are approximately equivalent in strength. Furthermore, under these conditions, polymers ... Examples include melt spinning of lignin for manufacturing low-cost carbon fiber and the relocalization of lignin to increase ... Lignin-based carbon fibers for composite fiber applications journal, January 2002 * Kadla, J.F; Kubo, S; Venditti, R.A ...
  • The aromatic polymer lignin protects plants from most forms of microbial attack. (pnas.org)
  • How these insects are able to circumvent the lignin barrier and gain access to the polymer carbohydrates has been a mystery. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin, a complex polymer, originates naturally in plant tissues. (prnewswire.com)
  • Lignin is highly heterogeneous polymer derived from a handful of precursor lignols that crosslink in diverse ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin is a complex plant-derived polymer found in the cell walls of almost all dry-land plants. (storaenso.com)
  • Lignin is a cross-linked polymer with molecular masses in excess of 10,000 u . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin is a complex aromatic polymer, which is deposited in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There's a famous phrase about this polymer: You can make anything out of lignin except money. (nrel.gov)
  • However, plant cell walls also contain an aromatic polymer, lignin, that has not been cost-effectively converted into fuels or commodity chemicals. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin is an energy-dense, heterogeneous polymer comprised of phenylpropanoid monomers used by plants for structure, water transport, and defense, and it is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin is a natural polymer, but is available in modified forms as industrial side-streams. (europa.eu)
  • In a cover article published in Green Chemistry, the research team describes a process that ultimately transforms the lignin byproduct into a thermoplastic - a polymer that becomes pliable above a specific temperature. (innovations-report.com)
  • The heterogeneity of lignin does however present some problems in terms of e.g. dispersity, solubility, diverse functionality, and varying polymer backbone structure. (kth.se)
  • The units resulting from the monolignols, when incorporated into the lignin polymer, are called guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p -hydroxyphenyl (H) units ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lignin is one of the important classes of complex organic polymer which is found in cell walls, fibers and vessels which create wood and the lignified elements of plants. (sbwire.com)
  • Lignin is a complex polymer of lignin units. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Prisma Renewable Composites is a biomaterials company creating technologies to produce high value composite materials, including carbon fibers and polymers, all of which contain lignin, a highly renewable organic polymer. (prnewswire.com)
  • The principal direction of investigation of uses for lignin derivatives has been in the polymer field, lignins being high molecular weight compounds formed by the biosynthetic polymerization of certain closely related phenylpropenol precursors. (google.com)
  • During pulping the lignin polymers are broken down to provide the said lignin derivatives which are by nature degradation products comprising lignin polymer fragments incorporating phenyl propane units which may present reactive sites through which re-polymerization reactions can occur. (google.com)
  • This substance is referred to as a complex natural polymer known as lignin and it is considered to be the second largest renewable carbon source on the planet following cellulose. (azocleantech.com)
  • Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lignin is an aromatic polymer, which is the biggest and most sustainable reservoir for aromatics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • But to make fuels from plant sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose, producers generally have to remove the surrounding lignin, a hardy phenolic polymer that helps support the plants' structure. (acs.org)
  • Converting lignin to useful chemicals is challenging because the polymer is highly heterogeneous and recalcitrant to degradation. (acs.org)
  • Under high pressure, they heated the reactor to 225 °C, which breaks the lignin polymer into shorter, soluble units that contact the catalyst through the cage. (acs.org)
  • Lignin is a complex three-dimensional fragrant polymer structured exclusively in the cell walls of living plants of the Spermatophytes, the Pterido-phytes and a few greeneries (Roelofsen, 1956). (ukessays.com)
  • Instead of a hydrophilic alcohol group (an oxygen-hydrogen molecule bound to a hydrogen-saturated carbon atom), the final lignin polymer contained a hydrophobic aldehyde group (a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom). (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignin is a highly recalcitrant integral polymer in higher plants and the second most abundant organic polymer in nature. (europa.eu)
  • Lignoxy™ is a lignin-based polymer technology for the replacement of petroleum-based polymer. (itri.org.tw)
  • The basic concept of ITRI's lignin-based polymer (LBP) technology is using lignin as the role of a monomer in the polymerization process, is. (itri.org.tw)
  • The group then determined that the plants not only created the monomers but also incorporated them into the lignin polymer, thereby introducing the weak links into the lignin backbone and transforming the poplars' natural lignin into a more easily degradable version. (greencarcongress.com)
  • We can now move beyond tinkering with the known genes in the lignin pathway to using exotic genes to alter the lignin polymer in predesigned but plant-compatible ways, essentially designing lignin for (chemical) deconstruction. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignin is a complex phenylpropanoid polymer that constitutes a vital component of plant secondary cell walls, and imparts 'waterproofing' capacity as well as mechanical strength, rigidity, and environmental protection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Poly(n-butyl acrylate) represents a typical elastomeric polymer, and polystyrene is used as a representative glassy polymer, and grafting these onto lignin was pursued as a method to integrate a renewable resource into polymers commonly used in a broad range of applications. (caltech.edu)
  • Unlike fully crosslinked lignin-based network polymers such as lignin-based polyurethane, these lignin-based graft copolymers may show high flexibility in processing as a thermoplastic polymer. (caltech.edu)
  • The most common technical lignins include lignosulphonates (isolated from sulfite pulping), kraft lignins (isolated from kraft pulping black liquor), organosolv lignins (isolated from organosolv pulping), soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin, an aromatic biopolymer found in plant cell walls, is a key component of lignocellulosic biomass and generally utilized for heat and power. (rsc.org)
  • The book provides the latest breakthroughs and challenges in upgrading lignin to fuels and chemicals for graduate students and researchers in academia, governmental laboratories, and industry interested in biomass conversion. (rsc.org)
  • In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. (hindawi.com)
  • Our group is pursuing strategies to depolymerize lignin in an integrated biorefinery context and subsequently upgrade lignin-derived aromatics into value-added chemicals to realize a more holistic, integrated approach to biomass conversion. (nrel.gov)
  • With the intensive development of lignocellulosic biorefineries around the world to produce fuels and chemicals from biomass-derived carbohydrates, the amount of waste lignin will dramatically increase, warranting new lignin upgrading strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Our work demonstrates that the utilization of these natural aromatic catabolic pathways may enable new routes to overcome the lignin utilization barrier that, in turn, may enable a broader slate of molecules derived from lignocellulosic biomass. (pnas.org)
  • In production of fuels and chemicals from biomass, lignin is typically underused as a feedstock and burned for process heat because its inherent heterogeneity and recalcitrance make it difficult to selectively valorize. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we use a natural aromatic-catabolizing organism, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to demonstrate that these aromatic metabolic pathways can be used to convert both aromatic model compounds and heterogeneous, lignin-enriched streams derived from pilot-scale biomass pretreatment into medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates ( mcl -PHAs). (pnas.org)
  • Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is generated in enormous amounts during the pulp production. (springer.com)
  • Renders T, Van den Bosch S, Koelewijn S-F et al (2017) Lignin-first biomass fractionation: the advent of active stabilisation strategies. (springer.com)
  • Naskar noted that earlier work on lignin-based plastics utilized material that was available from pulping industries and was a significantly degraded version of native lignin contained in biomass. (innovations-report.com)
  • The discovery, detailed in Science Advances, expands ORNL's achievements in lowering the cost of bioproducts by creating novel uses for lignin-the material left over from the processing of biomass. (newswise.com)
  • Lignin gives plants rigidity and also makes biomass resistant to being broken down into useful products. (newswise.com)
  • One is, however, the wood component lignin that is produced on a large scale from chemical pulping processes of biomass. (kth.se)
  • Lignin, a waste product in biomass and ethanol production, now finds new value as bio-oil in new products. (phys.org)
