Myosin Light Chains
Curing Lights, Dental
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14
Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate
Photosystem II Protein Complex
Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells
Optics and Photonics
Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Radiation Injuries, Experimental
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Rod Cell Outer Segment
Immunoglobulin Variable Region
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives
Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (1/15260)A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process. (+info)
Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (2/15260)The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates. (+info)
Improvement of systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in vivo using light fractionation with a 75-minute interval. (3/15260)We have studied different single and fractionated illumination schemes after systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to Improve the response of nodular tumors to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy. Tumors transplanted on the thigh of female WAG/Rij rats were transdermally illuminated with red light (633 nm) after systemic ALA administration (200 mg/kg). The effectiveness of each treatment scheme was determined from the tumor volume doubling time. A single illumination (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, 2.5 h after ALA administration) yielded a doubling time of 6.6+/-1.2 days. This was significantly different from the untreated control (doubling time, 1.7+/-0.1 days). The only treatment scheme that yielded a significant improvement compared to all other schemes studied was illumination at both 1 and 2.5 h after ALA administration (both 100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2) and resulted in a tumor volume doubling time of 18.9+/-2.9 days. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that the protoporphyrin IX formed after administration of ALA is photodegraded by the first illumination. In the 75-min interval, new porphyrin is formed enhancing the effect of the second illumination. (+info)
The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (4/15260)1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell. (+info)
Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (5/15260)Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission. (+info)
Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (6/15260)The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests. (+info)
Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (7/15260)Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation. (+info)
The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (8/15260)A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco. (+info)
Myosin light chains (MLCs) are small proteins that are found in muscle fibers. They are a component of the myosin molecule, which is responsible for muscle contraction. MLCs are attached to the myosin head and help to regulate the interaction between the myosin head and the actin filament, which is the other major component of muscle fibers. When a muscle contracts, the myosin head binds to the actin filament and pulls it towards the center of the muscle fiber, causing the muscle to shorten. The activity of MLCs can be regulated by various signaling pathways, which can affect muscle contraction and relaxation. MLCs are also involved in the regulation of muscle tone and the response of muscles to stress and injury.
In the medical field, "darkness" generally refers to a lack of light or visual perception. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including: 1. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. 2. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the retina, leading to vision loss and eventually blindness. 3. Macular degeneration: A condition in which the central part of the retina, called the macula, deteriorates, leading to vision loss. 4. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 5. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve can cause vision loss or blindness. 7. Brain injury: Damage to the brain, particularly the visual cortex, can cause blindness or vision loss. In some cases, darkness may also be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
In the medical field, "Curing Lights, Dental" refers to specialized light-emitting devices used in dentistry to harden dental materials such as composite resins, bonding agents, and dental cements. These materials are applied to the teeth and then cured using a curing light to initiate a chemical reaction that causes the material to harden and bond to the tooth structure. The curing process typically takes a few seconds and is essential for ensuring that the dental restoration is strong and durable. Curing lights emit a specific wavelength of light that is absorbed by the dental material, triggering a photochemical reaction that causes the material to harden. The use of curing lights is a standard procedure in modern dentistry and is essential for achieving optimal results in dental restorations.
Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase (MLCK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating muscle contraction. It is a calcium-dependent enzyme that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin, which is a component of the thick filament in muscle fibers. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain leads to the activation of myosin, which in turn causes the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments, resulting in muscle contraction. MLCK is also involved in regulating the contraction of smooth muscle cells, which are found in the walls of blood vessels, the gut, and other organs. Activation of MLCK in smooth muscle cells leads to the contraction of the muscle fibers, which can contribute to the regulation of blood pressure and the movement of food through the digestive system. In addition to its role in muscle contraction, MLCK has been implicated in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of cell migration, the formation of blood clots, and the development of certain types of cancer.
Dark adaptation is the process by which the human eye adjusts to low levels of light. When we enter a dark environment, the pupils dilate to allow more light to enter the eye. The retina, which is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, contains specialized cells called rods and cones that detect light. Rods are more sensitive to low levels of light and are responsible for our ability to see in dim conditions. At first, when we enter a dark environment, the rods are not very sensitive, and our vision is poor. However, as we continue to be in the dark, the rods become more sensitive, and our vision improves. This process can take several minutes to complete, and it is influenced by factors such as age, health, and previous exposure to light. Dark adaptation is an important process for night vision and is essential for activities such as driving at night or navigating in low-light conditions. Any disruption to the process of dark adaptation, such as prolonged exposure to bright light, can affect our ability to see in low-light conditions.
Phytochrome is a photoreceptor protein found in plants and some bacteria that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and photoperiodic responses. In the medical field, phytochrome has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that phytochrome may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, phytochrome has been shown to modulate the immune system and may have potential as a treatment for autoimmune disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of phytochrome.
In the medical field, the term "color" is used to describe the appearance of various bodily fluids, tissues, and organs. For example, the color of blood can be used to indicate whether it is oxygenated or deoxygenated, and the color of urine can be used to detect the presence of certain medical conditions. In addition, the term "color" can also be used to describe the appearance of medical instruments and equipment, such as the color of a stethoscope or a blood pressure cuff. Overall, the use of color in the medical field is an important tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat medical conditions.
Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.
Adaptation, Ocular refers to the ability of the eye to adjust its focus and sensitivity to different lighting conditions. This process is essential for clear vision and involves changes in the size of the pupil, the shape of the lens, and the sensitivity of the retina. In bright light, the pupil constricts to reduce the amount of light entering the eye, while in dim light, the pupil dilates to allow more light in. The shape of the lens also changes to adjust the focus of the image on the retina. Additionally, the sensitivity of the retina can adjust to different lighting conditions, allowing for clear vision in a range of environments. Adaptation, Ocular is an important aspect of vision and can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, health conditions, and medications. Any issues with ocular adaptation can lead to vision problems, such as difficulty seeing in low light or difficulty focusing on objects at different distances.
