Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Pseudolymphoma: A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Heavy Chain Disease: A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Fanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.GizzardRecombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain ... or immunoglobulins). Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the ... Hieter PA, Korsmeyer SJ, Waldmann TA, Leder P (1981). "Human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain genes are deleted or rearranged ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... immunoglobulin genes: Heavy chain alpha (IgA): IGHA1, IGHA2 Heavy chain gamma (IgG): IGHG1, IGHG2, IGHG3, IGHG4 Heavy chain ... or immunoglobulins). Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the ... Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of ...
... or μ heavy chains unbound to a light chain (free α and ε heavy chain myeloma protein spikes have not been reported). Among MGUS ... the immunoglobulin light chain antigen binding locus gene which is on the short arm of chromosome 22 at position 22q11.2; and c ... unbound to a heavy chain) κ or λ light chain; c) a free κ chain in great excess of a λ chain or a free λ chain in great excess ... and characteristics of renal heavy-chain and heavy/light-chain amyloidosis and their comparison with renal light-chain ...
Immunoglobulins are composed of two types of protein chain -- the heavy chain and the light chain. The heavy chains, which ... The V domains of the light and heavy chain are folded together to form a structure that binds antigen; different V domains bind ... Immunoglobulins include light chains and heavy chains. The light chain (λ or κ) is a protein of ~220 amino acids, composed of a ... composed of one light chain, denoted L, and one heavy chain, denoted µ. The heavy and light chains are held together both by ...
In IgA2, the heavy and light chains are not linked with disulfide, but with noncovalent bonds. In secretory lymphoid tissues (e ... rich with cysteine and structurally completely different from other immunoglobulin chains. This chain is formed in the IgA- ... Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens. Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form. (see ... One of these is the J chain (joining chain), which is a polypeptide of molecular mass 15kD, ...
... region is formed from the amino-terminal end of both the light and heavy chains of the immunoglobulin polypeptide. This region ... The combined sequence of variable light chain (VL) and variable heavy chain (VH) creates three hypervariable regions (HV1, HV2 ... "Immunoglobulins- antigen-antibody reactions and selected tests". Microbiology and Immunology. University of South Carolina ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ...
The variable portions of an immunoglobulin heavy and light chain are fused by a flexible linker to form an scFv.[citation ... An antigen recognition domain from native T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta single chains have been described, as have ... in a scFv with orientation light chain - linker - heavy chain, the native signal of the light-chain is used). The antigen ... A spacer region links the antigen binding domain to the transmembrane domain. It should be flexible enough to allow the antigen ...
Colors are: H-chains (blue and light blue), L-chains (red and light red), J-chain (magenta) and the secretory component (yellow ... In IgA2, the heavy and light chains are not linked with disulfide, but with noncovalent bonds. In secretory lymphoid tissues (e ... Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens.[10]. Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form.[ ... Colors are: H-chains (blue and light blue), L-chains (red and discriminatory), J-chain (magenta) and the secretory component ( ...
Monomers of IgE consist of two heavy chainschain) and two light chains, with the ε chain containing 4 Ig-like constant ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". J. Immunol. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440.. ...
IgA shows the same typical structure of other antibody classes, with two heavy chains and two light chains, and four distinct ... It encodes a constant (C) segment of Immunoglobulin A heavy chain. Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role ... that may have a role in determining the specificity of an interaction between IgA and an antigen. IGHA1 has been implicated in ... Complete nucleotide sequences for the alpha-1 heavy chain constant region and the allelic alpha-2 heavy chain regions were ...
... and immunoglobulin W (IgW) as well, both types with two heavy and two light chains. The only mammals with heavy-chain (IgG-like ... the antigen binding region consists of the variable domains of the heavy and light chains (VH and VL). Heavy-chain antibodies ... A heavy-chain antibody is an antibody which consists only of two heavy chains and lacks the two light chains usually found in ... The immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) of cartilaginous fishes (for example sharks) is a heavy-chain antibody. IgNAR ...
... heavy chains and two Ig light chains. There are two types of light chain in humans: kappa (κ) chain, encoded by the ... immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). IgNAR is believed to have never had an associated light chain, contrary to the ... thus the two light chains of an individual antibody are identical. Each light chain is composed of two tandem immunoglobulin ... Other types of light chains can be found in lower vertebrates, such as the Ig-Light-Iota chain of Chondrichthyes and Teleostei ...