  • Because lignin protects cell wall polysaccharides from microbial degradation, thus imparting decay resistance, it is also one of the most important limiting factors in the conversion of plant biomass to pulp or biofuels. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lignin, one of the major chemical constituents of woody biomass, is the second most abundant biopolymer found in nature. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1376587, title = {Laccase-mediated synthesis of lignin-core hyperbranched copolymers}, author = {Cannatelli, Mark D. and Ragauskas, Arthur J.}, abstractNote = {Lignin, one of the major chemical constituents of woody biomass, is the second most abundant biopolymer found in nature. (osti.gov)
  • We report an approach by which the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of biomass are converted through catalytic processes in a solvent prepared from lignin into high value platform chemicals and transportation fuels , namely furfural , 5-hydroxymethylfurfural , levulinic acid and γ-valerolactone . (rsc.org)
  • I will also teach students chemistry of biomass and lignin and how to collect and analyze data that will be used in their future careers. (aiche.org)
  • However, the dissociation mechanism of lignin from different biomass by choline-based ionic liquids is still unclear. (aiche.org)
  • To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. (frontiersin.org)
  • While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresources to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Advancement in application of biorefinery to production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-derived materials necessitates a fundamental understanding of the relationship of lignin structure and biomass recalcitrance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this mini-review, we focus on recent investigations on the influence of lignin chemical properties on bioprocessability-pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, lignin-enzyme interactions and the effects of lignin compositional units, hydroxycinnamates, and lignin functional groups on biomass recalcitrance have been highlighted, which will be useful not only in addressing biomass recalcitrance but also in deploying renewable lignocelluloses efficiently. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lignin is extraordinary in that it is the main expansive scale biomass wellspring of a sweet-smelling usefulness (Berlyn & Mark, 2010). (ukessays.com)
  • If algae don't contain lignin, there is no need for pre-treatment, and cellulosic ethanol from algae should be far cheaper than cellulosic ethanol from other biomass. (oilgae.com)
  • The discovery, detailed in Science Advances ( 'A path for lignin valorization via additive manufacturing of high-performance sustainable composites with enhanced 3D printability' ), expands ORNL's achievements in lowering the cost of bioproducts by creating novel uses for lignin--the material left over from the processing of biomass. (nanowerk.com)
  • Vanholme R, Morreel K, Darrah C, et al (2012) Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops. (springer.com)
  • A team of researchers from Purdue University's Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels, or C3Bio, has developed a process that uses a bimetallic Zn/Pd/C catalyst to convert lignin in intact lignocellulosic biomass directly into two methoxyphenol products (phenols are a class of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds used in perfumes and flavorings) leaving behind the carbohydrates as a solid residue. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In addition, the hemicellulose fraction of the biomass is hydrolyzed in the same step of lignin conversion, with easy separation of the resultant xylose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • We can do this while simultaneously producing from the biomass lignin-free cellulose, which is the basis of ethanol and other liquid fuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Plant biomass is made up primarily of lignin and cellulose, a long chain of sugar molecules that is the bulk material of plant cell walls. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignin acts as a physical barrier that makes it difficult to extract sugars from biomass and acts as a chemical barrier that poisons the enzymes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignin is far more than just a tough barrier preventing us from getting the good stuff out of biomass, and we need to look at the problem differently. (greencarcongress.com)
  • While lignin accounts for approximately 25% of the biomass by weight, it accounts for approximately 37% of the carbon in biomass. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Ralph's approach had clear benefits for the biofuels industry as well, where difficulty in removing and processing lignin remains a major obstacle to accessing the valuable sugars contained within biomass, adding energy and cost to the production of biofuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of most plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, lignins are polymers made by cross-linking phenolic precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the carbohydrate polymers cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin forms the largest portion of "lignocellulosic" plant materials. (hindawi.com)
  • Lignin biosynthesis in plants can be divided into three major phases: (i) synthesis of monolignols in the symplastic shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathway, (ii) export of monolignols to the apoplast, and (iii) activation of monolignols by enzyme-mediated formation of monolignol radicals in the apoplast and their polymerization to form complex lignin polymers (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Plants are protected by a complex cell wall made up of polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. (nrel.gov)
  • The project successfully demonstrated the antioxidant properties of lignin and its use in the production of thermoplastic polymers. (europa.eu)
  • Satheesh Kumar MN, Mohanty AK, Erickson L, Misra M (2009) Lignin and its applications with polymers. (springer.com)
  • The molecules of the lignin fraction were also used as core substrates in a ring-opening polymerization to produce functional star co-polymers. (kth.se)
  • The above findings provide molecular-level understanding of the technologically important segmental motions of lignin and demonstrate that, despite the heterogeneous and complex structure of lignin, its segmental dynamics can be described by concepts developed for chemically homogeneous polymers. (osti.gov)
  • Lignins are a class of highly phenolic polymers that help give plants their physical structure. (acs.org)
  • In this presentation, we will discuss the interaction between lignin and plastic polymers during co-pyrolysis in detail. (aiche.org)
  • Through Prisma's lignin technology, petrochemicals are partially replaced by natural polymers. (prnewswire.com)
  • The selective conversion of lignin polymers into aryl monomers is a promising route to provide aromati. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Of the polymers found in plant cell walls, lignin is the stand out that is not made out of starch (sugar) monomers. (ukessays.com)
  • Along these lines our insight into lignin concoction structure is less exact than our insight into other regular and manufactured polymers. (ukessays.com)
  • Ralph J, Lundquist K, Brunow G, et al (2004) Lignins: natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenyl- propanoids. (springer.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICLECMP 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers . (waset.org)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lignins, a class of polymers of phenylpropanoid units. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The technology produces lignin-based Epoxy, polyurethane and polyester polymers. (itri.org.tw)
  • Such hydrolysates are rich in xylose but also contain lignin polymers or oligomers as well as phenolic and furan compounds, such as syringaldehyde, vanillin, HMF, furfural. (biomedsearch.com)
  • and, to a lesser extent, from lignin polymers: from 14 to 46mLCH(4)/gMV. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The use of different natural polymers (lignosulfonates, organosolv and kraft lignins) and synthetic dehydrogenative polymers showed that higher S/G ratios and lower molecular weights in lignin polymers led to greater methane production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bringing together experts from biology, catalysis, engineering, analytical chemistry, and techno-economic/life-cycle analysis, Lignin Valorization presents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary picture of how lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially employ lignin valorization technologies. (rsc.org)
  • Our results are a sustainable, ecofriendly, economic method to create an exciting novel biomaterial from a renewable feedstock while further enhancing lignin valorization. (osti.gov)
  • I would dedicate my efforts to lignin valorization to complement the existing strengths of the department in biotechnology and sustainable energy. (aiche.org)
  • Lignin valorization to chemicals and materials is recognized to be essential for the economic viability of future biorefineries. (mcgill.ca)
  • The foregoing sequential valorization strategy accommodates a wide variety of lignins and raises the possibility of deploying modular concepts in distributed biorefineries. (mcgill.ca)
  • Zakzeski J, Bruijnincx PCA, Jongerius AL, Weckhuysen BM (2010) The catalytic valorization of lignin for the production of renewable chemicals. (springer.com)
  • Ragauskas AJ, Beckham GT, Biddy MJ, et al (2014) Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery. (springer.com)
  • White-rot fungi simultaneously degrade the three major components of the plant cell wall: lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to white-rot fungi, brown-rot fungi are able to circumvent the lignin barrier, removing the hemicellulose and cellulose with only minor modification to the lignin. (pnas.org)