Cryptochromes are a class of photoreceptor proteins that are found in a variety of organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals. They are responsible for detecting and responding to blue light, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of around 400-500 nanometers. In the medical field, cryptochromes have been studied for their potential role in regulating circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological clocks that control various physiological processes in the body, such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. Cryptochromes have been shown to play a key role in the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the external environment, and they are thought to be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, and other cognitive functions. In addition to their role in circadian rhythms, cryptochromes have also been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, the protection against oxidative stress, and the prevention of cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of cryptochromes in health and disease.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.
Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are a type of light chain found in some immunoglobulins (antibodies) produced by B cells. They are composed of two identical polypeptide chains, each containing about 210 amino acids, and are encoded by the IGL gene locus on chromosome 22. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are typically associated with the lambda isotype of immunoglobulins, which are a subset of antibodies that have a lambda light chain paired with a heavy chain. These antibodies are produced by a subset of B cells called lambda B cells, and they are involved in the immune response to certain types of pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are important for the function of lambda immunoglobulins, as they play a role in the binding of antigens and the activation of immune cells. Mutations in the IGL gene locus can lead to the production of abnormal lambda immunoglobulins, which can cause a variety of immune disorders, such as agammaglobulinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune diseases.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14, also known as TNFSF14 or LIGHT, is a protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help regulate the immune response. LIGHT is expressed by a variety of cells, including activated T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. It binds to two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin alpha receptor (LTαR), which are expressed on a variety of cells, including T cells, B cells, and endothelial cells. When LIGHT binds to its receptors, it can have a number of effects on the immune system. For example, it can promote the survival and proliferation of activated T cells, which helps to amplify the immune response. It can also stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, which can help to recruit immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. In addition to its role in the immune system, LIGHT has been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of bone homeostasis and the development of certain types of cancer.
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It plays a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, also known as the circadian rhythm. Melatonin levels in the body increase in the evening and decrease in the morning, helping to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. In the medical field, melatonin is used as a supplement to help regulate sleep in people with sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and shift work disorder. It is also used to treat certain sleep-related conditions, such as delayed sleep phase disorder and advanced sleep phase disorder. Melatonin may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being studied for its potential role in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.
Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.
Phytochrome B is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a member of the phytochrome family of photoreceptors, which are responsible for sensing and responding to changes in light quality and quantity. Phytochrome B is activated by red light and deactivated by far-red light. When activated, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to interact with other proteins in the plant cell, triggering a cascade of signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In the medical field, phytochrome B has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, researchers have investigated the use of phytochrome B as a target for cancer therapy, as it is overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells. Additionally, phytochrome B has been shown to play a role in regulating the immune system, and may have potential applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Rod opsins are a type of photopigment found in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for detecting low levels of light and are essential for night vision. Rod opsins are a type of opsin, which is a protein that binds to a molecule called retinal to form a light-sensitive pigment. When light strikes the rod opsin, it causes a chemical reaction that generates an electrical signal, which is then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. Rod opsins are found only in the rods, which are specialized cells in the retina that are responsible for detecting low levels of light.
Clathrin light chains are small protein subunits that are essential components of the clathrin triskelion, a three-armed protein complex that is involved in the formation of vesicles in the endocytic pathway. The clathrin triskelion is composed of one heavy chain and three light chains, and it is responsible for the curvature of the vesicle membrane during the process of endocytosis. In the medical field, clathrin light chains are of interest because they are involved in a number of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, mutations in the CLCN6 gene, which encodes one of the clathrin light chain subunits, have been associated with a form of inherited kidney disease called Dent's disease. Additionally, changes in the levels of clathrin light chains have been observed in various types of cancer, and they may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases.
Phytochrome A is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a light-sensitive protein that undergoes reversible photoconversion between two distinct forms, Pr (red-absorbing form) and Pfr (far-red-absorbing form), in response to changes in light intensity and quality. In the medical field, phytochrome A has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, research has shown that phytochrome A can modulate the activity of various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which may have implications for cancer treatment. Additionally, phytochrome A has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which may be beneficial in the management of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Photosystem II protein complex is a large protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It is responsible for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, which convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. Photosystem II protein complex consists of several subunits, including the D1 and D2 proteins, which form the core of the complex, and the CP47, CP43, and CP29 proteins, which are peripheral to the core. The complex contains a number of cofactors, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, which absorb light energy and transfer it to the reaction center. The reaction center of Photosystem II protein complex contains a special pair of chlorophyll molecules, called P680 and P700, which are capable of accepting high-energy electrons from water molecules. These electrons are then passed through a series of electron carriers, ultimately ending up in the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP and NADPH. Photosystem II protein complex plays a critical role in the process of photosynthesis, as it is responsible for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, which is used to fuel the growth and development of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.
