A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.

Comparison of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and cell culture for detection of pharyngeal carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis. (1/83)

In 264 genitourinary medicine clinic attenders reporting recent fellatio, the prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis determined by an expanded standard including cell culture and two in-house PCR tests was 1.5% in 194 women and zero in 70 men. The ligase chain reaction (Abbott LCx) had a specificity of 99.2% and a positive predictive value of 60%.  (+info)

Efficient site-specific nonribozyme opening of hepatitis delta virus genomic RNA in infected livers. (2/83)

Examination of the 1,679-nucleotide (nt) unit-length hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNAs in the livers of two HDV-infected woodchucks showed that 96% of the antigenomic RNA but only 50% of the genomic RNA was circular. We subsequently found that at least half of the linear unit-length genomic RNA was open at a unique location. Using a modified form of RNA ligation-mediated amplification of cDNA ends, we showed that the 5' end was located at nt 1212. Like the previously described ribozyme cleavage site at nt 686, the new site produced a 5'-OH. Nevertheless, we showed that this novel site was not produced by activity of the HDV genomic ribozyme. We speculate that the 5' end at nt 1212 reflects a preferred site of posttranscriptional endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic RNA.  (+info)

The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. (3/83)

BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.  (+info)

Evaluation of nucleic acid amplification tests as reference tests for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic men. (4/83)

Urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR tests and urethral swab culture were compared for their abilities to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 3,639 asymptomatic men by using one-, two-, and three-test reference standards. Frozen urine at four of five participating centers was also tested by a transcription-mediated amplification assay which was used as a reference test. LCR increased the yield of positive results by 27% and PCR increased the yield of positive results by 26% over the yield of positive results by culture (n = 295). LCR and PCR sensitivities were similar, ranging from 80.4 to 93.5%, depending on the reference standard. Culture sensitivity was substantially less. A multiple-test standard yielded LCR, PCR, and culture specificities of 99.6%, with or without discrepant analysis. Test performance varied among centers partly due to different interpretations of the testing protocols. The study confirms that urine LCR and PCR for the detection of C. trachomatis have substantially improved sensitivities over that of urethral swab culture for testing of asymptomatic men, enabling screening of this important target group. These tests, perhaps in combination, are also candidate reference tests for the conduct of test evaluation studies.  (+info)

Optimised sample DNA preparation for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue by polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction. (5/83)

OBJECTIVE: Molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR) are routinely used in research for detection of C trachomatis DNA in synovial samples, and these methods are now in use in some clinical laboratories. This study aimed at determining the method best suited to molecular diagnosis of C trachomatis by examining four standard DNA preparation methods using chlamydia spiked synovial tissue and chlamydia infected monocytes. METHODS: Synovial tissue from a chlamydia negative patient with rheumatoid arthritis was spiked with defined numbers of C trachomatis elementary bodies (EB). Purified human peripheral monocytes from normal donors were infected with the organism at a multiplicity of infection 1:1 in vitro and harvested after four days. DNA was prepared from all samples by four methods: (1) QIAmp tissue kit; (2) homogenisation in 65 degrees C phenol; (3) incubation at 97 degrees C; (4) proteinase K digestion at 97 degrees C. DNA from methods 1 and 2 was subjected to PCR using two different primer sets, each targeting the C trachomatis omp1 gene. LCR was done on DNA prepared by each method. RESULTS: In synovial tissue samples spiked with EB, and in monocytes persistently infected with the organism, preparation of template using the QIAmp tissue kit (method 1) and the hot phenol extraction technique (method 2) allowed sensitive detection of C trachomatis DNA. These methods also produced template from both sample types for LCR. DNA prepared by heat denaturation (method 3) allowed only low sensitivity chlamydia detection in LCR and did not work at all for PCR. Proteinase K digestion plus heat denaturation (method 4) gave template that did not allow amplification in either PCR or LCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of detection for C trachomatis DNA in synovial tissue by PCR and LCR depends strongly on the method used for preparation of the amplification template. LCR targeting the multicopy chlamydial plasmid and two nested PCR assay systems targeting the single copy omp1 gene showed roughly equivalent sensitivity. Importantly, template preparation method and the specific PCR primer system used for screening must be optimised in relation to one another for highest sensitivity.  (+info)

Clinical aspects of diagnosis of gonorrhea and Chlamydia infection in an acute care setting. (6/83)

We found a 10.4% prevalence of unrecognized genital gonorrhea and Chlamydia infection among young adults of an urban emergency department. Intensified detection and treatment policies are needed to prevent continued transmission and complications of sexually transmitted infections.  (+info)

Emergency department screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections. (7/83)

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of asymptomatic genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among emergency department patients. METHODS: Individuals seeking emergency department evaluation for nongenitourinary complaints provided urine samples for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis testing by ligase chain reaction and completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. RESULTS: Asymptomatic N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis was found in 9.7% of persons tested. Correlates of C trachomatis infection included younger age, residence in high-morbidity zip code areas, previous history of N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis, and number of sex partners in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Urine-based screening of asymptomatic emergency department patients detected significant numbers of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infections. Targeted screening programs may contribute to community-level prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections.  (+info)

Is the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA by ligase chain reaction worth the cost: experiences from an inner London teaching hospital. (8/83)

AIMS: To evaluate the clinical usefulness and the costs of using a rapid, commercial ligase chain reaction test (LCx) to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical samples. METHODS: A prospective study of 2120 routine clinical specimens from 1161 patients over a 13 month period. Investigations for mycobacterial disease by microscopy, culture, and the Abbott LCx assay were performed. Sequential LCx assays were monitored in a cohort of patients undergoing treatment. The costs of the assay were calculated using the WELCAN system. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the LCx assay were compared with conventional tests. The performance of the assay in patients undergoing treatment and cost in terms of WELCAN units converted to pounds/annum was studied. RESULTS: The assay was 85%/88% sensitive and 98%/100% specific in culture confirmed/clinically confirmed cases of tuberculosis, respectively. The assay was not useful for the measurement of treatment outcomes. The test cost approximately 42,500 Pounds/annum. CONCLUSIONS: The assay is a rapid, sensitive, and specific adjunct to clinical diagnosis, especially in differentiating non-tuberculous mycobacteria. However, it does not differentiate old and treated tuberculosis from reactivated disease, it is not useful to monitor adherence to treatment, and it is expensive.  (+info)