  • The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the hemicellulose and cellulose, they are considered more efficient and is probably why they have been able to dominate boreal forests in more recent times. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin fills the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin components, especially in vascular and support tissues: xylem tracheids, vessel elements and sclereid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose could be described as the "brick" of the cell wall, while pectin, hemicellulose and lignin function like mortar, cementing everything together. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Lignin, along with cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin comprise the main components of a plant's cell wall," Sulc said. (hayandforage.com)
  • By bonding or embedding with other biopolymers (cellulose and hemicellulose), lignin strengthens the integrity and rigidity of the plant cell wall yielding a complex macro-molecular assembly (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Unraveling the tightly wound network of molecules-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-that make up the cell wall of plants for easier biofuel processing. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The team's conclusion-that hydrophobic, or water repelling, lignin binds less with hydrophilic, or water attracting, hemicellulose-points researchers toward a promising way to engineer better plants for biofuel. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • His team's simulation of a genetically modified lignin molecule linked to a hemicellulose molecule adds context to work conducted by researchers at DOE's BioEnergy Science Center , who demonstrated that genetic modification of lignin can boost the amount of biofuel derived from plant material without compromising the structural integrity of the plant. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • This problem can be traced to the molecular makeup of the plant cell wall, where lignin and hemicellulose bond to form a tangled mesh around cellulose. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • We wanted to see if there was a difference in the lignin-hemicellulose network if you substituted water-resisting aldehydes in the lignin for water-attracting alcohols," said Loukas Petridis, an ORNL staff scientist. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The objective of this research project is to develop a process to increase the amount and efficiency of hemicellulose extraction, analyze yield and efficiency of low-lignin wood conversion to biofuels. (trb.org)
  • Many grasses have mostly G, while some palms have mainly S. All lignins contain small amounts of incomplete or modified monolignols, and other monomers are prominent in non-woody plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalytic Scissoring of Lignin into Aryl Monomers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Recently, however, scientists have found that some precious metals can catalyze the breakdown of lignin into valuable aromatic monomers used in flavor and fragrance chemistry. (acs.org)
  • In this context, several promising catalytic approaches have been reported for lignin deconstruction to aromatic monomers and other low molecular weight compounds. (mcgill.ca)
  • A simple spray reactor is used for the ozonolysis pretreatment to cleave C=C bonds in grass lignins to conveniently recover vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, two of the most valuable monomers. (mcgill.ca)
  • The observed yield of aromatic monomers is greater than those recently reported using either reductive catalyst fractionation of lignin over Pd/C catalyst using hydrogen or oxidation/hydrolysis routes. (mcgill.ca)
  • Espiñeira JM, Novo Uzal E, Gómez Ros LV, et al (2011) Distribution of lignin monomers and the evolution of lignification among lower plants. (springer.com)
  • Northern blot analyses revealed that several genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of lignin monomers displayed significant changes in transcript abundance over a diurnal cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The researchers identified an enzyme (coniferyl ferulate feruloyl-CoA monolignol transferase) in other plants that contain more digestible lignin monomers, then expressed it in poplar. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The "graft from" method utilized ATRP to polymerize vinyl monomers from a lignin-based macroinitiator. (caltech.edu)
  • ORNL scientists have created a new composite material for additive manufacturing that makes use of lignin, a biofuels byproduct. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that a bacterium found in camel crickets is capable of breaking down lignin -- the stuff that makes wood tough, opening new research pathways for the development of biofuels and chemical manufacturing. (nsf.gov)
  • This natural abundance has gained immense interest from the research community in order to chemically transform lignin into biofuels. (azocleantech.com)
  • While cellulose has an acknowledged application in generating biofuels, it would be valuable to use the abundant lignin present as well. (bl.uk)
  • As a carbon source lignin can be very valuable, we just need a way to tap into it without jeopardizing the sugars we need for biofuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technical lignins are very diverse in terms of their molecular weight, structure, chemical reactivity, and chemical composition, which is a consequence of the different origin of the lignin and the various methods of lignin isolation. (springer.com)
  • Vishtal A, Kraslawski A (2011) Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins. (springer.com)
  • Technical lignins have functional groups that can be utilized as chemical handles for further modifications required for different material systems e.g. phenols, aliphatic hydroxyls, and carboxylic acids. (kth.se)
  • Many applications are still hampered by the properties of technical lignins. (springer.com)
  • Matsushita Y (2015) Conversion of technical lignins to functional materials with retained polymeric properties. (springer.com)
  • In her detailed VTT report, "Chemical and enzymatic oxidation using molecular oxygen as a means to valorize technical lignins for material applications," Dr. Kalliola concludes, "The promising results of applying the alkali-O 2 oxidized lignin for concrete plasticizing encourage continuing the investigations. (concreteproducts.com)
  • The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapters will specifically focus on the production of fuels and chemicals from lignin and topics covered include (i) methods for isolating lignin in the context of the lignocellulosic biorefinery, (ii) thermal, chemo-catalytic, and biological methods for lignin depolymerization, (iii) chemo-catalytic and biological methods for upgrading lignin, (iv) characterization of lignin, and (v) techno-economic and life-cycle analysis of integrated processes to utilize lignin in an integrated biorefinery. (rsc.org)
  • ORNL's world-class capabilities in materials characterization and synthesis are essential to the challenge of transforming byproducts like lignin into coproducts, generating potential new revenue streams for industry and creating novel renewable composites for advanced manufacturing," said Moe Khaleel, associate laboratory director for Energy and Environmental Sciences. (newswise.com)
  • To tackle these challenges, work-up of lignin and thorough characterization are important to be able to produce materials with predetermined, predictable, properties. (kth.se)
  • Production and characterization of lignin and cellulose fractions obtained from pretreated vine shoots by microwave assisted alkali treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Accordingly, lignin appears to be a potentially valuable renewable aromatic chemical, thus representing a main pillar in future biorefinery. (nih.gov)
  • The Global Kraft Lignin is expected to be primarily driven by Factors such as availability of raw materials at low cost in abundance, diversified commercial applications, and growing demand for renewable carbon sources. (prnewswire.com)
  • A collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and three other national laboratories has yielded new insight into the ability of bacteria to break down the hardy part of a plant known as lignin. (nrel.gov)
  • Overall, the SmartLi will develop valorisation routes for lignin, bringing new bio-based products to the market and replacing non-renewable resources. (europa.eu)
  • Gosselink RJA (2011) Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. (springer.com)
  • Our work addresses a pathway to utilize lignin as a sustainable, renewable resource material for synthesis of thermoplastics that are recyclable," said Naskar, a member of the Department of Energy laboratory's Material Science and Technology Division. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dec. 18, 2018-Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have created a recipe for a renewable 3D printing feedstock that could spur a profitable new use for an intractable biorefinery byproduct: lignin. (newswise.com)
  • Lignins aromatic structures could be an alternative for non-renewable aromatics in e.g. thermoset applications. (kth.se)
  • June 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Yanfeng Automotive Interiors (YFAI) and Prisma Renewable Composites announced today that the companies have entered into an agreement giving YFAI exclusive use of Prisma's lignin-based material in the development of automotive interiors. (prnewswire.com)
  • Prisma and YFAI's agreement is an important step forward in environmental stewardship and is one of the first of its kind regarding this application for lignin,' said Adam McCall , Founder and CEO, Prisma Renewable Composites. (prnewswire.com)
  • "Both of these results were very promising, and our next step is to combine the two experiments into one, and achieve lignin deconstruction using hydrogen from a renewable source," said Slowing. (azocleantech.com)