Light-harvesting protein complexes are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy. These complexes are responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center, where it is used to power the chemical reactions that produce ATP and NADPH, two energy-rich molecules that are essential for the growth and survival of these organisms. There are several different types of light-harvesting protein complexes, each with its own unique structure and function. The most well-known of these is the chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex, which is found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in plants and algae. This complex is responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center, where it is used to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Other types of light-harvesting protein complexes include the phycobilisome, which is found in some photosynthetic bacteria and algae, and the reaction center complex, which is found in all photosynthetic organisms. These complexes play important roles in the process of photosynthesis, and their dysfunction can lead to a range of health problems in plants and other photosynthetic organisms.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis in plants, algae, and some bacteria. These proteins are responsible for capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy that can be used by the organism to fuel its metabolic processes. The photosynthetic reaction center complex is a complex of pigments and proteins that is embedded in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in plants and algae. When light energy is absorbed by the pigments in the complex, it is transferred to the reaction center complex proteins, which then use this energy to split water molecules into oxygen, protons, and electrons. The electrons are then passed through a series of electron transport chains, which use the energy from the electrons to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient. This gradient is then used to drive the synthesis of ATP, which is the energy currency of the cell. Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins are essential for the process of photosynthesis, and any disruption to their function can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of plants and algae. In the medical field, understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for diseases that affect photosynthesis, such as chlorosis and photosynthetic inhibition.
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy, and use this energy to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are also responsible for producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. In the medical field, chloroplasts are not typically studied or treated directly, but understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of chloroplasts in this process is important for understanding plant biology and the role of plants in the environment.
Radiation injuries, experimental refer to injuries or damage caused to living tissue as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in a laboratory or research setting. These injuries can occur intentionally, as part of a scientific study or experiment, or unintentionally, as a result of equipment malfunction or other accidents. The effects of radiation on living tissue can vary depending on the type and amount of radiation exposure, as well as the duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of radiation exposure include burns, skin damage, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, radiation exposure can lead to organ damage, tissue necrosis, and even death. Experimental radiation injuries are typically studied in order to better understand the effects of radiation on living tissue and to develop new treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses. These studies may involve exposing animals or cells to different types and doses of radiation, and then observing the effects of the radiation on the exposed organisms or cells. The results of these studies can be used to inform the development of new radiation protection measures and treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses in humans.
Retinal degeneration is a group of eye diseases that cause damage to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. The retina contains specialized cells called photoreceptors that convert light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. When the photoreceptors are damaged or destroyed, the retina loses its ability to detect light, leading to vision loss or blindness. Retinal degeneration can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, aging, exposure to toxins or radiation, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. There are several types of retinal degeneration, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and retinitis pigmentosa, each with its own specific characteristics and progression. Treatment for retinal degeneration depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be recommended to slow the progression of the disease. In other cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to preserve or restore vision.
In the medical field, halogens are a group of elements that include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. These elements are highly reactive and are often used in medicine as disinfectants, anesthetics, and radiopharmaceuticals. Fluorine is commonly used in toothpaste and mouthwashes to prevent tooth decay, and chlorine is used as a disinfectant in swimming pools and water treatment plants. Bromine is used in some antiseptic solutions and as a component in some anesthetics. Iodine is essential for thyroid function and is often added to table salt as a dietary supplement. Astatine is a radioactive element that is used in some cancer treatments. Halogens can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, where they can help to break down mucus in the lungs. However, they can also be toxic in high doses and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems, as well as damage to the skin and eyes. Therefore, their use in medicine must be carefully monitored and controlled.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Diuron is a herbicide that is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses in a variety of crops, including rice, sugarcane, and corn. It works by inhibiting photosynthesis in plants, which ultimately leads to their death. In the medical field, diuron is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, it has been associated with some potential health effects in humans, including skin irritation, eye irritation, and respiratory problems. In some cases, exposure to diuron has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, although the evidence for this is not yet conclusive. It is important to note that diuron is a restricted-use pesticide, meaning that it can only be used by licensed applicators and under certain conditions. Farmers and other users of diuron should follow all safety guidelines and precautions to minimize the risk of exposure to this chemical.
Hematoporphyrins are a group of pigments that are synthesized in the liver and are precursors to heme, a component of hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. Hematoporphyrins are also used in medical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy, which involves the use of a photosensitizing agent, such as hematoporphyrin, to target and destroy cancer cells. In this therapy, the hematoporphyrin is administered to the patient and then activated by a specific wavelength of light, causing the cancer cells to die. Hematoporphyrins are also used in diagnostic tests to detect certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer.
Myosin subfragments refer to the different components that make up the myosin protein, which is a key component of muscle fibers. Myosin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles, and it is made up of several subunits, including the myosin head, neck, and tail. The myosin head is the part of the protein that interacts with actin, another protein found in muscle fibers, to generate force and movement. The neck region connects the head to the tail, and the tail helps to stabilize the myosin molecule within the muscle fiber. Myosin subfragments can be further broken down into smaller components through various techniques, such as proteolysis or electrophoresis. This can be useful for studying the structure and function of myosin, as well as for identifying potential targets for drugs or other therapeutic interventions.
Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater, saltwater, and soil. They are also known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria. In the medical field, cyanobacteria are of interest because some species can produce toxins that can cause illness in humans and animals. These toxins can be harmful when ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins can cause a range of symptoms, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal issues. In addition to their potential to cause illness, cyanobacteria are also being studied for their potential medical applications. Some species of cyanobacteria produce compounds that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties. These compounds are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases.