The increased sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests such as ligase chain reaction (LCR) have the potential to simplify specimen collection for gonorrhea diagnosis. In this study patients took their own vaginal swab specimens for gonorrhea culture and LCR testing. Immediately following specimen collection by patients, a trained clinician obtained endocervical swab specimens for the same tests. By using LCR to diagnose gonorrhea, 54 (17.5%) of 309 patients had positive tests. Forty-five patients with positive cervical LCR tests also had positive vaginal LCR tests; for one patient, only a cervical LCR specimen was positive, and for eight patients, only vaginal specimens were positive. For specimens from patients whose gonorrhea cultures were positive, all vaginal swab specimens were positive by LCR and 42 (91%) of 46 cervical swab specimens were positive by LCR. LCR-positive specimens from eight patients with negative cultures (four with positive vaginal specimens only, one with a ...
The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. While the better-known PCR carries out the amplification by polymerizing nucleotides, LCR instead amplifies the nucleic acid used as the probe. For each of the two DNA strands, two partial probes are ligated to form the actual one; thus, LCR uses two enzymes: a DNA polymerase (used for initial template amplification and then inactivated) and a thermostable DNA ligase. Each cycle results in a doubling of the target nucleic acid molecule. A key advantage of LCR is greater specificity as compared to PCR. It has been widely used for the detection of single base mutations, as in genetic diseases. LCR and PCR may be used to detect gonorrhea and chlamydia, and may be performed on first-catch urine samples, providing easy collection and a large yield of organisms. Endogenous inhibitors limit the sensitivity, but if this effect could be eliminated, LCR and PCR would have clinical advantages over any other methods of diagnosing gonorrhea ...
Radio Frequency waves are widely used for the purpose of radio communication. Active research in Radio Frequency technology has led to the use of RF waves in variety of application other than radio communication. Phase shifters are a major functional block in RF transmission circuits. In radio communication, phase shifters are used for electronic beam steering of the transmitted RF waves. Due to the increase in RF application area, there is a demand for phase shifters which have high performance with very less cost and also very less power consumption.. This thesis work focuses on designing phase shifters for different ISM frequency bands. This thesis work has been divided into two sections. The first section focuses on building a discrete phase shifter circuit which has very high performance with less cost and less power consumption. This circuit can perform phase shifting function on RF waves with low power. This phase shifter circuit was built with four phase shifter sections and each of the ...
Torque Solution continues to push the limits of high performance aftermarket products with our NEW Shock Factor Shifter Bushings. Developed to perform under the most extreme conditions, Shock Factor Shifter Bushings bridge the gap between ordinary aluminum, brass, and cheap plastics used in current aftermarket shifter bushings by offering a unique Delrin specifically chosen by Torque Solution engineers to ensure product performance and reliability while drastically reducing shifter end play allowing for crisper, more precise shifts. All this makes it easy for us to stand behind our shifter bushings with a lifetime warranty.. Street or Track Shock Factor Shifter Bushings will always get you in gear!!! ...
Sublobar resection for early-stage lung cancer has been used for patients who are not candidates for lobar resection. However, sublobar resection is associated with high local recurrence rates in the context of tumor-free parenchymal margins. The mechanism underlying this high recurrence rate is not well understood. We hypothesized that this elevated risk of local recurrence is due to undetected tumor cells present at parenchymal margins thought to be negative by conventional light microscopy. Thirteen of 44 patients who underwent sublobar resection for lung cancer were found to have a k-ras mutation at codon 12.1. A novel fluorescence-based assay for detection of rare copies of mutant DNA in a background of wild-type DNA, fluorescent gap ligase chain reaction, was used to quantitate the mutant/wild-type DNA in a range of 1 to 1/10,000 in histologically normal margins from these resections. Nine of 13 patients had at least one margin with the number of mutant cells over or equal to a threshold ...
CDKN2BAS gene polymorphisms has been shown to correlation with intracranial aneurysm(IA) in the study of foreign people. The study, the author selected the Chinese people as the research object to explore whether CDKN2BAS gene polymorphisms associated with Chinese patients with IA. We selected 200 patients(52.69 ± 11.50) with sporadic IA as experimental group, 200 participants(49.99 ± 13.00) over the same period to the hospital without cerebrovascular diseases as control group. Extraction of peripheral blood DNA, applying polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-ligase detection reaction (LDR) identified CDKN2BAS Single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) locus genotype: rs6475606, rs1333040, rs10757272, rs3217992, rs974336, rs3217986, rs1063192. The differences in allelic and genotype frequencies between the patient and control groups were evaluated by the chi-square test or Fishers exact tests. The genotype of rs1333040 and rs6475606 shown association with sporadic IA(X2 = 8.545, P = 0.014; X2 = 10.961, P = 0.004;
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) subunit gene and alcohol dependence by the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: Two hundred and forty-eight male alcohol-dependent patients and 235 male control subjects were recruited. Ten SNPs in the GRM3 region were studied, and genotyping of SNPs was performed by ligase detection reactions. Results: We found highly significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of rs6465084 between the alcohol-dependent and control group, with the greater frequency of A allele of SNP rs6465084 in alcohol-dependent group. We also found significant differences of haplotype frequencies in five combinations (including TAATATT, CAGTATT, TCGTATT, CAATAGC, TAATATC) in the linkage disequilibrium constructed by seven SNPs between the groups. Conclusion: Our results supplied the first evidence that the polymorphism of GRM3 gene associates with the morbidity of alcohol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Guanidinoethane sulfate. T2 - Brain pH alkaline shifter. AU - Nakada, T.. AU - Kwee, Ingrid. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - A new category of agents, brain pH alkaline shifters, is described. Using the prototype agent, guanidinoethane sulfate (GES), the actual alkaline shift in pH was demonstrated in adult mice brain by 31-phosphorus (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo spectroscopy. This alkaline shift was also shown to effectively reduce the extent of brain intracellular lactic acidosis brought about by anoxic insult. These findings support the notion that a pH alkaline shift may protect the brain against the deleterious effects of lactic acidosis. Since higher pH has been shown to significantly reduce beta-amyloid deposition, alkaline shifters may also have therapeutic potential in Alzheimers disease.. AB - A new category of agents, brain pH alkaline shifters, is described. Using the prototype agent, guanidinoethane sulfate (GES), the actual alkaline shift in pH was ...
A data repacker utilizing a multiplexer, one intermediate register, two shifters, and a control for these circuits. The multiplexer output is connected to the intermediate register, which has a storage length greater than the size of data words to be repacked. The first shifter receives the output of the register, and its output can be concatenated with an input data word to form one input to the multiplexer. The output of the register is provided as another input to the multiplexer. The second shifter also receives the output of the multiplexer, and has an output which is the repacker output. Information representing the number of bits in and the number of bits out is used to determine the most and least significant bits of the intermediate data which will be stored in the intermediate register, and to control the shifters.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies related to infectious diseases in womens health. Articles on the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases, genital and urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy will be considered, among other subject areas. Emerging research on the microbiome is also particularly welcomed. The journal aims to disseminate research that will improve the care given to women in the face of current and emerging gynecological infectious diseases.
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Clinical Microbiology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Torque Solution shifter base bushing kit replaces the OEM rubber bushings on the bottom of the shifter providing a more stable shifter platform and mounting points. This yeilds improved shifting feel and characteristics for years of enjoyment.All kits are CNC machined from billet 6061-T6 aircraft grade aluminum using strict tolerances to ensure a better than stock fit and the highest level of performance possible. ...
Buy Sheep Shifter tickets from the Official Ticketmaster UK site. Find Sheep Shifter tour dates, event details, reviews and much more.
[123 Pages Report] Advanced Gear Shifter System Market report categorizes the global market by Technology (Automatic Shifter, Shift-by-Wire), Component (Can Module, ECU, Solenoid Actuator), Vehicle Type (Light Duty Vehicles, Commercial Vehicles), EV Type, and Region.
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View Mump 0101 12 Z+automatic Shifter Rebuild+installation Complete - Photo 8953766 from 1966 Ford Mustang - Project 66 - 1965-1968 Automatic Shifter Rebuild
This is a one week project. Later, full-blown agriculture dominated, as wild plants were used more rarely. The clients skin should be dry and free of any oils and lotions. Full blown racer. Were beginning to see a shift in hardware infrastructures, from ASIC chips connected via USB in the home to full fledged rack mountable servers in large datacenters. Cabinet ministers were preparing for EU chiefs to. Full Blown CD009 Shifter Kit Add to Cart. Elena Popina, sent anxiety swirling that a full-blown easing period isnt at hand. com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. As towns grow larger and areas become incorporated, theres an increased demand for services. 10Irrespective of whether the respiratory event is a full blown apnoea, a hypopnoea, or an episode of upper airway resistance, the associated arousal is accompanied by changes in heart rate and by a transient burst of sympathetic. We offer the best prices around, and we wont be beat! Check out www. While your initial ...
