That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The absence of light.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Photochemistry in the medical field refers to the chemical reactions that occur when certain molecules are exposed to light, which can have therapeutic or adverse effects on biological systems.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Eye proteins are the biological molecules that make up the various structures of the eye and are essential for its proper function.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (1/15260)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (2/15260)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Improvement of systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in vivo using light fractionation with a 75-minute interval. (3/15260)

We have studied different single and fractionated illumination schemes after systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to Improve the response of nodular tumors to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy. Tumors transplanted on the thigh of female WAG/Rij rats were transdermally illuminated with red light (633 nm) after systemic ALA administration (200 mg/kg). The effectiveness of each treatment scheme was determined from the tumor volume doubling time. A single illumination (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, 2.5 h after ALA administration) yielded a doubling time of 6.6+/-1.2 days. This was significantly different from the untreated control (doubling time, 1.7+/-0.1 days). The only treatment scheme that yielded a significant improvement compared to all other schemes studied was illumination at both 1 and 2.5 h after ALA administration (both 100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2) and resulted in a tumor volume doubling time of 18.9+/-2.9 days. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that the protoporphyrin IX formed after administration of ALA is photodegraded by the first illumination. In the 75-min interval, new porphyrin is formed enhancing the effect of the second illumination.  (+info)

The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (4/15260)

1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (5/15260)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (6/15260)

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (7/15260)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (8/15260)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

Myosin light chains (MLCs) are small proteins that are found in muscle fibers. They are a component of the myosin molecule, which is responsible for muscle contraction. MLCs are attached to the myosin head and help to regulate the interaction between the myosin head and the actin filament, which is the other major component of muscle fibers. When a muscle contracts, the myosin head binds to the actin filament and pulls it towards the center of the muscle fiber, causing the muscle to shorten. The activity of MLCs can be regulated by various signaling pathways, which can affect muscle contraction and relaxation. MLCs are also involved in the regulation of muscle tone and the response of muscles to stress and injury.

In the medical field, "darkness" generally refers to a lack of light or visual perception. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including: 1. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. 2. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the retina, leading to vision loss and eventually blindness. 3. Macular degeneration: A condition in which the central part of the retina, called the macula, deteriorates, leading to vision loss. 4. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 5. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve can cause vision loss or blindness. 7. Brain injury: Damage to the brain, particularly the visual cortex, can cause blindness or vision loss. In some cases, darkness may also be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or stroke.

In the medical field, "Curing Lights, Dental" refers to specialized light-emitting devices used in dentistry to harden dental materials such as composite resins, bonding agents, and dental cements. These materials are applied to the teeth and then cured using a curing light to initiate a chemical reaction that causes the material to harden and bond to the tooth structure. The curing process typically takes a few seconds and is essential for ensuring that the dental restoration is strong and durable. Curing lights emit a specific wavelength of light that is absorbed by the dental material, triggering a photochemical reaction that causes the material to harden. The use of curing lights is a standard procedure in modern dentistry and is essential for achieving optimal results in dental restorations.

Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase (MLCK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating muscle contraction. It is a calcium-dependent enzyme that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin, which is a component of the thick filament in muscle fibers. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain leads to the activation of myosin, which in turn causes the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments, resulting in muscle contraction. MLCK is also involved in regulating the contraction of smooth muscle cells, which are found in the walls of blood vessels, the gut, and other organs. Activation of MLCK in smooth muscle cells leads to the contraction of the muscle fibers, which can contribute to the regulation of blood pressure and the movement of food through the digestive system. In addition to its role in muscle contraction, MLCK has been implicated in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of cell migration, the formation of blood clots, and the development of certain types of cancer.

Dark adaptation is the process by which the human eye adjusts to low levels of light. When we enter a dark environment, the pupils dilate to allow more light to enter the eye. The retina, which is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, contains specialized cells called rods and cones that detect light. Rods are more sensitive to low levels of light and are responsible for our ability to see in dim conditions. At first, when we enter a dark environment, the rods are not very sensitive, and our vision is poor. However, as we continue to be in the dark, the rods become more sensitive, and our vision improves. This process can take several minutes to complete, and it is influenced by factors such as age, health, and previous exposure to light. Dark adaptation is an important process for night vision and is essential for activities such as driving at night or navigating in low-light conditions. Any disruption to the process of dark adaptation, such as prolonged exposure to bright light, can affect our ability to see in low-light conditions.

Phytochrome is a photoreceptor protein found in plants and some bacteria that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and photoperiodic responses. In the medical field, phytochrome has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that phytochrome may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, phytochrome has been shown to modulate the immune system and may have potential as a treatment for autoimmune disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of phytochrome.

In the medical field, the term "color" is used to describe the appearance of various bodily fluids, tissues, and organs. For example, the color of blood can be used to indicate whether it is oxygenated or deoxygenated, and the color of urine can be used to detect the presence of certain medical conditions. In addition, the term "color" can also be used to describe the appearance of medical instruments and equipment, such as the color of a stethoscope or a blood pressure cuff. Overall, the use of color in the medical field is an important tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.

Adaptation, Ocular refers to the ability of the eye to adjust its focus and sensitivity to different lighting conditions. This process is essential for clear vision and involves changes in the size of the pupil, the shape of the lens, and the sensitivity of the retina. In bright light, the pupil constricts to reduce the amount of light entering the eye, while in dim light, the pupil dilates to allow more light in. The shape of the lens also changes to adjust the focus of the image on the retina. Additionally, the sensitivity of the retina can adjust to different lighting conditions, allowing for clear vision in a range of environments. Adaptation, Ocular is an important aspect of vision and can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, health conditions, and medications. Any issues with ocular adaptation can lead to vision problems, such as difficulty seeing in low light or difficulty focusing on objects at different distances.

Cryptochromes are a class of photoreceptor proteins that are found in a variety of organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals. They are responsible for detecting and responding to blue light, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of around 400-500 nanometers. In the medical field, cryptochromes have been studied for their potential role in regulating circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological clocks that control various physiological processes in the body, such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. Cryptochromes have been shown to play a key role in the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the external environment, and they are thought to be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, and other cognitive functions. In addition to their role in circadian rhythms, cryptochromes have also been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, the protection against oxidative stress, and the prevention of cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of cryptochromes in health and disease.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.

Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are a type of light chain found in some immunoglobulins (antibodies) produced by B cells. They are composed of two identical polypeptide chains, each containing about 210 amino acids, and are encoded by the IGL gene locus on chromosome 22. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are typically associated with the lambda isotype of immunoglobulins, which are a subset of antibodies that have a lambda light chain paired with a heavy chain. These antibodies are produced by a subset of B cells called lambda B cells, and they are involved in the immune response to certain types of pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are important for the function of lambda immunoglobulins, as they play a role in the binding of antigens and the activation of immune cells. Mutations in the IGL gene locus can lead to the production of abnormal lambda immunoglobulins, which can cause a variety of immune disorders, such as agammaglobulinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune diseases.

In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14, also known as TNFSF14 or LIGHT, is a protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help regulate the immune response. LIGHT is expressed by a variety of cells, including activated T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. It binds to two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin alpha receptor (LTαR), which are expressed on a variety of cells, including T cells, B cells, and endothelial cells. When LIGHT binds to its receptors, it can have a number of effects on the immune system. For example, it can promote the survival and proliferation of activated T cells, which helps to amplify the immune response. It can also stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, which can help to recruit immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. In addition to its role in the immune system, LIGHT has been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of bone homeostasis and the development of certain types of cancer.

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It plays a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, also known as the circadian rhythm. Melatonin levels in the body increase in the evening and decrease in the morning, helping to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. In the medical field, melatonin is used as a supplement to help regulate sleep in people with sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and shift work disorder. It is also used to treat certain sleep-related conditions, such as delayed sleep phase disorder and advanced sleep phase disorder. Melatonin may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being studied for its potential role in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.