  • Lignin and cellulose are renewable macromolecules available in high quantities. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have created a recipe for a renewable 3D printing feedstock that could spur a profitable new use for an intractable biorefinery byproduct: lignin. (nanowerk.com)
  • Thus, the major challenge is the conversion of lignins into suitable building blocks or aromatics in order to open up new avenues for the usage of this renewable raw material. (springer.com)
  • The interest and on-going research on utilisation of lignin as feedstock for production of renewable and sustainable aromatics is expanding and shows great potential. (uib.no)
  • In nature, some microorganisms have evolved pathways to catabolize lignin-derived aromatics. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin being one of the few large resources of naturally occurring aromatics has a big potential to be used for material applications where rigidity and thermal stability is important. (kth.se)
  • To make industrial applications feasible, an efficient production system for these enzymes would be needed Litter-decomposing fungi possess a similar lignin modifying enzyme system as wood-decaying white-rot fungi but relatively little is known about their potential and significance in the degradation of lignin, humus and organopollutants in soil. (europa.eu)
  • Enzymatic 'combustion': the microbial degradation of lignin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lignin plays a central role in carbon cycling on Earth. (pnas.org)
  • Lignin is one of the major carbon sources therefore the commercial applications of Kraft lignin have been increasing over the past couple of years. (prnewswire.com)
  • Lignin constitutes 30% of non-fossil organic carbon and 20 to 35% of the dry mass of wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, lignin accounts for a substantial portion of the total organic carbon in the biosphere, surpassed only by cellulose [ 2 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In nature, however, some organisms have evolved metabolic pathways that enable the utilization of lignin-derived aromatic molecules as carbon sources. (pnas.org)
  • Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, technical lignin could be used for production of carbon adsorbents, which have very high surface areas and pore volumes comparable to the best commercial activated carbons. (springer.com)
  • Li Q, Xie S, Serem WK et al (2017) Quality carbon fibers from fractionated lignin. (springer.com)
  • Suhas Carrott PJM, Ribeiro Carrott MML (2007) Lignin-from natural adsorbent to activated carbon: a review. (springer.com)
  • Mainka H, Täger O, Körner E et al (2015) Lignin-an alternative precursor for sustainable and cost-effective automotive carbon fiber. (springer.com)
  • Chatterjee S, Saito T (2015) Lignin-derived advanced carbon materials. (springer.com)
  • This new lignin-based glue significantly reduces the carbon footprint of plywood products all the way from production to final end-use applications without compromising on technical performance. (storaenso.com)
  • Researchers combined a melt-stable hardwood lignin with conventional plastic, a low-melting nylon, and carbon fiber to create a composite with just the right characteristics for extrusion and weld strength between layers during the printing process, as well as excellent mechanical properties. (newswise.com)
  • The resins based on the selectively allylated lignin fractions were furthermore evaluated as a potential matrix for carbon fibre composites. (kth.se)
  • Lignin plays a significant role in the carbon cycle , sequestering atmospheric carbon into the living tissues of woody perennial vegetation . (thefullwiki.org)
  • This episode of ID the Future from the vault features a lecture excerpt by Biologic Institute scientist Doug Axe on lignin, which makes up 30 percent of non-fossil organic carbon on the planet. (discovery.org)
  • The pH of black liquor from the evaporation plant is decreased with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the acidification reactor to precipitate the lignin from the black liquor. (andritz.com)
  • The high carbon content of lignin is an excellent property, while its structural heterogeneity yields in CF with poor mechanical properties. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparison of circadian changes in transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes between wild-type plants and the sex1 mutant, which is impaired in starch turnover, suggested that carbon availability related to starch turnover might determine the capacity to synthesize lignins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consistent with the relationship between carbon availability and lignin accumulation, analysis of dark-grown wild-type A. thaliana seedlings uncovered a role for sugars in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transcriptome analysis supports the hypothesis that sugars are not merely a source of carbon skeletons for lignification, but they also function as a signal to enhance the capacity to synthesize lignins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lignin molecules consist of multiple chemical groups made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that are assembled within the cell during a process called biosynthesis. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Due to its high availability and carbon content, kraft lignin has gained attention as a potential low-cost CF precursor. (diva-portal.org)
  • In vitro enzymatic assays and detailed analyses of mutants and transgenic plants altered in the expression of lignin biosynthesis genes have provided a solid basis for redrawing the monolignol biosynthetic pathway, and structural analyses have shown that plant cell walls can tolerate large variations in lignin content and structure. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, lignin remains a major component of the degraded plant cell wall ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lignin plays a crucial part in conducting water and aqueous nutrients in plant stems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls are highly hydrophilic and thus permeable to water, whereas lignin is more hydrophobic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, lignin also confers disease resistance by accumulating at the site of pathogen infiltration, making the plant cell less accessible to cell wall degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin is a plant component with important implications for various agricultural disciplines. (hindawi.com)
  • This review characterizes the role of lignin from the point of view of analytical chemistry, plant stress physiology, animal nutrition, bioenergy production, soil science, and crop breeding. (hindawi.com)
  • By elucidating the role of lignin from the perspective of several disciplines, synergies and conflicts are identified that need to be addressed in crop management, the utilization of crop products and residues, and in plant breeding schemes. (hindawi.com)
  • I am interested in detailed methods (protocols) for detection of lignin, polyphenolics and also Oxygen radicals in plant tissues, as well as useful vital stains to check if the fungal and root cells are dead or dying. (bio.net)
  • The dynamics of lignin, a complex and heterogeneous major plant cell-wall macromolecule, is of both fundamental and practical importance. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1471833, title = {Dynamics of the lignin glass transition}, author = {Vural, Derya and Smith, Jeremy C. and Petridis, Loukas}, abstractNote = {The dynamics of lignin, a complex and heterogeneous major plant cell-wall macromolecule, is of both fundamental and practical importance. (osti.gov)
  • Phys.org)-Lignin is an important component of the cell wall in plant cells and accounts for rigid structures, such as tree bark. (phys.org)
  • Using plants and trees to make products such as paper or ethanol leaves behind a residue called lignin, a component of plant cell walls. (phys.org)
  • Several analytical methods have been developed to measure the lignin content corresponding to different plant species and different regions. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lignin comprises up to 30% of plant material and accounts for approximately 40% of the total energy density of lignocellulose. (aiche.org)
  • Lignin is a substance naturally produced in alfalfa that makes the cell walls of the plant stiff and fibrous as it ages. (fooddemocracynow.org)
  • With existing varieties of alfalfa, farmers must harvest the plant while still relatively young - before the lignin has built up - and it is considered to be more nutritious to livestock. (fooddemocracynow.org)
  • Lignin is vital for plant survival, but its structure impedes cellulose conversion. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • There, research agronomist John Grabber--working with ARS plant physiologist Ronald Hatfield, Fachuang Lu of the University of Wisconsin, and John Ralph, formerly with ARS and now at the University of Wisconsin--has designed lignin that breaks down more easily. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Sulc, The Ohio State University's extension forage specialist, then proceeded to explain the forage quality virtues of a plant with reduced lignin and how research is largely confirming the developmental promises. (hayandforage.com)
  • HarvXtra is a genetically modified trait that reduces the activity for one of the enzymes involved in the production of plant lignin. (hayandforage.com)
  • In Germany, researchers with the Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP in Leuna, opened a pilot plant on October 2 to divide waste wood into lignin and cellulose to serve as raw materials for products such as plastic . (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Lignin is a constituent of the cell walls of pretty much all dry area plant cell walls. (ukessays.com)
  • By throwing a wrench in the plant cell's lignin assembly line, BESC scientists found they could boost biofuel production by 38 percent. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • In nature, lignin adds strength to cellulosic fibers and protects the plant from predators and disease. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignin, a major component of the plant cell wall, stands as a barrier to efficient biofuel production from switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ). (isaaa.org)