SOURCE: BLU-RAY (OWN COLLECTION). One of my favorite things about Tremors is that it actually has a LOW body count. While some horror fans equate success by the number of kills per hour, Id much rather folks were continually in danger, darting from location to location while trying to figure out how to stop their enemy. So with that in mind, I must say I enjoyed Metal Shifters, despite the cheapness (and an awful title), because unlike most Syfy movies less than half of the cast got killed, but I never stopped believing many of them COULD be killed.. Intentional or not, it was pretty smart of writer/director Paul Ziller (also behind the above average Sea Beast) to kill off a certain character early on, because the way that the movie was designed up until that point, you would think it would be about these two particular characters, not unlike Tremors Kevin Bacon and Fred Ward (or to use a Syfy example, the frenemies in Ice Road Terror), making his death not only somewhat shocking, but also ...
Athena 11 with fd-6800 here, two clicks on the lever to make a full shift on 4500 cranks/rings. There are other reports of Campy 11 shifters with 6800/9000 fds on this board too ...
An interrogator provides a phase shifter including a first power divider configured to receive a signal and provide plural quadrature components of the signal; plural mixers coupled with the first power divider and configured to scale the quadrature components using a phase shift angle; and a second power divider coupled with the mixers and configured to combine the scaled quadrature components to shift the phase angle of the input signal by the phase shift angle.
if you fit a new chain, fit either a 7/8-speed derailleur chain, or a narrow single-speed one like the SRAM PC-1.. Fitting the shifter and cables:. - Fit the shifter to the right handlebar - youll need to cut down the handlebar grip a bit, and it should go with the cable to the front of the brake lever, not behind. If space is cramped, you can usually move the brake lever inboard a bit too. Make sure the shifter doesnt restrict movement of the brake lever ...
If there was ever a sound of Max, then this device embodies it. Loop Shifter uses MIDI notes as triggers for playback states, with each MIDI note representing a playback state (a combination of playback rate, loop points and filter settings). The Loop Shifter uses a morphing transition between states, an auto-mapping system and an auto-play mode that randomly chooses MIDI notes for automatic state selection. Although the Loop Shifter is a relatively simple device, these functions dont exist in any other commercial looper ...
Although complexity is the rule as opposed to the exception, there are some consistencies in manufactured goods. Examples include manufacturers who produce components that suit the drive-trains of others, a tendency to standardize spline patterns for cassettes on the most popular brand name, and the standardized pitch (inter-cog spacing) for 7-speed cog-sets.. Some SRAM shifters, for example, GripShift types marked as MRX, are suitable for Shimano systems, since these shifters suit the so-called 2 : 1 family of Shimano derailleurs; in fact their shift ratios are not exactly 2 but 1.7. (Shift ratio is the reciprocal of actuation ratio which is itself the ratio of input change to output change, so here, one length of cable pull causes a transverse movement that exceeds it by 1.7 times). Other shifters by the same SRAM manufacturer, are suited to the 1:1 family of derailleurs; (with exact 1.1 shift ratios), and so these do not match the Shimano derailleurs. The subject of compatibility in ...
Leggi Bear Attraction A Shifters Unbound Novella di Jennifer Ashley con Rakuten Kobo. Jennifer Ashleys New York Times bestselling Shifters Unbound series continues as a Shifter and a human are faced with t...
DNA microarrays have the potential to be useful in fast and efficient monitoring of complex microbic environment but the conventional array platforms may suffer from nonspecific background signals and low sensitivity. We have applied the ligation detection reaction (LDR) microarray method for municipal biowaste compost samples to develop a tool for monitoring the fungal species contributing to different phases of the decomposition process and to demonstrate the feasibility of LDR microarray for species-level detection from complex microbial communities. Previously, LDR has been successfully applied to detecting microbes from environmental samples [19-21]. These studies report 1-5 fmol sensitivity at 5% of total DNA using genus consensus sequences in probe design and group-selective PCR primers in template amplification. Better sensitivity has been achieved by PCR amplifying the ligation products [24, 47] but this approach requires long circulazing oligonucleotide probes, nuclease treatments and ...
Interesting older Carbon Y frame with quite the custom paint job on it. With love and understanding, I am sure this bike can go again. It is a large, 19 from center to top. I checked the carbon and found no cracks in the frame. Their is a small hole drilled next to the head tube as seen in picture as well as a large chip by the blues brothers looking dudes. Yes it is a woman painted on there. The bike also comes with manitou axel fork that the stanchions have some oxidation on them. Has LX front and rear derailluers, wheels are decent with ritchey zero hubs, cane creek headset, 9spd cassette, mismatched brakes as well as 1 grip shifter and 1 deore rapid fire shifter, dia compe brake levers and system 2 bar and stem. I probably have a few smalls I can throw in as well with the bike. I am hoping for the money I am asking, someone will want to bring her back and let her feel the road and trails again. ...
Innate immunity, the first line of defense against infectious pathogens and cancer cells, relies on a variety of cell types to carry out its pathogen-fighting and clean-up functions. Resident cells present in most tissues serve as sentinels, detect danger signals and send for help. Phagocytic cells-such as macrophages and neutrophils-respond to the call, infiltrate the […]. ...
My rig has an interesting story behind it. I got hit head on by an uninsured suv in oct of 09 while riding my vtx retro, I lost my left leg above the knee so riding two wheel bikes seemed out of the question for me. I looked at a real nice ural t up in boxboro ma but my wife wanted me to wait till the mortgage was paid off before i put that kind of money on a new bike. I didnt feel like waiting two and a half years to get a rig so I decided to make my own rig. I had an old kz650 sitting in the shed for years so I decided to use that for my mule, then I bought a california sidecar from a guy down the cape and I found a used klicktronic shifter online. I got the bike running again and a buddy of mine did the install on the hack and I installed the klicktronic shifter and the rest is history. The rig is a little underpowered but is fine for me riding alone. I will probably put a bigger bike on the rig in a year or two. Ive grown very attached to this rig in the past 8 months Im glad I built it ...
Speed is important as it engages more muscle fibres, fires up more mitochondria ( the fat burning furnaces in each cell) and builds more strength. Good form matters as injury will slow if not halt your progress. Always err on the side of caution.. Then do 3 - 4 sets in circuit fashion (3 reps of Deadlifts, rest long enough to get your breath back, then 3 reps of Overhead Press, rest long enough to get your breath back then back to Deadlifts again and repeat for 3-4 times). That is the first part of the workout on day 1, next you move to part 2 which is the metabolic circuits.. For these you need to set up several sets of different dumbbells. You need different weights as you will be able to handle different ones depending upon the exercise. For example you can hold a larger weight for the walking lunges than you can curl on the step ups. Again aim for speed with good form.. Put your equipment back and go home and eat a meal high in protein, moderate carbs and low fat. Because you are trying to ...
I have been a fan of Gail Carriger for YEARS. Her series The Parasol Protectorate has been one of my favorites since reading it for the first time like six years ago. Ive read some of her short stories as well which have a distinguishable cheek. I love just about everything she puts out. I…
I have a Rotor 3d+ SRM crank on its way with Q-rings and will be using it with the 2012 yaw FD. I also have the 2012 shifters ready to slap on the new build, but Caleys research and article has me thinking that the new shifters were a completely unnecessary (and possibly counterproductive) purchase ...
Fiat Chrysler is recalling nearly 1.8 million Ram trucks because they can be shifted out of park without the drivers foot on the brake.
I am the author of the Never-Before-Seen-Concept of ANIMAL GRAPH, and am the Robot Girl, focusing on robots in dystopia. I grew up partly in California viewing mountains outside my window, and then Florida under the warm sun. After graduating UCF in Creative Writing I traveled extensively in Asia for eight years. I began writing THE PARANORMAL novels in 2009, and the ENTER TOMORROW dystopian novels in 2014 (though released in 2017 ...
Think of this 221 million people worldwide suffer from some form of diabetes and nearly all of them are in societies that follow a Western diet. America has over 13 million of these folk alone…. It is a no-brainer over fat folk have a much greater risk of developing chronic debilitating disease than lean folk.. Get too fat? Get Sick!! Like diabetes, heart disease has risen dramatically side by side with obesity - again in those countries & societies that follow the typical Western diet. Heart troubles are amongst the most preventable of diseases. If you are over fat you stand a 10 -50% greater chance of dying from obesity related condition - and heart disease is the main one.. Chronic diseases can possibly lead to premature death.. Being just a few pounds over fat starts you down a dangerous path.. The answer is the same as it has always been - by actively seeking to recondition your metabolism you can alter your bodys make up, drop the extra fat, release more of the good hormones, reset you ...
Hey everyone, I would like to know if any one can maybe help me identify what might be my problem... When the bike is running, it will shift from 1st to 3rd gear, and then jam in 3rd as if the motor just seized... And then takes like 5-10 minutes to unjam the tranny by jiggling the shifter. Or so...
A nice ready-to-ride 50cm Roadini, for riders with PBHs between 77.5 to 83 or so. Fairly standard Riv-Spec with the exception of the super fancy TRP calipers (they retail for over $150) and the asym shifter set up. Nice handbuilt road wheels and comfy chunky TRP levers. The saddle isnt included but the seatpost and pe
Truthday Tuesday: 5 - 10 - 16 Hey All you Sexy Shifters and High Vibe Humans! Breezy Here with another whirlwind update!  As you may or may not know…
No unfortunately not, Ill add that to the list. It looks like a bit of a tricky one, seems to be caused by the shifter getting into a confused state and shifting the screen by a word. We have quite a few demos that do the same thing, very tricky to emulate as the chip is so flakey when border removal is involved. For instance the hidden screen in the Oh Crickey What A Scorcher demo is in two parts, the first displays perfectly, the second is shifted by a word, but they use the same side border removal code ...
Was running fine, I had to drain trans and diff to replace shifter shaft seal. Pulled rear drain plug and bam, redirected the next month of my life....
ligase chain reaction answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Torque Solution continues to push the limits of high performance aftermarket products with our NEW Shock Factor Shifter Bushings. Developed to perform under the most extreme conditions, Shock Factor Shifter Bushings bridge the gap between ordinary aluminum, brass, and cheap plastics used in current aftermarket shifter bushings by offering a unique Delrin specifically chosen by Torque Solution engineers to ensure product performance and reliability while drastically reducing shifter end play allowing for crisper, more precise shifts. All this makes it easy for us to stand behind our shifter bushings with a lifetime warranty.. Street or Track Shock Factor Shifter Bushings will always get you in gear!!! ...
