That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The absence of light.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (1/15260)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (2/15260)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Improvement of systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in vivo using light fractionation with a 75-minute interval. (3/15260)

We have studied different single and fractionated illumination schemes after systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to Improve the response of nodular tumors to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy. Tumors transplanted on the thigh of female WAG/Rij rats were transdermally illuminated with red light (633 nm) after systemic ALA administration (200 mg/kg). The effectiveness of each treatment scheme was determined from the tumor volume doubling time. A single illumination (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, 2.5 h after ALA administration) yielded a doubling time of 6.6+/-1.2 days. This was significantly different from the untreated control (doubling time, 1.7+/-0.1 days). The only treatment scheme that yielded a significant improvement compared to all other schemes studied was illumination at both 1 and 2.5 h after ALA administration (both 100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2) and resulted in a tumor volume doubling time of 18.9+/-2.9 days. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that the protoporphyrin IX formed after administration of ALA is photodegraded by the first illumination. In the 75-min interval, new porphyrin is formed enhancing the effect of the second illumination.  (+info)

The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (4/15260)

1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (5/15260)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (6/15260)

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (7/15260)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (8/15260)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

This work is a first attempt to investigate polysaccharide content of Prasinococcus sp. in comparison with the model strain of Porphyridium cruentum, as a potential polysaccharide producer, under two different light intensities with two different sodium glyoxylate monohydrate concentrations in F/2 medium. The microalgae strains were cultured in 1000 mL glass bottles containing 900 mL of F/2 medium at the air flow rate of 1 vvm under the temperature of 22 +/- 2 degrees C at two different light intensities (10 mu E m(-2)s(-1) and 50 mu E m(-2)s(-1)) with two different concentrations of sodium glyoxylate monohydrate (control, 0.25, and 1.25 mM C2HNaO3 center dot H2O) for 14 days. The maximum specific growth rates of 0.236 day(-1) and 0.298 day(-1), which corresponded to the doubling times of 2.945 day and 2.325 day, were obtained in F/2 control medium and in the low level glyoxylate treatment (0.25 mM) under 50 mu E m(-2)s(-1) for Prasinococcus sp. and P. cruenturn, respectively. It is also ...
Light Reactions: Light-dependent reactions harness energy from the sun to produce chemical bonds, ATP, and NADPH. Plants have therefore evolved various protective and response mechanisms, which monitor the intensity, wavelength, duration and direction of light and mitigate the negative effects of light stress. The Light-dependent reaction Study Pack contains: Encyclopedia Articles (2) Photosynthesis, Light Reactions And 2,801 words, approx. Photosynthesis evolution. Visible light and ultraviolet light, the inherent parts of sunlight, may cause damage to the photosynthetic machinery and other cellular components. The protein complexes and the pigment molecules help in the production of NADPH and ATP. The chloroplasts are double-membraned cell organelles that are comprised of stacked disc-like structures known as thylakoids. ... 11/14/2013 12:39:25 am. The light-dependent reactions. As you might expect, the light dependent reactions depend on light; this is where the plant converts light energy to ...
The invention relates to a light guide panel capable of distributing light beams incident from a light source to an entire surface thereof. The light guide panel has at least two through holes formed in a path of the incident light beams, apart in a predetermined interval from a light incident surface. The through holes are formed perpendicular to the path of the incident light beams, and lined along the light incident surface of the light guide panel. The light guide panel according to the present invention can improve uniformity of incident light without increasing the number or size of the light source, thereby distributing the incident light in a wider angle and decreasing a light mixing region. The light guide panel is produced in a simple manufacturing process, reducing the manufacturing costs.
Blue light can be beneficial to the human body if it is the right time of the day. However, when exposed to blue light at night, the health of an individual can be greatly impacted. There are simple ways a person can reduce their exposure to blue light during the wrong hours of the day. This article we will look at the effects blue light has on the body and how someone can reduce blue light exposure.. What Does Blue light do to the Body. Blue light has an array of effects upon the body. To begin, improper balance or night exposure to blue light can significantly reduce the quality of sleep an individual gets each night. Exposure to blue light at night is not natural. Blue light signals the portion of the brain that tells us we should be awake. As you can imagine, this is not an idea situation at night.. The body is naturally tuned to an internal clock and is also linked with nature. In the morning, blue light from the sun wakes us up. However, with the advancement of technology and the exposure ...
Summary As the ear has dual functions for audition and balance, the eye has a dual role in detecting light for a wide range of behavioral and physiological functions separate from sight [1-11]. These responses are driven primarily by stimulation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that are most sensitive to short-wavelength (∼480 nm) blue light and remain functional in the absence of rods and cones [8-10]. We examined the spectral sensitivity of non-image-forming responses in two profoundly blind subjects lacking functional rods and cones (one male, 56 yr old; one female, 87 yr old). In the male subject, we found that short-wavelength light preferentially suppressed melatonin, reset the circadian pacemaker, and directly enhanced alertness compared to 555 nm exposure, which is the peak sensitivity of the photopic visual system. In an action spectrum for pupillary constriction, the female subject exhibited a peak spectral sensitivity (λmax) of 480 nm, matching that of the pRGCs but ...
When chlorophyll a absorbs light energy, an electron gains energy and is excited. The excited electron is transferred to another molecule (called a primary electron acceptor). The chlorophyll molecule is oxidized (loss of electron) and has a positive charge. Photoactivation of chlorophyll a results in the splitting of water molecules and the transfer of energy to ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The chemical reactions involved include: condensation reactions - responsible for water molecules splitting out, including phosphorylation (the addition of a phosphate group to an organic compound) oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions involving electron transfer Photosynthesis is a two stage process. 1. The Light dependent reactions, a light-dependent series of reactions which occur in the grana, and require the direct energy of light to make energy-carrier molecules that are used in the second process: light energy is trapped by chlorophyll to make ATP (ph. ...
The present invention provides an instrument adapted for alignment with a light beam, which instrument includes an instrument body having a point of entry of the light beam, a light conducting channel, and a sensing element carried by the instrument and being spaced from the point of entry of the light beam. The sensing element serves to provide indication of alignment or misalignment between the instrument and the light beam. The light beam travels inside the instrument along the light conducting channel extending from the point of entry to the sensing element. One or more light guiding devices are disposed inside the light conducting channel to increase precision of alignment between the instrument and the light beam. The light guiding device has a wall forming a guiding passage inside the guiding device. When disposed inside the instrument, the wall of the guiding device blocks non-aligned light beams from reaching the sensing element, while allowing the aligned light beams to propagate along a
Light exposure induces oxidative stress, which contributes to ocular diseases of aging. Blue light provides a model for light-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to mature adults, which undergo retinal degeneration when exposed to prolonged blue light, newly-eclosed flies are resistant to blue light-induced retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to characterize the gene expression programs induced by blue light in flies of different ages to identify neuroprotective pathways utilized by photoreceptors to cope with light-induced oxidative stress. To identify gene expression changes induced by blue light exposure, we profiled the nuclear transcriptome of Drosophila photoreceptors from one- and six-day-old flies exposed to blue light and compared these with dark controls. Flies were exposed to 3 h blue light, which increases levels of reactive oxygen species but does not cause retinal degeneration. We identified substantial gene
Plants employ a variety of mechanisms to maximize photosynthetic potential under changing environmental conditions. For example, most plants can biochemically adapt to excessive light by altering the size of light harvesting complexes, dissipating excess energy as heat, scavenging reactive oxygen, and rapidly repairing damaged reaction center proteins (Niyogi, 1999). Developmental changes that occur in response to different light conditions include variations in leaf thickness, density of mesophyll cells, and changes in the orientation of the leaf blade (Boardman, 1977). These responses have been associated with improved photosynthetic potential and/or protection from photodamage. However, their relative importance can be species specific, indicating that some of these responses represent unique adaptive strategies. Another perhaps more ubiquitous plant response to varying light conditions is light-induced chloroplast movement, which has been documented in a large number of species, including ...
We have demonstrated the function of EML1 and its participation in the recovery of sensitivity under continuous illumination in UV- and blue-sensitive zebrafish cones. Sensitivity recovery in the first tens of seconds after the onset of adapting light was first reported in ERG studies of the flicker response of several mammalian and nonmammalian species (Muller-Limmroth and Andree, 1953). Studies of flicker ERG in frog suggested that the sensitivity recovery originates in cones (Owen and Sillman, 1973; Haynes and Sillman, 1986), which was directly demonstrated in single cell studies of turtle cones under continuous illumination (Normann and Perlman, 1979; Burkhardt, 1994). In humans, the cone-driven b wave in the ERG (Gouras and MacKay, 1989) and cone-driven psychophysical perception (Stockman et al., 2006, 2007) also exhibit slow sensitivity recovery under continuous illumination. However, the rate of this sensitivity recovery is slower than that measured in the nonmammalian photoreceptors, ...
The presence of copper (Cu) contamination is known to cause relevant light-induced degradation (Cu-LID) effects in p-type silicon. Due to its high diffusivity, Cu is generally regarded as a relatively benign impurity, which can be readily relocated during device fabrication from the wafer bulk, i.e. the region affected by Cu-LID, to the surface phosphorus-doped emitter. This contribution examines in detail the impact of gettering by industrially relevant phosphorus layers on the strength of Cu-LID effects. We find that phosphorus gettering does not always prevent the occurrence of Cu-LID. Specifically, air-cooling after an isothermal anneal at 800°C results in only weak impurity segregation to the phosphorus-doped layer, which turns out to be insufficient for effectively mitigating Cu-LID effects. Furthermore, we show that the gettering efficiency can be enhanced through the addition of a slow cooling ramp (-4°C/min) between 800°C and 600°C, resulting in the nearly complete disappearance of ...
Introduction. Photosynthesis Coursework Introduction Background Information Glucose can be converted to sucrose and carried to other parts of the plant in phloem vessels. Glucose can also be converted into starch and stored Light Sometimes light is a limiting factor. A plant may have lots of water and carbon dioxide, but it will not photosynthesize very fast if there is not enough light; increasing the light intensity will make photosynthesis faster. Carbon dioxide Sometimes the level of carbon dioxide is limiting. There may be plenty of light but the plant cannot photosynthesize because it has run out of carbon dioxide. Temperature Temperature can be a limiting factor too. The rate of photosynthesis will be limited if it is too cold for the enzymes to work properly. ...read more. Middle. Diagram Preliminary method I was going to do a method which involved counting the bubbles at different light intensities. I chose not to do this method as it is and inaccurate method to show volume of O2 ...
A light emitting diode (LED) warning signal light, the warning signal light comprising a plurality of light sources constructed and arranged with a reflector or cullminator, the LED light source being in electrical communication with a controller and a power supply, battery, or other electrical source. The warning signal light provides various colored light signals for independent use or use by an emergency vehicle. These light signals may include a strobe light, revolving light, an alternating light, a flashing light, a modulated light, a pulsating light, an oscillating light or any combination thereof. Additionally, the warning signal light may be capable of displaying symbols, reverse characters, or arrows. The controller may further be adapted to regulate or modulate the power intensity exposed to the illuminated LEDs to create a variable intensity light signal.
A new technique that stimulates heart muscle cells with low-energy light raises the possibility of a future light-controlled pacemaker, researchers have indicated.