  • Lignin is important for plant secondary cell wall formation and participates in resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. (frontiersin.org)
  • What we have right now with current bioconversion processes often resembles a white rot approach," he said, "attacking lignin to get at carbohydrates and then converting them to fuels, chemicals or paper. (redorbit.com)
  • The lignin chemical business of Marathon was operated for many years as Marathon Chemicals. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Converting lignin into valuable products (e.g. fuels and chemicals) attracts great research interests. (aiche.org)
  • Joffres B, Laurenti D, Charon N, et al (2013) Thermochemical conversion of lignin for fuels and chemicals: a review. (springer.com)
  • It presents the theoretical evaluation of the energetics and catalytic species involved in potential pathways of catalyzed carbohydrate conversion, pathways leading to the formation of humin-based by-products, and thermal pathways in deriving chemicals from lignin pyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation. (springer.com)
  • We recently published a study on using base-catalyzed depolymerization on several biorefinery-relevant lignins, which was selected as an ACS Editor's Choice article at ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering . (nrel.gov)
  • The effective utilization of lignin is critical for the accelerated development of the advanced cellulosic biorefinery. (springer.com)
  • This work deals with the optimization of the second stage of a biorefinery scheme to separate simultaneously cellulose and lignin from hydrothermally pre-treated vine shoots. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To ensure the effectiveness of their innovation process, partners performed sustainability and life cycle assessment studies as well as techno-economic analyses for the newly developed lignin-based products and technologies. (europa.eu)
  • Herein, we show chemical changes in lignin upon passage of undegraded wood through two wood-feeding insect gut systems, one that naturally feeds on living healthy trees and a second that typically feeds on dead wood. (pnas.org)
  • European researchers proposed to use lignin, a structural component of many plants and algae, as an alternative raw material in chemical production. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, the lignin in the tracheid and fiber tracheid walls was originally rich in syringyl units, suggesting that changes in the anatomical and chemical characteristics of secondary xylem due to reaction wood formation might relate to the ratio of the syringyl to guaiacyl units in lignin in the cell walls which function for mechanical support. (springer.com)
  • Researchers accomplished this by reconstructing larger lignin molecules either through a chemical reaction with formaldehyde or by washing with methanol. (innovations-report.com)
  • Crosslinking involves building large lignin molecules by combining smaller molecules where formaldehyde helps to bridge the smaller units by chemical bonding. (innovations-report.com)
  • This thesis focuses on how to utilize solvent fractionated, relatively well-characterized, LignoBoost Kraft lignin to produce thermoset resins by chemical modification and a crosslinking procedure. (kth.se)
  • Kraft lignin possess different chemical properties than that of lignosulfonates. (sbwire.com)
  • To compare the lignin content as determined by different methods of chemical analysis, fallen leaves of different species were analysed using both the acid detergent and acetyl bromide procedures. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Although the acid detergent procedure has generally been regarded as accurate for lignin determination, our results suggest that caution is required in the selection of the method of chemical analysis when using near-infrared spectroscopy to estimate the lignin content of different taxonomic classes of plants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lignin or lignen is a complex chemical compound most commonly derived from wood , and an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants [ 1 ] and some algae . (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, due to the inherent chemical characteristics, lignin easily forms char/coke and clogs the reactors during pyrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • The physicochemical properties of the lignin and changes in chromophore structures during heat treatment was evaluated through wet chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (DRUV-Vis), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 13 C Cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C CPMAS NMR). (mdpi.com)
  • In some cases the black liquor containing the lignin derivatives and spent pulping chemical is simply discarded into rivers and the sea causing a pollution problem. (google.com)
  • During the chemical manufacture of paper pulp this lignin is dissolved in either the sulphate or sulphite process, since the cellulose is the desired component for making paper. (phys.org)
  • Slowing and other Scientists at Ames Laboratory are currently working to reach that commercialization target, experimenting with chemical reactions that are capable of decomposing lignin models at low pressures and temperatures. (azocleantech.com)
  • For this reason, lignin waste is typically used by paper mills as a low-grade boiler fuel, rather than as a high-grade fuel or as a raw material for chemical products. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conventional chemical reaction methods were unable to convert the large volumes of lignin wastes from paper mills into high quality fuels, but our research has opened up the potential for the mass-production of jet fuels from the otherwise useless lignin wastes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Grabber and his colleagues first tested the effects of changing the cell walls in a laboratory--before applying those changes to live plants--by incorporating a chemical compound called coniferyl ferulate into lignin formed within cell walls. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The challenge in making the Lignin Recovery technology cost-competitive has been to reduce the cost associated with removing excess sulfur that is introduced in the chemical recovery cycle with the addition of sulfuric acid used in the process. (andritz.com)
  • While producing high-quality lignin, the amount of sulfur in the chemical recovery cycle is increased considerably due to the large amount of sulfuric acid consumed in the acid washing step. (andritz.com)
  • When sulfur is dumped in the form of recovery boiler fly ash, the amount of NaOH required a make-up chemical is high (up to 20-30% of the total cost of produced lignin). (andritz.com)
  • Sangha AK, Davison BH, Standaert RF, et al (2014) Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization. (springer.com)
  • The group surmised that if they could introduce weak bonds into lignin, they could simply "unzip" the material, making it much easier for chemical processes to break it down. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Here, recent investigations have expanded the range of natural biocatalysts involved in lignin degradation/modification and significant progress related to enzyme engineering and recombinant expression has been made. (nih.gov)
  • This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. (unt.edu)
  • it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. (unt.edu)
  • By suppressing a key enzyme, Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, BESC scientists created an "incomplete" lignin molecule. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The team of Jong-Jin Park of Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system in switchgrass to target 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), a key enzyme involved in the early steps of the synthesis of monolignol, a component of lignin. (isaaa.org)
  • The water sorption properties of Kraft lignin before and after treatment with the enzyme laccase, and its composites with branched polyethylenimine and chitosan, respectively, have been studied. (lu.se)
  • In loquat, a gene encoding an enzyme in the lignin biosynthesis pathway, Ej4CL1 , was reported to be regulated by transcription factors, including EjMYB1, EjMYB2, EjMYB8 , and EjAP2-1 , knowledge of this process is still limited. (frontiersin.org)
  • citation needed] The main hydroxyl groups in lignin are aliphatic (R-OH), phenolic (Ph-OH) and carboxylic acid (R-COOH) hydroxyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past work has shown that the extracellular manganese- dependent peroxidases (MnPs) of ligninolytic fungi degrade the principal non-phenolic structures of lignin when they peroxidize unsaturated fatty acids. (usda.gov)
  • Using an inexpensive nickel catalyst, researchers converted the tough lignin from the grass Miscanthus (shown) into phenolic compounds that could be used in flavor or fragrance chemistry. (acs.org)
  • Using this method, the team turned 68% of the lignin from Miscanthus into phenolic products, including dihydroeugenol, propylsyringol, and ferulic acid methyl esters, which can be used to make vanillin. (acs.org)
  • In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. (wur.nl)
  • The resistance of lignin to breakdown is the main bottleneck in this process, although a variety of white-rot fungi, as well as bacteria, have been reported to degrade lignin by employing different enzymes and catabolic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Although cellulose degradation in insect guts is well documented ( 7 , 8 ), the fate of lignin has not clearly been demonstrated ( 9 , 10 ), and it is widely accepted that insect gut systems do not have the capacity to degrade lignin ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Then they subjected the cell walls to alkaline treatments, which are commonly used to degrade lignin. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Rhodococcus has been reported previously to degrade lignin. (bl.uk)