A cross-sectional survey of 1216 newly pregnant women (mean age = 31 years) from 32 general practices and five family planning clinics was conducted to find the prevalence of chlamydial infection and to evaluate self-administered vaginal swabs and first-pass urines for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction assay. Overall prevalence of infection was 2.4% (95% CI = 1.5 to 3.3) but in women aged less than 25 years it was 8.6% (95% CI = 4.1 to 12.9) and in pregnant teenagers it was 14.3% (95% CI = 3.7 to 24.9). In 1161 women with both swab and urine results, 25 women were positive on both specimens three on swab alone, and one on urine alone. When asked which they preferred to provide, 47% said urine, 59 swab and 48% preferred both equally. This is the first study to show that non-invasive screening in early pregnancy is feasible in the community. Although swabs detected 10% more infections, nearly half the women preferred providing urine specimens. ...
Hello there! Welcome to my first Brimrose Blog. My name is Mark, and Ive been a test engineer here for about 20 years. If I am being a bit informal, I am new to blogging, so please excuse me. If you are new to Brimrose, or acousto optics, Ill try to enlighten you a bit as to what we do, and why people pay for it. So, as my mother asks me, what do you do? Basically, we help our customer manipulate light. Well, thats fine you say, but what good is it? That turns out to be a rather interesting question, especially if you have a heart…. About ten years ago, a U.S. research hospital ordered some frequency shifters. A frequency shifter slightly changes the frequency of the light going through it; another way of looking at frequency shifting is frequency shifters change the color of the light passing through them toward more blue (upshift) or more red (downshift.) A short while later, the same research hospital ordered some more units; well, good, I thought, a repeat customer. Then a ...
A nucleic acid test (NAT) or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is a molecular technique used to detect a particular pathogen (virus or bacterium) in a specimen of blood or other tissue or body fluid. It does so by detecting and amplifying the RNA or DNA of the pathogen, that is, making extra copies of its nucleic acids. This type of medical test was developed to shorten the window period, a time between when a patient has been infected and when they show up as positive by antibody tests such as ELISA. Whereas antibody positivity cannot occur until the immune system has had days or weeks to develop a sizable subpopulation of antibodies specific to the pathogen, a NAT can detect a pathogen as soon as it is present. The term includes any test that directly detects the genetic material of the infecting organism or virus, such as polymerase chain reaction, ligase chain reaction, and others. Their mode of use is usually that a suspected diagnosis is narrowed down on the basis of the history and ...
Global Zika Virus Testing Market By Product Type (Nucleic Acid Amplification Test/ Molecular Tests, Zika Virus Antibody Test/ Serological Test) And By End-Users/Application (Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026
0022] According to the present invention, the detection of the amount of gene expression product can be carried out by any method for the determination of the amount of the gene expression products known by the person skilled in the art. In a preferred embodiment, the detection of the amount of gene expression product is made by determining the mRNA level derived from its transcription, after extraction of the total RNA from the isolated biological sample which can be carried out by methods known by a person skilled in the art. The analysis of the level of mRNA can be performed, for illustrative purposes and without limiting the scope of the invention, through amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), retro-transcription in combination with the ligase chain reaction (RTLCR), retro-transcription in combination with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), retro-transcription in combination with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), or any other method of nucleic acid amplification; ...
Mens Shifter T-Shirt Charcoal - 2X-Large.BORLA apparel is available in wide assortment of styles and colors so you can find something that is just right for you.
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What some law of attraction devotees call secret shifters are tools that help us change our feelings in an instant; perhaps music, expressing gratitude, nature or pleasant fantasies will work for you that way.
The Billionaire Shifters Curvy Match Diana Seere (Billionaire Shifters Club #1) Publication date: September 13th 2016 Genres: Adult, Paranormal When Lilah Murphy started serving drinks at the exclusive Platinum Club, she never expected she would be on the menu.
pedalhead - My original KS post got sent back twice under warranty but this third time round it seems to be standing up to use a lot better than it previously did. I am probably too much of a wuss for it to have been exposed to particularly unpleasant conditions but it has survived general riding around Edinburgh for the last few months.. james - Exactly my experience too. If the remote were right next to my grip it would be in a terrible position so sticking it on the other side of the shifter and the brakes is the best option. Integrating it with a grip isnt much use but if it could be integrated with the shifter or brake clamp (a bit like Avid/SRAM Matchmaker clamps I suppose) thatd be useful.. ...
The research is sequel to the former researches the purpose of which is to inquire the mind processes from a different angle with newer concepts than used to do. The focus of the research was an attempt to answer the question: How does trust relate to the mind processes under scrutiny? Data and the dyads were obtained from an information competition through a video recorder. N was 56 or 14 contests were recorded. Reliability of observation proved to be 0.91 as assessed, sequentially. The overall reliability was 0.93. The analysis of the process based on the usual and dynamic probabilities of the responses. The proper device of the analysis was conditional probabilities between the bursts of the processes. The results indicate that trust is the shifter, especially the social shifter that keeps the transmuters of the dyads in going. Furthermore, trust is the intervening relational process between gender, and former experience and the transmuter that produces and works up the mind processes. Thus ...
For over 50 years, Crown Automotive has been the leading manufacturer and distributor of replacement parts for Jeep vehicles. With over 8,000 different part num
Back in the day, I had a steel Univega road bike with downtube friction shifters (indexing had just come out, but reliability was still an unknown) and the de rigueur Dia-Compe brake levers. Then I took about a 25 year hiatus from road biking. When I came back, the biggest game changer than had transpired was STI. It allowed shifting from two different positions on the bars without lifting your hand. Looking back, I wonder if part of the reason being in the drops was the primary position is because its what gave our hands the shortest path from bars to shifters, and allowed us to reach them without having to lean or otherwise adjust our weight when we only had one hand on the bars ...
After decades of unrequited love, this kangaroo will jump at the chance for a date. Any date.Lovelorn kangaroo shifter Hamish Mulherne, drummer for the mega-hit rock band Hunters Moon, waited years for the bands jaguar shifter bassist to notice him. Instead, shes just gotten married and is in a thriving poly relatio
Walking As Ontological ShifterBibi CalderaroArtistGraduate CenterCUNYIn recent years walking as an aesthetic pursuit has changed its scale - it has unleashed itself from other performative acts and claims its own genre altogether. This move responds to c
Version 1.1.2 incorporates a few minor enhancements to level 1, which do not greatly affect game play or impact later levels. This release also includes the fix which prevented Mutations from running with SHIFTER 1.8.1. Download the file and execute...
I know bugger all about gravel riding but this looks good. Better sealed Bb and the option of a Quicklink chain are highlights for me, oh and the adapted thumb shifter would be a good thing on the road grouppos too. What say ye groaders? I d do links but its all over forums,Insta Utube etc.
Rohloffs SPEEDHUB 500/14 has spent 20 years setting the standard for durability, longevity, and lack of maintenance in a wide-range drivetrain. This 14-speed internal gear hub offers a gear range thats wider than the most popular mountain bike derailleur systems, and it will run for hundreds of thousands of miles requiring nothing but an annual oil change. This reputation for reliability and ease of use has made the Rohloff SPEEDHUB a natural choice for dedicated commuters and long-range touring riders. Its more than capable of handling the torque of an e-bike or tandem, and pairs beautifully with a belt system like that from Gates Carbon Drive. Shifts can be made while stationary or while pedaling, and riders can shift through a handful of gears with one single movement on the standard twist shifter. If youre looking for the most reliable all-weather gearing system available, Rohloff SPEEDHUB is the obvious choice. Cycle Monkey is a long-term Rohloff service partner, weve been fortunate to gain
Im usually good at searching but Ive searched and Ive found nothing that would be useful. I am not able to find a correct wiring diagram for a 2000 Toyota 4Rrunner 3.4L Auto shifter wiring diagram for the P / R / N / D / 2 / L… I did manage to find So they say. Click on Mechanics @ www.justanswer.com/HomePageIntegration.aspx I need a wiring diagram on how to rewire for electronic ignition,and also one wire alternator hook up. 2 answers 1966 impala new engine 350.the car came with a 327 I have a 1500 gph rule Bilge Pump and want to wire a rule automatic float switch to it. Anyone have a diagram or pointers? I am also going to wire a 2nd backup bilge but probably not to the float. Will keep that on accessory. Thanks i am working on my 1965 chevrolet impala need to fix my brake lights and turn signal lights but i need a electrical diagram or instruction booklet or online pdf file to help me where can i find this information thankyou i was able to get one from them for 1997 Jaguar XJ6 ...
The triple phase progressive suspension offered by the combo of the Fox 34 Factory fork and Fox Float DPS Factory EVOL rear shock will guarantee the sort of sensitive impact absorption that will keep you in control. The new FIT4 cartridge of the Fox 34 Factory fork was developed with lighter riders in mind. The SRAM X01 Eagle 12-speed drivetrain will ease all your shifting efforts with an extensive range for any type of terrain while the one-by will allow you to switch through all those gears using only one shifter. The efficiency and simplicity will help you concentrate on slashing the best lines down your run. The SRAM Guide RSC four-piston brakes will give you the confidence to know you can always stay in control of your speed, no matter how steep the pitches you careen down. Then with the lightweight and bombproof DT Swiss XMC 1200 Spline wheels wrapped with a Maxxis Minion DHR II 2.4 in the front and Maxxis Ardent 2.4 in the rear, you can count on that ideal mix of huge grip and reduced ...