... immunoglobulin new antigen receptor'). The latter type is a heavy-chain antibody, an antibody lacking light chains, and can be ... The heavy chain doesn't always have to bind to a light chain. Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of ... heavy chains and two Ig light chains. Several different types of heavy chain exist that define the class or isotype of an ... These heavy chain types vary between different animals. All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually ...
Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, 'immunoglobulin new antigen receptor'), from which single-domain ... which are composed of two heavy protein chains and two light chains, and even smaller than Fab fragments (~50 kDa, one light ... one from a light and one from a heavy chain). The first single-domain antibodies were engineered from heavy-chain antibodies ... A single-domain antibody is a peptide chain of about 110 amino acids long, comprising one variable domain (VH) of a heavy-chain ...
They form two long heavy chains and two short light chains. But vertebrate genome does not code entire genes of heavy and light ... Complementary mRNA of heavy chain can be translated into immunoglobulin specific only for one lymphocyte. Migliaccio, Anna Rita ... During life, organisms have contact with a large number of antigens. Which means that the immune system needs to synthesize a ... Segments of heavy chain are located on chromosome 14, they include 11 constant gene segments (CH), that are preceded by 123-129 ...
Antibodies are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. There are ... 4. Light chain (green) with one variable (VL) and one constant (CL) domain. 5. Antigen binding site (paratope). 6. Hinge ... Heavy chains[change , change source]. Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms ... 1. Fragment antigen binding region. 2. Fragment crystallizable region. 3. Heavy chain (blue) with one variable (VH) domain ...
... on two different polypeptide chains, heavy and light chain), there are six CDRs for each antigen receptor that can collectively ... Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors ... heavy chains only) and joining (J) regions. CDR3 is the most variable. The tertiary structure of an antibody is important to ... on the amino acid sequence of a variable domain of an antigen receptor . Since the antigen receptors are typically composed of ...
Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an ... His idea prompted Paul Ehrlich to propose the side-chain theory for antibody and antigen interaction in 1897, when he ... Heavy chain[edit]. Further information: Immunoglobulin heavy chain. There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by ... Light chain[edit]. Further information: Immunoglobulin light chain. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light ...
There is approximately 40% excess immunoglobulin light-chain production over immunoglobulin heavy-chain synthesis. Possibly ... The variable (V) domain of light chains has a high degree of structural diversity, particularly the antigen-binding region. In ... Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). ... so under normal conditions no light chains pass beyond the proximal tubules. If immunoglobulin light chains are produced in ...
Monomers of IgE consist of two heavy chainschain) and two light chains, with the ε chain containing 4 Ig-like constant ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
... also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a single heavy and single light chain, except ... determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α and β chains in case of αβ T cells or γ and δ chains on ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... CDR3 is the main CDR responsible for recognizing processed antigen, although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to ...
... called the heavy (~50kDa) and the light chain (~25kDa). The two types of light chains are kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). By cleavage ... transferring human immunoglobulin genes into the murine genome and vaccinating the transgenic mouse against the desired antigen ... Taking human gene sequences from the kappa light chain and the IgG1 heavy chain results in antibodies that are approximately 65 ... The heavy and light chains of human IgG proteins are expressed in structural polymorphic (allotypic) forms. Human IgG allotype ...
... also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a single heavy and single light chain, except ... determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α and β chains in case of αβ T cells or γ and δ chains on ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ...
The variable regions of the heavy and light chains can be fused together to form a single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which ... The enzyme IdeS (Immunoglobulin degrading enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes, trade name FabRICATOR) cleaves IgG in a sequence ... It is composed of one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and the light chain. The variable domain contains ... The antigen-binding fragment (Fab) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. ...
... of the Ig μ heavy chain and one of the light chains results in the formation of membrane bound form of the immunoglobulin IgM ... V(D)J recombination allows for the generation of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors to antigens that neither the organism nor ... containing the gene segments for the remainder of the immunoglobulin light chain. Each heavy chain and light chain gene ... chains of the immunoglobulin light chain loci rearrange in a very similar way, except that the light chains lack a D segment. ...