The current guidance in the Regulations and in the relevant Codes of Practice, BS 8300:2009 is that adequate visual contrast is provided if the Light Reflectance Values (LRV) of the contrasting areas differ by at least 30 points. The current British Standard for the measurement of LRV is BS8493:2008+A1:2010. Manufacturers are advised, for example, by the Guild of Architectural Ironmongery[1] to publish the LRV for their products. Designers are beginning to demand them. On signage with words or pictograms The Americans with Disabilities Act accessibility guidelines (ADAAG) recommend a light reflectance value of 70%, but this is not a strict requirement.[3] Several other color combinations in the 60-70% range also work well. Color contrast is determined by the formula [(B1 - B2) / B1] x 100, where B1 is the LRV of the lighter area, and B2 is the LRV of a darker area.[4][5] ...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
what are the products of light dependent reactions - 28 images - review for quiz on photosynthesis worland, the two steps of photosynthesis from openstax college, ppt photosynthesis powerpoint presentation id 1090782, science is cool, unit 6 photosynthesis cellular respiration ppt
Photosynthetic acclimation The light harvesting complex is composed of trimeric and monomeric antenna proteins containing Chlorophyll a and b pigments and carotenoids. Its role is to capture the light energy and transfer it in the form of excitation to the chlorophyll of the reaction centers and to dissipate the excess of light energy when the light input overcomes the photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, constituting a large portion of the photosynthetic protein, the light harvesting complex play a role on the overall organisation of the thylakoid membrane. The goal of the research project is to investigate the role of the phosphorylation of each LHCII subunit in the photosynthetic acclimation to different light conditions. The project aims to answer the following questions: What are the specific roles of the different isoforms? Would a modified isoform lacking the N-terminal phosphorylation still allow acclimation to different light conditions? What is the contribution of the N-terminus and ...
The trial is designed to detect (1) change in spike frequency on EEG before and after exposure to low intensity green light, and (2) presence or absence of neurologic/systemic symptoms referable to exposure of the pre-selected duration, intensity, and band of green light.. Our primary aim is to determine whether prolonged exposure (120 minutes) to a narrow band of green light (520-540 nm) at low intensities (1-10 cd/m2) alters the pattern of electrical activity in the cortex of epilepsy patients.. The primary outcome measure for this aim will be the fraction of patients in which the number of epileptiform discharges (spikes or sharp waves) decrease, per recording, in response to green light exposure, as determined by spike frequency detected via scalp EEG before and after green light exposure.. The investigators anticipate that the primary outcome measures of safety and tolerability will not differ from the previously established measures of green light exposure for migraine (Noseda et al. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy. AU - Bargo, P. R.. AU - Prahl, S. A.. AU - Goodell, T. T.. AU - Sleven, R. A.. AU - Koval, G.. AU - Blair, G.. AU - Jacques, S. L.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Determination of tissue optical properties is fundamental for application of light in either therapeutical or diagnostics procedures. In the present work we implemented a spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance method where only two fibers (one source and one detector) spaced 2.5 mm apart are used for the determination of the optical properties. The method relies on the spectral characteristics of the tissue chromophores (water, dry tissue, and blood) and the assumption of a simple wavelength dependent expression for the determination of the reduced scattering coefficient. Because of the probe dimensions the method is suited for endoscopic ...
Dear users, I am looking for some references and literature about the rates of electron flow through photosystem II when algae adapted to different light intensities (low light[5 =B5E m-2 -1]; normal and high light [e.g. 200 =B5E m-2 s-1]). Perhaps anyone knows a reference with PI-curves (light saturation curves) at these light quantities. Thank you very much for your help. =46rank Uxerland ...
Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW and BW positively correlated with
Novel visible-light-responsive photocatalysts (CsBi2Nb5O16 and CsBiNb2O7) were prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction method. CsBiNb2O7 and CsBi2Nb5O16 belong to a layered perovskite structure and a defective pyrochlore structure, respectively. These prepared samples have photocatalytic properties to decompose 2-propanol under visible light irradiation.
A light clock measures time by having a light pulse source initiating a light pulse which travels a preset distance in an open or closed loop. A counter is increases incrementally upon detection of the light pulse by a light pulse detector. Each increment is a time interval, which is determined by the preset distance divided by the speed of the light pulse. If the loop is an open loop, another light pulse may be initiated upon detection of the previous light pulse. If the loop is a closed loop, no further light pulse initiation beyond the initial light pulse is required, but, when necessary, a light pulse amplifier is used to amplify the light pulse for the next cycle around the closed loop in the light pulse transmission device.
AKVIS LightShop Tutorial. Light Effects Elements. Sphere is a ball-shaped light element with a soft glowing halo surrounding it. LightShop adds amazing light effects to your pictures.
Plants do not only gain energy from light, they also use light as a source of information in order to adapt growth and development to environmental conditions. They have a range of photoreceptors to detect different aspects of their light environment, such as the light intensity and spectral composition, the direction of the light gradient, or temporal light patterns (Kami et al., 2010). Cryptochromes, phototropins, members of the ZEITLUPE (ZTL) family, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) monitor the blue (B) and UV-B range of the light spectrum, whereas phytochromes (PHYs) are essential for the perception of red (R) and far-red (FR) light (Kami et al., 2010; Heijde and Ulm, 2012). Phytochromes can exist in two different states, the inactive Pr form with maximal absorption in R light, and the active or Pfr form of phytochromes, which has an absorption peak in FR light. By absorption of light, these forms reversibly convert into each other, resulting in an equilibrium with a wavelength-specific ...
Your eyes are sensitive to a narrow band of frequencies referred to as the, visible light spectrum. Visible light-light capable of being seen by the human eye -consists of wavelengths of varying lengths.. Blue light has a very short wavelength and is detectable by the human eye. Not only does it provide basic illumination to our worlds, blue light also helps to increase feelings of well-being. But exposure to large amounts of blue light can be harmful to the eyes.. The plethora of electronic devices in use today, such as cell phones, tablets, and laptop computers, has drastically increased our exposure to blue light. Another source of blue light is energy efficient technology in the form of fluorescent light bulbs and LED lights. Research has determined that the lens inside the eye, and the pigment in the back of the eye, offer some protection against blue light. But this protective mechanism only lasts for short period of exposure to the intense blue light, and during daylight hours.. Perhaps ...
High energy visible light (HEV) refers to very specific range of wave lengths which collectively are known as blue light. Blue lights serve several important purposes for human beings but only a fraction of this HEV is necessary for color perception. Blue light (HEV) is being introduced into our lives at an increased rate every year and it can harm our eyes. The potential hazards may include diminished visual performance and contribution to aged related macular degeneration. Blue light can come from fluorescent light bulbs, LED television and digital devices which include hand held tablet computers, smart phones and modern computer screens. Blue light is the highest energy light visible to the human eye. It is the shortest wave light in the visible light spectrum. We now have treatments to minimize the harmful effects of blue light.. ...
The signal transduction machinery activated by PHY requires transcription factors such as PIF, HY5 and LAF1, which act in the de-etiolation process (Chattopadhyay et al., 1998; Ballesteros et al., 2001; Tepperman et al., 2001; Al-Sady et al., 2006). Recently, studies on phytochrome-regulated gene expression by means of microarray analyses showed that many other transcription factors are also early over-expressed through PHYA and PHYB (Quail, 2007).. It has been shown that PHYA, but not PHYB, plays a role in the transcriptional induction of phytoene synthase (psy) in Arabidopsis (von Lintig et al., 1997), by promoting the binding of HY5 to white, blue, red and far red light respon-sive elements (LREs) located in its promoter (Figure 2). LREs are described to be sufficient to confer responsiveness to light in promoters that are not induced normally by light (Roa-Rodríguez, 2003). The most common type of LREs that are present in genes activated by light are the ATCTA element, and the Gl (CACGAG) ...
Algal-derived compounds allow us to make assumptions about environmental conditions in the past. In order to better understand how organisms record environmental conditions, we grew microscopic marine algae at different light intensities, salinities, and alkalinities in a temperature-controlled environment. We determined how these environmental parameters affected specific algal-derived compounds, especially their relative deuterium content, which seems to be mainly affected by salinity ...
Photosynthesis is most efficient at light wavelengths between 400 and 500 nanometers and 600 to 700 nanometers. The green pigment, chlorophyll, restricts the efficiency of photosynthesis....
Light-enhanced dark respiration LEDR is a sharp (negative) maximum of dark respiration in plants in response to illumination, measured immediately after switching off the light. LEDR is supported by respiratory substrates produced during photosynthesis and closely reflects light-enhanced photorespiration (Xue et al 1996). Based on this assumption, the the total photosynthetic oxygen flux TP is calculated as the sum of the measured net photosynthetic oxygen flux NP plus the absolute value of LEDR. Abbreviation: LEDR Reference: Went 2021 MitoFit PB, Shimakawa 2020 Int J Mol Sci ...
Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum, with wavelengths of about 415 nm to 495 nm. Blue light can be divided into two bands: blue-violet light (415-455 nm) and blue-turquoise light (465-495 nm).3 When light in the blueviolet range hits the eye, a process unique to this band of wavelength occurs. During the visual cycle, when opsin starts the process of phototransduction, certain intermediate products are produced that can also bind opsin and accept more photons within this range of wavelength, resulting in photoreversal that occurs faster than the normal visual cycle. This photoreversal enables the eye to absorb more blue light than any other kind of light.4. Photons of light are small units of energy, too much of which can result in uncoupling of cellular oxidative phosphorylation, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupt membranous structures of the photoreceptor outer segments and consequently damage delicate RPE cells. This damage causes incomplete phagocytosis ...
Light is way more complicated than what most of us know for sure. Everything that we see day to day, from the sun, to lamps, to our phones exposes our eyes to some alteration of light. Some we see, which are called visible light, and others like x-rays and ultraviolet light are invisible. We all know about the invisible ultraviolet light as it is the same component of sunlight that tans our skin and, if we are not careful, burn it. But some do not know about the perils caused by visible light and in particular, blue light. In this article we will talk about blue light and if it is truly bad for us. And then we will talk about blue light blocking glasses and try to figure out if there is a truly a need for it.. What is Blue Light. First things first, let us try to understand exactly just what blue light is. Sunlight, or white light for that matter, contains colors which are familiar to us: red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Lining up these colors along with various shades of each gives us the ...
Membrane proteins are of significant importance, performing a variety of biological functions including pumps, channels, and receptors. Thus, membrane proteins represent attractive candidates as drug targets. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the most widely studied membrane protein, consists of seven transmembrane helical segments and functions which can work as a proton pump in Halobacterium Salinarium. In the present study, the reversible control of bR conformation with simple light illumination is examined, providing a protocol to probe membrane protein folding (a challenge even to this day due to the large, aggregation-prone hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins compared to soluble proteins). Two general methodologies are utilized to control membrane protein folding, including (1) saturation of the natural lipids with a photoresponsive surfactant resulting in partitioning of the protein into detergent-lipid mixed micelles in the unfolded state, and (2) the development of artificial bilayers ...
Membrane proteins are of significant importance, performing a variety of biological functions including pumps, channels, and receptors. Thus, membrane proteins represent attractive candidates as drug targets. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the most widely studied membrane protein, consists of seven transmembrane helical segments and functions which can work as a proton pump in Halobacterium Salinarium. In the present study, the reversible control of bR conformation with simple light illumination is examined, providing a protocol to probe membrane protein folding (a challenge even to this day due to the large, aggregation-prone hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins compared to soluble proteins). Two general methodologies are utilized to control membrane protein folding, including (1) saturation of the natural lipids with a photoresponsive surfactant resulting in partitioning of the protein into detergent-lipid mixed micelles in the unfolded state, and (2) the development of artificial bilayers ...