In the medical field, "chickens" typically refers to the domesticated bird species Gallus gallus domesticus. Chickens are commonly raised for their meat, eggs, and feathers, and are also used in research and as pets. In veterinary medicine, chickens can be treated for a variety of health conditions, including diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox. They may also require treatment for injuries or trauma, such as broken bones or cuts. In human medicine, chickens are not typically used as a source of treatment or therapy. However, some research has been conducted using chicken cells or proteins as models for human diseases or as potential sources of vaccines or other medical interventions.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Immunoglobulin light chains, also known as lambda or kappa light chains, are small protein chains that are produced by B cells as part of the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. These light chains are paired with heavy chains to form complete immunoglobulins, which are also known as antibodies. In some cases, the production of light chains by B cells can become uncontrolled, leading to the production of excess amounts of these proteins in the blood. This condition is known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and it is often detected through a blood test that measures the levels of immunoglobulin light chains in the blood. Immunoglobulin light chains can also be used as a surrogate marker for certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, which is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow. In these cases, the levels of immunoglobulin light chains in the blood can be used to monitor the progression of the disease and to assess the effectiveness of treatment.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs during specific times of the year, typically in the fall and winter months. It is also sometimes referred to as winter depression or seasonal depression. SAD is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Other symptoms may include fatigue, changes in appetite and weight, difficulty sleeping, and irritability. SAD is believed to be caused by changes in the levels of certain hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, as well as by the reduced exposure to sunlight that occurs during the winter months. Treatment for SAD typically involves light therapy, medication, and psychotherapy.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
Biological clocks are internal mechanisms that regulate various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans. These clocks are responsible for controlling the timing of events such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and other circadian rhythms. In the medical field, the study of biological clocks is important because disruptions to these rhythms can have negative effects on health. For example, shift work and jet lag can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, leading to sleep disorders, fatigue, and other health problems. Research has also shown that disruptions to biological clocks can increase the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biological clocks and how they can be influenced by external factors is an important area of medical research.
Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating muscle contraction. It is responsible for the dephosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLCs), which are regulatory proteins that control the interaction between myosin and actin filaments in muscle cells. When MLCP is activated, it removes phosphate groups from MLCs, causing them to unwind and detach from the myosin filaments. This leads to a decrease in muscle tension and relaxation of the muscle fibers. MLCP is regulated by calcium ions, which bind to a regulatory subunit of the enzyme, causing it to become activated and dephosphorylate MLCs. Disruptions in the regulation of MLCP can lead to muscle disorders such as myositis, myopathy, and dystrophy. In addition, MLCP has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, as it can regulate the activity of the myosin motor protein, which is involved in cell migration and invasion.
In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.
In the medical field, the Immunoglobulin Variable Region (IgV) refers to the part of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) in the body. The IgV region is highly variable and is composed of four loops of amino acids that form a Y-shaped structure. Each loop is referred to as a "complementarity-determining region" (CDR) and is responsible for binding to a specific part of the antigen. The variability of the IgV region allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide range of different antigens.
Amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of a protein called amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body. Amyloid is a protein that is normally produced by cells in the body and broken down naturally. However, in amyloidosis, the amyloid protein is produced in excess or is not broken down properly, leading to the formation of abnormal deposits in tissues and organs. The accumulation of amyloid can cause damage to the affected organs and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and complications depending on the location and severity of the deposits. Common symptoms of amyloidosis include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and difficulty breathing. There are several types of amyloidosis, including primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, and familial amyloidosis. Primary amyloidosis is the most common form and is usually caused by abnormal production of the amyloid protein in the body. Secondary amyloidosis is caused by another underlying medical condition, such as chronic inflammatory diseases or cancer. Familial amyloidosis is an inherited form of the disease that is caused by mutations in certain genes. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care to manage complications.
Immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgH chains) are the larger of the two subunits that make up the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, which is a type of protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. The Ig molecule is composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, which are connected by disulfide bonds. The heavy chains are responsible for the specificity of the Ig molecule, as they contain the variable regions that interact with antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). The heavy chains also contain the constant regions, which are involved in the effector functions of the immune system, such as activating complement and binding to Fc receptors on immune cells. There are five different classes of Ig molecules (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM), which are distinguished by the type of heavy chain they contain. Each class of Ig molecule has a different set of functions and is produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of antigens.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Photophobia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to light, which can cause discomfort, pain, or even nausea and vomiting. People with photophobia may experience excessive blinking, squinting, or covering their eyes when exposed to bright light. Photophobia can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, including eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, cataracts, and glaucoma, as well as neurological disorders such as migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis, and brain injuries. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Treatment for photophobia depends on the underlying cause. For example, if the condition is caused by an eye disease, treatment may involve medication or surgery to correct the underlying issue. If the condition is caused by a neurological disorder, treatment may involve medication to manage symptoms or physical therapy to improve mobility and coordination. In some cases, wearing sunglasses or using light-blocking curtains or blinds can also help alleviate symptoms.
Xanthophylls are a group of pigments found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. They are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of many fruits and vegetables, as well as the yellow color of some flowers. In the medical field, xanthophylls are known for their potential health benefits. They are antioxidants, which means they can help protect the body against damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Some studies have suggested that xanthophylls may help reduce the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Xanthophylls are also used in dietary supplements, often in combination with other antioxidants. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of xanthophylls and to determine the appropriate dosage and safety of these supplements.
Photoreceptors, plant refer to specialized cells in plants that are responsible for detecting and responding to light. These cells contain pigments called photopigments, which absorb light energy and trigger a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to changes in the plant's physiology and behavior. There are several types of photoreceptors in plants, including phototropins, cryptochromes, and phototropins. Phototropins are responsible for regulating plant growth and development, including phototropism (the bending of a plant towards a light source) and photoperiodism (the response to the length of day and night). Cryptochromes are involved in regulating plant responses to blue light, including the regulation of flowering time and seed germination. Phototropins are also involved in regulating plant responses to red and far-red light. In addition to regulating plant growth and development, photoreceptors are also involved in plant defense mechanisms. For example, some photoreceptors can detect the presence of herbivores or pathogens and trigger the production of defensive compounds. Overall, photoreceptors play a critical role in plant growth, development, and defense, and their study is important for understanding plant biology and improving crop yields.