... (or familial visceral amyloidosis, or hereditary amyloid nephropathy) is a form of amyloidosis primarily presenting in the kidney. It is associated most commonly with congenital mutations in the fibrinogen alpha chain and classified as a dysfibrinogenemia (see Hereditary Fibrinogen Aα-Chain Amyloidosis). and, less commonly, with congenital mutations in apolipoprotein A1 and lysozyme. It is also known as "Ostertag" type, after B. Ostertag, who characterized it in 1932 and 1950. "Amyloid". Gillmore JD, Lachmann HJ, Rowczenio D, Gilbertson JA, Zeng CH, Liu ZH, Li LS, Wechalekar A, Hawkins PN (2009). "Diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of hereditary fibrinogen A alpha-chain amyloidosis". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 20 (2): 444-51. doi:10.1681/ASN.2008060614. PMC 2637055 . PMID 19073821. Uemichi T, Liepnieks JJ, Gertz MA, Benson MD (September 1998). "Fibrinogen A alpha chain Leu 554: an ...
... is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and light chain variable regions combined with human heavy and light chain constant regions.[25] It has a serum half-life of 9.5 days and can be detected in serum 8 weeks after infusion treatment.[25]. Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNF-α by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the blood) and transmembrane (located on the outer membranes of T cells and similar immune cells) forms of TNF-α, and inhibits or prevents the effective binding of TNF-α with its receptors. Infliximab and adalimumab (another TNF antagonist) are in the subclass of "anti-TNF antibodies" (they are in the form of naturally occurring antibodies), and are capable of neutralizing all forms (extracellular-, transmembrane-, and receptor-bound) ...
... is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and light chain variable regions combined with human heavy and light chain constant regions.[25] It has a serum half-life of 9.5 days and can be detected in serum 8 weeks after infusion treatment.[25] Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNF-α by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the blood) and transmembrane (located on the outer membranes of T cells and similar immune cells) forms of TNF-α, and inhibits or prevents the effective binding of TNF-α with its receptors. Infliximab and adalimumab (another TNF antagonist) are in the subclass of "anti-TNF antibodies" (they are in the form of naturally occurring antibodies), and are capable of neutralizing all forms (extracellular-, transmembrane-, and receptor-bound) TNF-α.[26] ...
Otkriće heliks-zavoj-heliks motiva je bilo bazirano na sličnostima između nekoliko gena koji koriraju transkripcione regulatorne proteine iz bakteriofaga lambda i Escherichia coli: Cro, CAP, i λ represor, za koje je najđeno da imaju zajedničku 20-25 aminokiselina dugu sekvencu koja omogućava DNK prepoznavanje.[2][3][4][5] ...
... (LPI), also called hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2,cationic aminoaciduria or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 patients have been reported, almost half of them of Finnish origin. Individuals from Japan, Italy, Morocco and North Africa have also been reported. Infants with LPI are usually symptom-free when breastfed because of the low protein concentration in human milk, but develop vomiting and diarrhea after weaning. The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and osteopenia, delayed bone age and spontaneous protein aversion. Forced feeding of protein may lead to convulsions and coma. Mental development is normal if prolonged episode of hyperammonemia can be avoided. Some patients develop severe pulmonary and renal complications. High levels of plasma glutamine and glycine are observed. It has been ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
displaystyle {\begin{aligned}f_{X}(x,1,\lambda )&={\frac {1}{2{\sqrt {x}}}}\left(\phi ({\sqrt {x}}-{\sqrt {\lambda }})+\phi ({\sqrt {x}}+{\sqrt {\lambda }})\right)\\&={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2\pi x}}}e^{-(x+\lambda )/2}\cosh({\sqrt {\lambda x}}),\end{aligned ...
Otkriće heliks-zavoj-heliks motiva je bilo bazirano na sličnostima između nekoliko gena koji koriraju transkripcione regulatorne proteine iz bakteriofaga lambda i Escherichia coli: Cro, CAP, i λ represor, za koje je najđeno da imaju zajedničku 20-25 aminokiselina dugu sekvencu koja omogućava DNK prepoznavanje.[2][3][4][5] ...
... is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and light chain variable regions combined with human heavy and light chain constant regions.[25] It has a serum half-life of 9.5 days and can be detected in serum 8 weeks after infusion treatment.[25]. Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNF-α by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the blood) and transmembrane (located on the outer membranes of T cells and similar immune cells) forms of TNF-α, and inhibits or prevents the effective binding of TNF-α with its receptors. Infliximab and adalimumab (another TNF antagonist) are in the subclass of "anti-TNF antibodies" (they are in the form of naturally occurring antibodies), and are capable of neutralizing all forms (extracellular-, transmembrane-, and receptor-bound) ...