  • Indeed, lignin-selective fungi that degrade lignin in preference to cellulose are considered the most promising fungi for alternative energy saving applications in pulp and paper industry. (europa.eu)
  • This invention relates to the utilization of lignin derivatives produced as waste products in the pulping industry. (google.com)
  • Zhao Q, Nakashima J, Chen F, et al (2013) LACCASE is necessary and nonredundant with PEROXIDASE for lignin polymerization during vascular development in arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • Calculated ionisation potentials to determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase. (wur.nl)
  • Identification of DypB from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 as a lignin peroxidase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, however, we attempted to reconstruct larger lignin molecules by a simple crosslinking chemistry and then used it as a substitute for rigid phase in a formulation that behaves like crosslinked rubbers that can also be processed like plastics," Naskar said. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Chemistry of Lignin-Supplement Volume, 556-7 (1960) QD 321 B 78 1949-58. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • In: Methods in lignin chemistry. (degruyter.com)
  • Interactions among lignin, cellulose, and nitrogen drive litter chemistry-decay relationships. (semanticscholar.org)
  • New lignin-based graft copolymers have been developed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and click chemistry. (caltech.edu)
  • In "graft onto" method, the backbone lignin was linked to polystyrene graft via click chemistry. (caltech.edu)
  • The click chemistry was conducted with high efficiency to form lignin-graft-polystyrene under mild conditions. (caltech.edu)
  • An efficient procedure to selectively allylate the phenolics, the most abundant functionality, of the lignin fractions has been developed and evaluated as well as a curing procedure using a thiol crosslinker and a thiol-ene reaction. (kth.se)
  • Lignin positions second just to cellulose as the most abundant common item on earth. (ukessays.com)
  • Lignin is an abundant natural organic biomaterial, which is extracted from the wood. (itri.org.tw)
  • Lignin is an abundant polyphenol biopolymeric material. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In undegraded wood, the predominant products from TMAH thermochemolysis are typically 3,4-dimethoxybenzldehyde (G4) from guaiacyl (G) lignin ( Fig. 1 ) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (S4) from syringyl (S) lignin. (pnas.org)
  • [13] These lignols are incorporated into lignin in the form of the phenylpropanoids p -hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yoshizawa N, Watanabe N, Yokota S, Idei T (1993) Distribution of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in normal and compression wood of Buxus microphylla var. (springer.com)
  • Ini lignols dimasukkan ke lignin dalam bentuk phenyl-propanoids p -hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), dan syringyl (S), masing-masing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syringyl lignins result from the oxidative polymerization of sinapyl alcohol in a reaction mediated by syringyl (basic) peroxidases. (nih.gov)
  • The yields and composition of the chloroform-soluble monomeric lignin depolymerization products, 1,3-diiodo-1-(4-hydroxyaryl)propanes, originated from guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and 4-hydroxyphenyl (H) units were assessed on a semi-quantitative basis. (srce.hr)
  • We all know that the cellulose being bound by the lignin is what makes pretreatment (a very costly operation) a must for cellulosic ethanol. (oilgae.com)
  • Many refining processes include harsh pretreatment steps to break down and remove lignin, Abu-Omar said. (greencarcongress.com)
  • For more than a century, researchers have been trying to figure out what to do with lignin," said Gregg Beckham, a researcher at NREL and senior author of a new paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . (nrel.gov)
  • With that knowledge, researchers from NREL embarked on a collaborative effort to examine the three bacteria that did the best at attacking lignin. (nrel.gov)
  • Going into the project, the researchers were unaware how the bacteria were able to accomplish that feat. They hypothesized that the oligomers of lignin were not able to move through the bacteria cell membrane, so the researchers theorized something must be happening outside of the cell for them to be broken down. (nrel.gov)
  • The researchers concluded, "However, lignin enhanced the antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol, epigallocatechin gallate or acetone extracts of used tea leaves, with the antioxidant activity of lignin + acetone extracts of used tea leaves being nearly equivalent to that of a-tocopherol and t-butylhydroxyanisole. (preparedfoods.com)
  • But when researchers combined lignin with nylon, they found a surprising result: the composite's room temperature stiffness increased while its melt viscosity decreased. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers from the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University have developed a fuel cell that uses lignin, a cheap by-product from paper manufacture and one of the most common biopolymers. (brightsurf.com)
  • Researchers from the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at LiU have developed a fuel cell that uses lignin, a cheap by-product from paper manufacture and one of the most common biopolymers. (liu.se)
  • Research on different parts of lignin is being done in numerous enhanced fields, and it is clear that individual researchers have a changing idea of what the term lignin implies. (ukessays.com)
  • Using high-performance computing, a group of researchers at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided insight into how this might be accomplished, simulating a well-established genetic modification to the lignin of an aspen tree in atomic-level detail. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Researchers from Michigan State University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison and their colleagues report successfully engineering poplar trees to produce lignin that degrades more easily, thereby lowering the effort and cost to convert wood to biofuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the 'Global Kraft Lignin Market: Analysis, Trends and Forecast 2016 to 2021' report to their offering. (prnewswire.com)
  • Global Kraft Lignin market is expected to grow between 3% and 3.5% in terms of volume over the Forecast period from 2016 to 2021 .Kraft Lignin found in black liquor is extensively used as fuel to gain energy in the recovery boilers these days. (prnewswire.com)
  • Aiso H, Ishiguri F, Ohkubo T, Yokota S (2016) Cell morphology and lignin distribution of reaction wood in Tetracentron sinense . (springer.com)
  • Rinaldi R, Jastrzebski R, Clough MT et al (2016) Paving the way for lignin valorisation: recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis. (springer.com)
  • However, breeding goals must be defined considering the conflicting role of lignin in different agricultural disciplines. (hindawi.com)
  • Thermochemical processes, such as pyrolysis, have been explored for bio-oil production from lignin. (aiche.org)
  • Given the high hydrogen content, waste plastics could serve as a potential hydrogen donor for lignin pyrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • In this work, kraft lignin (KL) is blended with polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) respectively at different ratios for co-pyrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • It is noted that, for co-pyrolysis of lignin and plastics blends, the maximum mass loss rate of KL/PS is ~10% different to the estimated binary combination, while ~20% difference in the maximum mass loss rate was observed for KL/PE blend. (aiche.org)
  • The pyrolysis of lignin produces an oil, which has little industrial utility due to its high viscosity. (eurekalert.org)
  • The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
  • Apart from industrial feasibility, lignin materials enhance sustainable processes by reducing greenhouse gas emissions as they reduce our dependency on fossil-based materials,″ explains project coordinator Christine Hagström-Näsi. (europa.eu)
  • Although these drying processes are adaptable to various lignin modifications, they are particularly suitable for use with the products of this invention. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Lignin removed via the kraft process (sulfate pulping) is usually burned for its fuel value, providing energy to run the mill and its associated processes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It has been proposed to utilize the lignin derivatives contained in black liquors obtained from the pulping of hardwoods and softwoods both by the sulphite and alkali pulping processes, but as yet no major commercial use of the waste products has transpired. (google.com)
  • Large volumes of lignin are generated as waste in the pulping processes that are used to produce paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depending on the downstream use of the lignin, ANDRITZ tailors the processes to achieve a mill's exact goals. (andritz.com)
  • This chapter focuses on details about natural lignin degradation by fungi and bacteria, which harbor potential tools for lignin degradation and modification, which might help to develop eco-efficient processes for lignin utilization. (springer.com)