Phytochrome B is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a member of the phytochrome family of photoreceptors, which are responsible for sensing and responding to changes in light quality and quantity. Phytochrome B is activated by red light and deactivated by far-red light. When activated, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to interact with other proteins in the plant cell, triggering a cascade of signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In the medical field, phytochrome B has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, researchers have investigated the use of phytochrome B as a target for cancer therapy, as it is overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells. Additionally, phytochrome B has been shown to play a role in regulating the immune system, and may have potential applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Rod opsins are a type of photopigment found in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for detecting low levels of light and are essential for night vision. Rod opsins are a type of opsin, which is a protein that binds to a molecule called retinal to form a light-sensitive pigment. When light strikes the rod opsin, it causes a chemical reaction that generates an electrical signal, which is then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. Rod opsins are found only in the rods, which are specialized cells in the retina that are responsible for detecting low levels of light.

Clathrin light chains are small protein subunits that are essential components of the clathrin triskelion, a three-armed protein complex that is involved in the formation of vesicles in the endocytic pathway. The clathrin triskelion is composed of one heavy chain and three light chains, and it is responsible for the curvature of the vesicle membrane during the process of endocytosis. In the medical field, clathrin light chains are of interest because they are involved in a number of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, mutations in the CLCN6 gene, which encodes one of the clathrin light chain subunits, have been associated with a form of inherited kidney disease called Dent's disease. Additionally, changes in the levels of clathrin light chains have been observed in various types of cancer, and they may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases.

Phytochrome A is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a light-sensitive protein that undergoes reversible photoconversion between two distinct forms, Pr (red-absorbing form) and Pfr (far-red-absorbing form), in response to changes in light intensity and quality. In the medical field, phytochrome A has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, research has shown that phytochrome A can modulate the activity of various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which may have implications for cancer treatment. Additionally, phytochrome A has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which may be beneficial in the management of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.

Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.

Photosystem II protein complex is a large protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It is responsible for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, which convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. Photosystem II protein complex consists of several subunits, including the D1 and D2 proteins, which form the core of the complex, and the CP47, CP43, and CP29 proteins, which are peripheral to the core. The complex contains a number of cofactors, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, which absorb light energy and transfer it to the reaction center. The reaction center of Photosystem II protein complex contains a special pair of chlorophyll molecules, called P680 and P700, which are capable of accepting high-energy electrons from water molecules. These electrons are then passed through a series of electron carriers, ultimately ending up in the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP and NADPH. Photosystem II protein complex plays a critical role in the process of photosynthesis, as it is responsible for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, which is used to fuel the growth and development of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy. These complexes are responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center, where it is used to power the chemical reactions that produce ATP and NADPH, two energy-rich molecules that are essential for the growth and survival of these organisms. There are several different types of light-harvesting protein complexes, each with its own unique structure and function. The most well-known of these is the chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex, which is found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in plants and algae. This complex is responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center, where it is used to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Other types of light-harvesting protein complexes include the phycobilisome, which is found in some photosynthetic bacteria and algae, and the reaction center complex, which is found in all photosynthetic organisms. These complexes play important roles in the process of photosynthesis, and their dysfunction can lead to a range of health problems in plants and other photosynthetic organisms.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis in plants, algae, and some bacteria. These proteins are responsible for capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy that can be used by the organism to fuel its metabolic processes. The photosynthetic reaction center complex is a complex of pigments and proteins that is embedded in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in plants and algae. When light energy is absorbed by the pigments in the complex, it is transferred to the reaction center complex proteins, which then use this energy to split water molecules into oxygen, protons, and electrons. The electrons are then passed through a series of electron transport chains, which use the energy from the electrons to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient. This gradient is then used to drive the synthesis of ATP, which is the energy currency of the cell. Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins are essential for the process of photosynthesis, and any disruption to their function can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of plants and algae. In the medical field, understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for diseases that affect photosynthesis, such as chlorosis and photosynthetic inhibition.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy, and use this energy to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are also responsible for producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. In the medical field, chloroplasts are not typically studied or treated directly, but understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of chloroplasts in this process is important for understanding plant biology and the role of plants in the environment.

Radiation injuries, experimental refer to injuries or damage caused to living tissue as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in a laboratory or research setting. These injuries can occur intentionally, as part of a scientific study or experiment, or unintentionally, as a result of equipment malfunction or other accidents. The effects of radiation on living tissue can vary depending on the type and amount of radiation exposure, as well as the duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of radiation exposure include burns, skin damage, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, radiation exposure can lead to organ damage, tissue necrosis, and even death. Experimental radiation injuries are typically studied in order to better understand the effects of radiation on living tissue and to develop new treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses. These studies may involve exposing animals or cells to different types and doses of radiation, and then observing the effects of the radiation on the exposed organisms or cells. The results of these studies can be used to inform the development of new radiation protection measures and treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses in humans.

Retinal degeneration is a group of eye diseases that cause damage to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. The retina contains specialized cells called photoreceptors that convert light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. When the photoreceptors are damaged or destroyed, the retina loses its ability to detect light, leading to vision loss or blindness. Retinal degeneration can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, aging, exposure to toxins or radiation, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. There are several types of retinal degeneration, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and retinitis pigmentosa, each with its own specific characteristics and progression. Treatment for retinal degeneration depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be recommended to slow the progression of the disease. In other cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to preserve or restore vision.

In the medical field, halogens are a group of elements that include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. These elements are highly reactive and are often used in medicine as disinfectants, anesthetics, and radiopharmaceuticals. Fluorine is commonly used in toothpaste and mouthwashes to prevent tooth decay, and chlorine is used as a disinfectant in swimming pools and water treatment plants. Bromine is used in some antiseptic solutions and as a component in some anesthetics. Iodine is essential for thyroid function and is often added to table salt as a dietary supplement. Astatine is a radioactive element that is used in some cancer treatments. Halogens can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, where they can help to break down mucus in the lungs. However, they can also be toxic in high doses and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems, as well as damage to the skin and eyes. Therefore, their use in medicine must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Diuron is a herbicide that is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses in a variety of crops, including rice, sugarcane, and corn. It works by inhibiting photosynthesis in plants, which ultimately leads to their death. In the medical field, diuron is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, it has been associated with some potential health effects in humans, including skin irritation, eye irritation, and respiratory problems. In some cases, exposure to diuron has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, although the evidence for this is not yet conclusive. It is important to note that diuron is a restricted-use pesticide, meaning that it can only be used by licensed applicators and under certain conditions. Farmers and other users of diuron should follow all safety guidelines and precautions to minimize the risk of exposure to this chemical.

Hematoporphyrins are a group of pigments that are synthesized in the liver and are precursors to heme, a component of hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. Hematoporphyrins are also used in medical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy, which involves the use of a photosensitizing agent, such as hematoporphyrin, to target and destroy cancer cells. In this therapy, the hematoporphyrin is administered to the patient and then activated by a specific wavelength of light, causing the cancer cells to die. Hematoporphyrins are also used in diagnostic tests to detect certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer.

Myosin subfragments refer to the different components that make up the myosin protein, which is a key component of muscle fibers. Myosin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles, and it is made up of several subunits, including the myosin head, neck, and tail. The myosin head is the part of the protein that interacts with actin, another protein found in muscle fibers, to generate force and movement. The neck region connects the head to the tail, and the tail helps to stabilize the myosin molecule within the muscle fiber. Myosin subfragments can be further broken down into smaller components through various techniques, such as proteolysis or electrophoresis. This can be useful for studying the structure and function of myosin, as well as for identifying potential targets for drugs or other therapeutic interventions.

Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater, saltwater, and soil. They are also known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria. In the medical field, cyanobacteria are of interest because some species can produce toxins that can cause illness in humans and animals. These toxins can be harmful when ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins can cause a range of symptoms, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal issues. In addition to their potential to cause illness, cyanobacteria are also being studied for their potential medical applications. Some species of cyanobacteria produce compounds that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties. These compounds are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases.