... is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and light chain variable regions combined with human heavy and light chain constant regions.[25] It has a serum half-life of 9.5 days and can be detected in serum 8 weeks after infusion treatment.[25] Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNF-α by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the blood) and transmembrane (located on the outer membranes of T cells and similar immune cells) forms of TNF-α, and inhibits or prevents the effective binding of TNF-α with its receptors. Infliximab and adalimumab (another TNF antagonist) are in the subclass of "anti-TNF antibodies" (they are in the form of naturally occurring antibodies), and are capable of neutralizing all forms (extracellular-, transmembrane-, and receptor-bound) TNF-α.[26] ...
At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs use different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and separation ...
... postoji kao dimer, koji se sastoji od dva skoro identična monomera povezanih parom disulfidnih veza.[1][4] Svaki fibronektinski monomer ima molekulsku težinu od 230-250 kDa, i sadrži tri tipa proteinskih modula: tip I, II, i III. Sva tri modula se sastoje of dve antiparalelne β-ploče; međutim, tip I i tip II su stabilizovani intra-lančanim disulfidnim mostovima, dok tip III modul ne sadrži disulfidne mostove. Odsustvo disulfidnih intra-lanaca u tipu III modulima dozvoljava im da se delimično razviju pod uticajem sile.[5] Tri regiona promenljivog RNK sjedinjavanja se javljaju duž fibronektin monomera.[4] Jedan ili oba "ekstra" tipa III modula (EIIIA i EIIIB) mogu biti prisutna u ćelijskom fibronektinu, ali oni nisu nikad prisutni u fibronektinu iz krvne plazme. Promenljivi V-region postoji između III14-15 (14tog i 15tog tipa III modula). V-region strukture je različit of tipa I, II, i III modula, a njegovo prisustvo i dužina mogu varirati. V-region sadrži vezujuće ...
Ig epsilon chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHE gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: IGHE immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon". Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT, Dariavach P, Neuberger MS (Aug 1991). "The B-cell antigen receptor of the five immunoglobulin classes". Nature. 352 (6338): 777-81. doi:10.1038/352777a0. PMID 1881434. Padlan EA, Davies DR (Oct 1986). "A model of the Fc of immunoglobulin E". Molecular Immunology. 23 (10): 1063-75. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(86)90005-2. PMID 3796618. Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (1984). "The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence for three non-allelic genes". The EMBO Journal. 1 (5): 655-60. PMC 553102 . PMID 6234164. Max EE, Battey J, Ney R, Kirsch IR, Leder P (Jun 1982). ...
... immunoglobulin; Hc, heavy chain; Lc, light chain; SC, single cell; MAT, murine anti-Tac; anti-Id, anti-idiotype; RT-PCR, ... This cloning method provided a sample of IgG VH heavy chains that are randomly paired with Vκ or Vλ light chains, as a so- ... with the exception of λ light chains. For example, the average percentage of mutation of patient 1 clonal κ light chains across ... IgG heavy and light chains were expressed as combinatorial phage Fab libraries. VH and VL sequences showed a preponderance of ...
... and secreted immunoglobulins (sIg). Immunoglobulins generally comprise two identical heavy chains and two light chains. However ... As used herein, the term "immunoglobulin" or "antibody" refer to proteins that bind a specific antigen. Immunoglobulins include ... the terms "antibody" and "immunoglobulin" also encompass single chain antibodies and two chain antibodies. ... As used herein, the term "antigen binding protein" refers to proteins which bind to a specific antigen. "Antigen binding ...
... and secreted immunoglobulins (sIg). Immunoglobulins generally comprise two identical heavy chains and two light chains. However ... 0110] As used herein, the term "immunoglobulin" or "antibody" refer to proteins that bind a specific antigen. Immunoglobulins ... the terms "antibody" and "immunoglobulin" also encompass single chain antibodies and two chain antibodies. ... 0105] As used herein, the term "antigen binding protein" refers to proteins which bind to a specific antigen. "Antigen binding ...
An IgD molecule contains thus a delta heavy chain combined with either a kappa or a lambda light chains. Kappa light chains are ... The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain ... Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains; disulfide-linked (PubMed:20176268). ... Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ...
Rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin light chain genes can precede heavy chain expression during normal B cell ... Antigens, CD*. *B-Lymphocytes/immunology*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics*. *Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ ... Rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin light chain genes can precede heavy chain expression during normal B cell ... Thus, mu chain expression is not a prerequisite to Igkappa light chain gene rearrangements in normal development. Overall, ...
Immunoglobulin Lambda Locus, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... light chains, kappa and lambda. This region represents the germline organization of the lambda light chain locus. The locus ... Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the complement system. ...