I have been studying research in the area of natural light and its interaction on the human brain. An important point to make is that appropriate exposure to natural light has positive effects on our circadian rhythm and in turn promotes many aspects of health.. We evolved from exposure to natural day lighting. The sun provides a specific wavelength (blue range) in the early morning that lasts until early afternoon. At that point a different light wavelength is produced (red to orange range). We recently discovered that the retina has a specific photoreceptor that detects light and sends it to a special part of the brain known as the suprachiasm, located near the hypothalamus. Once the suprachiasm is triggered, it sets off the hypothalamus, the master gland that in turn triggers the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands of the brain and body. The hormonal reaction to light is what causes and promotes the diverse actions of the body and health.. The blue range of light helps our bodies become ...
LED lights are definitely the best and the most practical choice for homes so if you are looking for wide range LED strip lighting, then you are definitely making the right choice. If youre still unconvinced, then it would probably be best if you get to know LED lights a little bit more.. First of all, what are LED lights?. LED lights stand for Light Emitting Diodes. These lights are the latest innovation in energy efficient lighting. What makes LED lights special is that they use 85% less energy when compared to incandescent lights and halogen. So if you truly want to save up on your energy bills, then it is best that you choose LED lights. Another great thing about LED lights is that they last longer than other types of lighting.. When compared to CFL lights or compact florescent lights, LED lights use 30% less energy. LED lights can reach their full brightness instantly and they contain no mercury content. They do not emit UV rays or even infrared radiation and functions on cooler ...
Fig. 1: Retinal degeneration: a new model of blue-light induced damage Light microscopy photographs (magnification x400). Trichrome Masson staining of sagittal section of retina 14 days after blue light exposure. Approximately four rows of photoreceptor nuclei remaining and inner and outer segments were disrupted (Iris Pharma, France).. Blue light may damage the retina in a number of ways involving different chromophores and cellular events; however, retinal damage by photo chemical mechanism is most likely to be of relevance in the development of AMD. Photochemical reactions occur in normal ambient conditions and involve a reaction between energetic photons and an absorbing molecule in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic to the retina.. Short-term exposure (up to about 12 hours) to relatively intense blue light, referred to as blue light hazard, can produce damage at the level of RPE in primates. [9] The dependence of this ...
Fig. 1: Retinal degeneration: a new model of blue-light induced damage Light microscopy photographs (magnification x400). Trichrome Masson staining of sagittal section of retina 14 days after blue light exposure. Approximately four rows of photoreceptor nuclei remaining and inner and outer segments were disrupted (Iris Pharma, France).. Blue light may damage the retina in a number of ways involving different chromophores and cellular events; however, retinal damage by photo chemical mechanism is most likely to be of relevance in the development of AMD. Photochemical reactions occur in normal ambient conditions and involve a reaction between energetic photons and an absorbing molecule in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic to the retina.. Short-term exposure (up to about 12 hours) to relatively intense blue light, referred to as blue light hazard, can produce damage at the level of RPE in primates. [9] The dependence of this ...
A high-density channels detecting device for detecting a sample is provided. The high density detecting-device has a light source for emitting a light beam, a collimator, a beam splitter, and a high-density channels imaging device. The collimator arranged on the beam path is used for collimating the emitted light beam. The beam splitter reflects the light beam incident from the collimator to the sample, and the light beam reflected by the sample passes through the beam splitter. The imaging device receives the light beam passing through the beam splitter, and has a light collector and a multi-channel kernel module for receiving the light beam from the light collector. By using the light collector, the light beam incident to the kernel module is parallel to the optical axis of the kernel module.
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A fluorimeter comprises an excitation optical system projecting the excitation light having a selected wavelength for a sample to said sample, a sample cell for accommodating the sample; fluorescent light sensors for sensing the fluorescent light emitted from the sample; a transmission light sensor for sensing the light transmitted through the sample; and an arithmetic divider which divides the output of the fluorescent light sensor by the output of the transmission light sensor, and provides a signal representing the intensity of the fluorescent light which is corrected against the variation of the excitation light intensity.
Mracek, Philipp; Pagano, Chrstina; Fröhlich, Nadine; Idda, M. Laura; Cuesta, Ines H.; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, F. Javier; Daniela Vallone, Daniela; Foulkes, Nicholas S ...
BACKGROUND Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation causes visible erythema, which has been linked with DNA damage. However, besides such direct photochemical conformation changes, UVB also induces many indirect photochemical effects in the skin. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is in this context one of the major pathways by which photo-oxidative stress disturbs cell signalling and promotes photocarcinogenesis and photoageing. So far we lack techniques for visualizing photo-oxidative stress in the skin. Furthermore, LPO has never been linked with individually acquired UVB doses measured by personal dosimetry. OBJECTIVES Measuring the skin reaction and photo-oxidative damage by LPO in vivo after UVB exposure in a pilot study surveyed by personal dosimetry in order to allow for a correlation analysis of acquired dose, skin reaction and amount of LPO. METHODS UVB exposure was measured with the opto-electronic X2000-1 (Gigahertz Optik, Puchheim, Germany) and the biological DLR Biofilm (German Aerospace Center DLR,
Hazy weather significantly increase air pollution and affect light intensity which may also affect medicinal plants growth. Syringa oblata Lindl. (S. oblata), an effective anti-biofilm medicinal plants, is also vulnerable to changes in plant photoperiods and other abiotic stress responses. Rutin, one of the flavonoids, is the main bioactive ingredient in S. oblata that inhibits Streptococcus suis biofilm formation. Thus, the present study aims to explore the biosynthesis and molecular basis of flavonoids in S. oblata in response to different light intensity. In this study, it was shown that compared with natural (Z0) and 25% ~ 35% (Z2) light intensities, the rutin content of S. oblata under 50% ~ 60% (Z1) light intensity increased significantly. In addition, an integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome was performed using light intensity stress conditions from two kinds of light intensities which S. oblata was subjected to: Z0 and Z1. The results revealed that differential metabolites and
Capillary electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering studies of structure and binding characteristics of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes
Symsagittifera roscoffensis is a plathelminth living in symbiosis with the green algae Tetraselmis convolutae. Host and symbiont are a model system for the study of endosymbiosis, so far mainly focused on their biochemical interactions. S. roscoffensis is well known for its positive phototaxis that is hypothesized to optimize the symbionts light perception for photosynthesis. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of phototaxis using light sources of different wavelength and brightness by videotracking. Furthermore, we compared the behavioral data with the electron transfer rate of the photosystem from cultured symbiotic cells. The symbiotic algae is adapted to low light conditions showing a positive electron transfer rate (ETR) already at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 0.112 µmol m−2 s−1 (mol photons per square meter and second), and S. roscoffensis showed a positive phototactic behaviour for light intensities up to 459.17 µmol m−2 s−1 which are not optimal ...
Essay On An Owl In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. 29/10/2010 Purdue OWL Engagement Welcome to effect of light intensity on photosynthesis experiment, the Purdue OWL This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue . (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Contributors:Elyssa Tardiff, Allen Brizee. Summary: This resource describes why outlines are useful, what types of outlines exist, suggestions for developing effective outlines, and how outlines can be used as an provident malaysia invention strategy for writing. On Photosynthesis. Four Main Components for. 0 , Arabic numerals , Decimal 1163 Words , 5 Pages. Snowy Owls Snowy Owls 2012 Com156 12/9/2012 A snowy owl will live out the entire course of its life in Pressure and Agressive, the . open artic in most cases, while others will migrate out of the arctic tundra. They will hunt, eat, mate, reproduce, and on photosynthesis experiment, die where they reside.. The largest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffraction rings obtained from a suspension of skeletal myofibrils by laser light illumination. Study of internal structure of sarcomeres. AU - Ishiwata, S.. AU - Okamura, N.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Diffraction rings corresponding to the first, second, and third order were obtained by laser light illumination from a suspension of rabbit glycerinated psoas myofibrils (diameter, 1-2 μm; average length of the straight region, 44 μm; average sarcomere length, 2.2-2.6 μm) of which the optical thickness was appropriately chosen. Dispersed myofibrils were nearly randomly oriented in two dimensions, so that the effects of muscle volume were minimized; these effects usually interfere significantly with a quantitative analysis of laser optical diffraction in the fiber system. The diameters of diffraction rings represented the average sarcomere length. By using this system, we confirmed the ability of the unit cell (sarcomere) structure model to explain the intensity change of ...
A portable, handheld artificial light detector distinguishes artificial light from sunlight and identifies low-frequency artificial light from high-frequency artificial light. Artificial light includes light from a lamp powered by an AC source. Low frequency light includes, for example, light produced by a magnetic luminaire ballast, while high frequency light includes light produced by an electronic luminaire ballast.
Studies have been conducted on the geographic variation of growth and survival among fish populations but little work has been done in this regard on the early larval stages of marine fish. We conducted experiments on larvae from 2 separate populations of Atlantic cod to determine their response to light. Preliminary experiments conducted in our laboratory suggested that the light intensity under which larvae were reared may affect the growth performance of Atlantic cod larvae from the Scotian Shelf (SS) and Northeast Grand Banks (NF) differently. We conducted experiments to test the hypothesis that light intensity differentially affects larvae from these 2 geographically distinct populations. Cod larvae from each population were reared under low (0.19 μE m-2 or 8.5 lx) and high (12.92 μE m-2 or 680 lx) light intensities. Results showed that NF larvae foraged, grew and survived better under high light than low light, while the SS larvae performed better under low light conditions. In nature, ...
Radiation degrades organic compounds. Visible light accelerates molecular movement (i.e., heat). Ultraviolet light, on the other hand, ionizes molecules, adding or removing electrons and thereby breaking molecular bonds.---- We might say that light shakes things up. In our case, the organic matter from harvested cannabis absorbs energy from light. This energy excites electrons and may directly alter the chemical structure of a sample, facilitating degradation.. [Graphic 3/ Source: Rice University, CC 4.0] If this sounds a little crazy, consider that museum exhibits often prohibit flash photography and control light schemes with the utmost precision. Per the National Gallery of Art, Damage occurs because light is radiant energy… Low light levels over a long period of time can cause equal or even greater degradation as intense light for a short period.. In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up ...
Daily exposure to bright light (phototherapy) may help balance certain brain chemicals and reset body rhythms. Usually, light therapy involves sitting in front of a high-intensity fluorescent light source that is meant to simulate daylight (2,500 to 10,000 lux, a unit of illumination) at a distance of 1 to 2 feet, for 1 to 2 hours each morning (generally less time with increasing lux values). For some people, 30 minutes to 2 hours of treatment with bright light may be as effective as antidepressant medication. You should sit in front of the box with your eyes open, but do not look directly into the light source.. Light sources include fluorescent light boxes, light visors, or light units worn on the head. White fluorescent light is safer than ultraviolet light. It may take 2 to 4 weeks before symptoms of SAD are relieved with light therapy. Talk to your doctor before choosing light therapy, as it is not appropriate for everyone. There are also certain side effects associated with this technique, ...
Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes
The views expressed in articles published on FIRES do not necessarily reflect those of IES or represent endorsement by the IES.. By Travis Longcore. From the position of wildlife, the best artificial light at night is no artificial light at night. Recognizing that this is not feasible while maintaining safety and achieving other goals, I have focused on evaluating spectrum as an approach to minimizing impacts to wildlife and, more broadly, to the night sky, ecosystems, and humans. The most useful information needed to compare the effects of one light source with another is the spectral power distribution (SPD) from ultraviolet to infrared. By comparing the visual systems or known behavioral responses of different groups and species of wildlife to those SPDs, we can first predict, then confirm through experiments in the laboratory and field, the extent to which one light affects species more or less than another at the same brightness as perceived by humans. My colleagues and I have tested this ...
A light guide assembly, as a linear light source, includes a light guide bar connected to a light source assembly and a reflective housing encasing the light guide bar. One surface of the light guide bar is a light-scattering/light-emission surface, and other surfaces are all reflective. The emission plane has gradually changing indentations for adjusting the light refractive and reflecting indexes to ensure the light uniformity. The reflective housing covering the light guide bar is used for enhancing the light reflection and intensity. An opening is formed in the reflective housing corresponding to the emission plane of the light guide bar, and a reflecting flange is formed at one side of the opening. Combined with the sloping and notched emission plane, light with high intensity and uniformity can be obtained, and the uniformity of beaming light within the beaming lights effective focal range can also be improved.
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biology, Physiology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics, BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, melatonin suppression, light, melanopsin, human, SHORT-WAVELENGTH LIGHT, RETINAL GANGLION-CELLS, CIRCADIAN RESPONSES, HIGH-SENSITIVITY, ACTION SPECTRUM, DIM LIGHT, NON-CONE, NON-ROD, MELANOPSIN, BRIGHT ...
Illuminators and systems are provided that permit the production of a beam of electromagnetic radiation having selected peak wavelength, bandwidth, intensity, pulse frequency and pulse duration for a variety of analytical and therapeutic applications. Multiple beam illuminators use filter elements arranged into filter arrays, having characteristic wavelength absorption properties. By providing a series of filter arrays formed into tracks having defined wavelength offsets, radiation passing through a portion of a track can be modified to include selected peak wavelength and bandwidth. Selection of peak wavelength(s) and bandwidth can be accomplished using mechanical interrupters, mechanical shutters, or electro-optical devices including liquid crystal device. Multiple output beams permit the coordinated illumination of a target, and sensors provide feedback regarding the effects of illumination on a target. Computer storage devices, programs, and controllers can provide easy selection of the
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Another light spectrum which is used and studied is blue light. Blue light has been shown to be effective for killingP.acnes but the red spectrum penetrates more deeply into tissue for enhanced results [2]. This means that red light can affect the sebum secretion of sebaceous glands and skin cell behaviour in a way that blue light can not. It also reduces inflammation more than blue light does while also minimising the acne-causing bacteria [2].. Using red light technology does not mean other treatments such as topical remedies cant be used. In fact, studies show that using the red light spectrum with topical treatments can actually help them to work better. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was combined with red light technology. This combination led to more than a 90% clearance of acne within one month [4]. When using the red light on its own there was still a 44% clearance within this time [4]. They found that any side effects from the red light technology were resolved within two hours whereas the ...
Purpose: : We have previously shown that simulations of the effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) with hyperopic and myopic defocus can cause compensatory ocular changes (Rucker and Wallman, 2009). Under severe astigmatic blur (Jackson Cross Cylinders, JCC), refractive compensation for imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus was unimpaired under white light but impaired under monochromatic light. We now investigate the time course of the effect of monochromatic light and JCC on choroidal responses to imposed defocus. Methods: : : Chicks wore lenses that presented astigmatic defocus (+5/-5 D crossed cylinders) together with +3 D of spherical defocus over one eye (Positive X-cyl lens) and astigmatic defocus (+4/-4 D crossed cylinders) together with -2 D over the other eye (Negative X-cyl lens) under red or green monochromatic light, or under white light. Other chicks wore lenses that imposed only spherical defocus (+3 D on one eye, -3.5 D on the other). We measured choroid thickness by ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique in physics that can be used to determine the size distribution profile of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution. In the scope of DLS, temporal fluctuations are usually analyzed by means of the intensity or photon auto-correlation function (also known as photon correlation spectroscopy or quasi-elastic light scattering). In the time domain analysis, the autocorrelation function (ACF) usually decays starting from zero delay time, and faster dynamics due to smaller particles lead to faster decorrelation of scattered intensity trace. It has been shown that the intensity ACF is the Fourier transformation of the power spectrum, and therefore the DLS measurements can be equally well performed in the spectral domain. DLS can also be used to probe the behavior of complex fluids such as concentrated polymer solutions. A monochromatic light source, usually a laser, is shot through a polarizer and into a sample. The scattered light then goes ...
Blue Light Exposure: What Is It? in Oakland, CA. East Bay Vision Center Optometry is your local Optometrist in Oakland serving all of your needs. Call us today at (510) 268-9600 for an appointment.
Saving Throw none; Spell Resistance no. DESCRIPTION. This spell causes an object to radiate darkness out to a 20-foot radius. This darkness causes the illumination level in the area to drop one step, from bright light to normal light, from normal light to dim light, or from dim light to darkness. This spell has no effect in an area that is already dark. Creatures with light vulnerability or sensitivity take no penalties in normal light. All creatures gain concealment (20% miss chance) in dim light. All creatures gain total concealment (50% miss chance) in darkness. Creatures with darkvision can see in an area of dim light or darkness without penalty. Nonmagical sources of light, such as torches and lanterns, do not increase the light level in an area of darkness. Magical light sources only increase the light level in an area if they are of a higher spell level than darkness. If darkness is cast on a small object that is then placed inside or under a lightproof covering, the spells effect is ...
The PGR5 (PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5) gene that is required for PSI cyclic electron transport in Arabidopsis was knocked down in rice (Oryza sativa). In three PGR5 knockdown (KD) lines, the PGR5 protein level was reduced to 5-8% of that in the wild type, resulting in a 50% reduction in PGRL1 (PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1) protein levels. In ruptured chloroplasts, ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction activity was partially impaired; the phenotype was mimicked by addition of antimycin A to wild-type chloroplasts. As occurred in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant, non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence (NPQ) induction was impaired in the leaves, but the electron transport rate (ETR) was only mildly affected at high light intensity. The P700+ level was reduced even at low light intensity, suggesting that the PGR5 function was severely disturbed as in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant and that the other alternative routes of electrons could not compensate the stromal redox balance. The ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
In order to analyse the effects of temperature (9-22 °C) and light intensity (170-576 μmol m −2 s −1 ) on plant development two barley varieties with contrasting seasonal growth habits were included in a series of experiments consisting of controlled environment tests. The effect of constant (18 °C) and daily fluctuating (18/16 °C) temperature with a long photoperiod was also examined in a set of barley varieties including winter, facultative and spring barleys. Dicktoo with facultative growth habit was more sensitive to unfavourable conditions than Kompolti korai with winter growth habit; the flowering of Dicktoo was significantly delayed by sub-and supra-optimal temperatures and low light intensity accompanied by higher or fluctuating temperatures. The optimal temperature at flowering was also significantly lower for Dicktoo than for Kompolti korai (16.0 °C vs. 21.0 °C, respectively). Plant development was the fastest when there was no fluctuating environmental factor in the growing ...
G-actin is globular in shape (Fig. 1a). Its molecular weight is about 42k daltons. G-actin polymerizes into F-actin under physiological salt concentrations (Fig. 1b). Based on observations by...
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The composite data from eight subjects exposed to eight irradiances of narrowband blue LED light demonstrated increased melatonin suppression with increased exposure irradiance. Those data have a strong fit to a sigmoidal fluence-response curve. A comparison of mean melatonin suppression with 40 μW/cm2 from 4,000 K broadband white fluorescent light, currently used in most general lighting fixtures, suggests that narrow bandwidth blue LED light may be stronger than 4,000 K white fluorescent light for suppressing melatonin.. An initial action spectrum study on mice first identified peak sensitivity to light for circadian regulation in the short-wavelength portion of the spectrum, specifically at 480 nm (60). Later action spectra studies demonstrated that the blue-appearing portion (446-477 nm) was the most effective region of the spectrum for suppression of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland in humans (10, 57). Recent analytic action spectra have examined neuroendocrine, circadian, and ...
This study suggests that the circadian system in mice is responsive to long wavelength red light. The result is surprising because recent studies suggest that melanopsin, in combination with the classical rod and cone photoreceptors, account for the transduction of photic information to the circadian system. There are no studies of spectral sensitivity of the Aschoff effect in mice. However, the spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors mediating circadian phase-shifts in mice is vanishingly small at wavelengths above 600 nm [7-9]. In most organisms, circadian period under LL is a function of both intrinsic period and photic inputs. The Aschoff effect is understood to result from the cumulative phase-shifting effect of LL on the pacemaker [5, 13, 15]. Thus an effect of red light on circadian period is unexpected.. One possible explanation is that there is another photopigment present in mammals that is sensitive to far-red light and affects period rather than phase. It cannot be excluded that ...
Red infrared light therapy uses visible red light wavelengths from 630-660 nanometres (nm) and infrared light wavelengths at around 880nm to penetrate deep into the layers of the skin, increasing cellular energy and jump-starting the production of collagen and elastin to help make skin firm and supple.. The layers of the skin have a high content of blood and water, which makes it easy for the skin to absorb the light, these substances literally drink it up. Most researchers agree that light therapy increases production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the battery life of cells. It also targets the water layers in elastin - the protein responsible for skin elasticity - gradually restoring its elastic function and reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles.. Red light also boosts blood circulation, which effectively transports oxygen and nutrients to the skin (hello glow!), and its a great healing treatment for rosacea and eczema too. ...
The particle sizing capabilities of light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) and the spatial localization of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are brought together in a new modality known as scattering-mode spectroscopic OCT. An analysis is presented of the spectral dependence of the light collected in spectroscopic OCT for samples comprised of spherical particles. Many factors are considered including the effects of scatterer size, interference between the fields scattered from closely adjacent scatterers, and the numerical aperture of the OCT system. The modulation of the spectrum of the incident light by scattering of a plane wave from a single sphere is a good indicator of particle size and composition. However, it is shown in this work that the sharp focusing of fields causes the spectral signature to shift and the presence of multiple scatterers has dramatic modulation effects on the spectra. Approaches for accurately matching physical structure with the observed signals under various ...
Introduction. BIOLOGY October 2003 HOW DOES LIGHT AFFECT THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS GURDEEP SIAN INTRODUCTION Photosynthesis is the process that produces food in plants. The food it produces is glucose. In order for photosynthesis take place you need a green plant sunlight and water. The carbon dioxide enters the leaf through the leaves, and the water goes through the roots of the plant. The water and carbon dioxide is mixed in the chloroplast, which is where the light is trapped. The mixture of carbon dioxide and water make the substance glucose which is sugar. The mixture of the two also gives off oxygen. Green plants use the light energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water to make food. Light energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored in the food. The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. The three features that leaves have to make photosynthesis an efficient process are thinness, flatness and a large surface area to catch ...