In the medical field, "chickens" typically refers to the domesticated bird species Gallus gallus domesticus. Chickens are commonly raised for their meat, eggs, and feathers, and are also used in research and as pets. In veterinary medicine, chickens can be treated for a variety of health conditions, including diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox. They may also require treatment for injuries or trauma, such as broken bones or cuts. In human medicine, chickens are not typically used as a source of treatment or therapy. However, some research has been conducted using chicken cells or proteins as models for human diseases or as potential sources of vaccines or other medical interventions.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Immunoglobulin light chains, also known as lambda or kappa light chains, are small protein chains that are produced by B cells as part of the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. These light chains are paired with heavy chains to form complete immunoglobulins, which are also known as antibodies. In some cases, the production of light chains by B cells can become uncontrolled, leading to the production of excess amounts of these proteins in the blood. This condition is known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and it is often detected through a blood test that measures the levels of immunoglobulin light chains in the blood. Immunoglobulin light chains can also be used as a surrogate marker for certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, which is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow. In these cases, the levels of immunoglobulin light chains in the blood can be used to monitor the progression of the disease and to assess the effectiveness of treatment.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs during specific times of the year, typically in the fall and winter months. It is also sometimes referred to as winter depression or seasonal depression. SAD is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Other symptoms may include fatigue, changes in appetite and weight, difficulty sleeping, and irritability. SAD is believed to be caused by changes in the levels of certain hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, as well as by the reduced exposure to sunlight that occurs during the winter months. Treatment for SAD typically involves light therapy, medication, and psychotherapy.

In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.

Biological clocks are internal mechanisms that regulate various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans. These clocks are responsible for controlling the timing of events such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and other circadian rhythms. In the medical field, the study of biological clocks is important because disruptions to these rhythms can have negative effects on health. For example, shift work and jet lag can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, leading to sleep disorders, fatigue, and other health problems. Research has also shown that disruptions to biological clocks can increase the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biological clocks and how they can be influenced by external factors is an important area of medical research.

Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating muscle contraction. It is responsible for the dephosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLCs), which are regulatory proteins that control the interaction between myosin and actin filaments in muscle cells. When MLCP is activated, it removes phosphate groups from MLCs, causing them to unwind and detach from the myosin filaments. This leads to a decrease in muscle tension and relaxation of the muscle fibers. MLCP is regulated by calcium ions, which bind to a regulatory subunit of the enzyme, causing it to become activated and dephosphorylate MLCs. Disruptions in the regulation of MLCP can lead to muscle disorders such as myositis, myopathy, and dystrophy. In addition, MLCP has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, as it can regulate the activity of the myosin motor protein, which is involved in cell migration and invasion.

In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.

In the medical field, the Immunoglobulin Variable Region (IgV) refers to the part of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) in the body. The IgV region is highly variable and is composed of four loops of amino acids that form a Y-shaped structure. Each loop is referred to as a "complementarity-determining region" (CDR) and is responsible for binding to a specific part of the antigen. The variability of the IgV region allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide range of different antigens.

Amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of a protein called amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body. Amyloid is a protein that is normally produced by cells in the body and broken down naturally. However, in amyloidosis, the amyloid protein is produced in excess or is not broken down properly, leading to the formation of abnormal deposits in tissues and organs. The accumulation of amyloid can cause damage to the affected organs and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and complications depending on the location and severity of the deposits. Common symptoms of amyloidosis include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and difficulty breathing. There are several types of amyloidosis, including primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, and familial amyloidosis. Primary amyloidosis is the most common form and is usually caused by abnormal production of the amyloid protein in the body. Secondary amyloidosis is caused by another underlying medical condition, such as chronic inflammatory diseases or cancer. Familial amyloidosis is an inherited form of the disease that is caused by mutations in certain genes. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care to manage complications.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgH chains) are the larger of the two subunits that make up the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, which is a type of protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. The Ig molecule is composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, which are connected by disulfide bonds. The heavy chains are responsible for the specificity of the Ig molecule, as they contain the variable regions that interact with antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). The heavy chains also contain the constant regions, which are involved in the effector functions of the immune system, such as activating complement and binding to Fc receptors on immune cells. There are five different classes of Ig molecules (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM), which are distinguished by the type of heavy chain they contain. Each class of Ig molecule has a different set of functions and is produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of antigens.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Photophobia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to light, which can cause discomfort, pain, or even nausea and vomiting. People with photophobia may experience excessive blinking, squinting, or covering their eyes when exposed to bright light. Photophobia can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, including eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, cataracts, and glaucoma, as well as neurological disorders such as migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis, and brain injuries. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Treatment for photophobia depends on the underlying cause. For example, if the condition is caused by an eye disease, treatment may involve medication or surgery to correct the underlying issue. If the condition is caused by a neurological disorder, treatment may involve medication to manage symptoms or physical therapy to improve mobility and coordination. In some cases, wearing sunglasses or using light-blocking curtains or blinds can also help alleviate symptoms.

Xanthophylls are a group of pigments found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. They are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of many fruits and vegetables, as well as the yellow color of some flowers. In the medical field, xanthophylls are known for their potential health benefits. They are antioxidants, which means they can help protect the body against damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Some studies have suggested that xanthophylls may help reduce the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Xanthophylls are also used in dietary supplements, often in combination with other antioxidants. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of xanthophylls and to determine the appropriate dosage and safety of these supplements.

Photoreceptors, plant refer to specialized cells in plants that are responsible for detecting and responding to light. These cells contain pigments called photopigments, which absorb light energy and trigger a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to changes in the plant's physiology and behavior. There are several types of photoreceptors in plants, including phototropins, cryptochromes, and phototropins. Phototropins are responsible for regulating plant growth and development, including phototropism (the bending of a plant towards a light source) and photoperiodism (the response to the length of day and night). Cryptochromes are involved in regulating plant responses to blue light, including the regulation of flowering time and seed germination. Phototropins are also involved in regulating plant responses to red and far-red light. In addition to regulating plant growth and development, photoreceptors are also involved in plant defense mechanisms. For example, some photoreceptors can detect the presence of herbivores or pathogens and trigger the production of defensive compounds. Overall, photoreceptors play a critical role in plant growth, development, and defense, and their study is important for understanding plant biology and improving crop yields.

Photoreceptors, microbial, refer to specialized cells or proteins in microorganisms that are capable of detecting and responding to light. These photoreceptors play a crucial role in the survival and adaptation of microorganisms to their environment, as they allow them to sense changes in light intensity, wavelength, and direction. In bacteria, for example, photoreceptors can regulate gene expression, motility, and metabolism in response to light. Some photoreceptors in bacteria are also involved in photosynthesis, allowing them to convert light energy into chemical energy. In fungi, photoreceptors have been found to regulate growth, development, and reproduction in response to light. Some photoreceptors in fungi are also involved in the production of pigments and secondary metabolites, which can have important ecological and pharmaceutical functions. Overall, photoreceptors in microorganisms are an important area of research in the fields of microbiology, ecology, and biotechnology, as they provide insights into the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment.

In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.

In the medical field, circadian clocks refer to the internal biological rhythms that regulate various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and body temperature. These rhythms are controlled by a complex network of genes and proteins that are primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN acts as the master clock, receiving input from light-sensitive cells in the retina and synchronizing the body's internal clock with the external environment. The SCN then sends signals to other parts of the body to regulate various physiological processes in a 24-hour cycle. Disruptions to the circadian clock can lead to a range of health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, metabolic disorders, and increased risk of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate circadian rhythms is an important area of research in medicine and has implications for the development of new treatments for various health conditions.

Phototropins are a type of photoreceptor protein found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. They are responsible for mediating the plant's response to light, particularly in the regulation of growth and development. There are two main types of phototropins: phototropin 1 (phot1) and phototropin 2 (phot2). Both phot1 and phot2 contain a light-sensitive domain called the LOV (Light, Oxygen, or Voltage) domain, which undergoes a conformational change in response to blue light. This change triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to changes in the plant's growth and development. Phototropins play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development, including phototropism (the bending of plant shoots towards light), chloroplast movement, and leaf expansion. They also play a role in the regulation of flowering time and seedling development. In the medical field, phototropins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and they may be useful in the treatment of skin diseases and other conditions. Additionally, phototropins have been used as a model system for studying protein-protein interactions and signal transduction pathways.