Photoreceptors, microbial, refer to specialized cells or proteins in microorganisms that are capable of detecting and responding to light. These photoreceptors play a crucial role in the survival and adaptation of microorganisms to their environment, as they allow them to sense changes in light intensity, wavelength, and direction. In bacteria, for example, photoreceptors can regulate gene expression, motility, and metabolism in response to light. Some photoreceptors in bacteria are also involved in photosynthesis, allowing them to convert light energy into chemical energy. In fungi, photoreceptors have been found to regulate growth, development, and reproduction in response to light. Some photoreceptors in fungi are also involved in the production of pigments and secondary metabolites, which can have important ecological and pharmaceutical functions. Overall, photoreceptors in microorganisms are an important area of research in the fields of microbiology, ecology, and biotechnology, as they provide insights into the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
In the medical field, circadian clocks refer to the internal biological rhythms that regulate various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and body temperature. These rhythms are controlled by a complex network of genes and proteins that are primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN acts as the master clock, receiving input from light-sensitive cells in the retina and synchronizing the body's internal clock with the external environment. The SCN then sends signals to other parts of the body to regulate various physiological processes in a 24-hour cycle. Disruptions to the circadian clock can lead to a range of health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, metabolic disorders, and increased risk of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate circadian rhythms is an important area of research in medicine and has implications for the development of new treatments for various health conditions.
Phototropins are a type of photoreceptor protein found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. They are responsible for mediating the plant's response to light, particularly in the regulation of growth and development. There are two main types of phototropins: phototropin 1 (phot1) and phototropin 2 (phot2). Both phot1 and phot2 contain a light-sensitive domain called the LOV (Light, Oxygen, or Voltage) domain, which undergoes a conformational change in response to blue light. This change triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to changes in the plant's growth and development. Phototropins play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development, including phototropism (the bending of plant shoots towards light), chloroplast movement, and leaf expansion. They also play a role in the regulation of flowering time and seedling development. In the medical field, phototropins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and they may be useful in the treatment of skin diseases and other conditions. Additionally, phototropins have been used as a model system for studying protein-protein interactions and signal transduction pathways.
Opsins are a class of proteins that function as light-sensitive receptors in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for converting light energy into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. There are several different types of opsins, including rod opsins and cone opsins, which are found in different types of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Mutations in the genes that encode for opsins can lead to a variety of vision disorders, including color blindness, night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
In the medical field, cotyledon refers to the seed leaf of a plant embryo. It is the first leaf to develop in the embryo and is responsible for storing nutrients that will be used by the developing plant. In some plants, such as legumes, the cotyledon is also the primary source of food for the developing embryo. The number and type of cotyledons can vary among different plant species and can provide important clues for plant identification and classification.
Eye proteins are proteins that are found in the eye and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of the eye. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and vitreous humor. Some examples of eye proteins include: 1. Collagen: This is a protein that provides strength and support to the cornea and lens. 2. Alpha-crystallin: This protein is found in the lens and helps to maintain its shape and transparency. 3. Rhodopsin: This protein is found in the retina and is responsible for vision in low light conditions. 4. Vitreous humor proteins: These proteins are found in the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. They help to maintain the shape of the eye and provide support to the retina. Disruptions in the production or function of these proteins can lead to various eye diseases and conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of eye proteins is important for the development of effective treatments for these conditions.
Tolonium chloride is a medication that is used to treat certain types of overactive bladder. It works by relaxing the muscles in the bladder and making it easier to empty. Tolonium chloride is available as a prescription medication and is usually taken as a tablet or capsule. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking this medication. Tolonium chloride can cause side effects such as dry mouth, dizziness, and constipation. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Birefringence is a phenomenon that occurs when light passes through a material that has an anisotropic refractive index, meaning that its refractive index varies depending on the direction of the light. In the medical field, birefringence is often used to study the structure and composition of tissues and cells. One common application of birefringence in medicine is in the field of histology, where it is used to study tissue samples under a microscope. When a tissue sample is stained with a birefringent dye, the different components of the tissue will absorb and scatter the light differently, causing the sample to appear birefringent. By analyzing the birefringence patterns, researchers can gain insights into the structure and composition of the tissue, as well as any changes that may be occurring due to disease or injury. Birefringence is also used in other medical applications, such as in the diagnosis of certain eye diseases. For example, in the case of glaucoma, the pressure within the eye can cause changes in the birefringence of the cornea, which can be detected using specialized imaging techniques. Additionally, birefringence can be used to study the properties of cells and other biological structures, such as the orientation of microtubules within a cell.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.
In the medical field, acclimatization refers to the process by which an individual's body adapts to changes in environmental conditions, particularly changes in altitude. When a person moves to a higher altitude, the air pressure and oxygen levels decrease, which can cause altitude sickness if the body is not able to adjust quickly enough. Acclimatization helps the body to gradually adjust to these changes by increasing the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and by allowing the body to adjust its breathing and heart rate. This process can take several days to several weeks, depending on the altitude and the individual's fitness level.