  • Hexamethylene tetramine derivatives of alkali lignins are formed by reacting, at a temperature between 70° C. and 180° C., 0.17 to 2.0 moles of a hexamethylene tetramine forming solution with 1 mole of an alkali lignin solubilized in an alkaline solution. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. Derivatives of lignin obtained by reacting in an alkaline solution an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., said derivative dried to form products having large surface areas. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The derivatives of claim 1 wherein said alkali lignin is a demethylated lignin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The process of producing large surface area lignin derivatives which comprises, reacting in an aqueous medium an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., mixing said product with varsol and acetic acid, and drying said mixture. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to novel derivatives of alkali lignins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to hexamethylene tetramine derivatives of alkali lignin that are useful as stabilizers and emulsifiers and are easily dried to lignins having large surface area. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • According to the present invention it is possible to obtain lignin derivatives, which are capable of obtaining high surface areas upon proper drying, by reacting in an aqueous alkaline solution an alkali lignin with hexamethylene tetramine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The lignins employed in this invention are of the type known as "alkali lignin" obtained from the black liquor formed during the manufacture of pulp by the sulfate or "kraft" process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The alkali lignins are insoluble in water, but soluble in alkali. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is not necessary to start with an alkali lignin per se as modified alkali lignins, such as the demethylated lignins made according to U.S. Pat. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A great deal of work has been directed at the separation of alkali lignin and lignosulphonate degradation products from black liquors, and the reaction of these with aldehydes for the formation of phenol formaldehyde type resins and adhesives. (google.com)
  • Lignin pertama kali disebut dalam 1813 oleh ahli botani Switzerland A. P. de Candolle, yang digambarkan sebagai berserabut, tanpa rasa bahan, larut dalam air dan alkohol tapi larut dalam lemah alkali penyelesaian, dan yang boleh dicetuskan dari penyelesaian menggunakan asid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The method is calibrated by lignin fractions characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). It could be demonstrated on a set of softwood kraft lignins that the PFG-NMR approach gives results in very good agreement with those obtained using conventional size exclusion chromatography (SEC). (degruyter.com)
  • But, recent research has been geared toward developing cost-effective technologies to convert lignin into valuable commodities. (osti.gov)
  • A Finland research and technology specialist serving Europe's forested Nordic countries cites a technique to convert lignin, a wood fiber binder and pulp mill byproduct, to a plasticizing agent competitive with synthetic and lignosulphonate-based concrete admixtures. (concreteproducts.com)
  • If algae don't contain lignin why no algae ethanol attemps? (oilgae.com)
  • Lignins can be characterized by determination of their purity, molecular structure and thermal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new paper, titled " Outer membrane vesicles catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 ," is the result of work at NREL, Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. (nrel.gov)
  • The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1), ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the segmental (α) relaxation of lignin, the dynamical process that gives rise to the glass transition. (osti.gov)
  • It is found that lignin dynamics involves mainly internal motions below T g , while segmental inter-molecular motions are activated above T g . (osti.gov)
  • It is therefore a general object of this invention to provide a novel low cost, high melting point, high molecular weight lignin derivative. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Depolymerization of Lignin in Wood with Molecular Hydrogen Iodide', Croatica Chemica Acta , 73(3), str. (srce.hr)
  • The general molecular properties and in particular, the molar mass of lignin are of central importance for industrial applications, as these data govern important thermal and mechanical characteristics. (degruyter.com)
  • Sangha AK, Petridis L, Smith JC, et al (2012) Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin. (springer.com)
  • Using a molecular dynamics code called NAMD, the team ran simulations of the wild lignin and the genetically modified lignin in a water cube, modeling the presence of the aldehydes by altering the partial charges of the oxygen and hydrogen atoms on the modified lignin's allylic site. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • VTT Technical Research Centre's LigniOx technology converts lignin to a water-soluble agent through molecular oxygen, and is described in Senior Scientist Anna Kalliola's 2015 doctoral thesis. (concreteproducts.com)
  • The remaining lignin is demethylated on aryl methoxy groups and contains a greater number of ring hydroxyl groups ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lignin was phosphorylated thanks to the presence of reactive hydroxyl groups in its structure. (fraunhofer.de)
  • As a counterpart of azide group, lignin hydroxyl groups were functionalized to alkyne groups for the click reaction, copper-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition. (caltech.edu)
  • Depolymerization and dehydration reactions occurred via demethoxylation with heat treatment in saturated steam at 110 °C or 130 °C. Lignin condensed to form insoluble compounds after heat treatment in saturated steam at 150 °C. G units increased and S units decreased through demethylation during heat treatment, as revealed by FTIR and 13 C-NMR analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Depolymerization of lignin in wood with hydrogen iodide in a non-polar solvent is a selective, high-yield reaction that releases a diiodide of potential synthetic value into the solution. (srce.hr)
  • Continuous depolymerization of the remaining lignin is achieved in a slurry reactor over a Lewis acidic catalyst (Zr-KIT-5) with stable activity and without the need for any reducing or oxidizing agents. (mcgill.ca)
  • These exotic conjugates have been shown, but to date only in in vitro model systems, to be capable of introducing readily cleavable ester bonds into the lignin backbone, permitting easier depolymerization. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The thermal stability of the system was observed to increase owing to a strong interaction of the lignin-PVA matrix with the dispersed CNCs, mainly via hydrogen bonding, as observed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. (usda.gov)
  • Although the yield of isolated lignin from switch grass was significantly higher than for softwood and hardwood, the newly identified signals were present in all isolated lignins. (aiche.org)
  • Dry-jet wet spun precursor fibres (PFs) made of blends of softwood kraft lignin and kraft pulps were converted into CF. The corresponding CFs demonstrated significant improvement in processing yield with negligible loss in mechanical properties relative to cellulose-derived CFs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Unfractionated softwood kraft lignin and paper grade kraft pulp performed as good as more expensive retentate lignins and dissolving grade kraft pulp, which is beneficial from an economic point of view. (diva-portal.org)
  • A reduction in fibre diameter was beneficial for the mechanical properties of the CFs made from unfractionated softwood kraft lignin and paper grade kraft pulp. (diva-portal.org)
  • CFs with promising properties can be made from flexible dry-jet wet spun precursor fibers (PFs) from blends (70:30) of softwood kraft lignin and fully bleached softwood kraft pulp. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using fractionation methods for separating lignin, they were able to recover lignin fractions with equal properties from different starting lignin materials and characterise them. (europa.eu)
  • Membrane separation methodologies have also been tested and the lignin fractions analysed in terms of yield, composition and structural features. (europa.eu)
  • Furthermore, partners have employed nanofiltration as a non-thermal approach to isolate lignin fractions. (europa.eu)
  • Importantly, lignin and lignin fractions were evaluated for their potential to replace up to 75 % of phenol in formaldehyde resins. (europa.eu)
  • Specifically, strategies to sequentially attack the C=C bonds (by ozonolysis) followed by C-O bonds (with solid Lewis acid catalysts) to isolate various value-added fractions in grass and woody lignins will be discussed. (mcgill.ca)
  • Perfect for reward or recognition, these acid-free and lignin-free Dazzle™ stickers come 105 per pack and are on perforated sheets for easy distribution! (teachersparadise.com)
  • Perfect for reward or recognition, each pack of these acid-free and lignin-free stickers includes 12. (teachersparadise.com)
  • Die-cut shapes Acid free and lignin free 60-156 stickers per pack Sticker count shown in parentheses. (teachersparadise.com)
  • Despite the fact that a significant fraction of all lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. (pnas.org)
  • lignin comprises about 1/3 of the mass of lignocellulose, the precursor to paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin constitutes 20 to 40 percent of lignocellulose including woods and grass, lignocellulose. (eurekalert.org)
  • The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. (asm.org)
  • This finding also suggests that the original function of lignin was structural as it plays this role in the red alga Calliarthron, where it supports joints between calcified segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turning lignin, a plant's structural "glue" and a byproduct of the paper and pulp industry, into something considerably more valuable is driving a research effort headed by Amit Naskar of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Structural characteristics of lignin are critical to enhance 3D printability of the materials," said ORNL's Ngoc Nguyen who collaborated on the project. (newswise.com)