Opsins are a class of proteins that function as light-sensitive receptors in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for converting light energy into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. There are several different types of opsins, including rod opsins and cone opsins, which are found in different types of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Mutations in the genes that encode for opsins can lead to a variety of vision disorders, including color blindness, night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa.

In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.

In the medical field, cotyledon refers to the seed leaf of a plant embryo. It is the first leaf to develop in the embryo and is responsible for storing nutrients that will be used by the developing plant. In some plants, such as legumes, the cotyledon is also the primary source of food for the developing embryo. The number and type of cotyledons can vary among different plant species and can provide important clues for plant identification and classification.

Eye proteins are proteins that are found in the eye and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of the eye. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and vitreous humor. Some examples of eye proteins include: 1. Collagen: This is a protein that provides strength and support to the cornea and lens. 2. Alpha-crystallin: This protein is found in the lens and helps to maintain its shape and transparency. 3. Rhodopsin: This protein is found in the retina and is responsible for vision in low light conditions. 4. Vitreous humor proteins: These proteins are found in the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. They help to maintain the shape of the eye and provide support to the retina. Disruptions in the production or function of these proteins can lead to various eye diseases and conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of eye proteins is important for the development of effective treatments for these conditions.

Tolonium chloride is a medication that is used to treat certain types of overactive bladder. It works by relaxing the muscles in the bladder and making it easier to empty. Tolonium chloride is available as a prescription medication and is usually taken as a tablet or capsule. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking this medication. Tolonium chloride can cause side effects such as dry mouth, dizziness, and constipation. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Birefringence is a phenomenon that occurs when light passes through a material that has an anisotropic refractive index, meaning that its refractive index varies depending on the direction of the light. In the medical field, birefringence is often used to study the structure and composition of tissues and cells. One common application of birefringence in medicine is in the field of histology, where it is used to study tissue samples under a microscope. When a tissue sample is stained with a birefringent dye, the different components of the tissue will absorb and scatter the light differently, causing the sample to appear birefringent. By analyzing the birefringence patterns, researchers can gain insights into the structure and composition of the tissue, as well as any changes that may be occurring due to disease or injury. Birefringence is also used in other medical applications, such as in the diagnosis of certain eye diseases. For example, in the case of glaucoma, the pressure within the eye can cause changes in the birefringence of the cornea, which can be detected using specialized imaging techniques. Additionally, birefringence can be used to study the properties of cells and other biological structures, such as the orientation of microtubules within a cell.

In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.

Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.

In the medical field, acclimatization refers to the process by which an individual's body adapts to changes in environmental conditions, particularly changes in altitude. When a person moves to a higher altitude, the air pressure and oxygen levels decrease, which can cause altitude sickness if the body is not able to adjust quickly enough. Acclimatization helps the body to gradually adjust to these changes by increasing the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and by allowing the body to adjust its breathing and heart rate. This process can take several days to several weeks, depending on the altitude and the individual's fitness level.