Self-assembly is a vital part of the of the RNA virus life cycle. The assembly of viral coat proteins around viral RNA occurs both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that viral capsid assembly may be driven by a minimization of free energy. To better understand this process, we modify the interactions between coat proteins and between the coat proteins and RNA of MS2 bacteriophage in vitro by varying the ionic strength and pH, and we study the assembly using dynamic and static light scattering. From dynamic light scattering we determine the assembly yield and the size distribution of assembled products. From static light scattering, we measure the kinetics of assembly in bulk. By comparing the results from these two different techniques to each other and to results from gel electrophoresis, we infer features of the assembly pathway. ...
According to a new comprehensive atlas of world light pollution created by the Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute in Italy (ISTIL) and published in Science Advances, more than 99 percent of the population of the mainland U.S. now resides in areas that are classified as light polluted. And its getting worse: New York City is one of many cities across the U.S. thats in the process of transitioning its streetlights to eco-efficient, but brighter LED bulbs - one of the biggest culprits of light pollution. This means that while most of us are unable to see a pure night sky because that inky expanse studded by stars, planets and the bright fog of galaxies has been beaten back by our electric lighting, future generations may never know the beauty of looking up and seeing an ocean of stars from their doorstep unless we change direction ...
High temperature and high light intensity is a common environment posing a great risk to organisms. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of sub-high temperature and high light stress (HH, 35°C, 1000 μmol∙m-2∙s-1) and recovery on the photosynthetic mechanism, photoinhibiton of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), and reactive oxygen (ROS) metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco activity, maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm), efficient quantum yield and electron transport of PSII [Y(II) and ETR(II)] and PSI [Y(I) and ETR(I)] decreased significantly whereas yield of non-regulated and regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO) and Y(NPQ)] increased sharply. The donor side limitation of PSI [Y(ND)] increased but the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] decreased. Content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase
China Blue/Red/Green/Yellow Light for Skin Care LED Phototherapy PDT Machine, Find details about China PDT, LED Light from Blue/Red/Green/Yellow Light for Skin Care LED Phototherapy PDT Machine - Shanghai Apolo Medical Technology Co., Ltd.
Light pollution limits the visibility of milky way to the unaided eye, the visiblity of nebulae and galaxies seen in telescopes, and raises the noise on CCD astrophotographs. Only the observation of planets and double stars is unaffected. Low light pollution conditions, or dark skies, is one of the most important properties of a good astronmical observing site. This map is a small exerpt (366mi east-to-west, by 346mi north-to-south) from the Light Pollution Atlas 2006 by David Lorenz. David recalculated the The World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness with newer data. The central cross marks the location of the Mount Hamilton clear sky chart. Tiny crosses mark other charts. This map assumes an observer at sea level. A real observer should see a slightly darker sky.. ...
Light pollution limits the visibility of milky way to the unaided eye, the visiblity of nebulae and galaxies seen in telescopes, and raises the noise on CCD astrophotographs. Only the observation of planets and double stars is unaffected. Low light pollution conditions, or dark skies, is one of the most important properties of a good astronmical observing site. This map is a small exerpt (377mi east-to-west, by 346mi north-to-south) from the Light Pollution Atlas 2006 by David Lorenz. David recalculated the The World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness with newer data. The central cross marks the location of the Anderson Mesa Station clear sky chart. Tiny crosses mark other charts. This map assumes an observer at sea level. A real observer should see a slightly darker sky.. ...
The effects of birefringence on the light distribution in the focal region of a high-NA optical system are investigated with use of the Debye approach to vector diffraction theory. The attention is limited to uniaxially birefringent media with symmetry axis along the optical axis of the imaging system. The radially (p) and tangentially (s) polarized fields in the exit pupil produce spots in the focal region that are defocused with respect to each other. For small birefringence values the relative defocus causes a distortion and broadening of the spot; for larger values the two spots separate completely. As a corollary to the theory it is shown that there is a tangential tornadolike flow of energy in the focal region when the polarization in the entrance pupil is elliptical.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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At first, we hoped to use the α-helical domain of an allosteric protein to couple the light receptor and repressor, a strategy that has been successfully utilised previously in the blue light sensor fusion.. However, this method would have likely required the usage of Statistical Coupling Analysis to measure how much the amino acid distribution at some position i changes upon a perturbation of the amino acid distribution at another position j. It was thought that such analysis would be beyond the time constraints imposed upon the project, and thus this strategy was abandoned in favour of the strategy described below.. Our next design involved the fusion of PhoR and CcaS to create a green light sensor, by replacing the downstream portion of the CcaS with the downstream portion of PhoR based on the fact that both contain the same domains HisKA and HATPase-C (Figure 2). PhoR phosphorylates the response regulator PhoB, which then will binds to conserved DNA sequences called phoboxes and interacts ...
At first, we hoped to use the α-helical domain of an allosteric protein to couple the light receptor and repressor, a strategy that has been successfully utilised previously in the blue light sensor fusion.. However, this method would have likely required the usage of Statistical Coupling Analysis to measure how much the amino acid distribution at some position i changes upon a perturbation of the amino acid distribution at another position j. It was thought that such analysis would be beyond the time constraints imposed upon the project, and thus this strategy was abandoned in favour of the strategy described below.. Our next design involved the fusion of PhoR and CcaS to create a green light sensor, by replacing the downstream portion of the CcaS with the downstream portion of PhoR based on the fact that both contain the same domains HisKA and HATPase-C. PhoR phosphorylates the response regulator PhoB, which then will binds to conserved DNA sequences called phoboxes and interacts with the ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique that is used to measure the size of particles, generally particles that are in the sub-micron region. The technique is also referred to as photon correlation spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering.
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In 2017, she presents the installation Llum! (Light!) with neon and glass at Montjuïc Castle in Barcelona, as a reflection of ...
He is then led by the light of God. God appears as his father in white; this portraying God's innocence. He is then led by God ... The little boy lost in the lonely fen, Led by the wand'ring light, Began to cry, but God ever nigh, Appeard like his father in ... light". The repetition of sound creates a rhythmic flow, setting the tone for the rest of the poem. The poem consists of two ...
All these scientists experimented with a small hole and light but none of them suggested that a screen is used so an image from ... While the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole had been described earlier, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct ... Daguerre treated a silver-plated sheet of copper with iodine vapor to give it a coating of light-sensitive silver iodide. After ... After focusing, the ground glass was replaced with a light-tight holder containing the sensitized plate or paper and the lens ...
Light. Donga, 1991. 『들』, 창작과비평사, 1992. Field. Changbi, 1992. 『고삐』, 풀빛, 1993. Reigns. Pulbit, 1993. 『고삐2』, 풀빛, 1993 Reigns 2. ...
Light.", Irish Museum of Modern Art, Retrieved 26 December 2018. "Compass in Hand: Selections from the Judith Rothschild ...
Australian Festival of Light and Community Standards Organisation, February 1996. p 12. "How the media saw Gianna". Light. ... Australian Festival of Light and Community Standards Organisation. May 1996. p. 12. "President Signs Born-Alive Infants ... In early 1996, Festival of Light Australia sponsored an Australian tour, during which Jessen spoke at venues in all states and ... ISBN 1-56179-415-5. "Gianna - glad to be alive". Light. ...
"Light". Electoral District Maps. Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission, Government of South Australia. Retrieved 6 January ...
Light. Sol Felty (2007). The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. University of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Isler, Scott (January 1981). "Light! Camera! XTCion!". Trouser Press. Ingham, Chris ( ...
It is sold in the following varieties: Original; Extra Creamy; Light; Fat Free; Non-Dairy; and Chocolate. In 2019, two new ...
"Light". Yona of the Dawn. Episode 14. 2015. "Never Back Down On Love". Yurikuma Arashi. Episode 1. 2015. "The Wind of Africa". ...
... "traffic light", "street light", which is literally equivalent to "light of road-LOC". The personal pronouns each have their own ... light; switch on; start (e.g. a car)" -choka "to become tired" → -chosha "to tire; be tiring; be tiresome; be boring" -kumbuka ...
Peter DeLuise (director); Brad Wright (writer). "Light". Stargate Universe. Season 1. Episode 5. Syfy. Robert C. Cooper ( ...
Tree of Light. Ivorypress LiberArs, 2011. Edited by Pedro Cabrita Reis. English/Spanish edition Thomas Demand. Model Studies. ... "Light". Ivorypress, Madrid, Spain. 30/05/2017 - 15/07/2017 Yves Berger. "From the orchard to the garden". Ivorypress, Madrid, ... "Broken Light". Ivorypress, Madrid, Spain. 12/09/2018 - 03/11/2018 Gavin Turk. "White Van Man". Ivorypress, Madrid, Spain. 15/11 ... Broken Light. Ivorypress, 2018. English edition Gavin Turk. White Van Man. Ivorypress, 2018. English edition Guillaume Bruère. ...
Light. 1926. No. 20 (164). Smirnov, N. "The case of the murder of Baku commissars".. ...
... and λ is the wavelength of light. For standard black-and-white film, a wavelength of light corresponding to yellow-green (550 ... Light from a scene passes through the aperture and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box, which is known ... In its simplest form, the photographic pinhole camera can consist of a light-tight box with a pinhole in one end, and a piece ... A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture (the so-called pinhole)-effectively a light-proof ...
South America: Copel; AES Eletropaulo; Ampla - Enel/ENDESA Group; Light; CEMIG; National Electricity Administration, Paraguay ( ... China Light & Power; Singapore Power. North America: Oncor Energy; Pacific Gas and Electric; Hydro-Québec; AEP Texas. ...
Shri Shantadurga is goddess of Wealth; prosperity; light; wisdom; fortune; fertility; generosity; courage; beauty;Divine; grace ...
ISBN 951-1-08579-4. Light. Poems. Helsinki: Ottawa, 1988. ISBN 951-1-10347-4. Poems 1971-1990 . Collected poems. Helsinki: ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Sparg; Kulkarni; Light; Van Staden (August 2005). "Improving seedling vigour of ...
Ford, Tom (1998). "Light". Visionaire (24). Retrieved 13 December 2017. Wolf, Sylvia. With an essay by Andy Grundberg. Pref. by ... "Light". It has also been included in the books Visions from America: Photography from the Whitney Museum of American Art 1940- ...
Lighted objects reflect rays of light in all directions. A small enough opening in a barrier admits only the rays that travel ... light. Light coming from the foot of an illuminated person were partly hidden below (i.e., strike below the pinhole) and partly ... the light will return. He described a "dark chamber", and experimented with light passing through small pinholes, using three ... and each of those lights (spots of light) appears directly opposite one (particular) candle along a straight line passing ...
Light. The song was the theme song for both the UK government's Shine Week 2009 and The Message Trust's own Shine Your Light ... In October, LZ7 had their first chart hit, when their single "This Little Light" made No. 26 on the UK Singles Chart and No. 4 ... From the release of their new album and single, LZ7 went on 'The Light Tour', which saw them perform across the UK and further ... "Shine Your Light". The Message Trust. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2010. The ...
Isler, Scott (January 1981). "Light! Camera! XTCion!". Trouser Press. Twomey 1992, p. 104. Twomey 1992, pp. 105-106. Christgau ...
Light". An optional heat pump extending range under low temperature conditions is offered or even fitted as standard in certain ... Headlights and taillights are mostly LED lamps on the ID.4, with Matrix LED lights being an optional feature. The front ... By default, the vehicle includes a light strip below the windscreen providing visual cues related to certain functions such as ...