Light & Magic
Light - Wikipedia
LED light art
Light Bulb | Encyclopedia.com
Natural Light - Rotten Tomatoes
From Dark Matter to Light
Koupit Hyper Light Drifter | Xbox
Revolutionary light-emitting silicon | ScienceDaily
It's About Light
How to do light trail photography | Adobe
Dreaming by North Light - CSMonitor.com
Color Light Bulbs for sale | eBay
Hyper Light Drifter | VG247
An Ambient Light • CLIR
Red Light Therapy Benefits
EBooksWriter Lite | PCWorld
3 & Up A19 Light Bulbs - Best Buy
Light | Sceneform (1.15.0) | Google for Developers
Bud Light Hotel Dallas - AskMen
Presentation background light blue | Prezi
SDN recent news | Light Reading
Light Green Snowball Spray | Michaels
light sail Archives - Universe Today
Old Light Bulb - Unlit - Openclipart
Bamboo - Light Years lyrics | LyricsFreak
An Unexpected Scattering of Light
Light diet: Sunshine-eating animals in pictures | New Scientist
Hyper Light Drifter1
- Hyper Light Drifter is an action adventure RPG in the vein of the best 16-bit classics, with modernized mechanics and designs on a much grander scale. (xbox.com)
- Besides the danger presented by an open flame (especially when used indoors), these sources of light also provided insufficient illumination. (encyclopedia.com)
- Car light trail images capture the paths of illumination created by the headlights or rear lights of a vehicle. (adobe.com)
- Ambient light refers to illumination that is encircling, encompassing, and diffuse. (clir.org)
- Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have developed the Saturn LED area light that significantly improves illumination for roof bolting machines in underground mines, thereby enhancing safety by reducing injuries to miners. (cdc.gov)
- To address these challenges, NIOSH researchers developed the Saturn LED area light with the main objectives of reducing glare and increasing floor illumination to improve the ability of miners to see floor tripping hazards. (cdc.gov)
- The improved illumination provided by the NIOSH-developed Saturn LED area light (right). (cdc.gov)
- Candela is the unit used for luminance, lumen for light output, and lux for illumination. (lu.se)
- Above the range of visible light, ultraviolet light becomes invisible to humans, mostly because it is absorbed by the cornea below 360 nm and the internal lens below 400 nm. (wikipedia.org)
- Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is a common skin reaction in people who are sensitive to sunlight (ultraviolet light). (medlineplus.gov)
- Phototherapy is a medical treatment in which your skin is carefully exposed to ultraviolet light. (medlineplus.gov)
- Also nearby wavelengths are usually included in the concept of light, although our eyes cannot register them, including infrared light which has longer wavelengths, and ultraviolet light which has shorter wavelengths. (lu.se)
Summer light eruption1
- The possibility that a subset of PMLE called benign summer light eruption (BSLE), which might be milder and might be more ultraviolet (UV)-A driven, has been suggested by an Italian group. (medscape.com)
- Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400-700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequencies of 750-420 terahertz, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). (wikipedia.org)
- Sit or stand a few inches away from a panel of special red lights for a few minutes and their wavelengths reportedly alter the way your cells produce energy and antioxidants. (healthline.com)
- The trial, at the University of Arizona, is among dozens of ongoing studies exploring whether exposing the skin or eyes to specific wavelengths of light can help treat health problems. (medscape.com)
- A household light bulb will generally have an intensity between 800 - 2500 lm whereas sunlight will be around 120,000 lx. (google.com)
- Like all types of electromagnetic radiation, visible light propagates by massless elementary particles called photons that represents the quanta of electromagnetic field, and can be analyzed as both waves and particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Bring in photonics, which uses photons (light particles) to transfer data. (sciencedaily.com)
- In quantum mechanics the two distinctions are united: Light is a stream of particles and a wave. (lu.se)
- When particles of light hit the skin, they're absorbed by light-sensitive molecules inside cells, which kick-start a response. (medscape.com)
- The main source of natural light on Earth is the Sun. Historically, another important source of light for humans has been fire, from ancient campfires to modern kerosene lamps. (wikipedia.org)
- This light was produced through different means - torches, candles , oil and gas lamps. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, today's incandescent light bulbs greatly resemble Edison's original lamps. (encyclopedia.com)
- Light trail photography creates art from moving lights, like car headlights and rear lights, headlamps, street lamps, street lights and even bike lights. (adobe.com)
- The roof bolter light sources were compact fluorescent lamps shrouded by yellowish-orange polycarbonate globes intended to reduce glare and to protect the lamps. (cdc.gov)
- Some objects, such as the sun, lamps and candles, produce their own light, but most objects are only visible when light from elsewhere hits them and is reflected from them. (lu.se)
- The NIOSH research team for the Saturn LED area light won the 2017 NIOSH Bullard-Sherwood Research-to-Practice Award, which recognizes outstanding efforts by scientists and their partners in applying occupational safety and health research to prevent work-related injury, illness, and death. (cdc.gov)
- Please visit the following link to see research from Lund University done before the establishment of the Profile area Light and Materials, in January 2023. (lu.se)
- At the Light & Materials Synergy Day in October 2023 more than 80 research posters took part in the poster session. (lu.se)
- 10 October 2023 the Light and Materials Synergy day was held with over 250 participants. (lu.se)
- Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is an acquired disease and is the most common of the idiopathic photodermatoses. (medscape.com)
- Polymorphous light eruption on the thighs and hand. (medscape.com)
- Polymorphous light eruption on the arm. (medscape.com)
- The etiology of polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is not fully known, and it is likely to be multifactorial. (medscape.com)
Speed of lig1
- The speed of light in vacuum is defined to be exactly 299 792 458 m/s (approx. (wikipedia.org)
Understanding of the absorption1
- An understanding of the absorption of light is essential for efficient photovoltaic and photodetection applications with III-V nanowire arrays. (lu.se)
- Elgato Light Strip features ultra-bright RGBWW LEDs to provide maximum scope for color blending and warm to cold white you can work with. (elgato.com)
- The Saturn light used an array of 12 cool-white LEDs that provide lighting similar to natural daylight. (cdc.gov)