... in particular about light beams visible from the side Light Fantastic (TV series) Light mill Light painting Light pollution ... Light pressure is equal to the power of the light beam divided by c, the speed of light. Due to the magnitude of c, the effect ... Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as ... During the time it had "stopped", it had ceased to be light. The study of light and the interaction of light and matter is ...
... (French: Université Lumière) is a private Baptist university located at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. It is ...
... may refer to: Drone display Laser lighting display Liquid light show, light projected through colored oil Projection ... projecting a light display onto a building or other surface Christmas lights Meteor shower This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Light show. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
The same basic airframe is used to mount either a hang glider or paraglider wing and is known as the Light-Delta and Light-Para ... Light-Delta Version with hang glider wing Light-Para Version with paraglider wing Data from Bayerl General characteristics Crew ... The PowerTrike Light has proven popular with hang glider pilots transitioning to powered flying because they can use their ... The PowerTrike Light is a German ultralight trike and powered parachute, designed and produced by PowerTrike of Mackenbach. The ...
"Red Light" (U2 song) "Red Light", by Fastball from Keep Your Wig On "Red Light", by Jonny Lang from Long Time Coming "Red Light ... 1997 Red Light! (Indigo Swing album), 1999 "Red Light" (Linda Clifford song) "Red Light" (David Nail song) "Red Light" ( ... "Red Light", retired ice hockey goalie Operation Red Light II, a 2006 coalition military operation of the Iraq War Red-light ... a traffic light color signifying stop Red light, a color of safelight used in photographic darkrooms Red light therapy Red ...
Stack lights (also known as signal tower lights, indicator lights, andon lights, warning lights, industrial signal lights, or ... The light will light one color when the radio is keyed and another when on the phone. Andon (manufacturing) IEC 60073:2002 ... Stack lights typically use incandescent, LED or xenon-type strobes as their illumination source. Stack lights are generally ... Stack lights are available for all types of industrial environments including washdown (IP65) and explosion proof. Stack lights ...
Light horse also served a function in major set-piece battles. While lacking the sheer offensive power of heavy cavalry, light ... Stradiot: Of Albanian and Greek origin, used as mercenary light cavalry in Italy in the later 15th century. Turcopole: A light ... They fought mostly as light horsemen armed with a lance, saber, javelins, pistols, or carbine. Sowar: Indian light horsemen ... and providing light fire support. Horses in warfare Waler horse Technical (vehicle) Bryan Fosten (1982). Wellington's Light ...
... at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, IMDb ID ... Light Melody (Finnish: Kirkastuva sävel) is a 1946 Finnish musical film directed by Edvin Laine and starring Kalle Ruusunen, ...
ライト&マジック [Light & Magic] (in Japanese). Amazon (Japan). Retrieved 29 May 2011. "Light & Magic (Extra Tracks): Ladytron". Amazon ... "Light & Magic [Vinyl]: Ladytron". Amazon (US). Retrieved 16 July 2016. "Light And Magic: Ladytron". Amazon (UK). Retrieved 16 ... "Light & Magic (Bonus Version): Ladytron: MP3 Downloads". Amazon (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2016. "Light & Magic (Remixed & Rare): ... "Light & Magic (Remixed & Rare): Ladytron: MP3 Downloads". Amazon (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2016. Light & Magic (liner notes). ...
2022 Verdens Ende Light (Replica) Hahn-Pedersen, Morten (April 2003). Jerzy Litwin (ed.). Reports on Baltic Lights - Denmark ( ... A bascule light or tipping lantern (Danish:vippefyr) was a type of small navigational aid popular in Denmark in the 18th ... The photo at left is a replica light built at Verdens Ende, Norway. It is located on the southernmost tip of Tjøme, an island ... For instance, in 1705 the Danish postal service established a bascule light on the island of Bågø in the Little Belt on the ...
... is the debut studio album by English musician, composer, and record producer Neil Davidge, under the name Davidge. ... Metacritic review "Slo Light Film". Film Pulse. July 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2023. (Articles with short description, Short ... The first single was "Slo Light", released on 3 December 2013. The second single was "Sleepwalking", released on 20 February ...
Light assumed office on 27 June 1838 after his predecessor's death in March. Prefacing his 10-year-long term, Light stated: A ... In December 1838, Light told the Court of Policy that the government were 'possessors de facto of the soil' and that Native ... Light laid the first stone of Her Majesty's Penal Settlement Mazaruni in 1842 and vouched for the humane conditions of the ... Henry Light, 26 November 1840 dispatch to the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies He was unconcerned for cultivation, ...
... may refer to: Daylight Sunlight Moonlight Natural Light, a brand of beer Daylighting, the use of daylight to ... illuminate interior spaces This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Natural light. If an internal link ...
Robert S. "Bob" Light (March 4, 1927 - October 26, 2015) was an American politician who was a Democratic member of the New ... Light also sat on the boards of Carlsbad National Bank and Carlsbad Bancorporation, Inc. "Philanthropist, former legislator ... Light dies". Carlsbad Current Argus. 27 October 2015. "New Mexico Legislature". "Business briefs". Carlsbad ...
... was also known as Kinderhook Light. In 1835, the lightkeeper was John Carroll, born in New York and paid $300 ... "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: New York". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. Archived from the ...
Carmichael bought out Word's portion of Light/Lexicon in 1980, after ABC/CapCities had purchased Word in 1974. Light was then ... As of April 2010, Light Records was owned by Entertainment One. List of record labels "Light Records". Archived from the ... Light Records is a gospel record label founded in 1966 by Ralph Carmichael, as a joint venture with the Waco, Texas-based Word ... For a time, Light was also home to contemporary Christian artists such as Sweet Comfort Band, Reba Rambo-McGuire, Jamie Owens, ...
"Crystal Light Energy Wild Strawberry contains 60 mg caffeine per 8 fl oz serving". In fact, all Crystal Light Energy flavors ... Certain other Crystal Light flavors have long included caffeine as an ingredient. The label of Crystal Light Peach Iced Tea, ... In 2011, Crystal Light Pure Fitness was renamed Crystal Light Pure, and three additional flavors were introduced. In April 2012 ... Some Crystal Light products, notably those designated as Crystal Light Energy, also contain an appreciable amount of added ...
... s have often served as attack aircraft and vice versa. Purpose-built light bombers disappeared from military ... The earliest light bombers were intended to drop their bombs in level flight over a target. During World War I some air forces ... The light bomber, as a discrete aircraft type, began to be superseded as World War II opened. The growth of engine power from ... A light bomber is a relatively small and fast type of military bomber aircraft that was primarily employed before the 1950s. ...
The actual light is 102 feet (31 m) above Mean High Water. Its white light is visible for 17 nautical miles (31 km; 20 mi); its ... Plymouth Light, also known as Gurnet Light, is a historic lighthouse located on Gurnet Point at the entrance to Plymouth Bay in ... The light is the oldest wooden lighthouse in the United States. The light was relocated approximately 140 feet (43 m) to the ... Project Gurnet and Bug Lights, Inc. (2009-09-06). "Keep the Lights Burning". "US to give away free lighthouses as GPS makes ...
"Waking Light" is a song written, produced and performed by American musician Beck. It is the closing track on his twelfth ... " Waking Light: Beck: MP3 Downloads". Retrieved June 25, 2015. "Beck - Morning Phase (Vinyl, LP, Album) ... "Waking Light" at AllMusic (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with hAudio ... Kaye, Ben (October 29, 2014). "Beck returns to Conan to perform "Waking Light" - watch , Consequence of Sound". Consequence of ...
"No Light - EP". iTunes Store. Retrieved 15 November 2013. "No Light - EP". iTunes Store. Retrieved 15 November 2013. "No Light ... "No Light - EP". iTunes Store. Retrieved 15 November 2013. "No Light - EP". iTunes Store. Retrieved 15 November 2013. "No Light ... No Light is the second extended play released by New Zealand band The Naked and Famous. It was released on 8 September 2008. ... Stuff described No Light as "yet another confident statement of intent from an up-and-coming Kiwi band that deserves all the ...
ISBN 978-1-921496-32-5. Peter Light's playing statistics from AFL Tables Peter Light's profile at (Articles with ... Peter Light (born 19 July 1960) is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Essendon in the Victorian Football ...
... uses either a light box which emits up to 10,000 lux of light at a specified distance, much brighter than a ... Light therapy, also called phototherapy or bright light therapy is the exposure to direct sunlight or artificial light at ... However, alternative uses of light for cancer treatment - light box therapy and colored light therapy - are not supported by ... and eczema with ultraviolet light is called ultraviolet light therapy. Exposure to light to wavelengths of 290-300 nanometers ...
... may refer to: British light infantry; see History of British light infantry 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Light Bobs. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
... is a detective novel by Ngaio Marsh; it is the thirty-second, and final, novel to feature Roderick Alleyn, and ... Like Shakespeare's play, Light Thickens is gory and dramatic, but apart from the traditional murder mystery at its centre, and ... In Light Thickens she shows management dealing with chaperonage of young performers, union rules and Equity representatives, a ...
... to light walkways, steps, or other pathways. Solar lamp Street light Yard light Accent light - any directional light that ... Background light - for use in video production. Blacklight Christmas lights - also called fairy lights or twinkle lights and ... Security lighting Step light Strobe light Task light Traffic light Theatrical Stage lighting instrument Intelligent lighting ... Emergency light - provides minimal light to a building during a power outage. Exit sign Flood light Safelight (for use in a ...
... or light protection is an engineering technique to protect cyclists using a cycle lane by placing physical ... The estimated cost of kerb protection is £700,000/km, however the cost for light segregation is only around £60,000/km. Light ... Users feel safer on light-segregated cycle lanes than paint-only cycle lanes. However, light segregation has been criticised ... Bus stop bypasses cannot be achieved through light segregation, but can be tied into light segregation schemes. Different ...