IgG is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains and two light chains. Each molecule has two antigen binding sites ... of serum immunoglobulins. IgM antibody is prominent in early immune responses to most antigens and predominates in certain ... IgM (with IgD) is the major immunoglobulin expressed on the surface of B cells. Monomeric IgA constitutes 5-15 % of the serum ... The production is usually local and antigen specific IgA producing B-cells can be found in regions under the lamina propria ...
Each type of immunoglobulin has a different type of heavy chain.. Antibody functions. The antibody binds to specific antigens. ... There are two identical halves with the antigen binding sites between the ends of the heavy and light chains on both sides. ... There are two types of light chain among all classes of immunoglobulin, a lambda chain and a kappa chain. Both are similar in ... There is a hinge in the center between heavy chains to allow flexibility to the protein. The two light chains are identical to ...
Immunoglobulin E / genetics * Immunoglobulin E / immunology * Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics * Immunoglobulin Light ... They are also homozygous for targeted mutations that disrupt V(D)J rearrangement at the endogenous heavy- and kappa light-chain ... heavy-chain class switching, and somatic mutation to generate a repertoire of human sequence immunoglobulins. ... Antigen-specific human antibodies from mice comprising four distinct genetic modifications Nature. 1994 Apr 28;368(6474):856-9. ...
IgG is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains gamma and two light chains. Each molecule has two antigen binding ... Ig gamma 4 chain C region antibody. *IgG heavy chain locus antibody ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol. See IHC antigen retrieval protocols. ... Heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed using Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9. ab97051, a HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L ...
Each immunoglobulin molecules is a tetramer of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains linked by disulfide ... The light chain has one variable region (VL) and one constant region (CL) domain, whereas the heavy chain has one variable ... and are associated with the antigen-binding site. Variable and constant regions are encoded by separated genes, called V genes ... Protein encoded by a variable region gene (V gene / V segment). The variable region is the region of the immunoglobulin (Ig) ...
Immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain repertoire in splenic marginal zone lymphoma.. Stamatopoulos K, Belessi C, Papadaki T, ... Follicular lymphoma immunoglobulin kappa light chains are affected by the antigen selection process, but to a lesser degree ... and at later stages in the rearrangement process of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus. ... Analysis of the kappa light chain variable region in multiple myeloma.. Kosmas C, Viniou NA, Stamatopoulos K, Courtenay-Luck NS ...
... immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). The latter type is a heavy-chain antibody, an antibody lacking light chains, and can be ... The heavy chain doesnt always have to bind to a light chain. Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of ... heavy chains and two Ig light chains. Several different types of heavy chain exist that define the class or isotype of an ... These heavy chain types vary between different animals. All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually ...
Heavy and Light Chains of Immunoglobulin: Heavy chain - mu. Light chain - not determined. Specificity: Hybridoma tissue culture ... Antigen Used for Immunization: Stachybotrys chlorohalonata (ATCC 201863) cytolytic antigens (cScp) were semi-purified from ... Mice were primed with 50 mg of cScp emulsified in equal volumes of TiterMax (TiterMax USA, Norcross, GA). The antigen ... Specific Antigen Identified: Exoantigens produced by Stachybotrys chlorohalonata. Availability: Tissue culture supernatant: Yes ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain ... or immunoglobulins). Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the ... Hieter PA, Korsmeyer SJ, Waldmann TA, Leder P (1981). "Human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain genes are deleted or rearranged ...
... regions and the codominant role of heavy and light chains in antigen binding demonstrate a clear role for light chains.34 35 ... Heavy and light chain contributions to antigen binding in an anti-digoxin chain recombinant antibody produced by transfection ... Ig heavy and light chain isotype determination. Antibodies specific for human IgA, IgG1-Fc, IgG2-Fc, IgG3 hinge, IgG4-Fc and ... Highly related immunoglobulin light chain sequences in different multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol 1999;100:98-101. ...
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (Igk) loci are the largest multigene loci in the ... V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin ... When combined with surrogate or conventional L chains, these V(H)14 IgH chains did not provide increased proliferative signals ... In healthy mammals, maturation of B cells expressing heavy (H) chain immunoglobulin (Ig) without light (L) chain is prevented ...