So why did I get it converted from road bars to flat bars and then back to road bars again? Well, I initially went from road to flats because that was what my first bike was, and I wasnt sure Id like road bars. I didnt think Id be into the narrower steering surface. But I had these Ergon grips with nice magnesium bar ends, and I found myself wanting to use the bar ends almost all the time because it was just more comfortable. Not coincidentally, this would be essentially the same hand position as if I was riding with a road bar/shifter setup. I figured if I wanted to have my hands like that for the majority of the time, it would probably make sense for my fingers to be in close reach of my brakes, as opposed to having to shift position to get back to them like I had to do with the flat bar setup. When Chainlove started putting up those Ultegras at that price, I decided to just go for it ...
Have been bothered by the excessive play inn the cross gate linkage on my shifter.So I came up with a solution that takes all the play out on the gearbox...
bmw 535i wont go into gear, 2011 2012 2013 BMW 535i Gear Selector Shifter Shift Knob 9239508 (Fits: BMW 535i) $120.06. Was: $150.07. ... Go. US Only. North America. Worldwide. Delivery Options ...
The Bazzaz Z-Fi TC Traction Control System is a jack of all trades unit that features traction control, fuel tuning and a quick shifter. Shop Cycle Gear for our 30-day best price guarantee & hassle free returns.
Cannondale 56cm Size. Bike Specs. Synapse, SmartForm C2 Alloy Frame, SAVE PLUS. Synapse SAVE Forks, Carbon blades, 1-1/8. Shimano Claris Front Mech, 31.8 clamp. Shimano Claris Rear Mech. Shimano Claris STi Shifters. | eBay!
Cannondale 56cm Size. Bike Specs. Synapse, SmartForm C2 Alloy Frame, SAVE PLUS. Synapse SAVE Forks, Carbon blades, 1-1/8. Shimano Sora Front Mech, 31.8 clamp. Shimano Sora Rear Mech. Shimano Sora STi Shifters. | eBay!
Built for efficient recreation, exploration and fitness, the Crosstrail is an all-purpose bicycle for the rider who wants to stay in shape while enjoying the outdoors. The Crosstrail Sport Disc features reliable components like the 50mm-travel SR Suntour fork, Tektro Draco hydraulic disc brakes and Shimano Acera derailleur with Rapidfire shifters.
Bicycle rear derailleur compatibility. What RD can go with which shifters and cassette combination. What to pay attention to when mixing.
It can be formed artificially, using various methods including polymerase chain reactions (PCR) or ligase chain reactions (LCR ... O'Connor, T M (1 November 2000). "The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive ... Leckie, Gregor W.; Lee, Helen H. (1995). "Infectious Disease Testing by Ligase Chain Reaction". In Meyers, Robert A. (ed.). ... adapted for carrying out the method includes a pair of primers to amplify the locus and optionally polymerase chain reaction ...
Ligase chain reaction, a method that amplifies the nucleic acid used as the probe. For each of the two DNA strands, two partial ... Wiedmann, M (February 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR) -- Overview and applications". PCR Methods and Applications. 3 (4): ... Polymerase chain reaction, an easy, cheap, and reliable way to repeatedly replicate a focused segment of DNA by polymerizing ... and a thermostable DNA ligase. Transcription-mediated amplification, an isothermal, single-tube nucleic acid amplification ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase chain reaction (LCR), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) are examples. In ... Ligase works to fill these nicks in, thus completing the newly replicated DNA molecule. The primase used in this process ... In the adenoviruses and the φ29 family of bacteriophages, the 3′ OH group is provided by the side chain of an amino acid of the ... The RNA primers are then removed and replaced with DNA, and the fragments of DNA are joined together by DNA ligase. In all ...
It is more plausible that ligation of smaller RNA chains performed by the first RNA ligases resulted in a longer chain with the ... An RNA ligase's catalytic domain, consisting of 93 nucleotides, proved to be sufficient to catalyse a linking reaction between ... An RNA ligase, in turn, could link various components of quasispecies into one chain, beginning the process of a genome ... and the same number of polypeptide chains E (E stands for enzyme). Sequences I have a limited chain length and carry the ...
... advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified (replicated) ... Another technique to isolate genes of known sequences involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a powerful tool that can ... DNA ligases, which join broken DNA together, were discovered earlier in 1967. By combining the two enzymes it became possible ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided ... DNA ligases, that join broken DNA together, had been discovered earlier in 1967 and by combining the two enzymes it was ... the ability to design plasmids and technologies like polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Transformation of the DNA into a ... In 1972 Paul Berg used restriction enzymes and DNA ligases to create the first recombinant DNA molecules. He combined DNA from ...
Central dogma of molecular biology Exonuclease Ligase Nuclease PCR PARP Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RNA ... is used in the polymerase chain reaction, an important technique of molecular biology. A polymerase may be template dependent ... A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids. DNA polymerase and ... which lends diversity to antibody heavy chains. Family Y: DNA polymerase IV (DinB) and DNA polymerase V (UmuD'2C) - SOS repair ...
... the Fok I method and a modified form of ligase chain reaction for gene synthesis. Additionally, several PCR assembly approaches ... Taq DNA ligase repairs the nicks on both DNA strands. Because the T5 exonuclease is heat labile, it is inactivated at 50 °C ... The chain grows in the 3' to 5' direction, which is backwards relative to biosynthesis. At the end, all the protecting groups ... The reaction can be summarised into two steps. The first step involves assembling the entry clones containing the DNA fragment ...
The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simultaneously, the same restriction ... The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. A typical molar ratio of insert genes to ... Cloning Molecular cloning Polymerase chain reaction TA cloning Williams, Steven A.; et al. (2006). Laboratory Investigations in ... After letting the reaction mixture sit for a set amount of time at a specific temperature (dependent upon the size of the ...
... it has been most frequently used in RCA reactions. Different from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RCA can be conducted at a ... T4 DNA ligase) or template-free ligation using special DNA ligases (i.e., CircLigase). Primer-induced single-strand DNA ... Different from conventional DNA amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RCA is an isothermal nucleic ... RCA reactions can be performed in not only free solution environments, but also on a solid surface like glass, micro- or nano- ...
... by using polymerase chain reaction that employs the polymerase enzyme), and read-out. Recent experimental research succeeded in ... by restriction enzymes and ligases), extraction of strands containing a certain subsequence (by using Watson-Crick ... These protein complexes may act as catalysts for other chemical reactions, or may chemically modify each other. Such ...
In contrast to similar techniques such as polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction, this method involves RNA ...
... ligase chain reaction MeSH E05.393.620.374 - self-sustained sequence replication MeSH E05.393.620.500 - polymerase chain ... Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction MeSH E05.393.661.124 - branched dna signal amplification assay MeSH E05.393. ... periodic acid-schiff reaction MeSH E05.200.500.620.670.660 - prussian blue reaction MeSH E05.200.500.620.670.770 - shadowing ( ... periodic acid-schiff reaction MeSH E05.200.750.600.670.660 - prussian blue reaction MeSH E05.200.750.600.670.770 - shadowing ( ...
Deprotonation of the rcDNA then acts as a precursor of cccDNA via a polymerase chain reaction. While there is debate concerning ... DNA ligase 1 and DNA ligase 3 directly reduce the formation of cccDNA, whereas DNA ligase 4 is crucial for cccDNA formation in ... It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring ... "The role of host DNA ligases in hepadnavirus covalently closed circular DNA formation". PLOS Pathogens. 13 (12): e1006784. doi: ...
... as well as methods that anticipated the invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These custom-designed pieces of ... using polymerase and ligase enzymes that link pieces of DNA together, ... "made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes. Using these enzymes, he ...
... an enzyme in the leucocyanidin biosynthesis pathway Ligase chain reaction, a method for DNA amplification similar to the ... polymerase chain reaction Locus Control Region, a phrase used in epigenetics in molecular biology Low copy repeats LifeWay ...
The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ... The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. A typical molar ratio of insert genes to ... After letting the reaction mixture sit for a set amount of time at a specific temperature (dependent upon the size of the ... strands being ligated; for more information see DNA ligase), the insert should become successfully incorporated into the ...
Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid with ATP to give a fatty acyl adenylate, plus ... Long-chain fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are found particularly in ruminant fat and milk. Chains with an odd- ... The reactions of beta oxidation and part of citric acid cycle present structural similarities in three of four reactions of the ... If the fatty acyl-CoA contains a short chain, these short-chain fatty acids can simply diffuse through the inner mitochondrial ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... This forms a cyclopentane ring in roughly the middle of the fatty acid chain. The reaction also adds 4 oxygen atoms derived ... Much like beta-oxidation, straight-chain fatty acid synthesis occurs via the six recurring reactions shown below, until the 16- ... The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... The location of the p-hydroxylation and β-hydroxylation reactions is important in species where aromatic hydroxylation of ... Stereochemical course of the reaction" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (2): 454-458. PMID 4809526. Retrieved 6 ... other evidence from animal studies suggests that this reaction is catalyzed by DBH in synaptic vesicles within noradrenergic ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), butyrate-CoA ligase (XM-ligase), and glycine N- ... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... These agencies indicate that people who have experienced allergic reactions to other stimulants or who are taking monoamine ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), butyrate-CoA ligase (XM-ligase), and glycine N- ... Krimen LI, Cota DJ (March 2011). "The Ritter Reaction". Organic Reactions. 17. p. 216. doi:10.1002/0471264180.or017.03. ISBN ... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... The location of the p-hydroxylation and β-hydroxylation reactions is important in species where aromatic hydroxylation of ... Stereochemical course of the reaction" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (2): 454-458. PMID 4809526. Retrieved 6 ... consisting of a benzene ring and an ethylamine side chain. The structure permits substitutions to be made on the aromatic ring ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... The reaction included Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the TV series Breaking Bad, Walter White manufactures methamphetamine ... The location of the p-hydroxylation and β-hydroxylation reactions is important in species where aromatic hydroxylation of ... Stereochemical course of the reaction" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (2): 454-458. PMID 4809526. Retrieved 6 ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... These modified compounds are then conjugated to polar compounds in phase II reactions. These reactions are catalysed by ... ROH Phase I reactions (also termed nonsynthetic reactions) may occur by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, cyclization, ... These reactions act in concert to detoxify xenobiotics and remove them from cells. In phase I, a variety of enzymes act to ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), butyrate-CoA ligase (XM-ligase), and glycine N- ... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... The condensation reaction occurs with loss of water: (S)-PhCH 2CH(CH 3)NH 2 + (S)-HOOCCH(NH 2)CH 2CH 2CH 2CH 2NH 2 → (S,S)-PhCH ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), butyrate-CoA ligase (XM-ligase), and glycine N- ... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... At these doses, it induces physical effects such as a faster reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. ...
The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an amplification process ... Gene amplification Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)-- ... ligase to join two probes or other molecules together which can then be amplified by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... A mismatch at the 3′ end of the discriminating primer prevents the DNA ligase from joining the two fragments together. By using ...
This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... Butyrate-CoA ligase, also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.2) that ... 3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase, xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid ligase, and short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. ACSM1 ACSM2A ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme ...
The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an amplification process ... Gene amplification Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)-- ... ligase to join two probes or other molecules together which can then be amplified by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... A mismatch at the 3′ end of the discriminating primer prevents the DNA ligase from joining the two fragments together. By using ...
A Comparison of Ligase Chain Reaction to Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis Endocervical ... J. D. Davis, P. K. Riley, C. W. Peters, and K. H. Rand, "A Comparison of Ligase Chain Reaction to Polymerase Chain Reaction in ...
Quantification of Chlamydia trachomatis Elementary Bodies in Urine by Ligase Chain Reaction. Michael E. Blocker, Robert G. ... Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the ligase chain reaction assay for Chlamydia trachomatis in genital tract samples and ... 14) correlated higher values from ligase chain reactions (LCR) in clinical samples with higher chlamydial burdens observed by ... Modification of the standard Chlamydia trachomatis ligase chain reaction (LCR) detection assay resulted in a quantitative test ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from women by ligase chain reaction.. M Bassiri, H Y Hu, M A Domeika, J ... The performance of a plasmid-based ligase chain reaction (LCR) with urine specimens was compared with those of cell culture of ... Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from women by ligase chain reaction. ... Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from women by ligase chain reaction. ...
Test characteristics for ligase chain reaction (LCR) and culture of endocervical swabs for detecting C Trachomatis* Tests. ... Ligase chain reaction assay of urine was sensitive for detecting chlamydial infection of the genital tract in women ACP J Club ... A positive ligase chain reaction assay of first-void urine was virtually diagnostic of chlamydial infection of the genital ... To determine the accuracy of ligase chain reaction (LCR) testing of first-void urine samples for the diagnosis of chlamydial ...
ligase chain reaction. Recent data from west European countries show an increase in gonorrhoea in both women and men, including ... Evaluation of ligase chain reaction for the non-cultural detection of rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with ... Evaluation of ligase chain reaction for the non-cultural detection of rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with ... Stary A, Ching S-F, Teodorowicz L, et al. Comparison of ligase chain reaction and culture for detection of Neisseria ...
The inhibitory effect of phosphate on the ligase chain reaction used for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. ... The inhibitory effect of phosphate on the ligase chain reaction used for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. ... The inhibitory effect of phosphate on the ligase chain reaction used for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. ...
Ligase chain reaction was coupled with PCR to increase sensitivity of P. infestans detection and can serve as an enhancement to ... Ligase chain reaction primers allow differentiation of species down to a single base pair difference. The primers have greater ... and regions of dissimilarity were used to construct ligase chain reaction (LCR) primers for detecting the late blight pathogen ... specificity than previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and allow differentiation of R infestans, ...
ligase chain reaction answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... reaction. Ligase Chain Reaction [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited ... reaction. Accessed February 22, 2020.. Ligase chain reaction. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary. Available ... ligase chain reaction is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ...
Gaydos, C. A., Howell, M. R., Quinn, T. C., Gaydos, J. C., & Mckee, K. T. (1998). Use of ligase chain reaction with urine ... Gaydos, Charlotte A ; Howell, M. Rene ; Quinn, Thomas C ; Gaydos, Joel C. ; Mckee, Kelly T. / Use of ligase chain reaction with ... T1 - Use of ligase chain reaction with urine versus cervical culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in an asymptomatic ... N2 - Ligase chain reaction (LCR) (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.) with first-catch urine specimens was used to detect ...
Urine as a diagnostic specimen for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Malaysia by ligase chain reaction. In: Sexually ... Urine as a diagnostic specimen for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Malaysia by ligase chain reaction. / Gaydos, ... Urine as a diagnostic specimen for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Malaysia by ligase chain reaction. Sexually ... The authors evaluated a new DNA amplification method, ligase chain reaction (LCR). Goals: The goal was to ascertain whether ...
The specificity and accuracy of the ligation depends upon ligase selection and careful optimization of reaction conditions. ... With the right ligase, conditions and probes, even single-base variations in sequence can be reliably detected. ... Ligases also vary in their type of activity. ... DNA ligases vary in their ability to join fragments, add ... Figure 2. Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR). In this method, two pairs of probes are designed, one pair complementary to the top ...
Ring1B was found to be the E3 ligase that monoubiquitinates histone H2A, which adds a new level of chromatin modification to ... which is in line with its essential role as an E3 ligase for monoubiquitination of histone H2A in the PRC1 Polycomb protein ... Polymerase chain reaction Is the Subject Area "Polymerase chain reaction" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Ligase Chain Reaction 57. LCR Involves a Cyclic two-Step Reaction 57 ...
9°N DNA Ligase is active at elevated temperatures (45°C-90°C). ... DNA Ligase catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond ... Allele-specific gene detection using Ligase Detection Reaction and Ligase Chain Reaction (2,4). ... Do thermostable DNA ligases (such as Taq DNA Ligase, 9°N DNA Ligase, and HiFi Taq DNA Ligase) ligate sticky ends? ... 9°N DNA Ligase Reaction Buffer 10 X Product Categories:. DNA Ligases Products. Applications: Cloning Ligation. * Advantages and ...
Ligase chain reaction‎ (11 D). M. *. ► DNA microarrays‎ (1 K, 12 D) ...
Ligase chain reaction‎ (11 dat.). M. *. ► DNA microarrays‎ (1 kat., 12 dat.) ...
4,683,202, 4,683,195 and 4,965,188); Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); DNA Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR; International Patent ... eight reaction vessels containing reaction mixtures are placed at sites A1-A8. The reaction mixture in each vessel comprises (1 ... First, a reaction vessel containing only reaction buffer is optically read using optics assemblies 68, 70. The reaction buffer ... the reaction vessel 12 includes a rigid frame 16 that defines the side walls 19A, 19B, 20A, 20B of the reaction chamber 17. The ...
Ligase Chain Reaction. Branched DNA. - Hybridization Protection Assay. Nucleic-Acid Sequence-Based Amplification. Self- ... Repair Chain Reaction. - Rolling Circles. - Sequence Independent Gene Amplification. - Sequence Initiation Reaction. - SISPA. ... Polymerase Chain Reaction. - Temperature Cyclers. - PCR Variations. Immuno-PCR. QC-PCR. DAP-PCR. Strand Displacement Activation ...
Ligase Chain Reaction. Branched DNA. - Hybridization Protection Assay Nucleic-Acid Sequence-Based Amplification. Self-Sustained ... Polymerase Chain Reaction. - Temperature Cyclers. - PCR Variations. Immuno-PCR. QC-PCR. DAP-PCR. Strand Displacement Activation ...
Ligase chain reaction.. Benjamin WH Jr, Smith KR, Waites KB.. Methods Mol Biol. 2003;226:135-50. No abstract available. ...
It can be formed artificially, using various methods including polymerase chain reactions (PCR) or ligase chain reactions (LCR ... "The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis". Thorax. 55 (11): 955 ... "Infectious Disease Testing by Ligase Chain Reaction". In Meyers, Robert A. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Comprehensive ... adapted for carrying out the method includes a pair of primers to amplify the locus and optionally polymerase chain reaction ...
Ligase Chain Reaction II-7. LCR Involves a Cyclic Two-Step Reaction II-7 ... for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by Geographic Region - US,. Canada, Japan, Europe, and Rest of World Markets Independently ... Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Other Gene Amplification Technologies. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for ...
Multi-zone polymerase/ligase chain reaction. WO2000046595A1 *. 2 Feb 2000. 10 Aug 2000. Aclara Biosciences, Inc.. Multichannel ... These methods include ligase chain reaction (LCR) , nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) and Q-beta-replicase ... Another method for achieving the reεult of an amplification of nucleic acids is known as the ligase chain reaction (LCR) . This ... Another method for achieving the result of an amplification of nucleic acids is known as the ligase chain reaction (LCR) . This ...