In light of later developments it may be interesting to take note of Thomas Breakwell who died in Paris in 1902. Ultimately a ... "It was made clear that the Baha'i Revelation had dawned to bring new light and truth into the world as a leaven for all Faiths ... Bride, a Cup was brought out into the light of day. This vessel is the symbol of the heavenly and eternal Grail, the Chalice of ... The thunder passed, and the hill was bathed in quiet light, and I became aware of a mighty Presence standing beside me, full of ...
Light sales in China's three major music platforms: "Light - QQ Music". QQ Music. Retrieved 27 June 2020. "Light". Kugou. ... "Light". Kuwo. Retrieved 27 June 2020. Fan, Xu (10 October 2014). "Uncle cool". China Daily. Archived from the original on 8 ...
Light; Horse Sense; Did They ... Or Didn't They?; Science vs. Rome (8/6/01) - Rome tries Galileo Survival; Fire; It's Mine, All ...
"Spectrum: Little Willies". Light. Retrieved 19 December 2019. Streamer, Col. D. (1901). Ruthless Rhymes for Heartless Homes. ... Little Willie rhymes are light verses including an indifferent or cheerfully inappropriate response to a gruesome act of ...
"Dies irae ~Amantes amentes~ , light Android / iOS サポート". Light. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. Retrieved 2017-06-07 ... Light experimented with games at the time, and created things they wanted to make; after developing Paradise Lost, they decided ... Light had initially expressed interest in an English localization of the smartphone game before its cancelation. "Dies irae ~ ... Dies irae was developed by Light, and was produced by Hattori Michisato and written by Takashi Masada, with art by G-Yuusuke ...
Units such as the light-minute, light-hour and light-day are sometimes used in popular science publications. The light-month, ... "Gly" for a gigalight-year (1,000,000,000 light years)[19]. History[edit]. The light-year unit appeared a few years after the ... Light travels approximately one foot in a nanosecond; the term "light-foot" is sometimes used as an informal measure of time.[ ... The Universe within 12.5 Light Years: The Nearest Stars *^ a b c d e International Astronomical Union, Measuring the Universe: ...
Light pressure is equal to the power of the light beam divided by c, the speed of light. Due to the magnitude of c, the effect ... Speed of light. Main article: Speed of light. The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approx. ... Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be perceived by ... The study of light and the interaction of light and matter is termed optics. The observation and study of optical phenomena ...
Its been months since we heard about Ryan Reynolds time travel movie for Netflix, which we learned back in April will be about a guy who goes back in time to stop some villain, interacting with both himself as a teenager and his now-deceased father along the way, and now The Hollywood Reporter has the scoop on the rest of the films surprisingly famous cast. For starters, Mark Ruffalo will be playing Reynolds father, a "brilliant physicist" of some kind, with a kid named Walker Scobell playing young Reynolds in what is apparently his "first professional gig." ...
Camp Little Lights desire is to provide a simple, relaxing environment for families to grow closer to God and each to other. ... such a place does exist and its called Camp Little Light. ...
My name is Zuzka Light, and my channel is all about Fitness, Healthy Lifestyle and Holistic Health. I post tips about exercise ... What I Eat In a Day , Zuzka Light - Duration: 7 minutes, 2 seconds.. Zuzka Light ... My Make Up Routine , Zuzka Light - Duration: 5 minutes, 6 seconds.. Zuzka Light ... Zuzka Light. 12400 Ventura Blvd #1252. Studio City CA, 91604. Email Address:. [email protected] Show less ...
White light. If we look beyond the greatest galaxies and universes, what do we find? Light. The very same light. Light is ... This is light technology, the use of consciousness and light, as well as the science that explains it.. Why do I claim these ... More about light and colors, Throat chakra, thyroid gland, iodine. An article about Light Tech which was the first one I wrote ... The nourishing light. - Light Technology. When reading in various sources about breatharianism, different sources for ...
... : The Luminist Movement, 1850-1875: Paintings, Drawings, Photographs ,/i,. ... American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850-1875: Paintings, Drawings, Photographs. John Wilmerding, with contributions by Lisa ... American Light makes a fresh and comprehensive examination of the culminating phase of Hudson River painting, now commonly ... American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850-1875, Paintings, Drawings, Photographs. Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes ...
... whether from light bulbs, flames, flashlights, or the Sun (our most important source of light). We see objects because they ... We see light every day-whether from light bulbs, flames, flashlights, or the Sun (our most important source of light). We see ... Types of light: gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves. ... A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year, or about six trillion miles. Astronomers use this measurement ...
Uv light water treatment camping Diy repair bmw Homemade led lamp for nails price Buy uv light brisbane weather Uv light ... Use the form below to delete this Soldiers Machine Gun Army Weapons M249 Light image from our index. Use the form below to ... ... Use the form below to delete this BREN Light Machine Gun Description Use And Mechanism UK0000 Mycity image from our index. ... Dying Light: The Following - Enhanced Edition will be available from digital stores a.... ...
... (also known as delexical verbs, thin verbs, semantically weak verbs, or empty verbs) are verbs that do not carry ... Light Verbs What is a light verb?. Light verbs (also known as delexical verbs, thin verbs, semantically weak verbs, or empty ... Using Light Verbs. Light verbs function by pairing with a word or words (usually, but not always, a noun or noun phrase) to ... Common Light Verbs. Unfortunately, the only way to become familiar with the various meanings and uses of light verbs is to ...
... "light"), German Licht ("light"). Related also to Swedish ljus ("light"), Icelandic ljós ("light"), Latin lūx ("light"), Russian ... light (third-person singular simple present lights, present participle lighting, simple past and past participle lit or lighted ... light (third-person singular simple present lights, present participle lighting, simple past and past participle lit or lighted ... light (comparative lighter, superlative lightest). *Of low weight; not heavy. My bag was much lighter once I had dropped off ...
What is circadian-friendly: a light that is still white, but minimizes blue in its color spectrum. Blue light has the biggest ... Having developed the light using proven scientific principles, we hope to bring healthy illumination for night-time tasks. The ... How important/essential would this feature be to you: If the light turned with loud sounds, such as your morning alarm going ... Do you turn on the overhead lights when you check on your child or walk around the house at night? ...
Textbook of Light. Nature volume 148, page300(1941)Cite this article ... Textbook of Light.. By Dr. R. Wallace Stewart Prof. John Satterly. Seventh edition, revised by Prof. C. T. Archer. Pp. vii + ... Archer in the revised version of Stewart and Satterlys "Textbook of Light". The book contains a treatment of the elements of ... Textbook of Light. Nature 148, 300 (1941). https://doi.org/10.1038/148300a0 ...
Red Light! Green Light! Mondo Announces Mission: Impossible Vinyl Soundtrack Release 03 August 2018 , Slash Film ... Red Light (1949) Passed , 1h 23min , Crime, Drama, Film-Noir , 30 September 1949 (USA) ... Lights out 26 May 2013 , by AAdaSC - See all my reviews George Raft (Johnny Torno) owns a trucking company. Because of his real ... I assume the lights in the final scene are red - its a bit of a strange title for a black and white film. ...
... flattering light on your subjects, anywhere from in the studio to the great outdoors. ... In this diffused light photography guide, learn how to shed soft, ... The difference between hard light and soft light.. Hard light, or direct light, creates high-contrast scenes with harsh shadows ... Diffused light, or soft light, is light thats filtered by something. Sunlight through a sheer curtain is diffused. Light from ...
Stars feel each other, even if theyve died millions of years ago, even if theyre light years apart. Taking destiny into her ... But slow to get going.. Once the story of old man time, and light, and family progressed I was swept along with it. Complex ... Stars feel each other, even if theyve died millions of years ago, even if theyre light years apart. Taking destiny into her ...
The project was to take an object-any object--and use light to elevate its interest. Music was used in conjunction with the ...
The Eve Light Switch gives you the comfort and convenience of switching your lights on and off using Siri or with a quick tap ... The Eve Light Switch gives you the comfort and convenience of switching your lights on and off using Siri or with a quick tap ... No more asking my wife if shes ready for me to turn the light off. We just get in bed and one of us commands the light off. ... It works perfectly (I have it in tandem with a Hue light). The unit itself i I bought a single Eve Light Switch to try it out. ...
Light Sport Aircraft Frequently Asked Questions. *Light Sport FAQs. AIR Strategic Plan for Light-Sport Aircraft. *AIR Strategic ... SAMPLE Light-Sport Aircraft Manufacturers Quality Assurance Manual (MS Word) NOTE: The FAA does not endorse a particular ... Special Light-Sport Aircraft (SLSA) Make/Model Directory. *SLSA Make/Model Directory - Effective July 23, 2021 ... Light-sport aircraft (LSA) manufacturers and owners/operators are encouraged to install parachute recovery systems and/or ...
Style name: Light Rank. Author: sangoku_51. Style description: rank of Light in 2 colors : orange and yellow. Style version: ... Download file: Light.zip. File size: 27.65 KiB. Style overview page: View. The phpBB Team is not responsible nor required to ... Light Rank. All 3.0.x styles released in our Styles Database can be found here. All discussion or support regarding an ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. ...
Eh, whats a "light source?" Basically, its a particle accelerator that, in a controlled manner, sheds light of wavelengths… ... "The light which puts out our eyes is darkness to us. Only that day dawns to which we are awake. There is more day to dawn. The ... "I have this one little saying, when things get too heavy just call me helium, the lightest known gas to man." -Jimi Hendrix ... A little more than one year ago, on the day of its groundbreaking ceremony, the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) ...
The online extension of Billboard magazine, www.billboard.com/biz is the essential online destination for the music business.. Learn more ...
light. Photo Synthesis. Tag archives for light. Photo Technique: the White Box. Posted by on April 26, 2009 ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=light_panel&oldid=46778653" ...
... From the deepest recesses of the ocean to hundreds of miles above earth, Canons renowned imaging technology ... In "See the Light," discover how Canons EOS C300 Mark II, ME20F-SH, and EOS C500 cameras captured the beauty of bioluminescent ... creatures under the sea, the grandeur of the extremely difficult-to-photograph Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights), and the ...
http://www.mediafire.com/file/zygai5egwwvog7r/Kjotleik_-_Light%2527s_Prophet.pdf/file. .header { position: absolute; width: ...
... and thereby a lighter-weight loudspeaker has been developed.This loudspeaker consists of a light-weight magnetic circuit with a ... for lighter-wight of a loudspeaker, the weight and performance of loudspeakers were analyzed, ... Light Weight Loudspeaker 920078. In accordance with the CAFE program, for lighter-wight of a loudspeaker, the weight and ... Finally, the performance comparison between the newly developed light-weight loudspeaker with a combination of a light-weight ...
... ants in fact do use polarized light as a compass, augmenting the pedometric function of their legs. Upon approaching the nest, ... Other articles where Polarized light is discussed: Sahara desert ant: … ... ants in fact do use polarized light as a compass, augmenting the pedometric function of their legs. Upon approaching the nest, ... citric acidCitric acid crystal under polarized light (enlarged 200x).. Jan Homann. ...