... is an observation tower, port control tower and active lighthouse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. With a height of 431 ft ... Listed as "Jiddah". Media related to Jeddah Light at Wikimedia Commons v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... 112: Western Pacific and Indian Oceans Including the Persian Gulf and Red Sea (PDF). List of Lights. United States National ... Jeddah Port Control Tower, Emporis website List of Lights, Pub. ... "has a credible claim to be the world's tallest light tower". It ...
The Maco Light was a supposedly anomalous light, or "ghost light", occasionally seen between the late 19th century and 1977 ... such as the Bragg Road ghost light and Gurdon light: from a folklore perspective the story connected with the Maco light, being ... all the Maco Light is now is just a lovers' lane and a place to start a lot of trouble". However, the light retained some ... the light in a kerosene lantern [...] what the source of it was I'll never know". Sightings of the light ended when the ...
Light is a founding member of The Common Cup Company. He is a singer, songwriter and plays acoustic guitar.[citation needed] ... Light was educated at Carleton University and Trinity College, Toronto; and ordained in 1969. After a curacy at St. Paul's ... Christianity portal Gordon Stanley Light (b 1944) was bishop of the Anglican parishes of the central interior from 2004 until ... Bishop Light has four children and two stepchildren. He lives in Kamloops BC, with his wife Barbara Liotscos. Anglican Church ...
... in particular about light beams visible from the side Light Fantastic (TV series) Light mill Light painting Light pollution ... Light pressure is equal to the power of the light beam divided by c, the speed of light. Due to the magnitude of c, the effect ... Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as ... During the time it had "stopped", it had ceased to be light. The study of light and the interaction of light and matter is ...
Add a splash of living paint to your walls with Nanoleafs new LED light panels. *Yuka Yoneda ... DJ Lights: 85 Colorful LED Globes Controlled by Body Movement. *Yuka Yoneda ... Composed of nine lightweight, triangular LED lights that can be fit together in different configurations, the Nanoleaf... ...
... fire was mans primary source of light. This light was produced through different means-torches, candles , oil and gas lamps. ... Light Bulb Background From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, ... light bulb (also light·bulb) • n. a glass bulb inserted into a lamp or a socket in a ceiling, that provides light by passing an ... which in turn produces ultraviolet light. A phosphor coating on the bulb then converts the ultraviolet light into visible light ...
Natural Light Photos. Natural Light (2021) Natural Light (2021) Natural Light (2021) Natural Light (2021) Natural Light (2021) ... Audience Reviews for Natural Light. There are no featured reviews for Natural Light because the movie has not released yet (). ... Critic Reviews for Natural Light All Critics (24) , Top Critics (6) , Fresh (16) , Rotten (8) ... Visually gripping if narratively distant, Natural Light captures the horrors of war, albeit at a certain chilly remove. Read ...
Have you seen this film? We would love to see your review ...
... and visible-light snapshot. In contrast, the more mature elliptical galaxy NGC 1312 (right), some 62 million light-years ... Illustrated is a patch of the cosmos 100 million light-years across. Yellow lines trace the flow and grouping of matter as it ... The young spiral galaxy NGC 300 (left), located about 7 million light-years from Earth, is brimming with newborn stars in this ... Dark matter clumps in galaxy clusters bend light surprisingly well By Maria Temming. September 10, 2020. ...
Hyper Light Drifter is an action adventure RPG in the vein of the best 16-bit classics, with modernized mechanics and designs ... Hyper Light Drifter is an action adventure RPG in the vein of the best 16-bit classics, with modernized mechanics and designs ...
Researchers have now succeeded: they have developed an alloy with silicon that can emit light. The team will now start creating ... Emitting light from silicon has been the Holy Grail in the microelectronics industry for decades. Solving this puzzle would ... To use light in chips, you will need a light source; an integrated laser. The main semiconductor material that computer chips ... It emits light very efficiently.". Creating a laser now is a matter of time, Bakkers thinks. "By now we have realized optical ...
At these hours, light is most interesting because of three reasons: *light is directional and that provides interesting side ... Truth as I learnt is that even the most mundane things on a simple handphone camera can look good in great light, and they can ... light quality is softer and produces highlights and shadows that your camera can deal with more easily than the extremely ... In fact the young and ambitious me often fought against light. I refused to be restricted by something as fickle as the weather ...
Discover how to do light trail photography by shooting at night with longer exposure settings to create vibrant road and light ... Light trail photography creates art from moving lights, like car headlights and rear lights, headlamps, street lamps, street ... Shoot the best light trail photos during blue hour.. An optimal time to shoot light trail photography is during blue hour. Blue ... Let the light lead the way.. After you snap a series of light trail photos, its time for post-production editing. You can ...
Model selected: Seeing warning lights on your Toyota [MODEL_HERE]s dashboard? Explore its warning lights and indicators and ... Seeing warning lights on your Toyotas dashboard? Explore its warning lights and indicators and find out the next steps to keep ... Warning Lights. Sign in and select your vehicle to access all the information on your Toyotas warning lights and indicators. ... Should a safety system light such as the ABS and SRS airbag warning lights not come on when you start the hybrid system, this ...
Let yellow and brown soften depths, just enough in shadow, a little darkness folded in with Light of gold (think of an arm ...
Get the best deals on Color Light Bulbs when you shop the largest online selection at Free shipping on many items , ... 3w E27 RGB Crystal Ball Rotating LED Stage Light Bulb for Club DJ Disco Party ... Gpct GPCT696 E27 RGB LED Lamp 3W 16 Colours Changing Magic Night Light Bulb ... 180W Equivalent LED Bulb 170-Chip Corn Light E26 3000lm 28W Cool Daylight 6000K ...
MORE HYPER LIGHT Hyper Light Breaker announced, takes place in the same universe as Hyper Light Drifter ... Switch indies: Mark of the Ninja Remastered, Hyper Light Drifter, Light Fall, Bomb Chicken, more ... Hyper Light Drifter and Mutant Year Zero now free on the Epic Games Store ... Hyper Light Drifter up for pre-order on GOG, Wii U port in limbo ...
GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.
Ambient light refers to illumination that is encircling, encompassing, and diffuse. In present usage, ambient also conveys ... These characteristics of a surrounding light that is equitably distributed, impartially revealing, stable but not fixed, ...
... many people are claiming red light therapy can help treat a number of ailments, but is it really effective? ... we compared green to red light and found that the green light had antidepressant effects whereas the red light did no better ... white light. may be able to suppress the hormone melatonin, which has been linked to seasonal affective disorder, red light ... He points out that red light has actually been used as a placebo control for light therapy studies in which another active ...
EBooksWriter Lite is free, but youre required to accept e-mail newsletters from the vendor-and your e-book contains a text ad ... EBooksWriter Lite is challenging to figure out, and its necessary to follow the Help systems Tutorial to accomplish tasks. ... The Lite edition contains most of the functions available in paid versions of the software. Missing features include Boolean ... Ease-of-use issues aside, EBooksWriter Lite does what it says it does: It creates e-books for free. If youre interested in ...
Instantly control light settings via the app on Mac, Windo ... Elgato Light Strip brings state-of-the-art ambient illumination ... Light Strip goes beyond regular RGBW strips to provide maximum scope for color blending and light you can actually work with. ... Create a stunning backdrop for your viewers, add some fill light to your Key Light setup, or simply treat yourself to a ... PLAYS NICELY WITH KEY LIGHT. Control all your Elgato lights as one, and set scenes for every occasion. ...
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Light.Type. Type of Light Source Public Methods. static Light.Builder builder(Light.Type type) Constructs a default light, if ... Sets the light intensity which determines how bright the light is in Lux (lx) or Lumens (lm) (depending on the light type). ... Sets the light intensity which determines how bright the light is in Lux (lx) or Lumens (lm) (depending on the light type). ... Larger values produce brighter lights and near zero values generate very little light. A household light bulb will generally ...
The Bud Light Hotel is too much for some men. The Bud Light Hotel took over the Aloft Dallas for the weekend of the NCAA ... Bud Light was kind enough to make sure we didnt miss out on a great one, and we headed to Dallas for the Final Four of NCAA ... The Bud Light Platinum party was the biggest thing happening in Dallas on Sunday night. The NCAA Championship party is set to ... The Bud Light Hotel was filled with winners of their Mini Hoops competition from around the country. Of course there had to be ...
Tell your story with Prezis Presentation Background Light Blue. Easily drag and drop images and videos and create stunning ... and blue light only takes effect on the eyes. Blue Light and UV Light Blue light and UV Light ... What is Blue Light? What is Blue light? Pros and Cons of Blue Light Pros: Blue light can help boost alertness Boost memory and ... Sunlight contains both ultraviolet (UV) light and blue light. UV light is part of the non-visible light spectrum. Everyday, ...
... brought to you by the editors of Light Reading ... Light Reading is part of the Informa Tech Division of Informa ... Whats the Story? The Leading Lights Awards. IT Infrastructure. Whats the Story? The Leading Lights AwardsWhats the Story? ... Playlist: Whats the Story? on the Light Reading PodcastPlaylist: Whats the Story? on the Light Reading Podcast. byThe ... Playlist: Whats the Story? on the Light Reading Podcast. Business Management. ...
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Planetary Societys Light Sail 2 is Set to Launch on a Falcon Heavy Rocket Next Month. An illustration of the Light Sail 2 ... a fraction of the speed of light). In a recent study, a team from UCLA explained how a fleet of tiny probes with light sails ... Tag: light sail. Posted on December 15, 2022. December 27, 2022. by Matt Williams ... Optical Rocket Boosts Electrons to Nearly the Speed of Light. Artists impression of the Nebraska experiment, where the white ...