- And thanks to the recent availability of low-cost, heat-free (and thus safer) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), there are more do-it-yourself gadgets for treating acne, depression , and pain online. (medscape.com)
- Focus on lights that illuminate the night with light trail photography. (adobe.com)
- Manufacturing plants were set up to mass produce light bulbs and great advances were made in wiring and electrical current systems. (encyclopedia.com)
- The primary properties of light are intensity, propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum and polarization. (wikipedia.org)
- In vacuum, the light propagation speed is 300 000 kilometres per second. (lu.se)
- The characteristics of light as a wave are frequency, wavelength, oscillation direction (polarisation), amplitude and speed of propagation. (lu.se)
- Light trail photography is an interesting and special type of photography because you're able to depict something that isn't actually real in any one instant. (adobe.com)
- Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. (wikipedia.org)
- In physics, the term "light" may refer more broadly to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. (wikipedia.org)
- Generally, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is classified by wavelength into radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the visible spectrum that we perceive as light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
- Light is an electromagnetic radiation sensitive to the eyes at a wavelength range of 390-770 nano metres. (lu.se)
- That response varies, depending on the wavelength, or color, of light and where it's used. (medscape.com)
- For instance, when longer wavelength or visibly "red" light hits the skin, it nudges mitochondria (the cell's powerhouses) to make energy more efficiently and boost production of healing anti-inflammatories or disease-fighting antioxidants. (medscape.com)
- Shorter wavelength or visibly "blue" light is very good at making you wakeful. (medscape.com)
- The number of conditions red light can treat is 'continuously expanding,'" said Michael R. Hamblin, PhD , a principal investigator at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School. (healthline.com)
- Hamblin also serves on the scientific advisory board for Joovv , a company that sells medical-grade light therapy devices. (healthline.com)
- Many red light therapy studies - Hamblin puts the number in the thousands - have been done, testing its effects on various conditions. (healthline.com)
- I think interest in light therapy is definitely increasing," says Michael Hamblin, PhD, an associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School. (medscape.com)
- As Hamblin explains, people -- like plants through photosynthesis -- have a chemical reaction to light. (medscape.com)
- A favourable aperture setting for light trails is typically about an f/16. (adobe.com)
- Although expressions such as "shed some light" or "I saw the light" figure often in our everyday speech, we do not typically contemplate light. (cdc.gov)
- For our transmission windows the speed of light typically reduces by 3-5 orders of magnitude. (lu.se)
- Many animals with eyes that do not require lenses (such as insects and shrimp) are able to detect ultraviolet, by quantum photon-absorption mechanisms, in much the same chemical way that humans detect visible light. (wikipedia.org)
- If an electron 'drops' from the conduction band to the valence band, a semiconductor emits a photon: light. (sciencedaily.com)
- A physicist can describe light as both a wave and a particle, a photon. (lu.se)
- Physical phenomena such as refraction, diffraction and interference are explained by the wave model of light, but when explaining photoelectric, photochemical or photobiological processes, we use the photon model. (lu.se)
- Shut off the power to the light you are working on at the breaker. (ehow.com)
- An early experiment to measure the speed of light was conducted by Ole Rømer, a Danish physicist, in 1676. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, the more mature elliptical galaxy NGC 1312 (right), some 62 million light-years distant, is more quiescent. (sciencenews.org)
- The Saturn LED area light (Figure 1) takes up only one-third the volume compared to existing lights used on roof bolters, and it has a useful life of about 30,000 hours in contrast to the existing lighting life of about 8,000 hours from traditional lighting. (cdc.gov)
- Researchers have now succeeded: they have developed an alloy with silicon that can emit light. (sciencedaily.com)
- Together with researchers from the universities of Jena, Linz and Munich, they combined silicon and germanium in a hexagonal structure that is able to emit light. (sciencedaily.com)
- At Massachusetts General Hospital, researchers are studying whether a red light-emitting helmet can help traumatic brain injury patients recover. (medscape.com)
- NIOSH conducted a comparative study of glare and visual performance for the detection of trip hazards using the traditional roof bolter lighting and the Saturn LED area light. (cdc.gov)
- The unpublished results of the study indicated significant reductions of discomfort glare and major improvements in detecting trip hazards when using the Saturn LED area light (Figure 2). (cdc.gov)
- Red light therapy reportedly alters the way your cells produce energy and antioxidants. (healthline.com)
- Our measurements demonstrate that the absorption for long nanowires is limited by insertion reflection losses when light is coupled from the air. (lu.se)
- Our measurements demonstrate that the absorption for long nanowires is limited by insertion reflection losses when light is coupled from the air top-region into the array. (lu.se)
- A rotating cog wheel was placed in the path of the light beam as it traveled from the source, to the mirror and then returned to its origin. (wikipedia.org)
- From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, fire was man's primary source of light. (encyclopedia.com)
- In 1877 Edison became involved with the rush for a satisfactory electric light source, devoting his initial involvement to confirming the reasons for his competitors' failures. (encyclopedia.com)
- Title : A Clean, Well-Lighted Place1 Personal Author(s) : Potter, Polyxeni Published Date : Apr 2010 Source : Emerg Infect Dis. (cdc.gov)
- The speed is constant and independent of whether or not the light source is moving. (lu.se)
- The light is basically the same, there are few safety issues, and it is a fraction of the cost. (medscape.com)
- Ease-of-use issues aside, EBooksWriter Lite does what it says it does: It creates e-books for free. (pcworld.com)
- The action spectrum is primarily UVA light, but can include UVB light. (medscape.com)
- As a photographer who understands how light can make or break a photo, I now only choose to photograph my day shots at two timings of the day known as the magic hours (or golden hours). (digital-photography-school.com)
- The intention is to capture something with light on it that, as it moves, will create a trail in your image," says photographer Sean Salamon. (adobe.com)