Mindbomb E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1. PCR. Polymerase chain reaction. PIT. Passive Integrated Transponder ... Metabolomics annotates abhd3 as a physiologic regulator of medium-chain phospholipids. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7(11):763-5.CrossRef ... Mindbomb E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (mib1mib1), Abhydrolase Domain Containing 3 (abhd3), Growth regulation by estrogen in ... yet is a physiological regulator of medium-chain phospholipids [48]. The necessity for efficient fat disposition is essential ...
... reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), ligase chain reaction, branched DNA signal amplification, ... including but not limited to the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), branched DNA signal amplification, ligase chain reaction, ... Applicable assays include but are not limited to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), ligase chain ... Abravaya, K., Carrino, J. J., Muldoon, S., et al.: Detection of point mutations with a modified ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR ...
p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,To establish a gap ligase chain reaction (G-LCR) assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in ... Ligase Chain Reaction / Diagnosis / Genetics Language: Chinese Journal: Chinese Journal of Pediatrics Year: 2003 Type: Article ... Ligase Chain Reaction / Diagnosis / Genetics Language: Chinese Journal: Chinese Journal of Pediatrics Year: 2003 Type: Article ... Development of a gap ligase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in newborn infants / 中华儿科杂志 ...
The nucleic acid amplification technologies include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ligase chain reaction (LCR). ... DNA , Humans , Ligase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory ... Polymerase Chain Reaction / Sensitivity and Specificity / Ligase Chain Reaction / Mycobacterium / Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Polymerase Chain Reaction / Sensitivity and Specificity / Ligase Chain Reaction / Mycobacterium / Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
polymerase chain reaction. shRNAi. short-hairpin RNA interference. Ub. ubiquitin. UPD. Ub-dependent proteasomal degradation. WT ... 2007) A ubiquitin ligase transfers preformed polyubiquitin chains from a conjugating enzyme to a substrate. Nature 446:333-337. ... Upon weaning, the heterozygous conditional gene-trap (cgt) genotype of the pups was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR ... 2001) CHIP is a U-box-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase: identification of Hsc70 as a target for ubiquitylation. J Biol Chem 276: ...
  • Thus, LCR requires two completely different enzymes to operate properly: ligase, to join probe molecules together, and a thermostable polymerase (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligases are enzymes that seal breaks in DNA by joining 5´-phosphorylated DNA termini to 3´-OH DNA termini (1-4). (neb.com)
  • Glutathione is synthesized by two enzymes, namely, glutamate-cysteine ligase (EC 6.3.2.2) and glutathione synthase (EC 6.3.2.3) (Figure 1 ) [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Same as all enzymes, ligases are embedded with proteins that have a target molecule identification site. (biospace.com)
  • Ligases are one of the 50 enzymes present in the human body. (biospace.com)
  • North America is expected to be the leading revenue contributor to the global ligases enzymes market. (biospace.com)
  • Several new major enzyme categories include: DNA Repair Enzymes, Metalloexopeptidases, Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors, Proprotein Convertases, and Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Modification of the standard Chlamydia trachomatis ligase chain reaction (LCR) detection assay resulted in a quantitative test. (asm.org)
  • Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine. (acpjc.org)
  • A positive ligase chain reaction assay of first-void urine was virtually diagnostic of chlamydial infection of the genital tract in women, whereas a negative test markedly decreased the probability of infection. (acpjc.org)
  • To establish a gap ligase chain reaction (G-LCR) assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in neonates with pneumonia . (bvsalud.org)
  • This assay is amenable to the detection of viable organisms in food after enrichment, but care must be taken to minimize false-positive reactions. (asm.org)
  • Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from women by ligase chain reaction. (asm.org)
  • The performance of a plasmid-based ligase chain reaction (LCR) with urine specimens was compared with those of cell culture of cervical swabs and enzyme immunoassay with urine specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women who had attended a family planning clinic. (asm.org)
  • To determine the accuracy of ligase chain reaction (LCR) testing of first-void urine samples for the diagnosis of chlamydial infection of the genital tract in women. (acpjc.org)
  • Ligase chain reaction (LCR) (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.) with first-catch urine specimens was used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infections in 465 asymptomatic military women attending clinics for routine Papanicolaou smear tests. (elsevier.com)
  • Urine samples were collected to test for the two infections using the ligase chain reaction (LCR). (bmj.com)
  • 14 In a substudy we tested women at 6 weeks post partum for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis using the urine based ligase chain reaction (LCR) method. (bmj.com)
  • Persistent or recurrent chlamydial infection was detected by ligase chain reaction (LCR) testing of urine 1 month and 4 months after treatment. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that this region interacts with substrates of CDC34 or with trans-acting factors (such as CDC34-specific ubiquitin protein ligases) that govern the substrate selectivity of CDC34. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we identified members of the SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) E3 ubiquitin-ligase family as SYMRK interactors and confirmed their predicted ubiquitin-ligase activity. (plantcell.org)
  • Our results implicate SINA4 E3 ubiquitin ligase in the turnover of SYMRK and provide a conceptual mechanism for its symbiosis-appropriate spatio-temporal containment. (plantcell.org)
  • Subsequently, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme binds ubiquitin and delivers it to the substrate, via binding to the E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically binds the target substrate. (plantcell.org)
  • The ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2 marks p53 and itself for degradation and is thus a critical regulatory node controlling cell death and survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • When acetylated, an increased interaction with a deubiquitinase stabilized this E3 ubiquitin ligase and enabled greater activity toward p53. (sciencemag.org)
  • Abnormal activation of the oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is frequently observed in human cancers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Less commonly utilized in vitro , Taq DNA Ligase (NEB #M0208 ) will ligate only nicks (9-12). (neb.com)
  • Given these limitations, and the fact that T4 DNA Ligase can ligate everything Taq ligates, and many more structures, why not use T4 DNA Ligase for all applications? (neb.com)
  • T4 DNA Ligase can ligate a wide variety of DNA structures, including modified bases and the ends of double stranded fragments. (neb.com)
  • When using the method of transformation one needs to select a piece of DNA to be inserted into a vector, cut a piece of DNA with a restriction enzyme and ligate the DNA insert into the vector with DNA Ligase. (prospecbio.com)
  • UPD critically involves P450 protein ubiquitination by E2/E3 Ub-ligase complexes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene functions together with DNA ligase IV and the DNA-dependent protein kinase in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (cancerindex.org)
  • Ischemia-reperfusion caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase mediated through the inhibition of transcription factor Nrf2. (hindawi.com)
  • Use of ligases in protein engineering are expected to offer growth opportunities to the market in developing regions such as Latin America, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific. (biospace.com)
  • It can be formed artificially, using various methods including polymerase chain reactions (PCR) or ligase chain reactions (LCR), or naturally through gene duplication . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cohesive End Unit) One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to give 50% ligation of the 12-base pair cohesive ends of 1 µg of BstEII-digested λ DNA in a total reaction volume of 50 µl in 15 minutes at 45°C. (neb.com)
  • If (but only if) the 3' end of primer 1 anneals to the template, an enzyme known as DNA ligase catalyzes the covalent joining of the 3'-OH of primer 1 to the 5' phosphate of primer 2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction by converting cysteine and glutamate to γ -glutamyl-cysteine. (hindawi.com)
  • The second enzyme, glutathione synthase, catalyzes the reaction of γ -glutamyl-cysteine and glycine to form glutathione. (hindawi.com)
  • New covalent bonds between two molecules are created by the enzyme called ligase. (biospace.com)
  • DNA ligase is an enzyme that regulates irregularities. (biospace.com)
  • Research activities for sequencing applications, increase in the birth rate, rise in the incidence of infectious diseases, and increase in genetic disorders are key factors that are estimated to boost the global ligases enzyme market . (biospace.com)
  • However, high sensitivity of the enzyme to factors such as ligase concentration, DNA concentration, temperature, and buffer composition are expected to restrain the market. (biospace.com)
  • The global ligases enzyme market can be segmented based on source, application, end-user, and region. (biospace.com)
  • Based on source, the global ligases enzyme market can be classified into microorganisms, animal, and plant. (biospace.com)
  • In terms of application, the global ligases enzyme market can be divided into polymerase chain reaction, mutation detection, cloning, drug target, and next generation sequencing. (biospace.com)
  • Based on end-user, the global ligases enzyme market can be classified into diagnostic centers & hospitals and research institutes. (biospace.com)
  • In terms of region, the global ligases enzyme market can be divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. (biospace.com)
  • section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
  • The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an amplification process that differs from PCR in that it involves a thermostable ligase to join two probes or other molecules together which can then be amplified by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycling (Barany, 1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • The probes involved in the ligation are designed such that the 5′ end of one probe is directly adjacent to the 3′ end of the other probe, thereby providing the requisite 3′-OH and 5′-PO4 group substrates for the ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duplicate rectal and throat swabs from MSM attending a genitourinary medicine clinic were collected for culture on modified New York City medium and detection of gonococcal nucleic acid by the Abbott ligase chain reaction (LCR) utilising probes based on opa 1 gene sequences. (bmj.com)