old light bulb unlit vintage retro off Filesize. 98 k. Safe for Work?. Yes. Download. SVG (Vector) PNG (Bitmap) Small Medium ... Old Light Bulb - Unlit. by j4p4n - uploaded on April 10, 2022, 7:08 am ...
Read or print original Light Years lyrics 2023 updated! Hello... Goodbye... / Leave me alone / Dont wanna be with anyone / Lie ... Coz light years from now. Theyll find it somehow. Coz its beautiful. Coz its beautiful out there ...
The core lights up because it is deflecting starlight from nearby stars. This unexpected light, called coreshine, tells ... This image is combination of infrared light from 8 microns and 3.6 microns. ... smaller particles would not have been big enough to scatter the light. ...
Its fins give it the large surface area needed to catch plenty of light. It spends its days out in the light, hanging ... Once an adult has a full stock, it survives on light alone for the remaining 10 months of its life. The ability to ... To find out why fish and cows do not photosynthesise - and whether we could create ones that do - see our feature Light diet: ... During the day, the clams open their shell and extend their mantles to catch as much light as possible. The mantle contains ...
  • Hyper Light Drifter is an action adventure RPG in the vein of the best 16-bit classics, with modernized mechanics and designs on a much grander scale. (
  • Besides the danger presented by an open flame (especially when used indoors), these sources of light also provided insufficient illumination. (
  • Car light trail images capture the paths of illumination created by the headlights or rear lights of a vehicle. (
  • Ambient light refers to illumination that is encircling, encompassing, and diffuse. (
  • Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have developed the Saturn LED area light that significantly improves illumination for roof bolting machines in underground mines, thereby enhancing safety by reducing injuries to miners. (
  • To address these challenges, NIOSH researchers developed the Saturn LED area light with the main objectives of reducing glare and increasing floor illumination to improve the ability of miners to see floor tripping hazards. (
  • The improved illumination provided by the NIOSH-developed Saturn LED area light (right). (
  • Candela is the unit used for luminance, lumen for light output, and lux for illumination. (
  • Above the range of visible light, ultraviolet light becomes invisible to humans, mostly because it is absorbed by the cornea below 360 nm and the internal lens below 400 nm. (
  • Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is a common skin reaction in people who are sensitive to sunlight (ultraviolet light). (
  • Phototherapy is a medical treatment in which your skin is carefully exposed to ultraviolet light. (
  • Also nearby wavelengths are usually included in the concept of light, although our eyes cannot register them, including infrared light which has longer wavelengths, and ultraviolet light which has shorter wavelengths. (
  • The possibility that a subset of PMLE called benign summer light eruption (BSLE), which might be milder and might be more ultraviolet (UV)-A driven, has been suggested by an Italian group. (
  • Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400-700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequencies of 750-420 terahertz, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). (
  • Sit or stand a few inches away from a panel of special red lights for a few minutes and their wavelengths reportedly alter the way your cells produce energy and antioxidants. (
  • The trial, at the University of Arizona, is among dozens of ongoing studies exploring whether exposing the skin or eyes to specific wavelengths of light can help treat health problems. (
  • A household light bulb will generally have an intensity between 800 - 2500 lm whereas sunlight will be around 120,000 lx. (
  • Like all types of electromagnetic radiation, visible light propagates by massless elementary particles called photons that represents the quanta of electromagnetic field, and can be analyzed as both waves and particles. (
  • Bring in photonics, which uses photons (light particles) to transfer data. (
  • In quantum mechanics the two distinctions are united: Light is a stream of particles and a wave. (
  • When particles of light hit the skin, they're absorbed by light-sensitive molecules inside cells, which kick-start a response. (
  • The main source of natural light on Earth is the Sun. Historically, another important source of light for humans has been fire, from ancient campfires to modern kerosene lamps. (
  • This light was produced through different means - torches, candles , oil and gas lamps. (
  • However, today's incandescent light bulbs greatly resemble Edison's original lamps. (
  • Light trail photography creates art from moving lights, like car headlights and rear lights, headlamps, street lamps, street lights and even bike lights. (
  • The roof bolter light sources were compact fluorescent lamps shrouded by yellowish-orange polycarbonate globes intended to reduce glare and to protect the lamps. (
  • Some objects, such as the sun, lamps and candles, produce their own light, but most objects are only visible when light from elsewhere hits them and is reflected from them. (
  • The NIOSH research team for the Saturn LED area light won the 2017 NIOSH Bullard-Sherwood Research-to-Practice Award, which recognizes outstanding efforts by scientists and their partners in applying occupational safety and health research to prevent work-related injury, illness, and death. (
  • Please visit the following link to see research from Lund University done before the establishment of the Profile area Light and Materials, in January 2023. (
  • At the Light & Materials Synergy Day in October 2023 more than 80 research posters took part in the poster session. (
  • 10 October 2023 the Light and Materials Synergy day was held with over 250 participants. (
  • Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is an acquired disease and is the most common of the idiopathic photodermatoses. (
  • Polymorphous light eruption on the thighs and hand. (
  • Polymorphous light eruption on the arm. (
  • The etiology of polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is not fully known, and it is likely to be multifactorial. (
  • The speed of light in vacuum is defined to be exactly 299 792 458 m/s (approx. (
  • An understanding of the absorption of light is essential for efficient photovoltaic and photodetection applications with III-V nanowire arrays. (
  • Elgato Light Strip features ultra-bright RGBWW LEDs to provide maximum scope for color blending and warm to cold white you can work with. (
  • The Saturn light used an array of 12 cool-white LEDs that provide lighting similar to natural daylight. (
  • And thanks to the recent availability of low-cost, heat-free (and thus safer) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), there are more do-it-yourself gadgets for treating acne, depression , and pain online. (
  • Focus on lights that illuminate the night with light trail photography. (
  • Manufacturing plants were set up to mass produce light bulbs and great advances were made in wiring and electrical current systems. (
  • The primary properties of light are intensity, propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum and polarization. (
  • In vacuum, the light propagation speed is 300 000 kilometres per second. (
  • The characteristics of light as a wave are frequency, wavelength, oscillation direction (polarisation), amplitude and speed of propagation. (
  • Light trail photography is an interesting and special type of photography because you're able to depict something that isn't actually real in any one instant. (
  • Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. (
  • In physics, the term "light" may refer more broadly to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. (
  • Generally, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is classified by wavelength into radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the visible spectrum that we perceive as light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. (
  • Light is an electromagnetic radiation sensitive to the eyes at a wavelength range of 390-770 nano metres. (
  • Explore how to shoot light trails. (
  • Explore warning lights and indicators found on most Toyota vehicles. (
  • That response varies, depending on the wavelength, or color, of light and where it's used. (
  • For instance, when longer wavelength or visibly "red" light hits the skin, it nudges mitochondria (the cell's powerhouses) to make energy more efficiently and boost production of healing anti-inflammatories or disease-fighting antioxidants. (
  • Shorter wavelength or visibly "blue" light is very good at making you wakeful. (
  • The number of conditions red light can treat is 'continuously expanding,'" said Michael R. Hamblin, PhD , a principal investigator at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School. (
  • Hamblin also serves on the scientific advisory board for Joovv , a company that sells medical-grade light therapy devices. (
  • Many red light therapy studies - Hamblin puts the number in the thousands - have been done, testing its effects on various conditions. (
  • I think interest in light therapy is definitely increasing," says Michael Hamblin, PhD, an associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School. (
  • As Hamblin explains, people -- like plants through photosynthesis -- have a chemical reaction to light. (
  • Light and Materials is one out of five profile areas at Lund University. (
  • Lund University got a long tradition of conducting research within the field of Light and Materials. (
  • A favourable aperture setting for light trails is typically about an f/16. (
  • Although expressions such as "shed some light" or "I saw the light" figure often in our everyday speech, we do not typically contemplate light. (
  • For our transmission windows the speed of light typically reduces by 3-5 orders of magnitude. (
  • Spotlights shine light in a cone, this value determines the size of the inner part of the cone. (
  • Instead of trekking to the doctor's office to have light shined on them, consumers can now shine light on themselves at home. (
  • Plant growth is also affected by the colour spectrum of light, a process known as photomorphogenesis. (
  • Of these, only frequency is independent of which medium the light travels in, and frequency also determines the colour. (
  • Many animals with eyes that do not require lenses (such as insects and shrimp) are able to detect ultraviolet, by quantum photon-absorption mechanisms, in much the same chemical way that humans detect visible light. (
  • If an electron 'drops' from the conduction band to the valence band, a semiconductor emits a photon: light. (
  • A physicist can describe light as both a wave and a particle, a photon. (