- EBooksWriter Lite is free, but you're required to accept e-mail newsletters from the vendor-and your e-book contains a text ad for the paid versions at the bottom of every page. (pcworld.com)
- EMR in the visible light region consists of quanta (called photons) that are at the lower end of the energies that are capable of causing electronic excitation within molecules, which leads to changes in the bonding or chemistry of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- At the lower end of the visible light spectrum, EMR becomes invisible to humans (infrared) because its photons no longer have enough individual energy to cause a lasting molecular change (a change in conformation) in the visual molecule retinal in the human retina, which change triggers the sensation of vision. (wikipedia.org)
- Various sources define visible light as narrowly as 420-680 nm to as broadly as 380-800 nm. (wikipedia.org)
- This energy then strikes phosphors that coat the inside of the lamp, giving off visible light. (encyclopedia.com)
- The young spiral galaxy NGC 300 (left), located about 7 million light-years from Earth, is brimming with newborn stars in this combined ultraviolet- and visible-light snapshot. (sciencenews.org)
- Shooting on a higher ISO with longer shutter speeds and wider aperture settings will let enough light pass through your lens to create a visible light trail. (adobe.com)
- Some patients even react in the visible light spectrum. (medscape.com)
- In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike ultraviolet rays from the sun which damage the DNA of skin cells, "light emitted in this spectrum is perfectly safe," said Dr. Susan Bard , a board-certified dermatologist based in New York City. (healthline.com)
- Red light therapy, which is also known by the less-catchy names of photobiomodulation and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), releases light waves in the red and infrared spectrum. (healthline.com)
- Reflected light scatters and glistens across the wet sand, swirling water, and foamy edges of waves. (cdc.gov)
- Create a stunning backdrop for your viewers, add some fill light to your Key Light setup, or simply treat yourself to a backsplash of color. (elgato.com)
- Sets the "RGB" color of the light. (google.com)
- Sets the "RGB" color of the light based on the desired "color temperature. (google.com)
- During 1879, the young artist traveled to Paris, where he toured exhibitions and met painters who worked in the open air, a practice that accentuated attention to light, color, and movement. (cdc.gov)
- The Bud Light Platinum party was the biggest thing happening in Dallas on Sunday night. (askmen.com)
- Easily extend your Light Strip up to 10 m / 32 ft. (elgato.com)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum notes that "The colored reflections of late afternoon light animate this beach scene and actively define the forms, from the injured child's shoulder to the liquid sea and the figures playing in the water. (cdc.gov)
- The profile area will harness recent fundamental research advances in measuring and controlling light and materials. (lu.se)
- Expertise and research infrastructure available in NanoLund, Lund Laser Centre (LLC) and MAX IV allows scientists to gain insights into light-induced processes and functionalities of materials that were previously impossible to study. (lu.se)
- Light is emitted when excited atoms dispose of their excess energy, through several physical, chemical and biological processes. (lu.se)
- Light is of fundamental significance as an energy and information carrier. (lu.se)
- The answer was to develop a vacuum that would keep air away from the elements, thus preserving the light-producing materials. (encyclopedia.com)
- Dive into the research topics where LU Profile Area: Light and Materials is active. (lu.se)
- Light Meets Materials - a popular day! (lu.se)
- The registration for the Light & Materials Synergy day on the theme Light Meets Materials is now closed. (lu.se)
- Registration to Light & Materials Synergy Day is open! (lu.se)
- Tuesday 10 October Light and Materials will arrange its first all profile area meeting. (lu.se)
- Fabricating these materials and studying their light-matter interactions is the focus of this research area. (lu.se)
- Sorolla developed a passion for painting outdoors, preferring natural light and settings. (cdc.gov)
- We find that 2,000 nm long nanowires in a pitch of 400 nm can absorb 94% of the incident light with energy above the band gap and, as a consequence, light which in a simple ray-optics description would be travelling between the nanowires can be efficiently absorbed by the nanowires. (lu.se)
- In the follow-up work we use exciton-exciton annihilation as the witness of cavity-mediated energy transfer between the light-harvesting complexes. (lu.se)
- Alain Dijkstra, also shared first author of the paper and responsible for measuring the light emission: "Our experiments showed that the material has the right structure, and that it is free of defects. (sciencedaily.com)
- Run a thin bead of silicon caulk around the base of the light to prevent water from leaking behind the fixture. (ehow.com)
- Emitting light from silicon has been the 'Holy Grail' in the microelectronics industry for decades. (sciencedaily.com)
- But bulk silicon is extremely inefficient at emitting light, and so was long thought to play no role in photonics. (sciencedaily.com)
- These are good at emitting light but are more expensive than silicon and are hard to integrate into existing silicon microchips. (sciencedaily.com)
- To create a silicon compatible laser, scientists needed to produce a form of silicon that can emit light. (sciencedaily.com)
- A 50-year old theory showed however that silicon, alloyed with germanium, shaped in a hexagonal structure does have a direct band gap, and therefore potentially could emit light," says Bakkers. (sciencedaily.com)
- As far as mental health is concerned, I know of no documented effects of red light," said Dr. Norman Rosenthal , a clinical professor of psychiatry at Georgetown University School of Medicine who coined the phrase "seasonal affective disorder. (healthline.com)
- I thus analyze two pedagogical devices identified at the CEIA in light of the framework of mutuality, following which I present a discussion that highlights the relationship between the educators' approach, which I identify as clinical-educational, and Ferenczi's notion of mutuality. (bvsalud.org)
- So when Keller-Ossipov learned of a clinical trial testing "green light therapy" for migraine, she didn't hesitate to sign up. (medscape.com)
- The study of light, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics. (wikipedia.org)
- By keeping the camera shutter open for a long period of time, you can collect more light and - in this case - show how that light moves across the frame. (adobe.com)
- Shutter speed is the amount of time a camera's shutter remains open to let light pass through the lens to the camera sensor. (adobe.com)
- With both eyes open, can (you/he/she) see light? (cdc.gov)