Antigens, CD. *DNA Primers. *Immunoglobulin Light Chains. *Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate. *Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains ... neoplasias that are characterized by the secretion of truncated immunoglobulin heavy chains devoid of light chains. We have ... formed by the association of mu heavy chains with two polypeptides--so-called surrogate light chains, Vpre-B and lambda 5--that ... Our results show that the truncated heavy chain, but not the normal chain, is able to promote pre-B-cell development in the ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... or epsilon heavy chain. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen ... Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as [email protected], is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains gene for the heavy chains of ... Ichihara Y, Matsuoka H, Kurosawa Y (1989). "Organization of human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity gene loci". EMBO J. 7 ( ...
Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines show no evident immunoglobulin heavy chain stereotypy but frequent light chain stereotype. Leuk ... For two samples, no distinct MCL light chain was determined. Remarkably, all BCRs with an IGHV3-21 harbored λ-light chains of ... Overview of heavy and light chain pairings and CDR3 amino acid sequences of MCL immunoglobulins from different patient samples. ... We therefore isolated RNA from 24 MCL samples and sequenced the variable heavy and light chain regions of the MCL BCR (Table 1 ...
Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains; disulfide-linked. UniProt ... The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain ... Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted ... Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ...
The immunoglobulins have a flexible region on their heavy chain called the hinge region. The light chains are of two types: the ... Immunoglobulin function. The primary function of immunoglobulins is antigen binding. The fragment antigen-binding (Fab) is a ... Two of these are called heavy chains (H chains) and the other two are called light chains (L chains). These chains are linked ... kappa chains and the lambda chains. The light chains within an antibody are always the same; they are either kappa or lambda, ...
... were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain ... were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain ... Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the ... Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the ...
An immunoglobulin molecule (such as IgE) is composed of two light chains and two heavy chains, but immunoglobulin light chains ... A non-IgE mechanism for antigen-specific triggering of mast cells has been found - immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs). ... FLCs may also be involved in inhalant allergies, see "Evidence for the involvement of free light chain immunoglobulins in ... and they may cause as much sensitivity to antigen as in IgE-mediated allergic reactions.. So perhaps delayed food allergies are ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... or epsilon heavy chain. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen ... Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the ... The rearranged V-D-J is then transcribed with the IGHM constant region; this transcript encodes a mu heavy chain. Later in ...
  • It was only with the advent of immunohistochemistry and molecular biological studies, such as polymerase chain reaction, together with the recognition of the mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphoma as an entity in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright, that the distinction between the two entities became clearer. (bmj.com)
  • They are also homozygous for targeted mutations that disrupt V(D)J rearrangement at the endogenous heavy- and kappa light-chain loci. (nih.gov)
  • The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:17576170). (rcsb.org)
  • However, resin embedding can make immunohistochemical antigen detection or DNA isolation for clonal gene rearrangement assays difficult. (bmj.com)
  • Previous studies indicate that transcription factors such as paired box 5 (PAX5), Yin Yang 1 (YY1), and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) play a role in regulating the accessibility of the antigen receptor loci to the V(D)J recombinase, which is required for these rearrangements. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • The amino acid sequence of Beta-2-microglobulin is homologous to the constant regions of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, with a predomitly beta pleated sheet structure. (fishersci.com)
  • Two views, one rotated 90 degrees with respect to the other, of the amino acid chains comprising secretory IgA1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • We applied exhaustive amino acid pattern discovery that initially detected patterns within the VH and VK/VL CDR3s before associating these patterns with each other, either within the same chain (intra-association) or across chains (heavy-light inter-association). (linkos.cz)
  • In conclusion, we herein demonstrate that CLL stereotyped subsets can now be more accurately defined based on IG gene usage, CDR3 length and pivotal short amino acid patterns or, remarkably, even single residues with a precise offset in both the HC and LC chain CDR3s. (linkos.cz)
  • 3. The antibody according to claim 1, wherein said light chain comprises the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 7 and said heavy chain comprises the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 8. (patentgenius.com)
  • Biocytin is a derivative of biotin found in serum and urine that has an added lysine group coupled at the ε-amino acid side chain to the valeric acid side chain. (thermofisher.com)
  • Normally, the immune system operates in a state known as self-tolerance, and does not attack the host's own tissues, but occasionally the immune system targets host-specific antigens, resulting in autoimmune disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Autoantibodies produced against self-antigens, or 'autoantigens', result from a loss of self-tolerance triggered by genetic and/or environmental factors which induce the immune system to attack the host's own cells, resulting in a condition referred to as autoimmunity. (intechopen.com)