  • Physical phenomena such as refraction, diffraction and interference are explained by the wave model of light, but when explaining photoelectric, photochemical or photobiological processes, we use the photon model. (
  • Shut off the power to the light you are working on at the breaker. (
  • An early experiment to measure the speed of light was conducted by Ole Rømer, a Danish physicist, in 1676. (
  • For example changing the transmission window frequency with changes the speed of light in the material. (
  • Specific projects utilising the slow light phenomenon are laser frequency stabilization and medical imaging. (
  • Light rays enable us to see, and sunlight is the Earth's most important source of heat. (
  • Light is also the basis for almost all life on Earth through the photosynthesis of plants, in which sunlight is used as a source of energy when plants covert carbon dioxide and water to biomass. (
  • In contrast, the more mature elliptical galaxy NGC 1312 (right), some 62 million light-years distant, is more quiescent. (
  • The Saturn LED area light (Figure 1) takes up only one-third the volume compared to existing lights used on roof bolters, and it has a useful life of about 30,000 hours in contrast to the existing lighting life of about 8,000 hours from traditional lighting. (
  • Researchers have now succeeded: they have developed an alloy with silicon that can emit light. (
  • Together with researchers from the universities of Jena, Linz and Munich, they combined silicon and germanium in a hexagonal structure that is able to emit light. (
  • At Massachusetts General Hospital, researchers are studying whether a red light-emitting helmet can help traumatic brain injury patients recover. (
  • NIOSH conducted a comparative study of glare and visual performance for the detection of trip hazards using the traditional roof bolter lighting and the Saturn LED area light. (
  • The unpublished results of the study indicated significant reductions of discomfort glare and major improvements in detecting trip hazards when using the Saturn LED area light (Figure 2). (
  • Red light therapy reportedly alters the way your cells produce energy and antioxidants. (
  • Visually gripping if narratively distant, Natural Light captures the horrors of war, albeit at a certain chilly remove. (
  • The higher the ISO, the more light a camera captures. (
  • Our measurements demonstrate that the absorption for long nanowires is limited by insertion reflection losses when light is coupled from the air. (
  • Our measurements demonstrate that the absorption for long nanowires is limited by insertion reflection losses when light is coupled from the air top-region into the array. (
  • A rotating cog wheel was placed in the path of the light beam as it traveled from the source, to the mirror and then returned to its origin. (
  • From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, fire was man's primary source of light. (
  • In 1877 Edison became involved with the rush for a satisfactory electric light source, devoting his initial involvement to confirming the reasons for his competitors' failures. (
  • Title : A Clean, Well-Lighted Place1 Personal Author(s) : Potter, Polyxeni Published Date : Apr 2010 Source : Emerg Infect Dis. (
  • The speed is constant and independent of whether or not the light source is moving. (
  • The light is basically the same, there are few safety issues, and it is a fraction of the cost. (
  • Ease-of-use issues aside, EBooksWriter Lite does what it says it does: It creates e-books for free. (
  • The action spectrum is primarily UVA light, but can include UVB light. (
  • As a photographer who understands how light can make or break a photo, I now only choose to photograph my day shots at two timings of the day known as the magic hours (or golden hours). (
  • The intention is to capture something with light on it that, as it moves, will create a trail in your image," says photographer Sean Salamon. (
  • EBooksWriter Lite is free, but you're required to accept e-mail newsletters from the vendor-and your e-book contains a text ad for the paid versions at the bottom of every page. (
  • EMR in the visible light region consists of quanta (called photons) that are at the lower end of the energies that are capable of causing electronic excitation within molecules, which leads to changes in the bonding or chemistry of the molecule. (
  • At the lower end of the visible light spectrum, EMR becomes invisible to humans (infrared) because its photons no longer have enough individual energy to cause a lasting molecular change (a change in conformation) in the visual molecule retinal in the human retina, which change triggers the sensation of vision. (
  • Various sources define visible light as narrowly as 420-680 nm to as broadly as 380-800 nm. (
  • This energy then strikes phosphors that coat the inside of the lamp, giving off visible light. (
  • The young spiral galaxy NGC 300 (left), located about 7 million light-years from Earth, is brimming with newborn stars in this combined ultraviolet- and visible-light snapshot. (
  • Shooting on a higher ISO with longer shutter speeds and wider aperture settings will let enough light pass through your lens to create a visible light trail. (
  • Some patients even react in the visible light spectrum. (
  • In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light. (
  • Unlike ultraviolet rays from the sun which damage the DNA of skin cells, "light emitted in this spectrum is perfectly safe," said Dr. Susan Bard , a board-certified dermatologist based in New York City. (
  • Red light therapy, which is also known by the less-catchy names of photobiomodulation and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), releases light waves in the red and infrared spectrum. (
  • Reflected light scatters and glistens across the wet sand, swirling water, and foamy edges of waves. (
  • In 1802, Davy showed that electric currents could heat thin strips of metal to white heat, thus producing light. (
  • Light Strip goes beyond regular RGBW strips to provide maximum scope for color blending and light you can actually work with. (
  • Create a stunning backdrop for your viewers, add some fill light to your Key Light setup, or simply treat yourself to a backsplash of color. (
  • Sets the "RGB" color of the light. (
  • Sets the "RGB" color of the light based on the desired "color temperature. (
  • During 1879, the young artist traveled to Paris, where he toured exhibitions and met painters who worked in the open air, a practice that accentuated attention to light, color, and movement. (
  • The Bud Light Platinum party was the biggest thing happening in Dallas on Sunday night. (
  • Easily extend your Light Strip up to 10 m / 32 ft. (
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum notes that "The colored reflections of late afternoon light animate this beach scene and actively define the forms, from the injured child's shoulder to the liquid sea and the figures playing in the water. (
  • The profile area will harness recent fundamental research advances in measuring and controlling light and materials. (
  • Expertise and research infrastructure available in NanoLund, Lund Laser Centre (LLC) and MAX IV allows scientists to gain insights into light-induced processes and functionalities of materials that were previously impossible to study. (
  • Light is emitted when excited atoms dispose of their excess energy, through several physical, chemical and biological processes. (
  • Get the intensity of the light. (
  • Sets the range that the light intensity falls off to zero. (
  • Sets the light intensity which determines how bright the light is in Lux (lx) or Lumens (lm) (depending on the light type). (
  • Light is of fundamental significance as an energy and information carrier. (
  • The answer was to develop a vacuum that would keep air away from the elements, thus preserving the light-producing materials. (
  • Dive into the research topics where LU Profile Area: Light and Materials is active. (
  • Light Meets Materials - a popular day! (
  • The registration for the Light & Materials Synergy day on the theme Light Meets Materials is now closed. (
  • Registration to Light & Materials Synergy Day is open! (
  • Tuesday 10 October Light and Materials will arrange its first all profile area meeting. (
  • Fabricating these materials and studying their light-matter interactions is the focus of this research area. (
  • Sorolla developed a passion for painting outdoors, preferring natural light and settings. (
  • Test using a voltage tester to make certain there is no power going to the light fixture. (
  • But they could not yet make them to emit light, until now. (
  • Make a statement in your floral arrangement with this light green snowball spray. (
  • We find that 2,000 nm long nanowires in a pitch of 400 nm can absorb 94% of the incident light with energy above the band gap and, as a consequence, light which in a simple ray-optics description would be travelling between the nanowires can be efficiently absorbed by the nanowires. (
  • In the follow-up work we use exciton-exciton annihilation as the witness of cavity-mediated energy transfer between the light-harvesting complexes. (
  • Alain Dijkstra, also shared first author of the paper and responsible for measuring the light emission: "Our experiments showed that the material has the right structure, and that it is free of defects. (
  • Run a thin bead of silicon caulk around the base of the light to prevent water from leaking behind the fixture. (
  • Emitting light from silicon has been the 'Holy Grail' in the microelectronics industry for decades. (
  • But bulk silicon is extremely inefficient at emitting light, and so was long thought to play no role in photonics. (
  • These are good at emitting light but are more expensive than silicon and are hard to integrate into existing silicon microchips. (
  • To create a silicon compatible laser, scientists needed to produce a form of silicon that can emit light. (
  • A 50-year old theory showed however that silicon, alloyed with germanium, shaped in a hexagonal structure does have a direct band gap, and therefore potentially could emit light," says Bakkers. (
  • As far as mental health is concerned, I know of no documented effects of red light," said Dr. Norman Rosenthal , a clinical professor of psychiatry at Georgetown University School of Medicine who coined the phrase "seasonal affective disorder. (
  • I thus analyze two pedagogical devices identified at the CEIA in light of the framework of mutuality, following which I present a discussion that highlights the relationship between the educators' approach, which I identify as clinical-educational, and Ferenczi's notion of mutuality. (
  • So when Keller-Ossipov learned of a clinical trial testing "green light therapy" for migraine, she didn't hesitate to sign up. (
  • The study of light, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics. (
  • By keeping the camera shutter open for a long period of time, you can collect more light and - in this case - show how that light moves across the frame. (
  • Shutter speed is the amount of time a camera's shutter remains open to let light pass through the lens to the camera sensor. (
  • With both eyes open, can (you/he/she) see light? (