  • The procedure was evaluated and it could be shown that the lignin backbone was subjected to substantial structural changes of lignin inter-unit linkages. (kth.se)
  • It is commonly accepted that lignin evolved together with the adaptation of plants to a terrestrial life to provide them with the structural support needed for an erect growth habit ( Fig. 3 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lignin and cellulose cooperate to give a structural capacity in plants closely resembling that of epoxy sap and glass strands in a fiberglass boat. (ukessays.com)
  • Past the structural capacity, lignin plays a few other essential organic parts in plants. (ukessays.com)
  • But, you are right that aquatic species have little use for lignin for structural support. (oilgae.com)
  • Lignin is present in red algae, which suggest that the common ancestor of plants and red algae also synthesised lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is present in red algae , which seems to suggest that the common ancestor of plants and red algae also synthesised lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • No algae contains lignin ( I double checked with my science colleague and she confirmed it. (oilgae.com)
  • Apparently there are a few species of red algae in coastal waters that have lignin and probably use it to deal with the surf. (oilgae.com)
  • Algae is not poisoned by lignin. (oilgae.com)
  • The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been studied for more than a century but has undergone major revisions over the past decade. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the biosynthetic pathway, a complex network of transcription factors has been reported regulating lignin biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gargulak JD, Lebo SE (1999) Commercial use of lignin-based materials. (springer.com)
  • The first investigations into commercial use of lignin were reported by Marathon Corporation in Rothschild , Wisconsin ( USA ), starting in 1927. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Moreover, examples of the commercial use of lignin and its promising future implementation are briefly described. (springer.com)
  • Dual-luciferase assay indicated that EjODO1 could trans-activate promoters of lignin biosynthesis genes, such as EjPAL1, Ej4CL1 , and Ej4CL5 and transient overexpression of EjODO1 triggered lignin biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Instead of using nearly 50 million tons of lignin byproduct produced annually as a low-cost fuel to power paper and pulp mills, the material can be transformed into a lignin-derived high-value plastic. (innovations-report.com)
  • While the lignin byproduct in raw form is worth just pennies a pound as a fuel, the value can potentially increase by a factor of 10 or more after the conversion. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prisma's BioLAN ™ material is produced using lignin, a natural byproduct of the pulp and paper making process. (prnewswire.com)
  • The EU-funded SmartLi project developed technologies for ensuring high quality lignin raw materials for manufacturers and industrial end users. (europa.eu)
  • This chapter provides an overview of the biosynthesis and structure of lignin. (springer.com)
  • Scientists at NREL and Oak Ridge then worked together to provide a partial answer to what's inside these vesicles: namely enzymes that are able to modify lignin-related compounds. (nrel.gov)
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed technology known as "CatLignin" to produce reactive lignin from pulp industry side streams to be used as a replacement for toxic phenol compounds in wood adhesives that are widely used in wood products and furniture. (eurekalert.org)
  • The present study focused on the production and recovery of high-value lignin-derived compounds from biocrude. (rti.org)
  • Effect of lignin-derived and furan compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on biomethane production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A similar material can also be made from lignin produced in biorefineries. (innovations-report.com)
  • We are able to take lignin-which most biorefineries consider waste to be burned for its heat-and turn it into high-value molecules that have applications in fragrance, flavoring and high-octane jet fuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin is essentially the 'glue' that surrounds the cell walls of living plants like trees and grasses. (prnewswire.com)
  • This lignin-polysaccharides matrix renders cell walls recalcitrance for biorefining. (frontiersin.org)
  • In some cases, the potential value for agriculture of transgenic plants with modified lignin structure has been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Lignin is present in all vascular plants, but not in bryophytes, supporting the idea that the original function of lignin was restricted to water transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The characteristic feature determining the role of lignin in various applications of lignocelluloses is its resistance to microbial fermentation, whether in living plants, in ruminants' digestive tract, in soils, or in bioenergy reactors. (hindawi.com)
  • Simplified model of lignin biosynthesis in vascular plants. (hindawi.com)
  • The types and ratios of lignin units vary among taxonomic classes of plants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In monocotyledonous herbaceous plants, the lignin content determined by acetyl bromide was more than twice that determined by acid detergent. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This entry was posted in Audio , Center for Science and Culture , ID the Future (podcast) , Intelligent Design the Future and tagged Doug Axe , lignin , plants . (discovery.org)
  • Hatfield, Ralph and ARS geneticist Jane Marita at Madison are now leading efforts to engineer plants to make lignin with coniferyl ferulate. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Hatfield R, Vermerris W (2001) Lignin formation in plants. (springer.com)
  • This hypothesis was supported by the observation that the sex1 mutant accumulated fewer lignins than wild-type plants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The study is important because lignin-which is critical to the survival of plants in the wild-poses a problem for ethanol production, preventing enzymes from breaking down cellulose into simple sugars for fermentation. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The Pv4CL1 knock-out plants had reduced cell wall thickness, a significant reduction in total lignin content, an increase in glucose release as well as an increase in xylose release. (isaaa.org)
  • Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Graichen FHM, Grigsby WJ, Hill SJ et al (2017) Yes, we can make money out of lignin and other bio-based resources. (springer.com)
  • Stora Enso has been working on developing lignin-based resin since 2017 in very close collaboration with Latvijas Finieris. (storaenso.com)
  • Lignin is a bulky chain of molecules found in wood and is usually discarded during biofuel production. (phys.org)
  • Further research showed that incorporating other molecules such as feruloyl and caffeoylquinic acid into lignin could also enhance cellulose utilization. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • SmartLi set out to develop valorisation routes for lignin sourcing it from pulp and paper industry by-products. (europa.eu)
  • The pulp and paper industry has long produced lignin on the scale of millions of tons annually as a by-product of the pulping process, and the dawn of cellulosic ethanol production has further contributed to this amount. (osti.gov)
  • But what if lignin were altered so that it would break down easier, thus facilitating the production of paper, ethanol and other industrial products? (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. (hindawi.com)
  • Our work has demonstrated that choline-based ionic liquids are highly effective in removing lignin from herbaceous crops such as switch grass. (aiche.org)
  • Modified lignin could make fibrous crops more digestible, allowing producers to feed more forage crops and less grain to their livestock. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Refined lignin can replace petro-based phenols that are used in resins for plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), paper lamination and insulation material. (storaenso.com)
  • Scientists worked to understand the reactions' mechanisms by employing advanced analytical techniques and assessed the properties of lignin-containing resins in comparison with benchmark industrial recipes. (europa.eu)
  • Latvijas Finieris, a global leading developer, producer and supplier of birch plywood products, has together with Stora Enso taken the next steps towards replacing phenol - in resins used in plywood - with lignin. (storaenso.com)
  • The suitability of lignin for a variety of applications has been investigated for decades, but only now we have found a way to use it as a phenol substitute in significant quantities in resins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Varieties with the HarvXtra trait have, on average, about 15 percent less lignin compared to conventional alfalfa varieties," Sulc said. (hayandforage.com)
  • The composition of lignin varies from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by breeding is becoming increasingly important. (hindawi.com)
  • Finding new uses for lignin can improve the economics of the entire biorefining process," said ORNL project lead Amit Naskar. (newswise.com)
  • Litter decay rates often correlate with the initial ratios of lignin:nitrogen (N) or lignin:cellulose in litter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The main building blocks of lignin are the hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (or monolignols) coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, with typically minor amounts of p -coumaryl alcohol ( Fig. 1 ). (plantphysiol.org)