  • With the right ligase, conditions and probes, even single-base variations in sequence can be reliably detected. (neb.com)
  • Kawasaki, E., Saiki, R., and Erlich, H. Genetic analysis using polymerase chain reactionamplified DNA and immobilized oligonucleotide probes: reverse dot-blot typing. (springer.com)
  • 9° N™ DNA Ligase is a thermostable ligase that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 5´-phosphate and the 3´-hydroxyl of two adjacent DNA strands that are hybridized and accurately paired, with no gap, to a complementary DNA strand. (neb.com)
  • Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins were added as new descriptors. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro , ligases (notably T4 DNA Ligase) are critical reagents for many molecular biology protocols, including vector-insert joining for recombinant plasmid construction, adaptor ligation for next-generation sequencing (NGS) library construction, and circularization of dsDNA (6). (neb.com)
  • The kit adapted for carrying out the method includes a pair of primers to amplify the locus and optionally polymerase chain reaction reagents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test strip includes a dual-chamber reaction vessel pre-loaded with nucleic acid amplification reaction reagents, and a plurality of wells for processing a reaction occurring in the. (google.de)
  • A simple, three‐step procedure for the large scale purification of DNA ligase from a hybrid lambda lysogen constructed in vitro. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Mullis, K. B. and Faloona, F. A. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerasecatalyzed chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • Cloning is done in vitro, by a process called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (prospecbio.com)
  • These could be synthesized by well-established techniques and amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. (jrank.org)
  • Purified from an E. coli strain containing the cloned ligase gene from the extremely thermophilic marine archaea Thermococcus sp. (neb.com)
  • Allele-specific gene detection using Ligase Detection Reaction and Ligase Chain Reaction (2,4). (neb.com)
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Gene Amplification Technologies in US$ Million by the following Product Segments: Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Other Gene Amplification Technologies. (prnewswire.com)
  • Cloning, overexpression and nucleotide sequence of a thermostable DNA ligase‐encoding gene. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with its sensitive and selective amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences has become a research tool of almost unparalleled importance, with applications in, for example, cloning, gene expression analysis, DNA sequencing, genetic mapping and diagnostics. (google.ca)
  • We investigated the regulation of MDM2 substrate specificity and found that acetyltransferase p300-mediated acetylation and stabilization of MDM2 are molecular switches that block self-ubiquitination, thereby shifting its E3 ligase activity toward p53. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ligation reaction involves the side-chain carboxylate of the C-terminal glutamate of Pup and the side-chain amino group of a substrate lysine. (rcsb.org)
  • The type of ligase varies depending on the type of covalent bond that they catalyze such as carbon-nitrogen bond, carbon-carbon bond, and carbon-sulphur bond. (biospace.com)
  • Ligase chain reaction was coupled with PCR to increase sensitivity of P. infestans detection and can serve as an enhancement to existing PCR protocols. (openarchives.gr)
  • A mismatch at the 3′ end of the discriminating primer prevents the DNA ligase from joining the two fragments together. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligases vary in their ability to join fragments, add adaptors, repair nicks or breaks, link vectors and inserts, and to circularize dsDNA. (neb.com)
  • T4 DNA Ligase (NEB #M0202 ) is incredibly efficient at sealing nicks, as well as joining or circularizing DNA fragments with blunt or cohesive (short complementary) ends. (neb.com)
  • In most cases, this unwanted activity isn't a problem, for example, when joining 1 or 2 fragments into a plasmid, or pushing an adaptor ligation reaction as far towards completion as possible to prepare high yields of DNA NGS libraries. (neb.com)
  • Final joining is accomplished by a nick-selective ligase, such as Taq DNA Ligase, which only reacts with substrates containing no gaps, and will not join any fragments end-to-end without the exo/polymerase generation of annealed complemen-tary regions. (neb.com)
  • Ligase was all about dealing with those small Okazaki fragments, a result of only being able to open your helical DNA at very localized spots (with the helicase). (ubc.ca)
  • LCR was first developed by Barany, who used thermostable DNA ligase to discriminate between normal and mutant DNA and to amplify the allele-specific product. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the number of molecules remaining becomes two small the polymerase chain reaction can be run. (jrank.org)
  • Ligases catalyze the addition of two molecules, deriving the needed energy from the cleavage of an energy-rich phosphate bond. (biospace.com)
  • This provides an active site for the enzymatic reaction to take place. (biospace.com)
  • A unit dose test device for a nucleic acid amplification reaction has the form of a elongate disposable test strip. (google.de)
  • Aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases is included in ligases that join amino acids to the relative tRNA, which promotes the DNA ligases to bring the two pieces of DNA together. (biospace.com)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to their active form acyl-CoAs for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Taq Ligase is a NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from a thermostable bacterium that can survive high temperatures (up to 95°C) and is active over a range of elevated temperatures (37-75°C). However, it only has significant activity on nicked DNA, and negligible activity on short cohesive and blunt substrates in end-joining reactions. (neb.com)
  • Profiling the selectivity of DNA ligases in an array format with mass spectrometry. (currentprotocols.com)
  • MTHFR and SLC19A1 genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR- LDR) method. (mdpi.com)
  • Regulation of inter‐ and intramolecular ligation with T4 DNA ligase in the presence of polyethylene glycol. (currentprotocols.com)
  • J. D. Davis, P. K. Riley, C. W. Peters, and K. H. Rand, "A Comparison of Ligase Chain Reaction to Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis Endocervical Infections," Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 57-60, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more reliable but slightly more expensive method of doing this would be to synthesize primer 2 with its 3' nucleotide as a dideoxy nucleotide, in effect making it a DNA chain terminator as in Sanger sequencing). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • After incubation at 45°C for 15 minutes, the reaction is terminated by addition of stop dye (50% glycerol, 50 mM EDTA and bromophenol blue), heated at 70°C for 10 minutes and then loaded on a 0.7% agarose gel. (neb.com)
  • In last month's installment of the Primer, we touched on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) as an alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategies for the amplification and detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • First, a primer on the polymerase chain reaction (the lecture I would have liked to give in the lab if I had time). (ubc.ca)
  • with a forward and reverse primer system, don't need LIGASE. (ubc.ca)
  • Stimulation of intermolecular ligation with E. coli DNA ligase by high concentrations of monovalent cations in polyethylene glycol solutions. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Further purification and properties of polynucleotide ligase from Escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage T4. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Because gp78/AMFR is not only an E3 Ub-ligase, but also a cell-surface prometastatic oncogene that is upregulated in various malignant cancers, our finding that hepatic gp78/AMFR knockout can enhance P450-dependent bioactivation of relevant cancer chemotherapeutic prodrugs is of therapeutic relevance and noteworthy in prospective drug design and development. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additionally, a rise in R&D to develop ligases as therapeutic interventions for cancer and other diseases is anticipated to propel the market. (biospace.com)
  • 1X 9°N DNA Ligase Reaction Buffer and 20 µg/ml BstEII-digested λ DNA in a 50 µl reaction. (neb.com)
  • As it refers to the product of an amplification reaction, amplicon is used interchangeably with common laboratory terms, such as "PCR product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately this will entails the collection of a few components needed for a successful DNA amplification reaction. (ubc.ca)
  • In vivo , ligases are important for the repair of nicks, breaks in one strand of a dsDNA molecule, DNA formed during replication (i.e. (neb.com)
  • The energy of a molecule of Guanosine-5'-triphosphate or Adenosine Triphosphate is used to catalyze the reaction. (biospace.com)
  • Search chemical reactions in Rhea for this molecule. (uniprot.org)
  • DNA ligase covalently links the two strands into 1 recombinant DNA molecule. (prospecbio.com)
  • Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS 2) of ribosomal DNA from 10 different species of Phytophthora were aligned, and regions of dissimilarity were used to construct ligase chain reaction (LCR) primers for detecting the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. (openarchives.gr)
  • Ligase chain reaction primers allow differentiation of species down to a single base pair difference. (openarchives.gr)
  • The primers have greater specificity than previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and allow differentiation of R infestans, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora phaseoli, which contain identical ITS sequences, from many other Phytophthora species. (openarchives.gr)
  • Discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes from Other Listeria Species by Ligase Chain Reaction. (bio.net)
  • The specificity and accuracy of the ligation depends upon ligase selection and careful optimization of reaction conditions. (neb.com)
  • Other conventional methods such as antibody or antigen detection may suffer from false positive or false negative reactions, cross reactions, background titres, and non-specificity. (bmj.com)
  • To compare a nucleic acid amplification test (ligase chain reaction) with culture for detecting rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM). (bmj.com)
  • A reaction of ligase catalyzing the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond between an amino acid and transfer RNA leads to the formation of the amino acid-RNA ligase bond. (biospace.com)
  • Glutamate-cysteine ligase is composed of a catalytic subunit ( Gclc ) and a modifier subunit ( Gclm ). (hindawi.com)