  • The NIOSH research team for the Saturn LED area light won the 2017 NIOSH Bullard-Sherwood Research-to-Practice Award, which recognizes outstanding efforts by scientists and their partners in applying occupational safety and health research to prevent work-related injury, illness, and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Above the range of visible light, ultraviolet light becomes invisible to humans, mostly because it is absorbed by the cornea below 360 nm and the internal lens below 400 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light from behind a lampshade is diffused compared to the direct light of a bare bulb. (adobe.com)
  • The Eve Light Switch transforms any single or multi-bulb setup into an intelligent lighting system, so can use your existing bulbs regardless of their shape, size, or color. (apple.com)
  • Ordinary light, such as that from a light bulb, has many wavelengths and spreads in all directions. (fda.gov)
  • Note: LED light bulb is polarity sensitive. (ebay.com)
  • The bulb is organic in operation, meaning it is basically two panels of phosphorescent diodes combined to release light. (ehow.com)
  • The process results in a superior white light that does not heat up the bulb and waste energy. (ehow.com)
  • What's The Best Light Bulb? (lifehacker.com)
  • Cree 60W Equivalent Soft White (2700K) A19 LED Light Bulb (4-Pack). (lifehacker.com)
  • Each BeOn bulb has backup power, so even in the event of a power outage or emergency you'll have some lighting, and if your other home safety appliances-like a smoke detector or carbon monoxide detector-goes off, the lights will respond as well so you can see your way out of the house. (lifehacker.com)
  • Light Weight Loudspeaker," SAE Technical Paper 920078, 1992, https://doi.org/10.4271/920078 . (sae.org)
  • METRO's light rail page is at https://www.ridemetro.org/Pages/Rail.aspx . (houstontx.gov)
  • For other uses, see Light year (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • For other uses, see Light (disambiguation) and Visible light (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Light show may refer to: Drone display Laser lighting display (Laser show) Liquid light shows Christmas lights Meteor shower Wizards in Winter Christmas light show This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Light show. (wikipedia.org)
  • [note 1] As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). (wikipedia.org)
  • This experiment didn't work because light travels too fast for him to measure over one mile. (amnh.org)
  • A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year, or about six trillion miles. (amnh.org)
  • In a vacuum, light travels at a constant speed of 186,000 miles per second. (amnh.org)
  • Light, of course, is more than color: it is energy, which travels at incredible speeds throughout the universe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Greeks recognized that light travels through air in rays, a term from geometry describing that part of a straight line that extends in one direction only. (encyclopedia.com)
  • light-year, in astronomy, unit of length equal to the distance light travels in one sidereal year . (infoplease.com)
  • I am now exploring the world of caustics - those magical patterns that are formed when a beam of light travels through transparent textured materials. (abduzeedo.com)
  • [5] [6] In this sense, gamma rays , X-rays , microwaves and radio waves are also light. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many kinds of light that our eyes cannot detect, like radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays. (amnh.org)
  • In the same way, you can use a diffusion sheet to filter the harsh rays of the sun or another light source in order to produce a soft, even, complimentary glow at any time of day. (adobe.com)
  • While the rays of hard light are direct, soft light has scattered rays. (adobe.com)
  • All diffusion techniques use the same basic concept: Place a translucent screen, sheet, or filter between a light source and the subject so you diffuse the rays of hard light to create softer lighting. (adobe.com)
  • Unfortunately, they also subscribed to the erroneous concept of intromission - the belief that light rays originate in the eye and travel toward objects, making them visible. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In Newton's time, physicists understood that a prism could be used for the diffusion of light rays - in particular, to produce an array of colors from a beam of white light. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This workbook is about the reflection and refraction of light rays. (merlot.org)
  • A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its orb could be seen filtered through the thick snow clouds and an unusually vertical beam of light shot above and slightly below its position. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Light verbs function by pairing with a word or words (usually, but not always, a noun or noun phrase) to achieve their meaning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Softboxes direct and diffuse the light as it passes through the screen. (adobe.com)
  • These fingerlike protrusions terminate in sandblasted crystal lobes which softly diffuse the light from enclosed LEDs. (behance.net)
  • Polish developer Techland has announced that Dying Light: The Following - Enhanced Edition will be coming to PlayStation 4, Xbox One, and PC on February 9th, 2016. (amazonaws.com)
  • Dying Light: The Following - Enhanced Edition will be available from digital stores a. (amazonaws.com)
  • Dying Light is a first-person, action survival game set in a vast open world. (microsoft.com)
  • Dying Light gradually and gratifyingly evolves into a fast, hyper-violent celebration of vertical freedom and zombie destruction. (steampowered.com)
  • Techland's pedigree helps Dying Light become one of the better zombie games in recent years. (steampowered.com)
  • Dying Light: The Following - Enhanced Edition is the quintessential open world zombie game. (steampowered.com)
  • Fueled by the dedication of millions of fans who continue playing Dying Light, we've made supporting the game one of our priorities. (steampowered.com)
  • Available DLCs include crossover weapon packs that let you enjoy Left 4 Dead 2, Chivalry: Medieval Warfare, and Unturned gear in Dying Light. (steampowered.com)
  • We see light every day-whether from light bulbs, flames, flashlights, or the Sun (our most important source of light). (amnh.org)
  • Built in light bar has 3 light bulbs for easy viewing. (ebay.com)
  • Small levels of mercury in light bulbs can cause some health concerns. (ehow.com)
  • Energy-saving light bulbs are being pushed by power companies, eco-friendly organizations and the government. (ehow.com)
  • Low-mercury light bulbs are widely available. (ehow.com)
  • They work in much the same way that old bulbs did except they are more energy-efficient and produce a higher light. (ehow.com)
  • You might think light bulbs are a commodity, and to many, they are. (lifehacker.com)
  • This week we're looking at five of the best light bulbs to save you money around the house, or customize the lighting to your mood, based on your nominations. (lifehacker.com)
  • Not all light bulbs are alike. (lifehacker.com)
  • BeOn's line of smart home LED light bulbs are great lighting, sure, but they're really designed to improve your home safety and security. (lifehacker.com)
  • To save this item to your list of favorite Light Reading content so you can find it later in your Profile page, click the "Save It" button next to the item. (lightreading.com)
  • His sensitivity to light, colour and space is the principal raison d'être of these paintings. (lulu.com)
  • Berkowitz's paintings, developing steadily over some 40 years of dedicated work, have, since the "Big Bend" paintings in the early '70s, blossomed into almost awe-inspiring beauty: great soaring clouds of pure light and color. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Around the walls, and leaning their lofty heads toward the skylight, would be his ethereal paintings of light. (washingtonpost.com)
  • All of my light paintings are straight out of the camera. (slate.com)
  • [1] Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400-700 nanometers (nm), or 4.00 × 10 −7 to 7.00 × 10 −7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). (wikipedia.org)
  • In physics , the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of light, known as optics , is an important research area in modern physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it was not as epochal as his contributions to mechanics, Newton's work in optics, an area of physics that studies the production and propagation of light, was certainly significant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The main source of light on Earth is the Sun . Sunlight provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches , which release energy into the living things that digest them. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, direct sunlight on a cloudless afternoon is hard light. (adobe.com)
  • Polymorphic light eruption is a fairly common skin rash triggered by exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet (UV) light. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Prickly heat is caused by warm weather or overheating, rather than sunlight or UV light. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Light contains all colors, more colors than the ones our human eyes perceive. (angelfire.com)
  • Soundwaves act as a prism, separating colors from the light into a rainbow so to speak. (angelfire.com)
  • As the light flows through, the needed colors stick to this empty space. (angelfire.com)
  • To prove this, he directed a beam of white light through a prism, then allowed the diffused colors to enter another prism, at which point they recombined as white light. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Newton gave to the array of colors in visible light the term spectrum, (plural, "spectra") meaning the continuous distribution of properties in an ordered arrangement across an unbroken range. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most of the times you see a firework of colors in space depending on the light around you, and the amount of pressure you press against the eyes. (abduzeedo.com)
  • EMR in the visible light region consists of quanta (called photons ) that are at the lower end of the energies that are capable of causing electronic excitation within molecules, which leads to changes in the bonding or chemistry of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This loudspeaker consists of a light-weight magnetic circuit with a higher magnetic-flux utilization rate and a high-rigidity light-weight frame. (sae.org)
  • One basic type of laser consists of a sealed tube, containing a pair of mirrors, and a laser medium that is excited by some form of energy to produce visible light, or invisible ultraviolet or infrared radiation. (fda.gov)
  • METRORail consists of three light-rail lines: The Red Line (North), Green Line (East End) and the Purple Line (Southeast). (houstontx.gov)
  • Today, the power of lasers, highly focused beams of high-intensity light, make possible a number of technologies used in everything from surgery to entertainment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It can be focused into a tight beam and can concentrate very high-intensity light at large distances from the laser. (fda.gov)
  • Alpha Centauri and Proxima Centauri, the stars nearest our solar system, are about 4.3 light-years distant. (infoplease.com)
  • d.light is a global leader in affordable solar lighting solutions for off-grid communities. (ebay.com)
  • Our solar-powered lanterns and solar home systems provide light to over 80 million people. (ebay.com)
  • Whatever the adventure, your d.light solar-powered lantern can handle it. (ebay.com)
  • Clear land areas, shown in lighter blue, reflect more solar energy. (nasa.gov)
  • Wisdom thinks, and makes a solar Drummond Light of a point of dull lime. (infoplease.com)
  • this is wasted light reflecting off the water particles that form clouds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even without clouds, light shoots into the sky and reflects off of tiny airborne dust and moisture particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study, released earlier this week , exposed breeding clownfish pairs to 12 hours of daylight followed by 12 hours under dim artificial lights. (forbes.com)
  • It appears that artificial lights can distract the young turtles from needed optical clues (e.g., the sky reflecting off the ocean) which would normally lead them to the sea shortly after hatching. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To address these challenges, NIOSH researchers developed the Saturn LED area light with the main objectives of reducing glare and increasing floor illumination to improve the ability of miners to see floor tripping hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • Light-Sport Aircraft Accepted Standards, FAA Notice of Availability (NOA) Information , the previously accepted consensus standard has been revised, and this NOA is accepting the later revision. (faa.gov)
  • Light-sport aircraft (LSA) manufacturers and owners/operators are encouraged to install parachute recovery systems and/or inflatable restraints to enhance safety in the operation of their aircraft. (faa.gov)
  • The Air Force issued its request for proposal to acquire a fleet of turboprop aircraft as part of its light attack effort. (military.com)
  • The new commander of SOCOM wants light attack aircraft to back his forces on the ground. (military.com)
  • The Air Force was supposed to publish a final RFP in December for a light attack aircraft, but it never happened. (military.com)
  • The U.S. Air Force has taken the initial steps to buy commercial, off-the-shelf aircraft for its light attack fleet. (military.com)
  • This Sources Sought Synopsis focused solely on the need to explore cost-effective acquisition options to provide a productionized, weaponized, certified, and existing single-engine, turbo-prop, tandem-seat, pressurized, retractable tricycle gear Advanced Flight Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft (AFT/LAA) capability for ANAAC. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In April 2010, the US Air Force announced its intention to acquire a Light Air Support (LAS) aircraft for use by the Afghanistan National Army Air Corps (ANAAC) and other future customers. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The purpose of the contract was the acquisition of non-developmental Light Air Support Aircraft (LAS) for existing and future building partnership capacity nations. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) are a technology borrowed from liquid crystal displays. (ehow.com)
  • What is circadian-friendly: a light that is still white, but minimizes blue in its color spectrum. (google.com)
  • A softbox is a simple enclosure with a silver reflective interior and a white diffusion layer that goes over a light. (adobe.com)
  • The Saturn light used an array of 12 cool-white LEDs that provide lighting similar to natural daylight. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 LED xenon white LED light, super bright LED provide maximum visibility and safety. (ebay.com)
  • Supposing you brought the light inside of the body, which you could do either through the skin or in some other way,' Trump said during the daily White House coronavirus task force briefing. (freerepublic.com)
  • Choosing a single light source,…and working in black and white, can make it easier. (lynda.com)
  • The primary properties of visible light are intensity , propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum , and polarization , while its speed in a vacuum , 299,792,458 meters per second, is one of the fundamental constants of nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visible light, as with all types of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), is experimentally found to always move at this speed in a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299 792 458 m/s (approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the greatest unanswered questions about the nature of the universe are related to light, the vacuum (i.e. space where neither matter nor radiation exists), and their relationship with time. (freerepublic.com)
  • Ted Ducker, who goes by Outabounds on Flickr, has a simpler approach to light painting than Dennis Calvert (will link to Dennis Calvert slideshow). (slate.com)
  • I'm talking about the experiments of Alan Jaras, a "light photographer", on flickr. (abduzeedo.com)
  • American Light makes a fresh and comprehensive examination of the culminating phase of Hudson River painting, now commonly called luminism. (nga.gov)
  • Nearby shorter and longer wavelength ranges, although not visible, are commonly called ultraviolet and infrared light. (wiktionary.org)
  • exactly one year later Construction is quickly progressing on the $912 million facility, which will be the world's most brilliant light source. (scienceblogs.com)
  • For light that cannot be seen with human eye, see Electromagnetic radiation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be perceived by the human eye . (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all types of EM radiation, visible light propagates as waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light is a form of energy called electromagnetic radiation. (amnh.org)
  • The human eye can typically detect radiation (light) in the wavelength range of about 400 to 750 nanometers . (wiktionary.org)
  • She stood for a moment holding her skirt above the grimy steps, [ … ] , and the light of the reflector fell full upon her. (wiktionary.org)
  • One of the most versatile and cost-effective light modifiers you can pick up is a 5-in-1 reflector kit. (adobe.com)
  • Or if you want to diffuse harsh light, simply unzip the reflector layer and position the diffuser in between your subject and the light source. (adobe.com)
  • While the lasers themselves can cause injuries, laser light shows that are produced in accordance with FDA regulations keep hazardous lasers away from the audience. (fda.gov)
  • Plant growth is also affected by the colour spectrum of light, a process known as photomorphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single area of light pollution could lead to impacts to surrounding reefs that are still relatively dark at night. (forbes.com)
  • Impacts of artificial light could spread to other reefs, while attracting young fish to an environment where their young likely won't hatch. (forbes.com)
  • Regulations on the type of light and orientation (facing down, rather than out), may help reduce impacts of light pollution on clownfish and other marine species. (forbes.com)
  • In fact, in this study, the researchers found that impacts on clownfish reproduction disappeared as soon as they returned the clownfish to normal light-dark cycles. (forbes.com)
  • Wish you could visit the Spook Light but can't make the drive? (google.com)
  • But some materials (like air, glass, or water) can actually make light bend and slow down. (amnh.org)
  • Below, we'll look at some examples using four particularly common light verbs that have a variety of different meanings- do, make, get , and take . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There's no need to avoid outdoor shoots or midday shoots to make diffused light images, however. (adobe.com)
  • You don't need a lot of equipment to make soft light," says Gaskins. (adobe.com)
  • To make it worse, the light then usually turns on anyway. (apple.com)
  • They also make a great addition to your at-home emergency kit - keeping the light on even when the power goes out. (ebay.com)
  • People with polymorphic light eruption are at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency, as a certain amount of sun exposure is needed to make your own vitamin D . Your GP will advise whether you need treatment with vitamin D supplements. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The light can trick microphones and make the devices react as if they are receiving audio. (freerepublic.com)
  • One of the coolest ideas is to make sweet light graffiti with this camera option. (abduzeedo.com)
  • As an illustrator obsessed with light…as an element of composition,…I can tell you that if you do incorporate…a light source in your work,…it's essential that you make it believable. (lynda.com)
  • Though, multiple light sources,…with once source being the primary source of light,…can also make figures appear more dimensional. (lynda.com)
  • [2] Because it includes the word " year ", the term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • [20] He recognized that his readers would enjoy the mental picture of the approximate transit time for light, but he refrained from using the light-year as a unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells absorb the light, which accelerates tissue repair and speeds up recovery time. (angelfire.com)
  • As consciousness is acquired and the body prepared (I will add specific information about this later on as I get the time) the light will no longer have blockages (will write about those too) to go through in order to reach the human body. (angelfire.com)
  • He concluded that when Io was farther away, it was taking more time for its light to reach Earth, making it seem to appear later. (amnh.org)
  • Having developed the light using proven scientific principles, we hope to bring healthy illumination for night-time tasks. (google.com)
  • The idea was born out of the need to have a better, more patient-friendly night-time illumination for caregivers in hospital rooms (notorious for poor sleep and vulnerable to light disruption). (google.com)
  • At the foot of the pier stands a bridge that is only wide enough for a single car at a time, and drivers take turns with no light to direct them (apparently, Kronstadt only has one traffic light on the entire island). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Those of you who nominated the LIFX noted that it's incredibly versatile, and since you can control the lighting in your home from your smartphone at any time, you can have the lights up in your home before you open the door, program different areas of your home to suit your tastes, and that the mobile apps are available for both iOS and Android, which is a nice perk. (lifehacker.com)
  • It lights instantly with power, so no warm-up time required. (lifehacker.com)
  • The University of Queensland) =============================================================== Like watching a movie in reverse, physicists have just demonstrated a new technique for the time-reversal of a wave of optical light. (freerepublic.com)
  • It's the first time that time reversal of optical waves has been achieved with full control over all of the degrees of freedom of light simultaneously. (freerepublic.com)
  • These light levels simulate the artificial light exposure of near-shore reef communities, such as reefs just offshore a small city. (forbes.com)
  • Again, like all of Calvert's images, this effect was created entirely by playing with a long exposure and moving various lights around. (slate.com)
  • An ordinary light switch provides an example of a situation in which there is an excluded middle: there is nothing between "on" and "off. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A Web developer in Culmann, Ala. (dry since Prohibition, Calvert tells me, until just recently), he found the tools he needed for his new hobby in the local Wal-Mart's camping and automotive sections: glow sticks, flashlights, electric tent lights, and other devices used by Alabamans to trick out their dashboards. (slate.com)
  • Many animals with eyes that do not require lenses (such as insects and shrimp) are able to detect ultraviolet, by quantum photon-absorption mechanisms, in much the same chemical way that humans detect visible light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visit Real Spook Light on Facebook , Twitter , and YouTube you can also contact the Real Spook Light by messaging us on facebook with any questions, comments, corrections or additions. (google.com)
  • Visit the Real Spook Light on Facebook for updates and discussions managed from 10 miles Southeast of Spook Light Road. (google.com)
  • Historically, another important source of light for humans has been fire , from ancient campfires to modern kerosene lamps . (wikipedia.org)
  • The roof bolter light sources were compact fluorescent lamps shrouded by yellowish-orange polycarbonate globes intended to reduce glare and to protect the lamps. (cdc.gov)
  • Hard light, or direct light, creates high-contrast scenes with harsh shadows and sharp, bright highlights. (adobe.com)
  • You can take this light we use to perceive the whole world and bend it in a way that creates science fiction and pure fantasy," he says. (slate.com)
  • From the deepest recesses of the ocean to hundreds of miles above earth, Canon's renowned imaging technology enables researchers, professional photographers, cinematographers and even astronauts to shoot impactful, clear, crisp imagery, even in extremely low-light conditions. (canon.com)
  • Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have developed the Saturn LED area light that significantly improves illumination for roof bolting machines in underground mines, thereby enhancing safety by reducing injuries to miners. (cdc.gov)
  • An international collaboration of researchers has recently made a breakthrough in remotely controlling meta-atoms by illuminating them with a pattern of visible light. (aps.org)
  • In an effort to assess the magnitude of the light pollution problem, a comprehensive World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness was produced in 2001 by researchers at the University of Padua , Italy, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers also say they can use light commands. (freerepublic.com)
  • However, as a research team from TU Wien (Vienna) and Utrecht University (Netherlands) has now been able to show, there is a class of very special light waves for which this does not apply: for any specific disordered medium-such as the sugar cube you may just have put in your coffee-tailor-made light beams can be constructed that are practically not changed by this medium, but only attenuated. (freerepublic.com)
  • In the early 17th century, Galileo tried to measure the speed of light by flashing lanterns from hilltops about one mile apart. (amnh.org)
  • There are some pretty good pictures out there of this effect, and some feature blurred, colorful lights, which are just beautiful. (abduzeedo.com)
  • Either can be used as a directional light (light that hits a subject at an angle other than 90 or 270 degrees), but when a soft light source hits a subject from a lower angle it leads to lower-contrast images - and produces scenes with softer shadows and highlights. (adobe.com)
  • While it may seem illogical, "the closer a light source is to your subject, the softer it becomes," says Gaskins. (adobe.com)
  • Construction on Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) -- which will allow scientists to explore everything from fuel cell catalysts and soil samples to molecules vital for human life -- has passed the 50-percent completion mark. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A little more than one year ago, on the day of its groundbreaking ceremony, the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) construction site was nothing more than a whole lot of dirt. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Eh, what's a "light source? (scienceblogs.com)
  • c. 965-1039), sometimes called the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages , showed that light comes from a source such as the Sun , and reflects from an object to the eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That connection between the source of this light and the focus of our lives is important. (csmonitor.com)
  • and his rich legacy of truth can be to us an eternal source of light and healing in our own lives. (csmonitor.com)
  • The message and the magic are lost…when you don't stay true to some basic rules…of achieving a convincing and evocative light source. (lynda.com)
  • The light-year unit appeared a few years after the first successful measurement of the distance to a star other than the Sun, by Friedrich Bessel in 1838. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bessel added that light employs 10.3 years to traverse this distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • He may have resented expressing distances in light-years because it would deteriorate the accuracy of his parallax data due to multiplying with the uncertain parameter of the speed of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The closest star to our Sun, Proxima Centauri, is about four light-years away. (amnh.org)
  • Magoon's governorship in Cuba was viewed in a negative light by many Cuban historians for years thereafter. (wiktionary.org)
  • Calvert began experimenting with light only about two years ago. (slate.com)
  • Like many of those now regarded as masters, he's only been playing with light for about two years. (slate.com)
  • Her hair is black as the inmost secret of light in a perfectly cut diamond, a perilous black, a secret light that must have been studied for many years before the anxious and disciplined craftsman could achieve the necessary balance between courage and skill to stroke the strange stone and take the one chance he would ever have to bring that secret to light. (poets.org)
  • Sometimes, the meaning of different light verbs can overlap if they share a common predicate . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The light which puts out our eyes is darkness to us. (scienceblogs.com)
  • He ``hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light'' is what I thought. (csmonitor.com)
  • Jesus said, ``I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. (csmonitor.com)
  • Mary Baker Eddy, the Discoverer and Founder of Christian Science, writes, ``Christianity causes men to turn naturally from matter to Spirit, as the flower turns from darkness to light. (csmonitor.com)
  • Light painting spreads more easily than the zombie virus. (slate.com)
  • For example, you can set your bathroom to soothing, dimmer light, and your office with brighter, more energetic lighting if you prefer. (lifehacker.com)